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Quantitative Methods

This book is a part of the course by MITSDE , Pune. This book contains the course content for Quantitative Methods.

MITSDE, Pune Second Edition 2012 Oct. First Edition 2010 Oct.

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Index

I.

Content

II

II. List of Tables

VIII

III. Application

105

IV. Bibliography

110

V. Self Assessment Answers

113

Book at a Glance

I/MITSDE

Contents

Chapter I

1

Matrices and Determinants

1

Aim

1

Objectives

1

Learning Outcome:

1

1.1 Introduction

2

1.2 Matrix

2

1.2.1 Matrix definition

2

1.2.2 Matrix Notation

2

1.2.3 Matrix Equality

3

1.3 Types of Matrix

3

1.3.1 Row Matrix

3

1.3.2 Column Matrix

3

1.3.3 Zero/Null Matrix

3

1.3.4 Square Matrix

4

1.3.5 Diagonal Matrix

4

1.3.6 Unit/Identity Matrix

4

1.3.7 Transpose of a Matrix

4

1.4 Operations on Matrices

4

1.4.1 Addition of Matrices

4

 

1.4.1.1

Properties of Matrix Addition

5

1.4.2 Subtraction of Matrices

5

1.4.3 Multiplication of Matrices

6

 

1.4.3.1 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Number

6

1.4.3.2 Multiplication of a Matrix by another Matrix

6

1.4.3.3 Properties of Multiplication of Matrices

7

1.5 Determinants

7

1.5.1 Calculating Value of 2 x 2 Determinant

7

1.5.2 Calculating Value of 3 x 3 Determinant

8

 

1.5.2.1 Cofactors

8

1.5.2.2 Expansion by Minors

8

1.6 Inverse of a Matrix

9

1.6.1 Finding Inverse for a 2 x 2 Matrix

9

1.6.2 Finding Inverse for a 3 x 3 Matrix

9

1.7 Solving Simultaneous Equation using Determinants

11

1.7.1 Solving Two Simultaneous Equations

11

1.7.2 Solving Three simultaneous Equations

12

1.8 Properties of Determinants

13

1.9 Difference between Matrices and Determinants

14

Summary

15

References

15

Recommended Reading

15

Self Assessment

16

Chapter II

 

18

Mathematical Logic

18

Aim

18

Objective

18

Learning outcome

18

2.1 Introduction

19

2.2 Definition

19

2.2.1 Statement

19

2.2.2 Truth Value

19

II/MITSDE

2.2.3

Truth Table

19

2.2.4

Compound Statements

19

2.3 Statement

20

2.4 Compound Statement

 

20

2.5 Connectives

21

2.5.1 Negation

21

2.5.2 Conjunction

22

2.5.3 Disjunction

23

2.5.4 Conditional or Implication

23

2.5.5 Biconditional or Biimplication

24

2.5.6 Contrapositive, Converse and Inverse

25

2.6 Tautology ,Contradiction and Contingency

25

2.7 Laws of Algebra

 

26

2.7.1 Identity Law

26

2.7.2 Commutative Law

26

2.7.3 Complement Law

26

2.7.4 Double Negation

26

2.7.5 Associative Law

 

26

2.7.6 Distributive Law

26

2.7.7 Absorption Law

 

26

2.7.8 Demorgan’s Law

26

2.7.9 Equivalance of Contrapositive

27

2.7.10

Others

27

Summary

 

28

References

28

Recommended Reading

28

Self Assessment

29

Chapter III

31

Set Theory

31

Aim

31

Objective

31

Learning outcome

 

31

3.1 Definition of a Set

32

3.2 Standard Sets

32

3.3 Representation of set

32

3.3.1 Tabular Form/Roaster Method

32

3.3.2 Rule Method

 

32

3.3.3 Descriptive Form

32

3.4 Types of Sets

 

33

3.4.1 Finite Set

33

3.4.2 Empty or Null Set

33

3.4.3 Subset

 

33

 

3.4.3.1

Proper Subset

33

3.4.3.2

Improper Subset

33

3.4.4 Infinite Set

33

3.4.5 Disjoint Sets

34

3.4.6 Overlapping Sets

34

3.4.7 Universal Set

 

34

3.4.8 Equal Set

34

3.4.9 Complement Set

34

3.4.10

Equivalent Set

34

3.5 Illustration of Various Sets

35

3.6 Basic Operations on Sets

35

3.6.1

Intersection of Two Sets

35

III/MITSDE

3.6.2

Union of Two Sets

35

 

3.6.3 Relative Complement or Difference of Two Sets

35

3.6.4 Complement of a Set

 

36

3.6.5 Symmetric Difference of Two Sets

36

3.7

Properties of Set

36

3.7.1 Commutative Law

 

36

3.7.2 Associative Law

36

3.7.3 Distributive Law

37

3.7.4 Identity Law

37

3.7.5 Complement Law

 

37

3.7.6 Idempotent Law

37

3.7.7 Bound Law

37

3.7.8 Absorption Law

 

37

3.7.9 Involution Law

37

3.7.10 De Morgan’s Law

37

3.7.11More Results

37

Summary

40

References

40

Recommended Reading

40

Self Assessment

41

Chapter IV

 

43

Progression

43

Aim

43

Objective

 

43

Learning outcome

43

4.1 Introduction

44

4.2 Arithmetic Progression

 

44

4.3 Formulae for Arithmetic Progression

 

45

 

4.3.1 The general form of an AP

45

4.3.2 The n th term

of an AP

of an AP

45

4.3.3 Sum of first n terms (

4.3.3 Sum of first n terms ( ) of an AP 45

) of an AP

45

4.4 Arithmetic Mean

 

45

4.5 Geometric Progression

45

4.6 Formulae for Geometric Progression

 

46

 

4.6.1 The general form of a GP

46

4.6.2 The n th term T n of a GP

46

4.6.3 The sum of first n terms S n of a GP

46

4.7 Geometric Mean

 

47

4.8 Harmonic Progression

47

4.9 Formulae for Harmonic Progression

 

48

 

4.9.1 The General Form of HP

48

4.9.2 The nth term (T n )of a HP

48

4.10 Harmonic mean

 

48

4.11 Comparison between AP and GP

 

48

4.12 Important Rules on Arithmetic mean(AM),Geometric Mean (GM) and Harmonic Mean(HM)

49

Summary

 

51

References

51

Recommended Reading

51

Self Assessment

52

IV/ MITSDE

Chapter V

54

Probability

54

Aim

54

Objective

54

Learning outcome

 

54

5.1 Introduction

55

5.2 Definitions

55

5.2.1 Experiment

55

5.2.2 Deterministic Experiment

55

5.2.3 Random Experiment

55

 

5.2.3.1 Examples of Performing a Random Experiment

55

5.2.3.2 Details

55

5.2.3.3 Sample Space :

55

5.2.4 Elementary Event

55

5.2.5 Impossible Event

55

5.2.6 Events

 

56

5.2.7 Mutually Exclusive Event

56

5.2.8 Compatibility

 

56

5.2.9 Independent Events

56

5.2.10 Dependent Events

56

5.3 Probability

 

56

5.3.1 Probability of Occurrence of an Event

56

5.3.2 Results on Probability

56

5.3.3 Binomial Distribution

57

5.3.4 Geometric Theorem

57

5.4 Conditional Probability

 

57

5.4.1 Conditional probability of Dependent Events

57

5.4.2 Conditional probability of Independent Events

57

5.5. Multiplication Rule

 

57

5.5.1 Independent Events

57

5.5.2 Dependent Events

57

5.6 Steps to Solve Probability

 

58

5.7 Bayes Theorem

58

Summary

61

References

61

Recommended Reading

61

Self Assessment

62

Chapter VI

64

Permutations and Combinations

64

Aim

64

Objective

64

Learning outcome

64

6.1 Introduction

 

65

6.2 Basic Calculation Used

65

6.2.1

Factorial Notation

65

6.3 Fundamental Principles of Counting

65

6.3.1 Principle

of Addition

65

6.3.2 Principle of Multiplication

65

6.4 Permutation

 

66

6.4.1

Basic Forms of Permutations

67

6.4.1.1

All given Objects are Distinct

67

6.4.1.2 When k cannot be Selected

67

6.4.1.3 When all the given n objects are not distinct

67

6.4.1.4 Circular Permutation

67

V/MITSDE

6.4.1.5

Repetition is Allowed

68

6.5 Combination

 

68

6.6 Basic Forms of Combination

68

6.6.1All Given Objects are distinct

68

6.6.2 When K objects cannot be selected

68

6.6.3 When k Objects are always Selected

69

6.6.4 Distribution of Objects into two Groups

69

6.6.5 Distribution of Similar Objects

69

6.6.6 Total possible Combination of n Distinct Objects

69

6.6.7 When All are not Distinct Objects

70

6.6.8 When all are Distinct but of Different Kind

70

6.7 Special Case(Permutation and Combination Simultaneously)

70

6.8 Basic Manipulation on Permutation and Combinations

70

Summary

 

73

References

73

Recommended Reading

73

Self Assessment

74

Chapter VII

76

Interpolation

76

Aim

76

Objectives

76

Learning outcome

 

76

7.1 Introduction

77

7.2 Definition of Interpolation

 

77

7.3 Application

77

7.4 Need and Importance of Interpolation

77

7.5 Methods of Interpolation

 

78

7.5.1 Graphical Method

78

7.5.2 Newton’s method of advancing differences

78

7.5.3 Lagrange’s Method

78

7.5.4 Newton-Gauss Forward Method

78

7.5.5 Newton-Gauss Backward Method

79

Summary

 

80

References

80

Recommended Reading

80

Self Assessment

81

Chapter VIII

83

Consumer Arithmetic

83

Aim

83

Objectives

83

Learning outcome

83

8.1 Introduction: Profit and Loss

84

8.1.1

Formulae

 

84

8.2 Interest

85

8.2.1 Terms Used

 

85

8.2.2 Simple Interest

85

 

8.2.2.1

Formulae

85

8.2.3 Recurring Deposit

86

 

8.2.3.1

Formulae

86

8.2.4 Compound Interest

86

 

8.2.4.1

Formulae

86

VI/ MITSDE

Summary

89

References

89

Recommended Reading

89

Self Assessment

90

Chapter IX

92

Relations and Functions

92

Aim

92

Objectives

92

Learning outcome

92

9.1 Relation

93

9.2 Domain and Range of a Relation

93

9.3 Functions

93

9.3.1 Range, image, co-domain

94

9.4 Break Even Analysis

94

Summary

95

References

95

Recommended Reading

95

Self Assessment

96

Chapter X

98

Statistics

98

Aim

98

Objectives

98

Learning outcome

98

10.1 Introduction

99

10.2 Definition of Statistics

99

10.3 Scope and Applications of Statistics

99

10.4 Characteristics of Statistics

99

10.5 Functions of Statistics

100

10.6 Limitations of Statistics

100

10.7 Classification

100

10.8 Objectives of Classification

100

10.9 Characteristics of Classification

100

10.10 Frequency Distribution

101

10.10.1 Discrete or Ungrouped Frequency Distribution

101

10.10.2 Continuous or Grouped Frequency Distribution

101

10.10.3 Cumulative Frequency Distribution

101

Summary

102

References

102

Recommended Reading

102

Self Assessment

103

VII/ MITSDE

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Differences between matrices and determinants

14

Table 2.1 Symbols of connectives

21

Table 2.2 Truth Table of Negation

22

Table 2.3 Truth table of conjunction

22

Table 2.4 Truth table for disjunction

23

Table 2.5 Truth table for implication

24

Table 2.6 Truth table of biimplication

24

Table 2.7 P P is a tautology

25

Table 2.8 contradiction

25

Table 2.9 contingency

25

Table 4.1 Comparison between AP and GP

48

VIII/ MITSDE

Chapter I Matrices and Determinants

Aim

The aim of this chapter is to:

introduce the concept of matrices

elucidate the types of matrix

introduce determinant of matrix

Objectives

The objective of this chapter is to:

explicate the operations on matrices

describe the properties of determinants

explicate the properties of matrices

Learning Outcome

At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

compare different types of matrix

identify the basic operations on matrix

understand simultaneous linear equations using determinants

Quantitative Methods

1.1 Introduction

The study of matrices and determinants is of immense significance in the field of business and economics. This lesson introduces the matrix, the rectangular array and determinants at the heart of matrix algebra. Matrix algebra is used quite a bit in advanced statistics, largely because it provides two benefits.

Compact notation for describing sets of data and sets of equations.

• Efficient methods for manipulating sets of data and solving sets of equations.

1.2 Matrix

1.2.1 Matrix definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. It is a collection of real or complex numbers (usually real) arranged in a fixed number of rows and columns. It is arranged in a rectangular brackets (either ( ) or [ ]).A set of real or complex numbers arranged in a rectangular array of ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns, of an order m x n (read as m by n) is called a matrix. The dimension or order of matrix is written as number of rows x number of columns.

A=

matrix is written as number of rows x number of columns. A= Example: A= The topmost

Example: A=

as number of rows x number of columns. A= Example: A= The topmost row is row

The topmost row is row 1.The leftmost column is column 1.

Here, the number of rows (m) is 2 and the number of columns (n) is 3.

So the matrix is of order 2 x 3 (2 by 3 matrix).

Matrices are used to solve problem in:

Electronics

Statics

Robotics

Linear programming

Optimisation

Intersection of planes

Genetics

1.2.2 Matrix Notation Statisticians use symbols to identify matrix elements and matrices.

Matrix elements: Consider the matrix below, in which matrix elements are represented entirely by symbols.

A=

matrix elements are represented entirely by symbols. A= By convention the first subscript refers to the

By convention the first subscript refers to the row number and the second subscript refers to the column number .Thus the first element in the first row is represented by ,the second element in the first row, by and so on, until we reach the fourth element in second row which is represented by .

in the first row, by and so on, until we reach the fourth element in second
in the first row, by and so on, until we reach the fourth element in second
in the first row, by and so on, until we reach the fourth element in second

Notation: The simplest way to represent a matrix symbolically is to use bold face letters A,B ,C etc…Thus A might refer to a 2 x 3 matrix in the below example

A =

A might refer to a 2 x 3 matrix in the below example A = Another

Another approach of representing matrix A is:

] where i=1, 2 and j=1, 2, 3, 4

A= [

This notation indicates A is a matrix with two rows and four columns. The actual element of the array are not

displayed they are represented by the symbol

array are not displayed they are represented by the symbol . 1.2.3 Matrix Equality To understand
.
.

1.2.3 Matrix Equality

To understand matrix algebra, we need to understand matrix equality. Two matrices are equal if all three of the following conditions are met:

each matrix has same number of rows

each matrix has same number of columns

corresponding elements within each matrix are equal

Consider the three matrices given below

A=

matrix are equal Consider the three matrices given below A= B= C= If A=B, then x=22

B=

are equal Consider the three matrices given below A= B= C= If A=B, then x=22 and

C=

are equal Consider the three matrices given below A= B= C= If A=B, then x=22 and

If A=B, then x=22 and y=33, as corresponding elements of equal matrices are equal. And it is clear that C is not

equal to A or B, because C has more columns than A or B.

1.3 Types of Matrix

There are six types of matrices. They are as follows.

1.3.1 Row Matrix

A matrix having a single row is called row matrix.

Example

A=

matrix having a single row is called row matrix. Example A= 1.3.2 Column Matrix A matrix

1.3.2 Column Matrix

A matrix having a single column is called column matrix.

Example:

A=

having a single column is called column matrix. Example: A= 1.3.3 Zero/Null Matrix A matrix having

1.3.3 Zero/Null Matrix

A matrix having each and every element as zero is called a null or zero matrix.

Example

A=

Zero/Null Matrix A matrix having each and every element as zero is called a null or

Quantitative Methods

1.3.4 Square Matrix

A matrix having equal number of rows and columns is called a square matrix.

Example

A=

of rows and columns is called a square matrix. Example A= 1.3.5 Diagonal Matrix A square

1.3.5 Diagonal Matrix

A square matrix having all elements zero except principal diagonal elements is called diagonal matrix. Principal

diagonal elements can be any non-zero elements.

Matrix elements like

Example

A=

be any non-zero elements. Matrix elements like Example A= , , etc… are called principal diagonal
, ,
,
,

etc… are called principal diagonal elements.

1.3.6 Unit/Identity Matrix

A square matrix which is a diagonal matrix having all principal diagonal elements as one (unit) is called identity

matrix.

Example

A=

elements as one (unit) is called identity matrix. Example A= 1.3.7 Transpose of a Matrix The

1.3.7 Transpose of a Matrix

The transpose of one matrix is obtained by using the row of the first matrix as the column of the second matrix.

Example: if A=

A’=

as the column of the second matrix. Example: if A= A’= , then the transpose of
as the column of the second matrix. Example: if A= A’= , then the transpose of

, then the transpose of A is represented by A’

1.4 Operations on Matrices

Like ordinary algebra, matrix algebra has operations addition, subtraction and multiplication.

1.4.1 Addition of Matrices

Two matrices can be added only if they have same dimensions; that is, they must have same number of rows and columns.

Addition can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements.

For example, consider matrix A and matrix B

A=

Addition can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements. For example, consider matrix A and matrix B

B=

Addition can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements. For example, consider matrix A and matrix B

Both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (2 rows and 3 columns), so they can be added. Thus,

A+B =

A+B=

rows and 3 columns), so they can be added. Thus, A+B = A+B= And finally, note
rows and 3 columns), so they can be added. Thus, A+B = A+B= And finally, note

And finally, note that the order in which the matrices are added does not affect the final result.A+B=B+A.

1.4.1.1 Properties of Matrix Addition The properties of addition of matrices are as follows:

Commutative property is true ;that is A+B=B+A

Associative property is true

A+ (B+C) = (A+B) +C

Distributive property is true

K (A+B) =ka+kb

(A+B) k=Ak+Bk

Existence of additive identity element, if a matrix is added with null matrix of the same dimension then, it results

in the same matrix, so the additive identity of a matrix is null matrix

A+0=0+A=A

Existence of additive inverse, if a matrix is added by inverse of A matrix, then the result is a null matrix, so the additive inverse of a matrix is the inverse of the matrix itself matrix

A+ (-A) = (-A) +A= 0

1.4.2 Subtraction of Matrices Like addition of matrices, subtraction of matrices also follows the same conditions and procedures for subtracting two matrices. Two matrices can be subtracted only if they have same dimensions; that is, they must have same number of rows and columns.

Subtraction can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements.

For example, consider matrix A and matrix B

A=

elements. For example, consider matrix A and matrix B A= B= Both matrices have the same

B=

elements. For example, consider matrix A and matrix B A= B= Both matrices have the same

Both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (3 rows and 2 columns), so they can be subtracted. Thus,

A-B=

A-B=

and 2 columns), so they can be subtracted. Thus, A-B= A-B= And finally, note that the
and 2 columns), so they can be subtracted. Thus, A-B= A-B= And finally, note that the

And finally, note that the order in which the matrices are subtracted affects the final result. A-B B-A.

Quantitative Methods

1.4.3 Multiplication of Matrices In matrix multiplication there are two types of matrix multiplication. They are:

Multiplication of a matrix by a number

Multiplication of a matrix by another matrix

1.4.3.1 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Number

When a matrix is multiplied by a number, every element in the matrix should be multiplied by that same number. This operation produces a new matrix, which is called scalar multiple. This multiplication process is called as scalar multiplication.

For example, if x is 5 and matrix A is as follows,

A=

For example, if x is 5 and matrix A is as follows, A= Then, xA =

Then,

xA = 5A = 5

if x is 5 and matrix A is as follows, A= Then, xA = 5A =

=

if x is 5 and matrix A is as follows, A= Then, xA = 5A =

=

x is 5 and matrix A is as follows, A= Then, xA = 5A = 5

= B (say)

In the example above, every element of A is multiplied by 5 to produce the scalar multiple, B.

1.4.3.2 Multiplication of a Matrix by another Matrix

The matrix product AB is defined only when the number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B .Similarly, the matrix product BA is defined only when the number of columns in B is equal to number of rows in A.

Suppose that A is an i x j matrix and B is a j x k matrix. Then, the matrix product AB results in a matrix C which has i rows and k columns; and each element in C can be computed according to the following formula.

=

=

=

Where,

= the element in row i and column k in matrix C

= the element in row i and column k in matrix C

= the element in row i and column j in matrix A

= the element in row i and column j in matrix A

= the element in row j and column k in matrix B

= the element in row j and column k in matrix B

= summation sign, which indicates that thematrix A = the element in row j and column k in matrix B should be

k in matrix B = summation sign, which indicates that the should be summed over j

should be summed over j

Suppose we want to compute AB, given the matrices below.

A=

Suppose we want to compute AB, given the matrices below. A= B= Let AB = C.Because

B=

we want to compute AB, given the matrices below. A= B= Let AB = C.Because A

Let AB = C.Because A has 2 rows, we know that C will also have 2 rows; and because B has 2 columns, we know that C will have 2 columns. To compute the value of every element in 2 x 2 matrix C, we use the formula

value of every element in 2 x 2 matrix C, we use the formula • •

= =
=
=
element in 2 x 2 matrix C, we use the formula • • = = =

=

, such that

x 2 matrix C, we use the formula • • = = = , such that

= 0 * 6 + 1 * 8 + 2 * 1 = 0+8+2 = 10

= 0 * 7 + 1 * 9 + 2 * 2 = 0+9+4 = 13

= 3 * 6 + 4 * 8 + 5 * 1 = 18+32+5 = 55• • = = 3 * 7 + 4 * 9 + 5 * 2 =

=

• • = 3 * 6 + 4 * 8 + 5 * 1 = 18+32+5

= 3 * 7 + 4 * 9 + 5 * 2 = 21+36+10 = 67• • = 3 * 6 + 4 * 8 + 5 * 1 = 18+32+5

=

Therefore AB= C =

= 3 * 7 + 4 * 9 + 5 * 2 = 21+36+10 = 67

1.4.3.3 Properties of Multiplication of Matrices The properties of multiplication of matrices are as follows:

Commutative property is not true ;that is ,even when matrix multiplication is possible in both direction the results may be different ,that is AB is not always equal to BA

Associative property is true

A (BC) = (AB) C

Distributive property is true

K (AB) = (ka) (kb)

(AB) k= (Ak) (Bk)

Existence of multiplicative identity element, if a matrix is multiplied with identity matrix of the same dimension then, it results in the same matrix, so the multiplicative identity of a matrix is identity matrix

AI=IA=A

Existence of multiplicative inverse, if a matrix is multiplied by the inverse of it, then the result is a identity matrix, so the multiplicative inverse of a matrix is its inverse matrix (inverse of a matrix is discussed in 1.6)

A *

inverse matrix (inverse of a matrix is discussed in 1.6) A * = * A =

=

* A =matrix (inverse of a matrix is discussed in 1.6) A * = I 1.5 Determinants A

I

1.5 Determinants

A determinant is a square array of numbers (written within a pair of vertical lines) which represents a certain sum of products.

example of a 2 x 2 determinant:

A=

certain sum of products. example of a 2 x 2 determinant: A= 1.5.1 Calculating Value of

1.5.1 Calculating Value of 2 x 2 Determinant In general we need to find the value of 2 x 2 determinants with elements a, b, c and d as follows:

2 x 2 determinants with elements a, b, c and d as follows: = ad-cb Here

= ad-cb

Here the diagonals are multiplied (top left * bottom right first) and then subtracted.

Example Find the value of the determinant

first) and then subtracted. Example Find the value of the determinant = 4 * 3 -

= 4 * 3 - 2 * 1

= 12 – 2 =10 (answer)

first) and then subtracted. Example Find the value of the determinant = 4 * 3 -

Quantitative Methods

1.5.2 Calculating Value of 3 x 3 Determinant A general representation of a 3 x 3 matrix is as follows

A=

A general representation of a 3 x 3 matrix is as follows A= The method used

The method used for finding the determinants of 3 x 3 is the expansion by minors.

1.5.2.1 Cofactors

The 2 x 2 determinant

expansion by minors. 1.5.2.1 Cofactors The 2 x 2 determinant is called the cofactor of for
expansion by minors. 1.5.2.1 Cofactors The 2 x 2 determinant is called the cofactor of for

is called the cofactor of

for 3 x 3 matrixCofactors The 2 x 2 determinant is called the cofactor of The cofactors are formed from

The cofactors are formed from the elements that are not in the same row and not in the same column as

that are not in the same row and not in the same column as Thus the

Thus the elements in grey are not in the row and column of

Thus the elements in grey are not in the row and column of Similarly for ,

Similarly for

in grey are not in the row and column of Similarly for , the cofactor is

, the cofactor isin grey are not in the row and column of Similarly for And for , the

not in the row and column of Similarly for , the cofactor is And for ,

And for

row and column of Similarly for , the cofactor is And for , the cofactor is

, the cofactor is

of Similarly for , the cofactor is And for , the cofactor is , so is

, so

for , the cofactor is And for , the cofactor is , so is the cofactor

is the cofactor of

.
.
.
.

1.5.2.2 Expansion by Minors

The 3 x 3 determinant values are evaluated by expansion by minors. This involves multiplying the first column of the determinant with the cofactor of those elements. The middle product is subtracted and the final product is added.

middle product is subtracted and the final product is added. = - example: evaluate + =

=

-
-
product is subtracted and the final product is added. = - example: evaluate + = -2

example: evaluate

+

and the final product is added. = - example: evaluate + = -2 – (5) +

= -2

and the final product is added. = - example: evaluate + = -2 – (5) +

– (5)

final product is added. = - example: evaluate + = -2 – (5) + 4 =

+ 4

product is added. = - example: evaluate + = -2 – (5) + 4 = -2[(-1)

= -2[(-1) (2)-(-8) (4)] – 5 [(2) (3) – (-8) (-1)] + 4 [(3) (4)-(-1) (-1)]

= -2(30)-5(-2) +4(11)

=-60+10+44

= -6

Here we are using first column to expand it, even if we use first row to expand, it gives the same result.

1.6 Inverse of a Matrix

Suppose A is an n x n matrix, denoted by

A

of a Matrix Suppose A is an n x n matrix, denoted by A = A

=

of a Matrix Suppose A is an n x n matrix, denoted by A = A

A = I

a Matrix Suppose A is an n x n matrix, denoted by A = A =

, that satisfies the following condition

Where I is the identity matrix To check whether inverse of the matrix exists:

Find the determinant of the square matrix, if the determinant value is zero then the inverse of that matrix does not exist and that matrix is known as Singular matrix.

If the determinant value is not zero, then there exists an inverse for that matrix.

The matrix for which there is an inverse is called non-singular matrix or invertible matrix.

1.6.1 Finding Inverse for a 2 x 2 Matrix

Suppose A is a non-singular 2 x 2 matrix .Then, the inverse of A can be computed as given below,

=

.Then, the inverse of A can be computed as given below, = then A= | A

then.Then, the inverse of A can be computed as given below, = A= | A |

A=

the inverse of A can be computed as given below, = then A= | A |

|A| is the determinant value of the matrix

How to find the determinant value of 2 x 2 matrix and 3 x 3 matrix are discussed above in 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 respectively.

Example:

Find the inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B =

Example: Find the inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B = | B | =

|B| = 4 (Refer 1.5.1)

the inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B = | B | = 4 (Refer

=

inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B = | B | = 4 (Refer 1.5.1)

=

inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B = | B | = 4 (Refer 1.5.1)

is the inverse of the matrix

= | B | = 4 (Refer 1.5.1) = = is the inverse of the matrix

1.6.2 Finding Inverse for a 3 x 3 Matrix

Steps for finding the inverse of 3 x 3 matrix:

Find the determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix, det(A)

Find the transpose of the matrix

Find the determinant of the cofactors of each element in the transpose matrix.

Represent these values as a matrix of the cofactors

Find the adjoint of that resultant matrix adj(A)

Substitute the required values in

matrix adj(A) • Substitute the required values in = adj (A) • Verify by multiplying A

=

matrix adj(A) • Substitute the required values in = adj (A) • Verify by multiplying A

adj (A)

Verify by multiplying A and

values in = adj (A) • Verify by multiplying A and ,the result should be an

,the result should be an identity matrix of same dimension.

Example Find the inverse of A= Step 1:

Find determinant of the 3 x 3 matrix (refer 1.5.2) det (A) = 1(0-24)-2(0-20)+3(0-5) det (A)=1

of A= Step 1: Find determinant of the 3 x 3 matrix (refer 1.5.2) det (A)

Quantitative Methods

Step 2:

Find the transpose of the matrix

Quantitative Methods Step 2: Find the transpose of the matrix = Step 3: Find the determinant

=

Methods Step 2: Find the transpose of the matrix = Step 3: Find the determinant of

Step 3:

Find the determinant of the cofactor of each element in the transpose matrix.

= = -24

=

= -24=

= = -18

=

= -18=

= = 5

=

= 5=

= = -20

=

= -20=

= = -15

=

= -15=

= = 4

=

= 4=

= = -5

=

= -5=

= = -4

=

= -4=

= = 1

=

= 1=

Step 4:

Represents these values as a matrix of the cofactors

Step 4: Represents these values as a matrix of the cofactors Step 5: Find the adjoint

Step 5:

Find the adjoint of the matrix

adj (A)=

the cofactors Step 5: Find the adjoint of the matrix adj (A)= = Step 6: Substitute

=

the cofactors Step 5: Find the adjoint of the matrix adj (A)= = Step 6: Substitute

Step 6:

Substitute the values in

the cofactors Step 5: Find the adjoint of the matrix adj (A)= = Step 6: Substitute
= adj (A) =
=
adj (A)
=

Therefore

=

=

=

Step 7:

Verification A

Verification A

= I

Therefore = Step 7: Verification A = I = If a matrix is multiplied with its
Therefore = Step 7: Verification A = I = If a matrix is multiplied with its

=

Therefore = Step 7: Verification A = I = If a matrix is multiplied with its

If a matrix is multiplied with its inverse, then the result should be the identity matrix of same dimension

1.7 Solving Simultaneous Equation using Determinants

1.7.1 Solving Two Simultaneous Equations System of equation can be solved using determinants with cramer’s rule

The solution of (x, y) of the system

+x y =

x

y =+ x

----------- (1)+ x y =

+x y =

x

y =+ x

----------- (2)+ x y =

can be found using determinants

Solution:

Here, x and y are the variables, & are the coefficients of the variable x in equations 1 and 2 respectively and & are the coefficients of the variable y in equations 1 and 2 respectively, and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively.

and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of
and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of
and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of
and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of
and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of
and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively. Step 1: Solve the determinant of

Step 1:

Solve the determinant of coefficients of variables and it is represented by

=

of variables and it is represented by ∆ ∆ = Step 2: Solve the determinant replacing

Step 2:

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented by

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented by
=

=

=

Step 3:

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by
constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by = Step 4: Obtain

=

constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by = Step 4: Obtain

Step 4:

Obtain solution as x=

and y =
and y =

Quantitative Methods

Example Solve the system using Cramer’s rule.

x-3y=6

2x+3y=3

Solution:

Here

system using Cramer’s rule. x-3y=6 2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x=

= 1;

using Cramer’s rule. x-3y=6 2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= =

= -3;

Cramer’s rule. x-3y=6 2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= = =

= 2;

rule. x-3y=6 2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= = = =

So, x=

rule. x-3y=6 2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= = = =

=

=
=

= 3

y=

2x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= = = = 3 y=

=

= -12x+3y=3 Solution: Here = 1; = -3; = 2; So, x= = = = 3 y=

So, the solution is (3,-1)

= 3;

2; So, x= = = = 3 y= = = -1 So, the solution is (3,-1)

= 6;

x= = = = 3 y= = = -1 So, the solution is (3,-1) = 3;

= 3;

1.7.2 Solving Three simultaneous Equations System of equation can be solved using determinants with cramer’s rule

The solution of (x, y, z) of the system

+x y+

x

y++ x

z =+ x y+ ----------- (1)

----------- (1)+ x y+ z =

+x y+

x

y++ x

z =+ x y+ ----------- (2)

----------- (2)+ x y+ z =

+x y+

x

y++ x

z =+ x y+ ----------- (3)

----------- (3)+ x y+ z =

can be found using determinants

Solution Here, x, y and z are the variables. , & are the coefficients of the variable x in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively

, coefficients of the variable z in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and are the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively.

.

are the

the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of
the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of
the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of
the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of
the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of

&

of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively. . are the & are the coefficients of the variable

are the coefficients of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. ,

of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve
of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve
of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve
of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve
of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve

and

the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and Step 1: Solve the

Step 1:

Solve the determinant of coefficients of variables and it is represented by

=

of variables and it is represented by ∆ ∆ = Step 2: Solve the determinant replacing

Step 2:

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented by

2: Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented

=

2: Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented
2: Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented

Step 3:

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by
=

=

=

Step 4:

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable z and it is represented by

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable z and it is represented by
=

=

=

Step 5:

Obtain solution as x=

; y = ; z =
; y =
; z =

Example Solve the system using Cramer’s rule.

2x+3y+z=2

-x+2y+3z=1

-3x-3y+z=0

Solution:

Here

rule. 2x+3y+z=2 -x+2y+3z=1 -3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2;

= 2;

rule. 2x+3y+z=2 -x+2y+3z=1 -3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2;

= 3;

2x+3y+z=2 -x+2y+3z=1 -3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆

= 1;

-x+2y+3z=1 -3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ =

= -1;

-x+2y+3z=1 -3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ =

= 2;

=

= 2(11) +1(6)-3(7) = 7-3x-3y+z=0 Solution: Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ = =

Here = 2; = 3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ = = 2(11) +1(6)-3(7)

= 3;

So, x=

3; = 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ = = 2(11) +1(6)-3(7) = 7 = 3;

=

= 1; = -1; = 2; ∆ = = 2(11) +1(6)-3(7) = 7 = 3; So,

= 28 / 7=4

y=

z=

∆ = = 2(11) +1(6)-3(7) = 7 = 3; So, x= = = 28 / 7=4

=

=

= - 21/ 7 = -3= = 2(11) +1(6)-3(7) = 7 = 3; So, x= = = 28 / 7=4 y=

= 7 = 3; So, x= = = 28 / 7=4 y= z= = = =

= 21/ 7 = 3

So, the solution is (4,-3, 3)

= = = - 21/ 7 = -3 = 21/ 7 = 3 So, the solution

= -3;

- 21/ 7 = -3 = 21/ 7 = 3 So, the solution is (4,-3, 3)

=-3;

7 = -3 = 21/ 7 = 3 So, the solution is (4,-3, 3) = -3;

= 1 and

= 21/ 7 = 3 So, the solution is (4,-3, 3) = -3; =-3; = 1

=2;

7 = 3 So, the solution is (4,-3, 3) = -3; =-3; = 1 and =2;

= 1;

3 So, the solution is (4,-3, 3) = -3; =-3; = 1 and =2; = 1;

=0

1.8 Properties of Determinants

The properties of determinants are as follows:

The value of determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged

If any two rows/columns change by minus sign only ,then also the value of determinant remains unchanged

If any two rows/columns of a determinant are identical, then the value of determinant is zero

If each element of a row/column of a determinant is multiplied by a same constant and then added to corresponding elements of some other row/column, then the value of determinant remains unchanged.

If each element of a row/column of a determinant is zero, then the value of the determinant is zero.

Quantitative Methods

1.9 Difference between Matrices and Determinants

Following is the difference between matrices and determinants

Features

Matrices

Determinants

Definition

A

matrix is an array of

A

determinant is a square array of numbers

numbers arranged in rectangular brackets.

(written within a pair of vertical lines) which

represents a certain sum of products.

Representation

It

is written inside

It

is written within two vertical Lines | | .

brackets either ( ) or [ ].

 

Value/Result

It

results in an array of

It

results in a single number.

number inside brackets.

 

Influence

Scalar multiplication affects all the elements in a matrix.

Scalar multiplication only affects single row / single column.

Value

Matrices contain many elements.

Determinant has a single number as a end result.

Nature

Matrices may positive or negative.

Determinant value is always positive. Though

it

results in a negative number we consider it as

 

positive because determinant is like distance(it cannot e negative whether it is forward or backward)

Table 1.1 Differences between matrices and determinants

Summary

A

matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.

A

set of real or complex numbers arranged in a rectangular array of ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns, of an order m x

n

(read as m by n) is called a matrix.

Two matrices can be added only if they have same dimensions.

Commutative property, Associative property, Distributive property is true for matrix addition.

The matrix product AB is defined only when the number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B.

Commutative property is not true for matrix multiplication.

Associative property ,Distributive property are true for matrix multiplication

There exists additive identity, multiplicative identity, additive inverse and multiplicative inverse for a matrix.

A

determinant is a square array of numbers.

The 3 x 3 determinant values are evaluated by expansion by minors.

System of equation can be solved using determinants with Cramer’s rule.

References

Dr. Kala, V. N. & Rana, R., 2009. Matrices, 1st ed., Laxmi Publication ltd.

Jain, T. R. & Aggarwal, S. C., 2010. Business Mathematics and Statistics, V.K Enterprises.

Matrices and determinants, [pdf] Available at: < http://www.kkuniyuk.com/M1410801Part1.pdf > [Accessed

31 August 2012].

Gunawarden, J., Matrix algebras for beginning, [Online] Available at: < http://vcp.med.harvard.edu/papers/ matrices-1.pdf > [Accessed 31 August 2012].

2011, Matrices, [Video Online] Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tFhs-D47Ik > [Accessed

31 August 2012].

Hurst, W., Matrices & determinants, [Video Online] Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=havr- W8IwKs > [Accessed 31 August 2012].

Recommended Reading

McMahon, D., 2005. Linear Algebra Demystified, McGraw-hill publication.

Anton, H., 2010. Elementary Linear Algebra, 10th ed., FM Publications.

Greub, W., 1975. Linear Algebra graduate texts in mathematics, Springer.

Quantitative Methods

Self Assessment

1. If matrix A=

a. 3

b. 4

c. 2

d. 5

Methods Self Assessment 1. If matrix A= a. 3 b. 4 c. 2 d. 5 and

and aij is the element of matrix A in i th row and j th column, then what is the value of a 21 ?

2. It is given that P=

2. It is given that P=

and Q =

2. It is given that P= and Q = .What is the value of x+y if

.What is the value of x+y if P=Q?

a.

3

b.

5

c.

6

d.

8

3. is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.

A

a.

Determinant

b.

Matrix

c.

Array

d.

Transpose

4. Two matrices can be added only if they have

a. same dimensions

b. different dimensions

c. plus sign

d. minus sign

5. When a matrix is multiplied by a number, then the process is called as

a. matrix multiplication

b. scalar multiplication

c. square multiplication

d. rectangular multiplication

6. What type of matrix is A=

a. square

b. diagonal

c. null

d. identity

d. rectangular multiplication 6. What type of matrix is A= a. square b. diagonal c. null

?

7.

What is the addition matrix of the following two matrices?

A =

is the addition matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c.

and B=

a.

b.

c.

d.

matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If
matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If
matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If
matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If
matrix of the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If

8. If A =

, what is the value of 5A?the following two matrices? A = and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If A =

a.

= and B= a. b. c. d. 8. If A = , what is the value

b.

B= a. b. c. d. 8. If A = , what is the value of 5A?

c.

d.

a. b. c. d. 8. If A = , what is the value of 5A? a.
a. b. c. d. 8. If A = , what is the value of 5A? a.

9. What is the value of determinant

9. What is the value of determinant

?

a.

6

b.

8

c.

7

d.

10

10. is a square array of numbers.

A

a.

matrix

b.

determinant

c.

array

d.

transpose

Quantitative Methods

Chapter II Mathematical Logic

Aim

The aim of this chapter is to:

introduce mathematical logic

describe operations on logic

highlight tautology and contradiction

Objective

The objectives of this chapter are to:

explicate logical connectives

elucidate laws of algebra of propositions

describe compound statement

Learning outcome

At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

identify the use of mathematical logic

understand the complex procedures into simpler form

understand statement and the truth table

2.1 Introduction

Mathematical Logic is a tool for providing a precise meaning to mathematical statements.

It includes:

A formal language for expressing them

A concise notation to represent them

A methodology for objectively reasoning about their truth or falsity

2.2 Definition

The part of mathematics concerned with the study of formal languages, formal reasoning, the nature of

mathematical proof, provability of mathematical statements, computability, and other aspects of the foundations

of mathematics.

2.2.1 Statement

A statement is a declarative sentence which is either true or false but not both.

2.2.2 Truth Value

The truth value of a proposition is true (T) if it is of true proposition and false (F) if it is false proposition.

Example

P: The year 1973 was a leap year is a proposition readily decidable as false.

Note that the use of label ‘P…’ so that the overall statement is read p is the statement:”The year 1973 was a leap year”.

So we use P, Q, R, S, T to represent statements and these letters are called as statement variables, that is, variable replaced by statements.

Example Determine whether the following sentences are statements are not.If it is a statement, determine its truth value.

The sun rises in west. False 128= 2 6 False

Is 2 an integer? Not a statement as it is interrogative Take the book not a statement

2.2.3 Truth Table

A table that gives the truth value of the compound statement in terms of its component part is called a truth table.

2.2.4 Compound Statements

A compound statement is a combination of two or more statements.

Example Today is Friday and it is a holiday

Quantitative Methods

2.3 Statement

A

statement is an assertion that can be determined to be True or False. A statement/simple statement or proposition

is

a declarative sentence that is either True or False but not both. A simple statement is the basic building block of

the logic.

Those declarative statements will be admitted in the object language which have one and only one of two possible values called “Truth Value”

The two truth values are true and false, which are denoted by T and F respectively

Occasionally they are represented using symbols 1 and 0

We do not use other kind of statements in object language such as exclamatory and interrogative

Declarative sentences in object language are of two types

The first type includes those sentences which are considered to be primitive in the object language

This will be denoted by distinct symbols selected from uppercase letters A, B

P, Q

Second type are obtained from the primitive ones by using certain symbols called connectives and certain punctuation marks such as parentheses to join primitive sentences

In

any case, all declarative sentences to which it is possible to assign one and only of the two possible truth values

are called statements.

The following are the statements which do not contain any connectives, these kinds of statements are called as atomic or primary primitive statement.

1. Canada is a country

2. Moscow is the capital of spain

3. This statement is false

4. 1+101=110

5. Close the door

6. Toronto is an old city

7. Man will reach mars by 2080

The statements are discussed below

The statements 1 and 2 have truth values true or false

• Sentence 3 is not a statement according to the definition, because we cannot assign to it a definite truth value

If we assign a value true then the statement 3 is false, if assigned false then the statement 3 is true

Sentence 4 is a statement; if the numbers are considered as decimal system then the statement is false. If it is considered as binary number system, then the statement is true. So the statement 4 is true.

Statement 5 is not a statement as it is interrogative

Statement 6 is considered true in some part of the world and false in certain other parts of the world

The statement 7 could not be determined ,it will be determined only in the year or earlier when man reaches mars before that date

2.4 Compound Statement

A statement represented by a single statement variable (without any connective) is called a simple (or primitive)

statement.

A statement represented by some combination of statement variables and connectives is called a compound

statement.

Example

A dog or a car is an animal

A dog is not an animal

5<3

If the earth is flat, then 3+4 =7

2.5 Connectives

In case of simple statements, their truth values are fairly obvious. It is possible to construct rather complicated statements from simpler statements by using certain connecting words or expressions known as “sentential connectives”. The statements which we initially consider are simple statements, called atomic or primary statements. New statement can be formed from atomic statements through the use of sentential connectives. The resulting statement is called molecular or compound statements. Thus the atomic statements are those which do not have any connectives. Capital letters are used to denote statements.

The capital letters with or without subscripts, will also be used to denote arbitrary statements. In the sense, a statement “P” either denotes a particular statement or serves as a place holder for any statement .This dual use of the symbol to denote either a definite statement, called a constant, or an arbitrary statement called a variable. The truth value of “P” is the truth table of actual statement which it represents.

It should be emphasises that when “P” is used as a statement variable, it has no truth value and such does not

represent a statement in symbolic logic.

Most mathematical statements are combinations of simpler statement formed through some choice of the words

”not”,”and”,”or”,”if

are denoted by the following symbols:

and “if and only if”. These are called logical connectives or simply connectives and

then”

Connective

Symbol

Formal name

Not

or ¬

Negation

And

Conjunction

Or

Disjunction

If

then

Conditional

If and only if

Biconditional

Table 2.1 Symbols of connectives

2.5.1 Negation

Definition of negation

If P is a statement variable,the negation of P is “not P” or it is not the case that P” and is denoted by P.It has

opposite truth value from P.

The negation statement is generally formed by introducing the word “not” at a proper place in statement with the phrase “It is not the case that” and read as “not P”.

Let P be a statement .The negation of P, written P or P ¬ is the statement obtained by negating statement P.

If the truth value of P is true then truth value of P is false, and if the truth value of P is false then truth value of

P is true.

This definition of negation is summarized by the truth table below.

Quantitative Methods

P ∼ P T F F T
P
∼ P
T
F
F
T

Table 2.2 Truth Table of Negation

Example P:The integer 10 is even Then P: The integer 10 is not even

P:London is a city

P:It is not case that London is a city

P:London is not a city

P:I went to my class yesterday.

P:I did not go to my class yesterday

P:I was absent from my class yesterday.

P:I went to my class yesterday.

P:I did not go to my class yesterday

P:I was absent from my class yesterday

Negation is called connectives although it only modifies a statement or a variable.

2.5.2 Conjunction

Let P and Q be statements. The conjunction of P and Q, written P Q,is the statement formed by joining statements

P and Q using the word “and”. The statement PQ is true if both P and Q are true; otherwise PQ is false.

The symbol is called “and”. Let P and Q be statements. The truth table of PQ is given below.

Definition

If p and q are statement variables, the conjunction of p and q is “p and q”, denoted pq.The compound statement

pq .The compound statement p q is true when both p and q are true; otherwise, it is false.

P

Q

PQ

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

T

F

F

F

F

Table 2.3 Truth table of conjunction

Example P: 2 is an even integer, Q: 7 divide 14 R:2 is an even integer and 7 divides 14.

P:It is raining today Q:There are 20 tables in this room. R:It is raining today and there are 20 tables in this room.

Jack and Jill went up the hill. From this statement we get two statement Jack went up the hill and Jill went up the hill. Then the given statement can be written symbolic from PQ.

2.5.3 Disjunction

Let P and Q be statements. The disjunction of P and Q ,written P Q ,is statement formed by putting statements P and Q together using the word “Or”. The truth value of the statement PQ is T if atleast one of statements P and Q

is true. The symbol is called “Or”, for the statement P Q is given below.

Definition

If

P and Q are statement variables, the disjunction of P and Q is “P or Q”, denoted P Q.The compound statement

P

Q is true if atleast one of P or Q is true; it is false when both P and Q are false.

P

Q

PQ

T

T

T

T

F

T

F

T

T

F

F

F

Table 2.4 Truth table for disjunction

Example P:2 2 +3 3 is an even integer

Q:2 2 +3 3 is an odd integer then P Q:2 2 +3 3 is an even integer or 2 2 +3 3 is an odd integer

OR

P Q :2 2 +3 3 is an even integer or an odd integer