Quantitative Methods
This book is a part of the course by MITSDE , Pune. This book contains the course content for Quantitative Methods.
MITSDE, Pune Second Edition 2012 Oct. First Edition 2010 Oct.
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Index
I. 
Content 
II 
II. List of Tables 
VIII 

III. Application 
105 

IV. Bibliography 
110 

V. Self Assessment Answers 
113 
Book at a Glance
I/MITSDE
Contents
Chapter I 
1 

Matrices and Determinants 
1 

Aim 
1 

Objectives 
1 

Learning Outcome: 
1 

1.1 Introduction 
2 

1.2 Matrix 
2 

1.2.1 Matrix definition 
2 

1.2.2 Matrix Notation 
2 

1.2.3 Matrix Equality 
3 

1.3 Types of Matrix 
3 

1.3.1 Row Matrix 
3 

1.3.2 Column Matrix 
3 

1.3.3 Zero/Null Matrix 
3 

1.3.4 Square Matrix 
4 

1.3.5 Diagonal Matrix 
4 

1.3.6 Unit/Identity Matrix 
4 

1.3.7 Transpose of a Matrix 
4 

1.4 Operations on Matrices 
4 

1.4.1 Addition of Matrices 
4 

1.4.1.1 Properties of Matrix Addition 
5 

1.4.2 Subtraction of Matrices 
5 

1.4.3 Multiplication of Matrices 
6 

1.4.3.1 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Number 
6 

1.4.3.2 Multiplication of a Matrix by another Matrix 
6 

1.4.3.3 Properties of Multiplication of Matrices 
7 

1.5 Determinants 
7 

1.5.1 Calculating Value of 2 x 2 Determinant 
7 

1.5.2 Calculating Value of 3 x 3 Determinant 
8 

1.5.2.1 Cofactors 
8 

1.5.2.2 Expansion by Minors 
8 

1.6 Inverse of a Matrix 
9 

1.6.1 Finding Inverse for a 2 x 2 Matrix 
9 

1.6.2 Finding Inverse for a 3 x 3 Matrix 
9 

1.7 Solving Simultaneous Equation using Determinants 
11 

1.7.1 Solving Two Simultaneous Equations 
11 

1.7.2 Solving Three simultaneous Equations 
12 

1.8 Properties of Determinants 
13 

1.9 Difference between Matrices and Determinants 
14 

Summary 
15 

References 
15 

Recommended Reading 
15 

Self Assessment 
16 

Chapter II 
18 

Mathematical Logic 
18 

Aim 
18 

Objective 
18 

Learning outcome 
18 

2.1 Introduction 
19 

2.2 Definition 
19 

2.2.1 Statement 
19 

2.2.2 Truth Value 
19 
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2.2.3
Truth Table
19
2.2.4 
Compound Statements 
19 

2.3 Statement 
20 

2.4 Compound Statement 
20 

2.5 Connectives 
21 

2.5.1 Negation 
21 

2.5.2 Conjunction 
22 

2.5.3 Disjunction 
23 

2.5.4 Conditional or Implication 
23 

2.5.5 Biconditional or Biimplication 
24 

2.5.6 Contrapositive, Converse and Inverse 
25 

2.6 Tautology ,Contradiction and Contingency 
25 

2.7 Laws of Algebra 
26 

2.7.1 Identity Law 
26 

2.7.2 Commutative Law 
26 

2.7.3 Complement Law 
26 

2.7.4 Double Negation 
26 

2.7.5 Associative Law 
26 

2.7.6 Distributive Law 
26 

2.7.7 Absorption Law 
26 

2.7.8 Demorgan’s Law 
26 

2.7.9 Equivalance of Contrapositive 
27 

2.7.10 
Others 
27 

Summary 
28 

References 
28 

Recommended Reading 
28 

Self Assessment 
29 

Chapter III 
31 

Set Theory 
31 

Aim 
31 

Objective 
31 

Learning outcome 
31 

3.1 Definition of a Set 
32 

3.2 Standard Sets 
32 

3.3 Representation of set 
32 

3.3.1 Tabular Form/Roaster Method 
32 

3.3.2 Rule Method 
32 

3.3.3 Descriptive Form 
32 

3.4 Types of Sets 
33 

3.4.1 Finite Set 
33 

3.4.2 Empty or Null Set 
33 

3.4.3 Subset 
33 

3.4.3.1 
Proper Subset 
33 

3.4.3.2 
Improper Subset 
33 

3.4.4 Infinite Set 
33 

3.4.5 Disjoint Sets 
34 

3.4.6 Overlapping Sets 
34 

3.4.7 Universal Set 
34 

3.4.8 Equal Set 
34 

3.4.9 Complement Set 
34 

3.4.10 
Equivalent Set 
34 

3.5 Illustration of Various Sets 
35 

3.6 Basic Operations on Sets 
35 

3.6.1 
Intersection of Two Sets 
35 
III/MITSDE
3.6.2
Union of Two Sets
35
3.6.3 Relative Complement or Difference of Two Sets 
35 

3.6.4 Complement of a Set 
36 

3.6.5 Symmetric Difference of Two Sets 
36 

3.7 
Properties of Set 
36 

3.7.1 Commutative Law 
36 

3.7.2 Associative Law 
36 

3.7.3 Distributive Law 
37 

3.7.4 Identity Law 
37 

3.7.5 Complement Law 
37 

3.7.6 Idempotent Law 
37 

3.7.7 Bound Law 
37 

3.7.8 Absorption Law 
37 

3.7.9 Involution Law 
37 

3.7.10 De Morgan’s Law 
37 

3.7.11More Results 
37 

Summary 
40 

References 
40 

Recommended Reading 
40 

Self Assessment 
41 

Chapter IV 
43 

Progression 
43 

Aim 
43 

Objective 
43 

Learning outcome 
43 

4.1 Introduction 
44 

4.2 Arithmetic Progression 
44 

4.3 Formulae for Arithmetic Progression 
45 

4.3.1 The general form of an AP 
45 

4.3.2 The n ^{t}^{h} term 
of an AP 
45 

4.3.3 Sum of first n terms ( 

) of an AP 
45 

4.4 Arithmetic Mean 
45 

4.5 Geometric Progression 
45 

4.6 Formulae for Geometric Progression 
46 

4.6.1 The general form of a GP 
46 

4.6.2 The n ^{t}^{h} term T _{n} of a GP 
46 

4.6.3 The sum of first n terms S _{n} of a GP 
46 

4.7 Geometric Mean 
47 

4.8 Harmonic Progression 
47 

4.9 Formulae for Harmonic Progression 
48 

4.9.1 The General Form of HP 
48 

4.9.2 The nth term (T _{n} )of a HP 
48 

4.10 Harmonic mean 
48 

4.11 Comparison between AP and GP 
48 

4.12 Important Rules on Arithmetic mean(AM),Geometric Mean (GM) and Harmonic Mean(HM) 
49 

Summary 
51 

References 
51 

Recommended Reading 
51 

Self Assessment 
52 
IV/ MITSDE
Chapter V
54
Probability 
54 

Aim 
54 

Objective 
54 

Learning outcome 
54 

5.1 Introduction 
55 

5.2 Definitions 
55 

5.2.1 Experiment 
55 

5.2.2 Deterministic Experiment 
55 

5.2.3 Random Experiment 
55 

5.2.3.1 Examples of Performing a Random Experiment 
55 

5.2.3.2 Details 
55 

5.2.3.3 Sample Space : 
55 

5.2.4 Elementary Event 
55 

5.2.5 Impossible Event 
55 

5.2.6 Events 
56 

5.2.7 Mutually Exclusive Event 
56 

5.2.8 Compatibility 
56 

5.2.9 Independent Events 
56 

5.2.10 Dependent Events 
56 

5.3 Probability 
56 

5.3.1 Probability of Occurrence of an Event 
56 

5.3.2 Results on Probability 
56 

5.3.3 Binomial Distribution 
57 

5.3.4 Geometric Theorem 
57 

5.4 Conditional Probability 
57 

5.4.1 Conditional probability of Dependent Events 
57 

5.4.2 Conditional probability of Independent Events 
57 

5.5. Multiplication Rule 
57 

5.5.1 Independent Events 
57 

5.5.2 Dependent Events 
57 

5.6 Steps to Solve Probability 
58 

5.7 Bayes Theorem 
58 

Summary 
61 

References 
61 

Recommended Reading 
61 

Self Assessment 
62 

Chapter VI 
64 

Permutations and Combinations 
64 

Aim 
64 

Objective 
64 

Learning outcome 
64 

6.1 Introduction 
65 

6.2 Basic Calculation Used 
65 

6.2.1 
Factorial Notation 
65 

6.3 Fundamental Principles of Counting 
65 

6.3.1 Principle 
of Addition 
65 

6.3.2 Principle of Multiplication 
65 

6.4 Permutation 
66 

6.4.1 
Basic Forms of Permutations 
67 

6.4.1.1 
All given Objects are Distinct 
67 

6.4.1.2 When k cannot be Selected 
67 

6.4.1.3 When all the given n objects are not distinct 
67 

6.4.1.4 Circular Permutation 
67 
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6.4.1.5
Repetition is Allowed
68
6.5 Combination 
68 

6.6 Basic Forms of Combination 
68 

6.6.1All Given Objects are distinct 
68 

6.6.2 When K objects cannot be selected 
68 

6.6.3 When k Objects are always Selected 
69 

6.6.4 Distribution of Objects into two Groups 
69 

6.6.5 Distribution of Similar Objects 
69 

6.6.6 Total possible Combination of n Distinct Objects 
69 

6.6.7 When All are not Distinct Objects 
70 

6.6.8 When all are Distinct but of Different Kind 
70 

6.7 Special Case(Permutation and Combination Simultaneously) 
70 

6.8 Basic Manipulation on Permutation and Combinations 
70 

Summary 
73 

References 
73 

Recommended Reading 
73 

Self Assessment 
74 

Chapter VII 
76 

Interpolation 
76 

Aim 
76 

Objectives 
76 

Learning outcome 
76 

7.1 Introduction 
77 

7.2 Definition of Interpolation 
77 

7.3 Application 
77 

7.4 Need and Importance of Interpolation 
77 

7.5 Methods of Interpolation 
78 

7.5.1 Graphical Method 
78 

7.5.2 Newton’s method of advancing differences 
78 

7.5.3 Lagrange’s Method 
78 

7.5.4 NewtonGauss Forward Method 
78 

7.5.5 NewtonGauss Backward Method 
79 

Summary 
80 

References 
80 

Recommended Reading 
80 

Self Assessment 
81 

Chapter VIII 
83 

Consumer Arithmetic 
83 

Aim 
83 

Objectives 
83 

Learning outcome 
83 

8.1 Introduction: Profit and Loss 
84 

8.1.1 Formulae 
84 

8.2 Interest 
85 

8.2.1 Terms Used 
85 

8.2.2 Simple Interest 
85 

8.2.2.1 
Formulae 
85 

8.2.3 Recurring Deposit 
86 

8.2.3.1 
Formulae 
86 

8.2.4 Compound Interest 
86 

8.2.4.1 
Formulae 
86 
VI/ MITSDE
Summary 
89 
References 
89 
Recommended Reading 
89 
Self Assessment 
90 
Chapter IX 
92 
Relations and Functions 
92 
Aim 
92 
Objectives 
92 
Learning outcome 
92 
9.1 Relation 
93 
9.2 Domain and Range of a Relation 
93 
9.3 Functions 
93 
9.3.1 Range, image, codomain 
94 
9.4 Break Even Analysis 
94 
Summary 
95 
References 
95 
Recommended Reading 
95 
Self Assessment 
96 
Chapter X 
98 
Statistics 
98 
Aim 
98 
Objectives 
98 
Learning outcome 
98 
10.1 Introduction 
99 
10.2 Definition of Statistics 
99 
10.3 Scope and Applications of Statistics 
99 
10.4 Characteristics of Statistics 
99 
10.5 Functions of Statistics 
100 
10.6 Limitations of Statistics 
100 
10.7 Classification 
100 
10.8 Objectives of Classification 
100 
10.9 Characteristics of Classification 
100 
10.10 Frequency Distribution 
101 
10.10.1 Discrete or Ungrouped Frequency Distribution 
101 
10.10.2 Continuous or Grouped Frequency Distribution 
101 
10.10.3 Cumulative Frequency Distribution 
101 
Summary 
102 
References 
102 
Recommended Reading 
102 
Self Assessment 
103 
VII/ MITSDE
List of Tables
Table 1.1 Differences between matrices and determinants 
14 
Table 2.1 Symbols of connectives 
21 
Table 2.2 Truth Table of Negation 
22 
Table 2.3 Truth table of conjunction 
22 
Table 2.4 Truth table for disjunction 
23 
Table 2.5 Truth table for implication 
24 
Table 2.6 Truth table of biimplication 
24 
Table 2.7 ∼P ∨ P is a tautology 
25 
Table 2.8 contradiction 
25 
Table 2.9 contingency 
25 
Table 4.1 Comparison between AP and GP 
48 
VIII/ MITSDE
Chapter I Matrices and Determinants
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:
• introduce the concept of matrices
• elucidate the types of matrix
• introduce determinant of matrix
Objectives
The objective of this chapter is to:
• explicate the operations on matrices
• describe the properties of determinants
• explicate the properties of matrices
Learning Outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
• compare different types of matrix
• identify the basic operations on matrix
• understand simultaneous linear equations using determinants
1/MITSDE
Quantitative Methods
1.1 Introduction
The study of matrices and determinants is of immense significance in the field of business and economics. This lesson introduces the matrix, the rectangular array and determinants at the heart of matrix algebra. Matrix algebra is used quite a bit in advanced statistics, largely because it provides two benefits.
• Compact notation for describing sets of data and sets of equations.
• Efficient methods for manipulating sets of data and solving sets of equations.
1.2 Matrix
1.2.1 Matrix definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. It is a collection of real or complex numbers (usually real) arranged in a fixed number of rows and columns. It is arranged in a rectangular brackets (either ( ) or [ ]).A set of real or complex numbers arranged in a rectangular array of ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns, of an order m x n (read as m by n) is called a matrix. The dimension or order of matrix is written as number of rows x number of columns.
A=
Example: A=
The topmost row is row 1.The leftmost column is column 1.
Here, the number of rows (m) is 2 and the number of columns (n) is 3.
So the matrix is of order 2 x 3 (2 by 3 matrix).
Matrices are used to solve problem in:
• Electronics
• Statics
• Robotics
• Linear programming
• Optimisation
• Intersection of planes
• Genetics
1.2.2 Matrix Notation Statisticians use symbols to identify matrix elements and matrices.
• Matrix elements: Consider the matrix below, in which matrix elements are represented entirely by symbols.
A=
By convention the first subscript refers to the row number and the second subscript refers to the column number .Thus the first element in the first row is represented by ,the second element in the first row, by and so on, until we reach the fourth element in second row which is represented by .
2/MITSDE
• Notation: The simplest way to represent a matrix symbolically is to use bold face letters A,B ,C etc…Thus A might refer to a 2 x 3 matrix in the below example
A =
Another approach of representing matrix A is:
] where i=1, 2 and j=1, 2, 3, 4
A= [
This notation indicates A is a matrix with two rows and four columns. The actual element of the array are not
displayed they are represented by the symbol
1.2.3 Matrix Equality
To understand matrix algebra, we need to understand matrix equality. Two matrices are equal if all three of the following conditions are met:
• each matrix has same number of rows
• each matrix has same number of columns
• corresponding elements within each matrix are equal
Consider the three matrices given below
A=
B=
C=
If A=B, then x=22 and y=33, as corresponding elements of equal matrices are equal. And it is clear that C is not
equal to A or B, because C has more columns than A or B.
1.3 Types of Matrix
There are six types of matrices. They are as follows.
1.3.1 Row Matrix
A matrix having a single row is called row matrix.
Example
A=
1.3.2 Column Matrix
A matrix having a single column is called column matrix.
Example:
A=
1.3.3 Zero/Null Matrix
A matrix having each and every element as zero is called a null or zero matrix.
Example
A=
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Quantitative Methods
1.3.4 Square Matrix
A matrix having equal number of rows and columns is called a square matrix.
Example
A=
1.3.5 Diagonal Matrix
A square matrix having all elements zero except principal diagonal elements is called diagonal matrix. Principal
diagonal elements can be any nonzero elements.
Matrix elements like
Example
A=
etc… are called principal diagonal elements.
1.3.6 Unit/Identity Matrix
A square matrix which is a diagonal matrix having all principal diagonal elements as one (unit) is called identity
matrix.
Example
A=
1.3.7 Transpose of a Matrix
The transpose of one matrix is obtained by using the row of the first matrix as the column of the second matrix.
Example: if A=
A’=
, then the transpose of A is represented by A’
1.4 Operations on Matrices
Like ordinary algebra, matrix algebra has operations addition, subtraction and multiplication.
1.4.1 Addition of Matrices
Two matrices can be added only if they have same dimensions; that is, they must have same number of rows and columns.
Addition can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements.
For example, consider matrix A and matrix B
A=
B=
4/MITSDE
Both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (2 rows and 3 columns), so they can be added. Thus,
A+B =
A+B=
And finally, note that the order in which the matrices are added does not affect the final result.A+B=B+A.
1.4.1.1 Properties of Matrix Addition The properties of addition of matrices are as follows:
• Commutative property is true ;that is A+B=B+A
• Associative property is true
A+ (B+C) = (A+B) +C
• Distributive property is true
K (A+B) =ka+kb
(A+B) k=Ak+Bk
• Existence of additive identity element, if a matrix is added with null matrix of the same dimension then, it results
in the same matrix, so the additive identity of a matrix is null matrix
A+0=0+A=A
• Existence of additive inverse, if a matrix is added by inverse of A matrix, then the result is a null matrix, so the additive inverse of a matrix is the inverse of the matrix itself matrix
A+ (A) = (A) +A= 0
1.4.2 Subtraction of Matrices Like addition of matrices, subtraction of matrices also follows the same conditions and procedures for subtracting two matrices. Two matrices can be subtracted only if they have same dimensions; that is, they must have same number of rows and columns.
Subtraction can be accomplished by adding corresponding elements.
For example, consider matrix A and matrix B
A=
B=
Both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (3 rows and 2 columns), so they can be subtracted. Thus,
AB=
AB=
And finally, note that the order in which the matrices are subtracted affects the final result. AB ≠ BA.
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Quantitative Methods
1.4.3 Multiplication of Matrices In matrix multiplication there are two types of matrix multiplication. They are:
• Multiplication of a matrix by a number
• Multiplication of a matrix by another matrix
1.4.3.1 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Number
When a matrix is multiplied by a number, every element in the matrix should be multiplied by that same number. This operation produces a new matrix, which is called scalar multiple. This multiplication process is called as scalar multiplication.
For example, if x is 5 and matrix A is as follows,
A=
Then,
xA = 5A = 5
=
=
= B (say)
In the example above, every element of A is multiplied by 5 to produce the scalar multiple, B.
1.4.3.2 Multiplication of a Matrix by another Matrix
The matrix product AB is defined only when the number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B .Similarly, the matrix product BA is defined only when the number of columns in B is equal to number of rows in A.
Suppose that A is an i x j matrix and B is a j x k matrix. Then, the matrix product AB results in a matrix C which has i rows and k columns; and each element in C can be computed according to the following formula.

= 

Where, 


= the element in row i and column k in matrix C 


= the element in row i and column j in matrix A 


= the element in row j and column k in matrix B 
= summation sign, which indicates that the
should be summed over j
Suppose we want to compute AB, given the matrices below.
A=
B=
Let AB = C.Because A has 2 rows, we know that C will also have 2 rows; and because B has 2 columns, we know that C will have 2 columns. To compute the value of every element in 2 x 2 matrix C, we use the formula
_{•}
_{•}
=
, such that
= 0 * 6 + 1 * 8 + 2 * 1 = 0+8+2 = 10
= 0 * 7 + 1 * 9 + 2 * 2 = 0+9+4 = 13
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_{•}
_{•}
= 3 * 6 + 4 * 8 + 5 * 1 = 18+32+5 = 55
=
= 3 * 7 + 4 * 9 + 5 * 2 = 21+36+10 = 67
=
Therefore AB= C =
1.4.3.3 Properties of Multiplication of Matrices The properties of multiplication of matrices are as follows:
• Commutative property is not true ;that is ,even when matrix multiplication is possible in both direction the results may be different ,that is AB is not always equal to BA
• Associative property is true
A (BC) = (AB) C
• Distributive property is true
K (AB) = (ka) (kb)
(AB) k= (Ak) (Bk)
• Existence of multiplicative identity element, if a matrix is multiplied with identity matrix of the same dimension then, it results in the same matrix, so the multiplicative identity of a matrix is identity matrix
AI=IA=A
• Existence of multiplicative inverse, if a matrix is multiplied by the inverse of it, then the result is a identity matrix, so the multiplicative inverse of a matrix is its inverse matrix (inverse of a matrix is discussed in 1.6)
A *
=
* A =
I
1.5 Determinants
A determinant is a square array of numbers (written within a pair of vertical lines) which represents a certain sum of products.
example of a 2 x 2 determinant:
A=
1.5.1 Calculating Value of 2 x 2 Determinant In general we need to find the value of 2 x 2 determinants with elements a, b, c and d as follows:
= adcb
Here the diagonals are multiplied (top left * bottom right first) and then subtracted.
Example Find the value of the determinant
= 4 * 3  2 * 1
= 12 – 2 =10 (answer)
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Quantitative Methods
1.5.2 Calculating Value of 3 x 3 Determinant A general representation of a 3 x 3 matrix is as follows
A=
The method used for finding the determinants of 3 x 3 is the expansion by minors.
1.5.2.1 Cofactors
The 2 x 2 determinant
is called the cofactor of
for 3 x 3 matrix
The cofactors are formed from the elements that are not in the same row and not in the same column as
Thus the elements in grey are not in the row and column of
Similarly for
, the cofactor is
And for
, the cofactor is
, so
is the cofactor of
1.5.2.2 Expansion by Minors
The 3 x 3 determinant values are evaluated by expansion by minors. This involves multiplying the first column of the determinant with the cofactor of those elements. The middle product is subtracted and the final product is added.
=
example: evaluate
+
= 2
– (5)
+ 4
= 2[(1) (2)(8) (4)] – 5 [(2) (3) – (8) (1)] + 4 [(3) (4)(1) (1)]
= 2(30)5(2) +4(11)
=60+10+44
= 6
Here we are using first column to expand it, even if we use first row to expand, it gives the same result.
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1.6 Inverse of a Matrix
Suppose A is an n x n matrix, denoted by
A
=
A = I
, that satisfies the following condition
Where I is the identity matrix To check whether inverse of the matrix exists:
Find the determinant of the square matrix, if the determinant value is zero then the inverse of that matrix does not exist and that matrix is known as Singular matrix.
If the determinant value is not zero, then there exists an inverse for that matrix.
The matrix for which there is an inverse is called nonsingular matrix or invertible matrix.
1.6.1 Finding Inverse for a 2 x 2 Matrix
Suppose A is a nonsingular 2 x 2 matrix .Then, the inverse of A can be computed as given below,
=
then
A=
A is the determinant value of the matrix
How to find the determinant value of 2 x 2 matrix and 3 x 3 matrix are discussed above in 1.5.1 and 1.5.2 respectively.
Example:
Find the inverse of the 2 x 2 matrix B =
B = 4 (Refer 1.5.1)
=
=
is the inverse of the matrix
1.6.2 Finding Inverse for a 3 x 3 Matrix
Steps for finding the inverse of 3 x 3 matrix:
• Find the determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix, det(A)
• Find the transpose of the matrix
• Find the determinant of the cofactors of each element in the transpose matrix.
• Represent these values as a matrix of the cofactors
• Find the adjoint of that resultant matrix adj(A)
• Substitute the required values in
=
adj (A)
• Verify by multiplying A and
,the result should be an identity matrix of same dimension.
Example Find the inverse of A= Step 1:
Find determinant of the 3 x 3 matrix (refer 1.5.2) det (A) = 1(024)2(020)+3(05) det (A)=1
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Quantitative Methods
Step 2:
Find the transpose of the matrix
=
Step 3:
Find the determinant of the cofactor of each element in the transpose matrix.

= 
= 24 

= 
= 18 

= 
= 5 

= 
= 20 

= 
= 15 

= 
= 4 

= 
= 5 

= 
= 4 

= 
= 1 
Step 4:
Represents these values as a matrix of the cofactors
Step 5:
Find the adjoint of the matrix
adj (A)=
=
Step 6:
Substitute the values in
10/MITSDE
Therefore 
= 

Step 7: 

Verification A 
= I 
=
If a matrix is multiplied with its inverse, then the result should be the identity matrix of same dimension
1.7 Solving Simultaneous Equation using Determinants
1.7.1 Solving Two Simultaneous Equations System of equation can be solved using determinants with cramer’s rule
The solution of (x, y) of the system
+ x y = 
 (1) 
+ x y = 
 (2) 
can be found using determinants
Solution:
Here, x and y are the variables, & are the coefficients of the variable x in equations 1 and 2 respectively and & are the coefficients of the variable y in equations 1 and 2 respectively, and are the constants of equation 1 and 2 respectively.
Step 1:
Solve the determinant of coefficients of variables and it is represented by ∆
∆ =
Step 2:
Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented by 



= 


Step 3: 

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by 

=
Step 4:
Obtain solution as x=
11/MITSDE
Quantitative Methods
Example Solve the system using Cramer’s rule.
x3y=6
2x+3y=3
Solution:
Here
= 1;
= 3;
= 2;
So, x=
=
= 3
y=
=
= 1
So, the solution is (3,1)
= 3;
= 6;
= 3;
1.7.2 Solving Three simultaneous Equations System of equation can be solved using determinants with cramer’s rule
The solution of (x, y, z) of the system
+ x y+ 
z = 
 (1) 
+ x y+ 
z = 
 (2) 
+ x y+ 
z = 
 (3) 
can be found using determinants
Solution Here, x, y and z are the variables. , & are the coefficients of the variable x in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively
, coefficients of the variable z in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. , and are the constants of equation 1,2 and 3 respectively.
.
are the
&
are the coefficients of the variable y in equations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. ,
and
Step 1:
Solve the determinant of coefficients of variables and it is represented by ∆
∆ =
Step 2:
Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable x and it is represented by
=
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Step 3:
Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable y and it is represented by 



= 


Step 4: 

Solve the determinant replacing constants instead of coefficient of variable z and it is represented by 



= 

Step 5:
Obtain solution as x=
Example Solve the system using Cramer’s rule.
2x+3y+z=2
x+2y+3z=1
3x3y+z=0
Solution:
Here
= 2;
= 3;
= 1;
= 1;
= 2;
∆ =
= 2(11) +1(6)3(7) = 7
= 3;
So, x=
=
= 28 / 7=4
y=
z=
=
=
=  21/ 7 = 3
= 21/ 7 = 3
So, the solution is (4,3, 3)
= 3;
=3;
= 1 and
=2;
= 1;
=0
1.8 Properties of Determinants
The properties of determinants are as follows:
• The value of determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged
• If any two rows/columns change by minus sign only ,then also the value of determinant remains unchanged
• If any two rows/columns of a determinant are identical, then the value of determinant is zero
• If each element of a row/column of a determinant is multiplied by a same constant and then added to corresponding elements of some other row/column, then the value of determinant remains unchanged.
• If each element of a row/column of a determinant is zero, then the value of the determinant is zero.
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Quantitative Methods
1.9 Difference between Matrices and Determinants
Following is the difference between matrices and determinants
Features 
Matrices 
Determinants 

Definition 
A 
matrix is an array of 
A 
determinant is a square array of numbers 
numbers arranged in rectangular brackets. 
(written within a pair of vertical lines) which 

represents a certain sum of products. 

Representation 
It 
is written inside 
It 
is written within two vertical Lines   . 
brackets either ( ) or [ ]. 

Value/Result 
It 
results in an array of 
It 
results in a single number. 
number inside brackets. 

Influence 
Scalar multiplication affects all the elements in a matrix. 
Scalar multiplication only affects single row / single column. 

Value 
Matrices contain many elements. 
Determinant has a single number as a end result. 

Nature 
Matrices may positive or negative. 
Determinant value is always positive. Though 

it 
results in a negative number we consider it as 

positive because determinant is like distance(it cannot e negative whether it is forward or backward) 
Table 1.1 Differences between matrices and determinants
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Summary
• 
A 
matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. 
• 
A 
set of real or complex numbers arranged in a rectangular array of ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns, of an order m x 
n 
(read as m by n) is called a matrix. 

• 
Two matrices can be added only if they have same dimensions. 

• 
Commutative property, Associative property, Distributive property is true for matrix addition. 

• 
The matrix product AB is defined only when the number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B. 

• 
Commutative property is not true for matrix multiplication. 

• 
Associative property ,Distributive property are true for matrix multiplication 

• 
There exists additive identity, multiplicative identity, additive inverse and multiplicative inverse for a matrix. 

• 
A 
determinant is a square array of numbers. 
• 
The 3 x 3 determinant values are evaluated by expansion by minors. 

• 
System of equation can be solved using determinants with Cramer’s rule. 
References
• Dr. Kala, V. N. & Rana, R., 2009. Matrices, 1st ed., Laxmi Publication ltd.
• Jain, T. R. & Aggarwal, S. C., 2010. Business Mathematics and Statistics, V.K Enterprises.
• Matrices and determinants, [pdf] Available at: < http://www.kkuniyuk.com/M1410801Part1.pdf > [Accessed
31 August 2012].
• Gunawarden, J., Matrix algebras for beginning, [Online] Available at: < http://vcp.med.harvard.edu/papers/ matrices1.pdf > [Accessed 31 August 2012].
• 2011, Matrices, [Video Online] Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tFhsD47Ik > [Accessed
31 August 2012].
• Hurst, W., Matrices & determinants, [Video Online] Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=havr W8IwKs > [Accessed 31 August 2012].
Recommended Reading
• McMahon, D., 2005. Linear Algebra Demystified, McGrawhill publication.
• Anton, H., 2010. Elementary Linear Algebra, 10th ed., FM Publications.
• Greub, W., 1975. Linear Algebra graduate texts in mathematics, Springer.
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Quantitative Methods
Self Assessment
1. If matrix A=
a. 3
b. 4
c. 2
d. 5
and aij is the element of matrix A in i ^{t}^{h} row and j ^{t}^{h} column, then what is the value of a _{2}_{1} ?
2. It is given that P= 
and Q = 

.What is the value of x+y if P=Q? 

a. 
3 

b. 
5 

c. 
6 

d. 
8 

3. is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. A 

a. 
Determinant 

b. 
Matrix 

c. 
Array 

d. 
Transpose 
4. Two matrices can be added only if they have
a. same dimensions
b. different dimensions
c. plus sign
d. minus sign
5. When a matrix is multiplied by a number, then the process is called as
a. matrix multiplication
b. scalar multiplication
c. square multiplication
d. rectangular multiplication
6. What type of matrix is A=
a. square
b. diagonal
c. null
d. identity
?
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7.
What is the addition matrix of the following two matrices?
A =
and B=
a.
b.
c.
d.
8. If A =
, what is the value of 5A?
a.
b.
c.
d.
9. What is the value of determinant 
? 

a. 
6 

b. 
8 

c. 
7 

d. 
10 

10. is a square array of numbers. A 

a. 
matrix 

b. 
determinant 

c. 
array 

d. 
transpose 
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Quantitative Methods
Chapter II Mathematical Logic
Aim
The aim of this chapter is to:
• introduce mathematical logic
• describe operations on logic
• highlight tautology and contradiction
Objective
The objectives of this chapter are to:
• explicate logical connectives
• elucidate laws of algebra of propositions
• describe compound statement
Learning outcome
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
• identify the use of mathematical logic
• understand the complex procedures into simpler form
• understand statement and the truth table
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2.1 Introduction
Mathematical Logic is a tool for providing a precise meaning to mathematical statements.
It includes:
• A formal language for expressing them
• A concise notation to represent them
• A methodology for objectively reasoning about their truth or falsity
2.2 Definition
The part of mathematics concerned with the study of formal languages, formal reasoning, the nature of
mathematical proof, provability of mathematical statements, computability, and other aspects of the foundations
of mathematics.
2.2.1 Statement
A statement is a declarative sentence which is either true or false but not both.
2.2.2 Truth Value
The truth value of a proposition is true (T) if it is of true proposition and false (F) if it is false proposition.
Example
P: The year 1973 was a leap year is a proposition readily decidable as false.
Note that the use of label ‘P…’ so that the overall statement is read p is the statement:”The year 1973 was a leap year”.
So we use P, Q, R, S, T to represent statements and these letters are called as statement variables, that is, variable replaced by statements.
Example Determine whether the following sentences are statements are not.If it is a statement, determine its truth value.
The sun rises in west. False 128= 2 ^{6} False
Is 2 an integer? Not a statement as it is interrogative Take the book not a statement
2.2.3 Truth Table
A table that gives the truth value of the compound statement in terms of its component part is called a truth table.
2.2.4 Compound Statements
A compound statement is a combination of two or more statements.
Example Today is Friday and it is a holiday
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Quantitative Methods
2.3 Statement
A 
statement is an assertion that can be determined to be True or False. A statement/simple statement or proposition 

is 
a declarative sentence that is either True or False but not both. A simple statement is the basic building block of 

the logic. 

• 
Those declarative statements will be admitted in the object language which have one and only one of two possible values called “Truth Value” 

• 
The two truth values are true and false, which are denoted by T and F respectively 

• 
Occasionally they are represented using symbols 1 and 0 

• 
We do not use other kind of statements in object language such as exclamatory and interrogative 

• 
Declarative sentences in object language are of two types 

• 
The first type includes those sentences which are considered to be primitive in the object language 

• 
This will be denoted by distinct symbols selected from uppercase letters A, B 
P, Q 
• 
Second type are obtained from the primitive ones by using certain symbols called connectives and certain punctuation marks such as parentheses to join primitive sentences 

In 
any case, all declarative sentences to which it is possible to assign one and only of the two possible truth values 
are called statements.
The following are the statements which do not contain any connectives, these kinds of statements are called as atomic or primary primitive statement.
1. Canada is a country
2. Moscow is the capital of spain
3. This statement is false
4. 1+101=110
5. Close the door
6. Toronto is an old city
7. Man will reach mars by 2080
The statements are discussed below
• The statements 1 and 2 have truth values true or false
• Sentence 3 is not a statement according to the definition, because we cannot assign to it a definite truth value
• If we assign a value true then the statement 3 is false, if assigned false then the statement 3 is true
• Sentence 4 is a statement; if the numbers are considered as decimal system then the statement is false. If it is considered as binary number system, then the statement is true. So the statement 4 is true.
• Statement 5 is not a statement as it is interrogative
• Statement 6 is considered true in some part of the world and false in certain other parts of the world
• The statement 7 could not be determined ,it will be determined only in the year or earlier when man reaches mars before that date
2.4 Compound Statement
A statement represented by a single statement variable (without any connective) is called a simple (or primitive)
statement.
A statement represented by some combination of statement variables and connectives is called a compound
statement.
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Example
A dog or a car is an animal
A dog is not an animal
5<3
If the earth is flat, then 3+4 =7
2.5 Connectives
In case of simple statements, their truth values are fairly obvious. It is possible to construct rather complicated statements from simpler statements by using certain connecting words or expressions known as “sentential connectives”. The statements which we initially consider are simple statements, called atomic or primary statements. New statement can be formed from atomic statements through the use of sentential connectives. The resulting statement is called molecular or compound statements. Thus the atomic statements are those which do not have any connectives. Capital letters are used to denote statements.
The capital letters with or without subscripts, will also be used to denote arbitrary statements. In the sense, a statement “P” either denotes a particular statement or serves as a place holder for any statement .This dual use of the symbol to denote either a definite statement, called a constant, or an arbitrary statement called a variable. The truth value of “P” is the truth table of actual statement which it represents.
It should be emphasises that when “P” is used as a statement variable, it has no truth value and such does not
represent a statement in symbolic logic.
Most mathematical statements are combinations of simpler statement formed through some choice of the words
”not”,”and”,”or”,”if
are denoted by the following symbols:
and “if and only if”. These are called logical connectives or simply connectives and
then”
Connective 
Symbol 
Formal name 

Not 
∼ or ¬ 
Negation 

And 
∧ 
Conjunction 

Or 
∨ 
Disjunction 

If 
then 
→ 
Conditional 
If and only if 
↔ 
Biconditional 
Table 2.1 Symbols of connectives
2.5.1 Negation
Definition of negation
If P is a statement variable,the negation of P is “not P” or it is not the case that P” and is denoted by ∼ P.It has
opposite truth value from P.
The negation statement is generally formed by introducing the word “not” at a proper place in statement with the phrase “It is not the case that” and read as “not P”.
Let P be a statement .The negation of P, written ∼ P or P ¬ is the statement obtained by negating statement P.
If the truth value of P is true then truth value of ∼ P is false, and if the truth value of P is false then truth value of
∼ P is true.
This definition of negation is summarized by the truth table below.
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Quantitative Methods
Table 2.2 Truth Table of Negation
Example P:The integer 10 is even Then ∼ P: The integer 10 is not even
P:London is a city
∼ P:It is not case that London is a city
∼ P:London is not a city
P:I went to my class yesterday.
∼ P:I did not go to my class yesterday
∼ P:I was absent from my class yesterday.
P:I went to my class yesterday.
∼ P:I did not go to my class yesterday
∼ P:I was absent from my class yesterday
Negation is called connectives although it only modifies a statement or a variable.
2.5.2 Conjunction
Let P and Q be statements. The conjunction of P and Q, written P ∧ Q,is the statement formed by joining statements
P and Q using the word “and”. The statement P∧Q is true if both P and Q are true; otherwise P∧Q is false.
The symbol ∧ is called “and”. Let P and Q be statements. The truth table of P∧ Q is given below.
Definition
If p and q are statement variables, the conjunction of p and q is “p and q”, denoted p∧q.The compound statement
p∧q .The compound statement p ∧ q is true when both p and q are true; otherwise, it is false.
P 
Q 
P∧Q 
T 
T 
T 
T 
F 
F 
F 
T 
F 
F 
F 
F 
Table 2.3 Truth table of conjunction
Example P: 2 is an even integer, Q: 7 divide 14 R:2 is an even integer and 7 divides 14.
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P:It is raining today Q:There are 20 tables in this room. R:It is raining today and there are 20 tables in this room.
Jack and Jill went up the hill. From this statement we get two statement Jack went up the hill and Jill went up the hill. Then the given statement can be written symbolic from P∧Q.
2.5.3 Disjunction
Let P and Q be statements. The disjunction of P and Q ,written P ∨ Q ,is statement formed by putting statements P and Q together using the word “Or”. The truth value of the statement P∨Q is T if atleast one of statements P and Q
is true. The symbol ∨ is called “Or”, for the statement P ∨ Q is given below.
Definition
If 
P and Q are statement variables, the disjunction of P and Q is “P or Q”, denoted P ∨ Q.The compound statement 
P 
∨ Q is true if atleast one of P or Q is true; it is false when both P and Q are false. 
P 
Q 
P∨ Q 
T 
T 
T 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
T 
F 
F 
F 
Table 2.4 Truth table for disjunction
Example P:2 ^{2} +3 ^{3} is an even integer
Q:2 ^{2} +3 ^{3} is an odd integer then P ∨ Q:2 ^{2} +3 ^{3} is an even integer or 2 ^{2} +3 ^{3} is an odd integer
OR
P ∨ Q :2 ^{2} +3 ^{3} is an even integer or an odd integer
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