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STADIUM NEGARA

ARCHITECTURE CULTURE AND HISTORY II

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) IN ARCHITE CTURE

GROUP MEMBERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

KHOR YEN MIN


JOYCE WEE YI QIN
LEE YIH
LEE CZEN SHING
LIM CHUN HAU

LECTURER:
0318149
0319602
0318340
0317832
0316977

MS. SHAHRIANE MOHD. SHAH

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

Introduction

1.1

Fast Facts

1.2

Brief History

1.3

The Architect

Site Context Analysis

4.0

Architectural Layout of Building

5.0

Architectural Site Analysis

6.0

Building Construction, Structure and Material Analysis

15

7.0

Architectural Elements Analysis

22

8.0

Conclusion

26

9.0

References

27

2.0
3.0

INTRODUCTION
Officially opened on 1962, Stadium Negara was the first indoor stadium built in Malaysia.
It is located at Jalan Stadium, the heart of Kuala Lumpur. The construction of the stadium took
about two years to complete and the estimate construction cost was RM34 million. It is also 300foot diameter column-free multipurpose hall. Stadium Negara was one of the first few postmodern architectural design buildings found in Malaysia. It was once considered one of the
advanced indoor stadium in Southeast Asia.

Stadium Negara before


refurbishment of the roof

Construction of Stadium
Negara

Location Plan of Stadium


Negara

FAST FACTS ABOUT STADIUM NEGARA


On April 19, 1962, Stadium Negara was officially opened to the public by DYMM Tunku
Syed Putra Al Haj Ibni Al Marhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, the third Yang Di Pertuan Agong. It is
the first indoor stadium in Malaysia which was built after Stadium Merdeka. Located in Jalan
Stadium, the heart of Kuala Lumpur, Stadium Negara is situated across the road from Stadium
Merdeka. This stadium was designed by Jabatan Kerja Raya. The stadium was initially covered by
a flat roof with supports radiating from a central hub. In the 1980s, the roof was refurbished and
a dome was built. This provides more space and better acoustics for the musical concerts held
here each year. Throughout the years, events such as local and international sports, musical
concerts and official functions were held in this stadium. It is capable to hold such huge events
because it is fully air-conditioned and has 10,200 permanent seats. In May 17, 1992, the
prestigious Thomas Cup was held in Stadium Negara. Many would cherish the moment as it was
the major sporting event held that time. On February, 2003, Stadium Negara was named as
national heritage building in Malaysia.

HISTORY OF STADIUM NEGARA


Stadium Negara was announced as one of the eight symbolic national buildings by the then
Yang Dipertuan Agong on Sept 17, 1963, the day after Malaya became Malaysia. The eight
buildings include Parliament (as a monument to faith in parliamentary democracy), the National
Mosque (freedom of worship), University Malaya (education), Stadiums Merdeka and Negara
(healthy body and mind), the National Monument (warriors sacrifices), Dewan Bahasa dan
Pustaka or DBP (Bahasa Malaysia) and the National Museum (national culture).
In 1949, Britain organized the first Thomas Cup. The sporting event was won by Malaya! As
winners, Malaya earned the right to host the next Thomas Cup in 1952. However, there was no
indoor stadium with an international standard then. This fired the imaginations of Malayans to
create a proper venue. Tunku Abdul Rahman, who was also a keen sportsman, felt the need of
proper facility to host regional and international competitions. Thus, he proposed to build the first
indoor stadium of Malaya.
The 10200-seat Stadium Negara was built in 1960 at a cost of RM1.5 million. Designed by
Public Works Department engineer, S.E. Jewkes, it had the largest unsupported concave roof in
the region. The roof spans a diameter of 300 feet without supporting columns. The whole stadium
had no air-conditioning that would affect the flight of shuttlecocks. The entire indoor space was
cooled by natural air ventilations which were led into the stadium via slits and vents. It was one of
the amusing features of the stadium after the unsupported roof, which was later replaced with a
space-frame dome in 1985 when leaks developed.
Stadium Negara was officially opened in 1962 by the
then Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the late Tuanku Syed Putra of
Perlis, making it the first indoor stadium in Malaysia. That
year, a new badminton tournament, the ASEAN Badminton
Championship was held in the stadium. Malaya, again, won
the championship against Indonesia.

THE ARCHITECT

My dealings with people throughout the world, of different ethnicities, of


different religious beliefs, led me to believe that were all the same; were
very enigmatic. No one is better than anyone else or worse than anyone else.
SIR STANLEY EDWARD JEWKES (Oct 9, 1913 June 19, 2011)

Stanley Edward Jewkes was the architect and engineer of Stadium Merdeka and Stadium
Negara, which were both iconic architectures on Petaling Hill. He was also the director of the Public
Works Department (PWD) from 1959 to 1962.
Born in America, he arrived in Malaya in 1941 to join PWD, serving first in the districts of
Krian and Keroh. After World War II, he returned to Kuala Lumpur to reinstate the railway station
before settling at PWD Headquarters. In 1950, he was assigned to lead the new Design and
Research Branch, which he maintained the engineering capabilities of the department on par with
most of the other developed nations in the world.
As director of the PWD, he spoke to and successfully convinced the Cabinet regarding the
location of the triumvirate of national structures: The Parliament House, National Monument and
National Mosque. Jewkes had also came up with preliminary designs for both the Parliament
House and the National Monument, which were then relinquished under his own instructions in
favor of designs by W. Ivor Shipley and Felix de Weldon respectively. He developed the Fast Track
method of project administration and construction. He also permitted consultants from public
sectors to assists with projects such as inviting BEP for the terminal design of Subang International
Airport.
Stanley Jewkes was one of the most influential architect-engineer in Malaya during the first
decade of Malayan Independence. He was also the man who gave Malaysia her architectural icons.
On 19th June 2011, Malaysia lost one of her most important architect-engineer. Aged 97, Sir Stanley
Edward Jewkes passed away peacefully at the Mission Oaks Hospital in Oxford, Florida, leaving
behind his family and his works of architecture.

SITE CONTEXT ANALYSIS


LIM CHUN HAU (0316977)

Stadium Negara is located at Jalan Hang Jebat, 50150 Kuala Lumpur and the GPS
coordinates is 3826N, 1014210E. There are 80 parking bays available at the side of the
Stadium. The distance from airport to Stadium Negara is 59.5km which takes around 46 minutes.
Public transport such as taxi, monorail and LRT are available for public to go to Stadium Negara.
The entrance of the stadium is located at Jalan Hang Jebat which is just beside the road.

Retrieved from: Google Map


Route to Stadium Negara by using Monorail

Retrieved from: Google Map


Route to Stadium Negara by using LRT

Moreover, Stadium Negara is surrounded by various building. Stadium Merdeka is at the


southwest side of the Stadium Negara. It is built in the year of Malaysia Independence day, 1957.
Besides that, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Victoria is located behind Stadium Negara. At the
north side, the located buildings are Pejabat Pelajaran Daerah Kuala Lumpur, Masjid Albukhary,
Albukary Mosque, VI hostel and Petaling Street Rice Roll. The building opposite of Stadium Negara
is SLK (C) Jalan Davidson. Not only that, the nearest residential building is Casa Residency
Condominium and Sri Emas Condominium which are located in front Stadium Negara. Further
away, a police station is located opposite of Stadium Merdeka. It is believed to maintain the
sequence of the Stadium whenever there is any event.

Retrieved from: Google Map


Residential buildings near Stadium Negara

On the other hand, Stadium Negara is constructed on April 19, 1962. Therefore the building
is not a modern shaped and highly technological building. The stadium was built with a flat roof
and later on it was replaced with a dome-shaped roof. The reason lies within the climate in
Malaysia because of the sunny and raining weather. The wall is designed to be more ventilated as
there are holes in between. Whenever the stadium gets crowded, it will be very stuffy and hot
therefore air ventilation is important when designing. The dome-shaped roof also has a function
of ventilation. The hot air is concentrated at the top and release at the tip of the roof. This is to
allow more air to circulate in the stadium.

ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT OF BUILDING


LEE CZEN SHING (0317832)

Perspective of Stadium Negara

Stadium Negara plays into a relationship with the city of Kuala Lumpur. It forms an area of
open spaces and parks in between the hustle and bustle of the city. Walking through this
juxtaposition of spaces, it gives user an impression of entering into a bubble, isolated from the
busy streets, pollution and noise of nearby Petaling Street. This structure is more than just a
building for sports and gatherings. It retains within the memories and legacy of Malaysias roots
from an era of pride and optimism.
Stadium Negara was designed based on the concept of concentric circles and also
horizontal in expression. It was constructed as an earthen bowl which looks like it is structuralised
from far. This individualistic element has made it stand out among other buildings.

Floor Plan

Elevation

Every side of the exterior facade do not portray symmetry. Ranging from the cantilevered
roof located at the main entrance, fragmented line of the front and back of the faade.
Geometrical shapes are used repeatedly to create an interesting visual element to the user.

Exterior features

Floor Plan

Based on the floor plan, balance is achieved through the use of radial form. The placement
of the entrances also reflected the intention of creating a visually balanced building. Also,
hierarchy is used as a practical means for the sittings in the arena. Having the seats increased in
height as it goes further away from the centre of arena, allows spectators to have a clear line of
sight.

Entrances of Stadium Negara

There are three entrances leading into the main arena. Entrance A, B and C. There is only
one entrance on the south end of the stadium and it serves as the main point of entry for users.
On the opposite side of the stadium, there are two sub-entrances which are located a quarter of
circumference apart from each other. These serves as secondary entrances during heavy traffic
and allows users direct access to the sittings on the north end of the stadium.

ARCHITECTURE STYLE ANALYSIS


LEE YIH (0318340)
Stadium Negara began construction in 1960 and was completed in 1962 to host the Thomas
Cup badminton tournament. It is a search for national identity because during that period,
Malaysia has just recently became independent; especially for a multicultural nation, the effort is
even more difficult. Hence for this nations architectural works, it attempted to create a national
architectural identity. To achieve this, Stadium Negara possesses both the ideas of post-modernist
concern: spirit of the time and place.
The construction costs an estimated amount of RM34 million only, as during that time,
Malaysia has a very tight budget due to the unstable economy. However, due to the available
technology, the building was able to use complex truss design for the structure. This is prominently
shown on the bicycle spoke roof, which became one of the largest in Southeast Asia and was later
on replaced with a dome in the 1980s.

Figure 3.1: Stadium Negara in the 1970s with the bicycle spoke roof
bicycle wheel roof.

Figure 3.2: Stadium Negara in 2015 with the added dome

Stadium Negara which stands as a modernist landmark was chosen to be built on a small
slope on Petaling Hill as the architect referred this site as an acropolis in the middle of the city. The
design also implied the considerations of using louvers on the upper part surrounding the
concentric building due to Malaysias tropical climate to encourage natural ventilation and to work
as sun-shades within the building.

Figure 3.3: Aerial view of Coronation Park in the 1970s with Stadium Negara on the top left.

Jewkes who were born and study in United States came to Kuala Lumpur after World War
2 and applied several approaches of modern tradition in Stadium Negara as shown below:

Machine Regionalism
Le Corbusiers brutalist architecture influenced this building with several characteristics:
I.

deep overhangs at the main entrance/ drop off point facing north-east to provide
shelter

II.

egg crate windows for ventilations

III.

louvered shade and openings on the upper part of building (surrounding the
concentric building, forming like a crown) to provide ventilation

IV.

IV. exposed concrete construction (interiors concrete terrace seats)

10

Figure 3.4 & 3.5: Concrete terrace seats

The International Style


Adapting the international style at that time, the front part of Stadium Negara (facing eastwest) uses visible steel frames and large panels of glass to create the buildings form, which
contrasted the solid mass of the remaining part of building. Such design enables the foyer
to be fully lit by natural light during the day but is however trapping the heat behind the
glass, leaving the foyer area uncomfortably warm.

Glass panels and


steel structure

Figure 3.6: (Viewing out through the main foyer) Glass and steel were covering everywhere.

According to Modernity and the architecture of Mexico (Burian 102), in order to


introduce the nations spirit and cultural values, participation of artists are involved
through the integration of artists, artisans and architects, proclaimed by the Bauhaus.
Such idea influenced the design of Stadium Negara but unfortunately, only limited
to the creations of murals. Symbolic abstract murals could be found on two sides of blank
walls at the main entrance. Both murals use realistic and abstract human figures to show
the different ethnics in Malaysia with varying culture, yet still interact harmonically with
each other, graphically depicted a cultural message.

11

Figure 3.7 & 3.8: Human figures from different ethnics were painted on the murals

Modern Expressionism Style


Stadium Negara was designed using the concept of concentric circles and is
horizontal in expression, constructed as an earthen bowl which looks structuralised from
far. Such individualistic new form makes it stand out among other buildings as it does not
have any direct historical reference in its image.
When you take a closer look at it, every side of the exterior are lacked of symmetry,
ranging from the cantilevered roof at the main entrance, fragmented lines of front and
backs faade to the laminated woods used in the interior and dramatic irregular shapes at
the ticket counters area.
To represent the democracy in Malaysia, subtle Islamic geometric patterns and
motifs were incorporated into many of the structures design. Especially on the facade,
various elements are highly articulated which makes the building appear not just
aesthetical, but functional too. This is because these facades were demonstrated by the
use of some degree of sun shading panels or view buffer.

12

Figure 3.9: Cantilevered roof at the main drop-off point.

Figure 3.10 & 3.11: Dramatic curvy lines on the ceiling (left) and irregular wavy patterns on the floor coverings (right).

Figure 3.13 & 3.14: Fragmented lines on the front and back facade.

13

Islamic geometric patterns and motifs applied in Stadium Negaras architecture style:

Figure 3.15: Star-shaped pattern used for


the domes structure

Figure 3.17: Repetitions of triangles used


as the screening device buffer unwanted
view.

Figure 3.16: Repetitive of circles on the


ornamentations of interior

Figure 3.18: Triangle patterns were


repeated on the exterior to emphasise
the dynamic structure.

Figure 3.19: Openings on the exteriors louvers


to provide natural ventilations

14

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURE AND ANALYSIS


JOYCE WEE YI QIN (0319602)

Stadium Negara was designed by Sir Stanley Edward Jewkes with the help of a engineers
such as Ng Eng Hean, M.D Canavan, Koon Yew Yin, S.Nakendra and W.J. Cumming. The stadium
was proposed to resemble the stadium in Earls Court, London when our late Tunku Abdul Rahman
requested for an indoor sports arena in 1959.
The plan of the building follows the fall of the land which provides a natural amphitheater.
The circular 300ft diameter stadium was built on 3 levels: the arena level, the second terrace level
and the third terrace level for the restaurant.
The most striking feature of the building is the circular suspended roof. Covered with
corrugated plastic sheeting over a suspended ceiling of hard board, faced with PVC to reduce
maintenance cost, the whole roof was exceedingly light. In order to overcome the aerodynamic
movement, two interesting provisions were made:

Firstly, the outer structure of the main roof and the inner roof were supported by 96 high
tensile steel wires and 96 steel wires spanning the 100ft central diameter of the roof
respectively.

Secondly, the outer and inner wires are connected by means of a stiff truss which gives
essential rigidity to the two wire levels and which provides the clerestory section to
illuminate the central arena.
Due to the paramount importance of badminton being the national sports of Malaysia,

ventilation involving large air movements was discouraged. However, the humidity of the country
necessitated maximum air movement near spectators. Therefore, a large tunnel is built circulating
the stadium under the middle terrace. This tunnel allows fresh air to be blown through the narrow
slits in the seats on the concrete terraces. Air is also blown through the arms and backs of the
upholstered seats. The upper section of the perimeter of the stadium is provided with vertical
louvers which are 12 ft deep and finished in gold and bronze aluminum.

15

Figure 4.1 & 4.2: Upholstered seats (left); Narrow slits on concrete terrace (right)

The main promenade was roofed with a light reinforced concrete folded shell which was
hinged to the main building and supported on sloping tubular columns placed outside the
perimeter walls.

Figure 4.3: Tubular column support (exterior)

External walls were faced with exposed, washed limestone and granite aggregate. Selected
interior areas were covered as featured walls with precast concrete blocks with a receded surface
and others with precast sculptured blocks. Internal finishes employ sandstone for feature points.
Crushed black marble from Kedah and white marble from Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur,
graded and laid to form patterns provide the flooring for the upper promenade exhibition area.
The patterns are broken by narrow bands of orange colored glass mosaic tiles.

16

Figure 4.4, 4.5 & 4.6: Different types of floor finishes after renovation in 1982.

In 1985, a dome roof was designed and added onto the building due to the water leakage
caused by the former flat roof. The architects wanted to create a greater space with minimal
interior support and noise to avoid disturbance to the activities held in the stadium. Thus, they
built the new dome roof integrating the space frame structure and Fullers tensegrity dome
structure.

Figure 4.7 & 4.8: Structure of the dome roof

17

COMPARISON: ASTRODOME, HOUSTON

Figure 4.9: Astrodome, Houston, Texas. Worlds First Domed Stadium

Billed as The Eighth Wonder of the World by Judge Roy Hofheinz, the 70,000-seat
Astrodome, debuted in 1965 as the worlds first domed stadium. The Astrodome was the pasts
vision of the future. The greatest dome ever conceived, a climate-controlled wonderland of science
and cutting-edge engineering, the biggest indoor space ever made by man, an immense decorated
cylinder with a flying-saucer roofline.
The stadium was built as a solution to the climate in Houston, Texas which is often hot.
Before the Astrodome was built, spectators would have to endure heat, humidity and mosquitoes
to watch baseball matches. Very often, games were interrupted when it starts to rain. Hence, the
stadium was built as a sheltered baseball court. However, due to construction issues, the stadium
was forced to close down in 2008, ending its 4 decades of service in Houston.

18

SIMILARITY: [ROOF STRUCTURE]


Space Framed Structured Dome Roof

Figure 4.10: Astrodome- Space frame structured dome during construction.

Space frame structures are truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from
interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. It is a structural solution that provides complete
freedom in large span areas as it does not require column supports while providing strong
resistance and economic efficiency.
Both architects of the respective stadiums chose space frames to provide complete
freedom to the large arena beneath. Besides, it is economical in terms of time and manpower as
the demountable steel elements are light and easy to handle, and their assembly is safe and time
saving.

19

DIFFERENCE #1: [INITIAL ROOFING] GLASS DOME ROOF VS PVC CONCAVE ROOF
The roof of the Astrodome was initially made of sheet glass creating a huge greenhouse
with skylights for acoustical purposes. Having the stadium built for sheltering purposes,
transparent material was used as the arena of the stadium was a field of grass for baseball
activities. Thus natural sunlight was needed for the grass.

Figure 4.11: Astrodome- Glass dome

On the other hand, Stadium Negara did not have to consider the maintenance of the arena
when constructing the roof. Hence, the roof was covered with sheets of PVC for easy maintenance
and lightweight structure. The ventilation of light through the clerestory created by the vents at
the perimeter of the stadium was sufficient to light up the arena.

Figure 4.12: Stadium Negara- PVC Roofing

20

DIFFERENCE #2: [AIR VENTILATION SYSTEM]


Air Conditioning vs Built-In Ventilation System
As a solution towards the hot weather in Houston, engineers included exclusive air
conditioning system to the stadium. The stadium was cooled and heated using equipment with
approximately 6,000 tons of cooling capacity. Altogether 2,000,000 cu feet of air per min was
circulated, of which 250,000 cu feet per min was fresh air. Smoke and hot air are expelled at the
top of the dome. The indoor temperature was continuously maintained at 22C to avoid buildup of
heat and humidity.
Stadium Negara, in contrast, was ventilated naturally by a huge air tunnel running beneath
the seats and large vents at the upper sections. The concrete seats were constructed with small
slits at the back to allow sufficient air ventilation.

21

ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS ANALYSIS


KHOR YEN MIN (0318149)

Figure 5.1: North-west Entrance (Main Entrance)

The North-West entrance (Figure 5.1) is mainly enclosed with tempered glass which is supported
by aluminium frames. Tempered glass is used to obtain maximum penetration of natural sunlight into this
space. With the intelligent play of natural sunlight, this space is usually brightly lit (Figure 5.2) which gives
a welcoming gesture to users as they enter the building. The windows in Stadium Negaras entrance consist
of four pieces of tempered glass in a set which are arranged in a fixed angle (Figure 5.3). This arrangement
allowed natural air ventilation to happen which can make the space cooling. Although there are openings
between the tempered glass, the architect has prevented rain water from pouring into the building. Besides
that, there are four ticket booths (Figure 5.4) located at the entrance of the building. These booths had
previously been used as the entrances into the building.

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.4

Dropped ceiling (Figure 5.5) is found in this building between the entrance and the arena.
As users approach into this space, they will feel a sudden enclosure around them. This design
22

intention will increase users level of curiosity which will draw them toward the end of the walkway
into the arena. As they enter into the arena, a sudden transition from small to big is formed. This
transition creates a sense of openness to the users experience (Figure 5.6).

Figure 5.5: Dropped ceiling walkway

Figure 5.6

Vernacular architecture has been used in this building for ventilation openings. (Figure 5.7
& 5.8) They also act as ornamentations to show the identity of the stadium. Besides that, opening
ventilations such as louvers (Figure 5.9 & 5.10) can be easily found in the arena. Ventilation
openings are crucial for the enclosed arena to prevent air pollutants from affecting the users
health. With these openings, less electrical fans are used to make the space inside cooling. Also,
adequate airflow throughout this stadium has made the materials in the building well preserved
for decades.

Figure 5.7

Figure 5.8
EXTERIOR

Figure 5.9

INTERIOR

Figure 5.10

Furthermore, the interior of the stadium is lit up with natural sunlight from hundreds of
fixed windows (Figure 5.11) placed on the perimeter of the arena. These windows are also used
for maximum penetration of natural sunlight during daytime which is sufficient to light up the
arena. Although the building massing of the arena is the combination of a cylinder and a
hemisphere, the placement of the windows created a smooth transition between both volumes
(Figure 5.12).
23

Figure 5.11

Figure 5.12

In the arena, the seating is divided into upper and lower tiers. Most of the concrete terrace
seats are built on the upper tier. These seats consist of small slits to allow sufficient air ventilation
(Figure 5.13). In descending order, the seats will be slowly added with features such as back and
arm rest (Figure 5.14 & 5.15). These seats usually cost more than the upper tiers as it is more
comfortable and nearer to the center point. The stairs of the terrace are also designed with the
play of layering (Figure 5.16). They are made out of concrete and some of them are layered with
floor tiles as finishing. The arena, the seating is divided into upper and lower tiers. Most of the
concrete terrace seats are built on the upper tier. These seats consist of small slits to allow
sufficient air ventilation (Figure 5.13). In descending order, the seats will be slowly added with
features such as back and arm rest (Figure 5.14 & 5.15). These seats usually cost more than the
upper tiers as it is more comfortable and nearer to the center point. The stairs of the terrace are
also designed with the play of layering (Figure 5.16). They are made out of concrete and some of
them are layered with floor tiles as finishing.

Figure 5.13

Figure 5.14

24
Figure 5.15

Figure 5.16

Initially, Stadium Negara has a flat roof and the design was inspired by bicycle wheel
structure (Figure 5.17). It was one of the largest flat roof in South East Asia. In the year 80s, the
flat roof has been replaced by a domed roof steel space-frame structure (Figure 5.18 & 5.19). This
was because of water leakage into the stadium. The new roof was built for shading the seats. Thus,
this has made the arena slightly dimmer than before.

Figure 5.17

Figure 5.18

Figure 5.19: Back view of Stadium Negara

25

CONCLUSION
The overall design style represents the democracy in Malaysia. Subtle Islamic geometrical
patterns and motifs were incorporated into the faade. The design and events which took place at
the stadium symbolises the eagerness for Malaysia as a multiracial nation to open up to the world
and serve as a stage for cross cultural interactions.

26

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