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VECTOR FUNCTIONS

VECTOR FUNCTIONS

Later in this chapter, we are going to use


vector functions to describe the motion of
planets and other objects through space.

Here, we prepare the way by developing


the calculus of vector functions.

VECTOR FUNCTIONS

12.2
Derivatives and Integrals
of Vector Functions
In this section, we will learn how to:
Develop the calculus of vector functions.

DERIVATIVES

The derivative r of a vector function


is defined in much the same way as for
real-valued functions.

DERIVATIVE

Equation 1

dr
r (t + h) r (t )
= r '(t ) = lim
h 0
dt
h
if this limit exists.

DERIVATIVE

The geometric significance


of this definition is shown as
follows.

SECANT VECTOR

If the points P and Q have position

uuur
vectors r(t) and r(t + h), then PQ represents
the vector r(t + h) r(t).
This can therefore
be regarded as
a secant vector.

DERIVATIVES

If h > 0, the scalar multiple (1/h)(r(t + h) r(t))


has the same direction as r(t + h) r(t).

As h 0, it appears
that this vector
approaches a vector
that lies on the
tangent line.

TANGENT VECTOR

For this reason, the vector r(t) is called


the tangent vector to the curve defined by r
at the point P,
provided:
r(t) exists
r(t) 0

TANGENT LINE

The tangent line to C at P is defined to be


the line through P parallel to the tangent
vector r(t).

UNIT TANGENT VECTOR

We will also have occasion to consider


the unit tangent vector:

r '(t )
T (t ) =
| r '(t ) |

DERIVATIVES

The following theorem gives us


a convenient method for computing
the derivative of a vector function r:
Just differentiate each component of r.

DERIVATIVES

Theorem 2

If r(t) = f(t), g(t), h(t) = f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k,


where f, g, and h are differentiable functions,
then:
r(t) = f(t), g(t), h(t)
= f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k

DERIVATIVES

Proof

r '(t )
1
= lim [r (t + t ) r (t )]
t 0 t
1
= lim f (t + t ), g (t + t ), h(t + t ), f (t ), g (t ), h(t )
t 0 t
f (t + t ) f (t ) g (t + t ) g (t ) h(t + t ) h(t )
,
,
= lim
t 0
t
t
t
f (t + t ) f (t )
g (t + t ) g (t )
h(t + t ) h(t )
, lim
, lim
= lim
t 0
t 0
t 0
t
t
t
= f '(t ), g '(t ), h '(t )

DERIVATIVES

Example 1

a. Find the derivative of


r(t) = (1 + t3) i + tet j + sin 2t k
b. Find the unit tangent vector at the point
where t = 0.

DERIVATIVES

Example 1 a

According to Theorem 2, we differentiate


each component of r:
r(t) = 3t2 i + (1 t)et j + 2 cos 2t k

DERIVATIVES

Example 1 b

As r(0) = i and r(0) = j + 2k, the unit tangent


vector at the point (1, 0, 0) is:

r '(0)
j + 2k
T(0) =
=
| r '(0) |
1+ 4
1
2
=
j+
k
5
5

DERIVATIVES

Example 2

For the curve r (t ) = t i + (2 t ) j ,


find r(t) and sketch the position vector r(1)
and the tangent vector r(1).

Example 2

DERIVATIVES

We have:

r '(t ) =

1
2 t

ij

and

1
r '(1) = i j
2

Example 2

DERIVATIVES

The curve is a plane curve.


Elimination of the parameter from
the equations x =

t , y = 2 t gives:

y = 2 x 2,

x0

DERIVATIVES

Example 2

The position vector r(1) = i + j starts


at the origin.
The tangent vector r(1)
starts at the
corresponding point
(1, 1).

Example 3

DERIVATIVES

Find parametric equations for the tangent line


to the helix with parametric equations
x = 2 cos t

y = sin t

at the point (0, 1, /2).

z=t

DERIVATIVES

Example 3

The vector equation of the helix is:


r(t) = 2 cos t, sin t, t
Thus,
r(t) = 2 sin t, cos t, 1

DERIVATIVES

Example 3

The parameter value corresponding to


the point (0, 1, /2) is t = /2.
So, the tangent vector there is:
r(/2) = 2, 0, 1

Example 3

DERIVATIVES

The tangent line is the line through


(0, 1, /2) parallel to the vector 2, 0, 1.

So, by Equations 2 in Section 12.5,


its parametric equations are:

x = 2t

y =1

z=

+t

DERIVATIVES

The helix and the tangent line in


the Example 3 are shown.

SECOND DERIVATIVE

Just as for real-valued functions,


the second derivative of a vector function r
is the derivative of r, that is, r = (r).
For instance, the second derivative
of the function in Example 3 is:
r(t) =2 cos t, sin t, 0

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

The next theorem shows that


the differentiation formulas for real-valued
functions have their counterparts for
vector-valued functions.

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

Suppose:
u and v are differentiable vector functions
c is a scalar
f is a real-valued function

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

Then,

d
1. [u(t ) + v (t )] = u'(t ) + v'(t )
dt
d
2. [cu(t )] = cu'(t )
dt
d
3. [ f (t )u(t )] = f '(t )u(t ) + f (t )u'(t )
dt

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

d
4. [u(t ) v (t )] = u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )
dt
d
5. [u(t ) v (t )] = u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )
dt
d
6. [u( f (t ))] = f '(t )u' ( f (t ) )
dt

(Chain Rule)

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

This theorem can be proved either:


Directly from Definition 1
By using Theorem 2 and the corresponding
differentiation formulas for real-valued functions

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

The proof of Formula 4 follows.


The remaining are left as exercises.

Proof

FORMULA 4

Let
u(t) = f1(t), f2(t), f3(t)
v(t) = g1(t), g2(t), g3(t)
Then, u(t ) ? v (t )

= f1 (t ) g1 (t ) + f 2 (t ) g 2 (t ) + f3 (t ) g3 (t )
3

= fi (t ) gi (t )
i =1

Proof

FORMULA 4

So, the ordinary Product Rule gives:

d
d 3
[u(t ) v (t )] = fi (t ) gi (t )
dt
dt i =1
3

d
= [ fi (t ) gi (t )]
i =1 dt
3

= [ f i '(t ) gi (t ) + f i (t ) gi '(t )]
i =1
3

i =1

i =1

= f i '(t ) gi (t ) + fi (t ) gi '(t )
= u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Example 4

Show that, if |r(t)| = c (a constant),


then r(t) is orthogonal to r(t) for all t.

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Example 4

Since
r(t) r(t) = |r(t)|2 = c2
and c2 is a constant,
Formula 4 of Theorem 3 gives:

d
0 = [r (t ) r (t )]
dt
= r '(t ) r (t ) + r (t ) r '(t )
= 2r '(t ) r (t )

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Thus,
r(t) r(t) = 0
This says that r(t) is orthogonal to r(t).

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Geometrically, this result says:


If a curve lies on a sphere with center
the origin, then the tangent vector r(t) is
always perpendicular to the position vector r(t).

INTEGRALS

The definite integral of a continuous vector


function r(t) can be defined in much the same
way as for real-valued functionsexcept that
the integral is a vector.

INTEGRALS

However, then, we can express


the integral of r in terms of the integrals
of its component functions f, g, and h
as follows.
We use the notation of Chapter 5.

INTEGRALS

r (t ) dt
n

= lim r (t ) t
n

i =1

*
i

n
n

*
*
= lim f (ti ) t i + g (ti ) t j
n
i =1

i =1


*
+ h(ti ) t k
i =1

n

INTEGRALS

Thus,

r(t)dt

b
b
b

= f (t)dt i + g(t)dt j + h(t)dt k


a
a
a

This means that we can evaluate an integral of a vector


function by integrating each component function.

INTEGRALS

We can extend the Fundamental Theorem


of Calculus to continuous vector functions:

r (t) dt = R (t ) ]a = R (b) R (a)


b

Here, R is an antiderivative of r, that is, R(t) = r(t).


We use the notation r(t) dt for indefinite integrals
(antiderivatives).

Example 5

INTEGRALS

If r(t) = 2 cos t i + sin t j + 2t k, then

r(t)dt = ( 2cos t dt )i + ( sint dt )j + ( 2t dt )k


= 2sint i cos t j + t 2k + C
where:
C is a vector constant of integration
2
2
2

r (t ) dt = [2sin t i cos t j + t k ]0

= 2i + j +