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# VECTOR FUNCTIONS

VECTOR FUNCTIONS

## Later in this chapter, we are going to use

vector functions to describe the motion of
planets and other objects through space.

## Here, we prepare the way by developing

the calculus of vector functions.

VECTOR FUNCTIONS

12.2
Derivatives and Integrals
of Vector Functions
In this section, we will learn how to:
Develop the calculus of vector functions.

DERIVATIVES

## The derivative r of a vector function

is defined in much the same way as for
real-valued functions.

DERIVATIVE

Equation 1

dr
r (t + h) r (t )
= r '(t ) = lim
h 0
dt
h
if this limit exists.

DERIVATIVE

## The geometric significance

of this definition is shown as
follows.

SECANT VECTOR

## If the points P and Q have position

uuur
vectors r(t) and r(t + h), then PQ represents
the vector r(t + h) r(t).
This can therefore
be regarded as
a secant vector.

DERIVATIVES

## If h > 0, the scalar multiple (1/h)(r(t + h) r(t))

has the same direction as r(t + h) r(t).

As h 0, it appears
that this vector
approaches a vector
that lies on the
tangent line.

TANGENT VECTOR

## For this reason, the vector r(t) is called

the tangent vector to the curve defined by r
at the point P,
provided:
r(t) exists
r(t) 0

TANGENT LINE

## The tangent line to C at P is defined to be

the line through P parallel to the tangent
vector r(t).

## We will also have occasion to consider

the unit tangent vector:

r '(t )
T (t ) =
| r '(t ) |

DERIVATIVES

## The following theorem gives us

a convenient method for computing
the derivative of a vector function r:
Just differentiate each component of r.

DERIVATIVES

Theorem 2

## If r(t) = f(t), g(t), h(t) = f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k,

where f, g, and h are differentiable functions,
then:
r(t) = f(t), g(t), h(t)
= f(t) i + g(t) j + h(t) k

DERIVATIVES

Proof

r '(t )
1
= lim [r (t + t ) r (t )]
t 0 t
1
= lim f (t + t ), g (t + t ), h(t + t ), f (t ), g (t ), h(t )
t 0 t
f (t + t ) f (t ) g (t + t ) g (t ) h(t + t ) h(t )
,
,
= lim
t 0
t
t
t
f (t + t ) f (t )
g (t + t ) g (t )
h(t + t ) h(t )
, lim
, lim
= lim
t 0
t 0
t 0
t
t
t
= f '(t ), g '(t ), h '(t )

DERIVATIVES

Example 1

## a. Find the derivative of

r(t) = (1 + t3) i + tet j + sin 2t k
b. Find the unit tangent vector at the point
where t = 0.

DERIVATIVES

Example 1 a

## According to Theorem 2, we differentiate

each component of r:
r(t) = 3t2 i + (1 t)et j + 2 cos 2t k

DERIVATIVES

Example 1 b

## As r(0) = i and r(0) = j + 2k, the unit tangent

vector at the point (1, 0, 0) is:

r '(0)
j + 2k
T(0) =
=
| r '(0) |
1+ 4
1
2
=
j+
k
5
5

DERIVATIVES

Example 2

## For the curve r (t ) = t i + (2 t ) j ,

find r(t) and sketch the position vector r(1)
and the tangent vector r(1).

Example 2

DERIVATIVES

We have:

r '(t ) =

1
2 t

ij

and

1
r '(1) = i j
2

Example 2

DERIVATIVES

## The curve is a plane curve.

Elimination of the parameter from
the equations x =

t , y = 2 t gives:

y = 2 x 2,

x0

DERIVATIVES

Example 2

## The position vector r(1) = i + j starts

at the origin.
The tangent vector r(1)
starts at the
corresponding point
(1, 1).

Example 3

DERIVATIVES

## Find parametric equations for the tangent line

to the helix with parametric equations
x = 2 cos t

y = sin t

z=t

DERIVATIVES

Example 3

## The vector equation of the helix is:

r(t) = 2 cos t, sin t, t
Thus,
r(t) = 2 sin t, cos t, 1

DERIVATIVES

Example 3

## The parameter value corresponding to

the point (0, 1, /2) is t = /2.
So, the tangent vector there is:
r(/2) = 2, 0, 1

Example 3

DERIVATIVES

## The tangent line is the line through

(0, 1, /2) parallel to the vector 2, 0, 1.

## So, by Equations 2 in Section 12.5,

its parametric equations are:

x = 2t

y =1

z=

+t

DERIVATIVES

## The helix and the tangent line in

the Example 3 are shown.

SECOND DERIVATIVE

## Just as for real-valued functions,

the second derivative of a vector function r
is the derivative of r, that is, r = (r).
For instance, the second derivative
of the function in Example 3 is:
r(t) =2 cos t, sin t, 0

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

## The next theorem shows that

the differentiation formulas for real-valued
functions have their counterparts for
vector-valued functions.

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

Suppose:
u and v are differentiable vector functions
c is a scalar
f is a real-valued function

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

Then,

d
1. [u(t ) + v (t )] = u'(t ) + v'(t )
dt
d
2. [cu(t )] = cu'(t )
dt
d
3. [ f (t )u(t )] = f '(t )u(t ) + f (t )u'(t )
dt

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Theorem 3

d
4. [u(t ) v (t )] = u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )
dt
d
5. [u(t ) v (t )] = u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )
dt
d
6. [u( f (t ))] = f '(t )u' ( f (t ) )
dt

(Chain Rule)

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

## This theorem can be proved either:

Directly from Definition 1
By using Theorem 2 and the corresponding
differentiation formulas for real-valued functions

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

## The proof of Formula 4 follows.

The remaining are left as exercises.

Proof

FORMULA 4

Let
u(t) = f1(t), f2(t), f3(t)
v(t) = g1(t), g2(t), g3(t)
Then, u(t ) ? v (t )

= f1 (t ) g1 (t ) + f 2 (t ) g 2 (t ) + f3 (t ) g3 (t )
3

= fi (t ) gi (t )
i =1

Proof

FORMULA 4

## So, the ordinary Product Rule gives:

d
d 3
[u(t ) v (t )] = fi (t ) gi (t )
dt
dt i =1
3

d
= [ fi (t ) gi (t )]
i =1 dt
3

= [ f i '(t ) gi (t ) + f i (t ) gi '(t )]
i =1
3

i =1

i =1

= f i '(t ) gi (t ) + fi (t ) gi '(t )
= u'(t ) v (t ) + u(t ) v'(t )

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Example 4

## Show that, if |r(t)| = c (a constant),

then r(t) is orthogonal to r(t) for all t.

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Example 4

Since
r(t) r(t) = |r(t)|2 = c2
and c2 is a constant,
Formula 4 of Theorem 3 gives:

d
0 = [r (t ) r (t )]
dt
= r '(t ) r (t ) + r (t ) r '(t )
= 2r '(t ) r (t )

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

Thus,
r(t) r(t) = 0
This says that r(t) is orthogonal to r(t).

DIFFERENTIATION RULES

## Geometrically, this result says:

If a curve lies on a sphere with center
the origin, then the tangent vector r(t) is
always perpendicular to the position vector r(t).

INTEGRALS

## The definite integral of a continuous vector

function r(t) can be defined in much the same
way as for real-valued functionsexcept that
the integral is a vector.

INTEGRALS

## However, then, we can express

the integral of r in terms of the integrals
of its component functions f, g, and h
as follows.
We use the notation of Chapter 5.

INTEGRALS

r (t ) dt
n

= lim r (t ) t
n

i =1

*
i

n
n

*
*
= lim f (ti ) t i + g (ti ) t j
n
i =1

i =1

*
+ h(ti ) t k
i =1

n

INTEGRALS

Thus,

r(t)dt

b
b
b

a
a
a

## This means that we can evaluate an integral of a vector

function by integrating each component function.

INTEGRALS

## We can extend the Fundamental Theorem

of Calculus to continuous vector functions:

b

## Here, R is an antiderivative of r, that is, R(t) = r(t).

We use the notation r(t) dt for indefinite integrals
(antiderivatives).

Example 5

INTEGRALS

## r(t)dt = ( 2cos t dt )i + ( sint dt )j + ( 2t dt )k

= 2sint i cos t j + t 2k + C
where:
C is a vector constant of integration
2
2
2

r (t ) dt = [2sin t i cos t j + t k ]0

= 2i + j +