Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics


Solutions to Assessment Questions
1

Mass is a base quantity

Charge is a derived quantity

Joule is a derived unit

Ampere is a base unit

Volt is a derived unit

Resistance

Power

Current

Voltage or Potential difference or Electromotive force

Zero or very small or negligible

Infinite or very large

Correct substitution into formula or knowing

1
R
4

[5]

[4]

[2]

Total resistance = 1.25

Since in parallel, same potential difference across each resistor

Total current I = I1 + I2 + I3

so that V/R = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3

[2]

[3]

First network:
1

R = 4 10 = 2.5

Second network:
1

R = 10 + (2 10 ) + 10 = 25

Third network:
1

R = 2 (10 + 10 ) = 10

Ammeter reading = 25 mA (as current splits equally ... both paths have same
resistance)

Voltmeter V1 = IbranchRbranch = 0.025 A 10

1
1

= 0.25 V
Voltmeter V2 = ItotalRtotal = 0.050 A 25

1
1

= 1.25 V

As temperature rises, the resistance of the thermistor decreases

As resistance decreases, the current (or ammeter reading) increases

At 20C, R = 1.4(2) k

I = V/R = 6.0 V/(1.42


= 4.2

103

[3]

103

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

1
1

[5]

[3]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
6

v = 0.94 mm s1 = 0.94 103 m s1


I = nAqv = 1.0

1029

0.20

m3

106

m2

1.6

1019

C 0.94

103

R = l/A

[3]

= 1.7 108 m 4.0 m/(0.20 106 m2)

= 0.34

[3]

V = IR = 3.0 A 0.34 = 1.0 V

[1]

Second wire will have a larger resistance

so smaller current

[2]

Drift velocity slower in second wire

[1]

Q = It = 20 000 A 4.0 104 s

1
1

= 8.0 C
R = l/A

[2]

= 1.7

108

m 50 m/(1.0

= 8.5

104

V = IR = 20 000 A 8.5

103

m2)

1
1

104

[3]

= 17 V
Tree has a greater resistance or Wood has a greater resistivity

1
1

= 3.0 A

s1

[2]

[1]

Since 2.0 M >>> 4.0


p.d. across 2.0 M = 6.0 V

p.d. across 4.0 = 0 V

[2]

Across resistor:
VR = 6.0 V 45 /(45 + 5 ) = 5.4 V

Across diode:
Vd = 6.0 V 5.4 V = 0.6 V

[2]

I/A

[1]

Be lenient here provided


generally right shape

V/V
must have this
initial shape

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
9

Comparing V = rI + with y = mx 1 c shows that is the intercept

so = 1.5 V

Gradient m = r = (0.8 V 1.5 V)/(1.4 A 0 A)

[2]

r = 0.5
r = 0.5

Any negative gradient straight line added to graph

Line starts from 0.0 A, 3.0 V (as = 2 1.5 V)

Line has gradient of 1 (as r = 2 0.5 )

[3]

21

[2]

[2]

Any two from:


If variable resistor set to zero resistance ...
lamp prevents short circuit
lamp means that there is still some resistance in circuit
lamp prevents current from becoming too large
lamp prevents large current damaging ammeter
10 p = F/A
F per wheel = 12 000 N/4 = 3000 N
Area of contact = F/p = 3000 N/(3.0 105 N m2)
= 0.01

m2

Since p/T is a constant


p2 = p1T2/T1 = 3.0
= 3.2

105

105

[2]

1
N

m2

303 K/(283 K)

m2

1
1

Axes labelled pressure and area or Axes labelled pressure and 1/area

Downward line or Line with positive gradient

Concave curve not touching either axis or Straight line through origin

11 Temperature of gas

[3]

[3]

Mass of gas or Number of gas molecules

[2]

31

[3]

Diagram showing any three from:


Trapped gas
Scale to measure volume
Method of varying pressure
Instrument for measuring the pressure
Record pressure and volume

Plot p against 1/V or Plot V against 1/p

12 Brownian motion of smoke in air or Diffusion of a coloured gas with another gas

Particles subjected to collisions from air molecules or Mixture occurs due to


random motion

Change of state to gas involves a large increase in volume or Diffusion faster in gases

Implies molecules are further apart or More space for molecules to pass through

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

[2]
[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
13 Polished underside:
Infrared radiation

reflected downwards

Polished upper surface:


Reduces loss of thermal energy

to the air above the hood

P = 14.4 kW = 14.4

103

t = 16 h = 16 60 60 s = 57 600 s
W = Pt = 14.4

103

[4]

W 57 600 s

= 8.3 108 J = 830 MJ

[3]

Wasted energy = 55% of input


= 0.55 8.3 108 J

= 4.6 108 J

When first switched on, energy

is used to heat the grill

14 Q = mcT = 0.70 kg 4200 J kg1 K1 (100 20) K


= 2.35 105 (J) = 235 (kJ)

[3]
[2]

1
1

[2]

P = Q/t
t = Q/P

1
= 2.35

105

J/(2.2

103

W)

= 107 s

1
1

Rate of temperature rise is initially slow, then it increases and then it decreases

Uniform rate of temperature rise in the central region

Temperature becomes constant at the end

[3]

[3]

Temperature reaches 100C after 144 s


Efficiency = 107 s/(144 s)

1
1

= 0.74

15 Quality of written communication

[2]

Any two from:


Energy flows out
at same rate
due to heat pump (or motor)

21

3]

U = 0

as the temperature of the contents remains constant

Q is the net energy flow into (or out of) the contents

because of any temperature differences

[2]

No work is done on (or by) the contents or W must be zero since both U and
Q are zero

[1]

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
16 A device that uses some of the (thermal) energy that flows

from a hot source to a cold sink

to do mechanical work

T1 = 350C = 623 K, T2 = 5C = 268 K

Maximum thermal efficiency = (T1 T2)/T1 = (623 K 268 K)/(623 K)

= 0.57

[3]

[3]

21

[2]

Any two from:


Work done against friction
Loss of energy because of convection through gap at side of paddle
Loss of energy to (stone) floor
Loss of energy to cook food
Loss of energy to heat paddle
For an ideal gas, kinetic energy T

k.e.flames/k.e.chimney = 623 K/(268 K) = 2.3

[2]

21

[2]

21

[2]

11

[1]

A1 Any two from:


No background lighting or No street lighting or No light pollution
Less dust or Clearer air
Less twinkling due to refraction (or density variations)
A2 Any two similarities from:
Both penetrate Earths atmosphere
Both travel at same speed
Both travel through vacuum
Both are transverse waves
Both are electromagnetic waves
Any one difference from:
They have different wavelengths (or frequencies)
Light is scattered by dust in the atmosphere while radio waves are not
A3 max = 2.9 103 m K/T
For Ori, max = 2.9 103 m K/(11 000 K)
= 2.6

107

For Cet, max = 2.9


P=

1
1

m = 260 nm

103

m K/(3600 K) = 8.1

107

m = 810 nm

[3]

AT4

P/A = T4 = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 (11 000 K)4


= 8.3

108

(W

m2)

1
1

Ori graph peaks at ~260 nm

Cet graph peaks at ~810 nm

Area under Ori graph >> area under Cet graph (at least 4 peak height)

Ori overlaps with blue end of spectrum while Cet overlaps with red

Ori peaks in the ultraviolet while Cet peaks in the infra-red

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

[3]
[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
A4 A light year is the distance travelled by light in one year
1 year = (365 24 60 60) s = 3.15

107

[1]

Distance = speed time


= 3.00 108 m s1 3.15 107 s = 9.5 1015 (m)

[2]

41

[4]

[1]

[1]

Any four of the following shown clearly on diagram (see Figure A8(b) on page 65):
Light from distant star labelled (distant can be implied by parallel lines)
Light from nearby star
Earth orbiting the Sun or Earth shown in January-June positions
Angles and labelled
Tan [( )/2] = 1 AU/D
For distance stars ( ) is too small to measure
A5 All 3 stars correctly marked
[xA upper right, xB middle bottom, xC slightly left of middle on main sequence]
A is a red giant

B is a white dwarf

C is a main sequence star

Luminosity of Ori = 6 104 3.8 1026 W

Also luminosity of Ori = AT4 = 5.67 108 W m2 K4 A (3500 K)4

A = 6 104 3.8 1026 W/[5.67 108 W m2 K4 (3500 K)4] = 2.7 1024 m2

4R2 = 2.7 1024 m2

R = (2.7

1024

m2/4)

= 4.6

1011

[3]

[5]

51

[5]

A6 Any five from:


Quality of written communication
A star which suddenly
becomes very bright (or luminous)
Fusion (or Hydrogen burning) ceases
Collapse of core or Collapse of star or Implosion
Outer layers bounce off core or Idea of a shock wave
Blowing away outer layers
Neutron star 1
Black hole

1 [2]

B1 Stress = F/A = 8.0 N/(1.5 107 m2)


= 5.3

107

Pa (or N

m2)

[2]

Extension = 0.67 mm
Strain = x/l = 0.67

103

= 2.6

104

m/(2.6 m)

Young modulus = stress/strain = 5.3

1
107

Pa/(2.6

104)

= 2.1

1011

Pa

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[4]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
1

For an extension of 0.4 mm, force = 4.8 N


W=

1
Fx
2

1

2

4.8 N 0.4
= 9.6

104

103

Straight line from origin less steep than original


Approximately

1

2

as steep

B2 Young modulus of A = 2.5 108 Pa/0.02 =1.25 1010 Pa

Straight line from origin with no curved end

Stops at stress of 3.6 108 N m2

Gradient = 3.0

Pa (e.g. line stops at a strain of 0.012)

Hookes law marked up to a stress of 2.8

1010

m2

1
Energy density = 2 stress strain
1
= 2 2.5 108 N m2 0.02 = 2.5 106 J m3
Volume of wire = Al = 8.8 107 m2 2.5 m = 2.2

Energy stored = 2.5

106

m3

2.2

106

m3

[2]

Ultimate tensile stress of A = 3.15 108 Pa

1010

[3]

(end of linear section)

[2]

[3]

[1]

1
1
106

m3

= 5.5 J

B3 Bubbles represent atoms (or ions)


Dislocation identified by diagonal line (or circle)

1
1

[4]

[1]

[1]

B4 Drawing of horizontal concrete beam with:


Compression region labelled along inside of top surface (allow just above)

Tension region labelled along inside of bottom surface (allow just below)

[2]

31

[3]

Any three from:


Quality of written communication
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension
Cracks in upper surface tend to close up or Cracks in lower surface tend to widen
Cracks propagate across beam leading to fracture or No dislocations in concrete to
blunt cracks
B5
Atom
Molecule/chain of atoms

Spaghetti-like arrangement with more than one strand

Individual strand labelled molecule (or chain of atoms) or Blob labelled atom

Thermoplastic softens on heating or Thermoplastic can be remoulded or


Thermoplastic melts

Thermoset does not soften on heating or Thermoset decomposes (or burns)

[2]

Perspex is a thermoplastic

[1]

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
B6 Material A is weak and stiff

Material B is strong(ish) and flexible

Material C is strong and stiff

Material A is polythene, material B is nylon

Material C is CFRP

[2]

Only CFRP is a composite material

[1]

B7 Fibre composite consists of strands of something inside another material


Laminate consists of layers of different materials

[3]

1
1

[2]

31

[3]

Any three from:


Quality of written communication
Crack grows or Crack moves or Crack travels
until it reaches the boundary between layers or until it reaches the matrix material
Tip of crack blunted as it spreads along boundary or Tip of crack blunted as
matrix yields
1

C1 r = roA3 so that r A3

rAg/rN = (108/14)

1
3

1
3

= 7.71 = 1.98

[3]

C2 Any one similarity from:


Both nuclear decay products
Both charged or Both ionise (or damage) tissue
Both have momentum
Both deflected by electric (or magnetic) fields

11

Any two differences from:


Beta is a fundamental particle, alpha is not
Mass of alpha much greater than mass of beta
Alpha is positive; beta can be either positive or negative
Alpha is a helium ion; beta is either an electron or a positron
Beta is a lepton, alpha is composed of hadrons

21

C3 m = 1.008 665 u (1.007 276 u + 0.000 549) u

u 930 MeV

E = 8.4

104

u1

= 0.78 (MeV)
TFM = TIM = 0 or Momentum of proton is equal (and opposite) to momentum
of electron

Mass of proton >> mass of electron (so electron will move much faster)

See Figure NP11 on page 93


Shape roughly correct

Cuts KE axis

1
NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[3]

[3]

[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
at 0.78 MeV

[3]

31

[3]

Any three from:


Quality of written communication
Energy per decay is constant
All beta particles should have the same energy
Beta particles have a range of energies
so some other particle must take missing energy

C4 Same mass

Different charge or Different baryon number or One consists of quarks, the other of
antiquarks

[2]

21

[2]

[1]

[1]

[1]

Any two pairs from:


e and e+
and +
and +
e and e
and
and
They annihilate or A burst of energy(or photons or gamma rays) produced

C5 Neutral
1 [1]

uud
Charge =

2
(3)

+ (3) + (+3) = 1

As soon as antimatter touches the container (or matter)

they annihilate

[2]

Top added to row 2 and Bottom added to row 3

[1]

(i) sd or ds

(ii) cd or cs

(iii) uds or uss or cds or css or uds or uss or css or

[3]

C6 ++ interaction:
Charge

(+2) (+1) + (+1) so possible

Baryon number (+1) (+1) + (0)

so possible

[2]

so possible

so possible

[2]

Gluon

[1]

is uud

is udd

interaction:
Charge

(1) (0) + (1)

Baryon number (+1) (+1) + (0)

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[2]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
D1 Iodine-123

1
1

Iodine-125 has too long a half-life


Iodine-131 emits

[1]

which will damage tissue (or cells or the thyroid)

D2 A = scintillator or sodium iodide

[2]

[1]

Only lets through rays travelling perpendicular to it or Gets rid of scattered


(or reflected) rays

Made of lead

Electrons released or Electrons accelerated or Electrons collide with metal plates

by light or by electric fields (or high voltages) or releasing more electrons

D3 P = VI = 65 103 V 0.12 A (= 7800 W)

[2]
[2]

Amount transferred to thermal energy = 99.2%


= 0.992 65 103 V 0.12 A

= 7740 W

[3]

Rotating anode or Anode cooled with circulating fluid or Anode part of large
copper block

[1]

Diagnosis

Low voltage (65 kV) X-ray absorption depends on proton number

so can distinguish bones from flesh or so gives good contrast

[3]

D4 For diagnosis:
Typical accelerating voltage = 100 keV

Strongly dependent on proton number

For therapy:
Typical accelerating voltage = 1 MeV

Weakly dependent on proton number

Use of multiple beams (or rotating beams) or Use of filter

so dose concentrated at particular place or to remove low energy X-rays

while giving less to surrounding tissue or which increase dosage without assisting
the therapy

[3]

31

[3]

[4]

D5 Any three from:


Quality of written communication
The higher the frequency, the lower the wavelength
High frequency gives better resolution of the (structure of the) eye (as less diffraction)
Low frequency is more penetrating so better for abdomen
e.g. 0.5 mm ( 2 mm i.e. smaller than pupil diameter to reduce diffraction)

f = c/ = 1.5

=3
Two peaks

106
1
22

103

s1/(0.5

103

m)

Hz

small squares wide at bottom

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

[3]

Unit 2
Electricity and Thermal Physics
Solutions to Assessment Questions
Separated by 30 small squares

[2]

So that reflected pulse returns well before a new pulse is transmitted

[1]

D6 kg m3 (unit of density)
m

s1

1
m2 s1

[2]

Virtually no ultrasound penetrates to organs behind lungs

51

[5]

Any one from list in D7

11

[1]

21

[2]

(unit of speed) = kg

Any five from:


Quality of written communication
(Z2 Z1)2/(Z2 + Z1)2 used or Appreciation that difference in Zs is very large
to give = 0.999
Most (or all or 99.9%) of ultrasound is reflected
at boundary between (air in) lungs and tissue

D7 Any two from:


Can measure depth or Can produce a 3-D image
Does not destroy tissue (or cells) or Less damaging of tissue (or cells)
Can distinguish different types of soft tissue
Allows real time imaging or Can be used to investigate moving surfaces

NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.