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eLTE2.

3
V200R003C00

eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD


Optional Feature Description
Issue

Draft A

Date

2014-02-10

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2014. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and
the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be
within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements,
information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees
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The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
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recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address:

Huawei Industrial Base


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Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website:

http://www.huawei.com

Email:

support@huawei.com

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Contents

2 Networking & Transmission &


Security...................................................

2.1 Transmission & Synchronization.........................................................

2.1.1 LOFD-003002 2G/3G and LTE Co-transmission.............................

Contents

2.1.2 LOFD-003011 Enhanced Transmission QoS


Management..............................................................................................

2.1.2.1 LOFD-00301101 Transport Overbooking.....................................

2.1.2.2 LOFD-00301102 Transport Differentiated Flow


Control.......................................................................................................

1 Radio &

2.1.2.3 LOFD-00301103 Transport Resource Overload


Control.......................................................................................................
Performance....................................................................

2.1.3 LOFD-070219 IP Active Performance


1.1 LTE 2 Antenna 150M/50Mbps.......................................................................................................................................
Measurement.............................................................................................
1.1.1 LOFD-001001 DL 2x2 MIMO....................................................................................................................................
2.1.4 LOFD-003013 Enhanced Synchronization......................................
1.1.2 LOFD-001030 Support of UE Category 2/3/4............................................................................................................
2.1.4.4 LOFD-00301303 Clock over IP (Huawei
1.2 Interference Handling.....................................................................................................................................................
proprietary)................................................................................................
1.2.1 LOFD-001012 UL Interference Rejection
2.2 IPv6......................................................................................................
Combining............................................................................................................................................................................
2.2.1 LOFD-003023 IEEE 1588v2 over IPv6...........................................
1.2.2 LOFD-001094 Control Channel IRC..........................................................................................................................
2.3 Security................................................................................................
1.3 QoS.................................................................................................................................................................................
2.3.1 LOFD-001010 Security Mechanism................................................
1.3.1 LOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling..........................................................................................................................
2.3.1.1 LOFD-00101001 Encryption: AES...............................................
1.3.1.1 LOFD-00101501 CQI Adjustment...........................................................................................................................
2.3.1.2 LOFD-00101002 Encryption: SNOW 3G.....................................
1.3.1.2 LOFD-00101502 Dynamic Scheduling....................................................................................................................
2.3.2 LOFD-003009 IPsec.........................................................................
1.3.2 LOFD-001026 TCP Proxy Enhancer (TPE)..............................................................................................................
2.3.3 LOFD-003014 Integrated Firewall...................................................
1.3.3 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM)
2.3.3.1 LOFD-00301401 Access Control List (ACL)...............................
............................................................................................................................................................................................
2.3.3.2 LOFD-00301402 Access Control List (ACL)
1.3.4 LOFD-001029 Enhanced Admission Control...........................................................................................................
Auto Configuration....................................................................................
1.3.4.1 LOFD-00102901 Radio/transport resource pre2.4 Reliability............................................................................................
emption...............................................................................................................................................................................
2.4.1 LOFD-001018 S1-flex......................................................................
1.3.5 LOFD-001054 Flexible User Steering......................................................................................................................

2.4.2 LOFD-003007 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection


1.3.5.1 LOFD-00105401 Camp & Handover Based on
...................................................................................................................
SPID...................................................................................................................................................................................
2.4.3 LOFD-003008 Ethernet Link Aggregation (IEEE
1.3.6 LOFD-001059 UL Pre-allocation Based on SPID....................................................................................................
802.3ad).....................................................................................................
1.3.7 LOFD-001109 DL Non-GBR Packet Bundling........................................................................................................
2.5 Site Architecture..................................................................................
1.4 Signaling Storm & Terminal Battery Life Saving........................................................................................................
2.5.1 LOFD-003029 SFN..........................................................................
1.4.1 LOFD-070207 Intelligent Access Class Control.......................................................................................................

3 O&M.....................................................
1.5 Refarming.....................................................................................................................................................................

3.1 SON Self-Optimization.......................................................................


1.5.1 LOFD-001051 Compact Bandwidth.........................................................................................................................

3.1.1 LOFD-001032 Intra-LTE Load Balancing.......................................


1.6 High Speed Mobility....................................................................................................................................................

3.1.2 LOFD-002005 Mobility Robust Optimization


1.6.1 LOFD-001007 High Speed Mobility.........................................................................................................................
(MRO).......................................................................................................
1.6.2 LOFD-001008 Ultra High Speed Mobility...............................................................................................................

3.1.3 LOFD-002015 RACH Optimization................................................


1.7 Coverage Enhancement................................................................................................................................................
3.2 SON Self-Healing................................................................................
1.7.1 LOFD-001009 Extended Cell Access Radius...........................................................................................................

3.2.1 LOFD-002010 Sleeping Cell Detection...........................................


1.7.2 LOFD-001031 Extended CP.....................................................................................................................................
3.2.2 LOFD-002011 Antenna Fault Detection..........................................
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ii

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Contents

3.3 Power Saving................................................................................................................................................................


3.3.1 LOFD-001025 Adaptive Power Consumption..........................................................................................................
3.3.2 LOFD-001039 RF Channel Intelligent Shutdown....................................................................................................
3.3.3 LOFD-001040 Low Power Consumption Mode.......................................................................................................
3.3.4 LOFD-001041 Power Consumption Monitoring......................................................................................................
3.3.5 LOFD-001042 Intelligent Power-Off of Carriers in
the Same Coverage.............................................................................................................................................................
3.3.6 LOFD-001056 PSU Intelligent Sleep Mode.............................................................................................................
3.3.7 LOFD-001070 Symbol Power Saving.......................................................................................................................
3.3.8 LOFD-001071 Intelligent Battery Management.......................................................................................................
3.3.9 LOFD-001075 RRU PA Efficiency Improvement....................................................................................................
3.4 Antenna Management...................................................................................................................................................
3.4.1 LOFD-001024 Remote Electrical Tilt Control..........................................................................................................

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations........................................................

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iii

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Preamble formats and cell access radius.............................................................................................22
Figure 2-1 2G/3G and LTE co-transmission.........................................................................................................25
Figure 2-2 Framework of Huawei proprietary protocol........................................................................................32
Figure 2-3 IPsec....................................................................................................................................................36
Figure 2-4 connection topology between MME Pool and eNodeBs....................................................................40
Figure 2-5 the one-hop and multi-hop BFD application scenarios.......................................................................42
Figure 2-6 the Ethernet link aggregation..............................................................................................................43
Figure 3-1 general network topology....................................................................................................................48
Figure 3-2 Symbol power saving (Normal CP)....................................................................................................61
Figure 3-3 Symbol power saving with MBSFN subframe (extended CP)...........................................................62

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iv

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Tables

Tables
Table 1-1 Downlink physical layer parameter values set by the field UE-Category..............................................4
Table 1-2 Uplink physical layer parameter values set by the field UE-Category...................................................5
Table 1-3 Total layer 2 buffer sizes set by the field UE-Category..........................................................................5
Table 1-4 Compact bandwidths list.......................................................................................................................19
Table 3-1 Battery management modes..................................................................................................................63
Table 4-1 Acronyms and Abbreviations................................................................................................................68

Issue Draft A (2014-02-10)

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Technologies Co., Ltd.

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Issue Draft A (2014-02-10)

Huawei Proprietary and Confidential


Copyright Huawei
Technologies Co., Ltd.

1 Radio & Performance

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Radio & Performance

About This Chapter


2.1 LTE 2 Antenna 150M/50Mbps
2.2 Interference Handling
2.3 QoS
2.4 Signaling Storm & Terminal Battery Life Saving
2.5 Refarming
2.6 High Speed Mobility
2.7 Coverage Enhancement

1.1 LTE 2 Antenna 150M/50Mbps


1.1.1 LOFD-001001 DL 2x2 MIMO
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Two antenna ports are configured in the downlink, and the transmission scheme per user is
dynamically selected between spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing to improve the
downlink throughput and coverage performance.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Benefits
This feature provides the gain of high peak rate and throughput performance using spatial
multiplexing (two code-words) and good cell edge performance using spatial diversity (single
codeword),.

Description
The downlink 2x2 MIMO is a critical feature to allow an LTE system to deliver better
performance, such as higher data rates, than the legacy system. Both spatial diversity and
spatial multiplexing are supported as defined in LTE specifications, and since eRAN1.0 the
following four 2x2 MIMO schemes are supported in the downlink:

Transmit diversity

Large-delay cyclic delay diversity spatial multiplexing

Closed-loop spatial multiplexing

Closed-loop spatial multiplexing using a single transmission layer

Transmit diversity and closed-loop spatial multiplexing using a single transmission layer are
spatial diversity solutions to combat signal fading. Both schemes transmit a single stream (i.e.,
single code-word) and improve the cell edge performance. The former applies the space
frequency block code (SFBC), and is robust to mobility. The latter applies the codebook based
rank-1 precoding and is typically used at low mobility as UE is required to report its preferred
precoding matrix index (PMI) timely.
Large-delay cyclic delay diversity is an open-loop spatial multiplexing scheme with high
robustness to mobility. Closed-loop spatial multiplexing applies the codebook based feedback
and is typically suitable to low mobility. Both open-loop and closed-loop spatial multiplexing
transmit two separately encoded streams (i.e., two codewords) to improve the peak rate and
throughput performance of UEs under good channel conditions with multiplexing gain.
Open-loop/closed-loop spatial multiplexing can be enabled/disabled by means of O&M.
When this functionality is enabled, adaptive switch between spatial diversity and spatial
multiplexing is performed taking into account the UE specific link quality and rank
information. When this functionality is disabled (by setting the maximum rank for spatial
multiplexing to 1), a single codeword is always scheduled for all UEs.
Besides fixed MIMO modes, adaptive open-loop MIMO, adaptive closed-loop MIMO, and
adaptation between open-loop and closed-loop MIMO modes can be configured by means of
O&M.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
Downlink 2x2 MIMO requires the eNodeB to provide 2 TX channels and 2 antennas.

UE
Spatial multiplexing is supported for terminals with UE category of greater than one.
That is, for category-1 UEs, only a single codeword is scheduled. Relatively accurate
PMI report from UE is a prerequisite for the configuration of closed-loop MIMO modes.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.1.2 LOFD-001030 Support of UE Category 2/3/4


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
E-UTRAN needs to respect the signaled UE radio access capability parameters when
configuring the UE and when scheduling the UE. So there are five categories defined in the
protocol. This feature can enable BS to support UE category 2/3/4.

Benefits
This feature can enable BS to support UE category 2/3/4.

Description
E-UTRAN needs to respect the signaled UE radio access capability parameters when
configuring the UE and when scheduling the UE. So there are five categories defined in the
protocol. This feature can enable base station to support UE category 2/3/4.
Table 1.1 Downlink physical layer parameter values set by the field UE-Category
UE
Category

Maximum
number of
DL-SCH
transport
blocks bits
received
within a
TTI

Maximum
number of
bits of a
DL-SCH
transport
block
received
within a
TTI

Total
number of
soft
channel
bits

Maximum
number of
supported
layers for
spatial
multiplexin
g in DL

Category 1

10296

10296

250368

Category 2

51024

51024

1237248

Category 3

102048

75376

1237248

Category 4

150752

75376

1827072

Category 5

299552

149776

3667200

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Table 1.2 Uplink physical layer parameter values set by the field UE-Category
UE Category

Maximum number
of bits of an UL-SCH
transport block
transmitted within a
TTI

Support for 64QAM


in UL

Category 1

5160

No

Category 2

25456

No

Category 3

51024

No

Category 4

51024

No

Category 5

75376

Yes

Table 1.3 Total layer 2 buffer sizes set by the field UE-Category
UE Category

Total layer 2 buffer size


[KBytes]

Category 1

150

Category 2

700

Category 3

1400

Category 4

1900

Category 5

3500

Enhancement
None

Dependency

UE
The UE should be category 2/3/4.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.2 Interference Handling


1.2.1 LOFD-001012 UL Interference Rejection
Combining
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature allows eNodeB to effectively overcome the inter-cell interference. The method
can be used with receiving diversity and can be used for MIMO decoding in any scenario.

Benefits
This feature can improve the system performance in the presence of interference. Therefore,
enhanced network coverage and better service quality are provided for cell edge users
(CEUs).

Description
Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) is a receive-antenna combining technique to
effectively combat the inter-cell interference. IRC is often used together with receive
diversity. In theory, IRC can be used for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) decoding in
any scenario, and it is particularly effective for colored interference.
The main advantage of IRC lies in that it can outperform Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
in terms of demodulation of a signal in the presence of interference or jamming.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
The eNodeB must be equipped with multiple receive antennas (equal to or more than
two).

Other features
LBFD-00202001 UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity or LOFD-001005 UL 4-Antenna
Receive Diversity.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.2.2 LOFD-001094 Control Channel IRC


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN6.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN7.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Control channel interference rejection combining (IRC) protects physical uplink control
channel (PUCCH) and physical random access channel (PRACH) from inter-cell interference.

Benefits
Control channel IRC receiver suppresses interference for uplink control channels and
improves the control channel coverage. Downlink performance may indirectly be improved
due to more robust ACK/NAK reporting in uplink.

Description
Control channel IRC on PUCCH and PRACH combines signals on control channels received
by multiple antennas. This feature can suppress colored interference, while maximum ratio
combining (MRC) is not fit for such scenario.
eNodeB supports adaptive switching between IRC and MRC for PUCCHs and PRACHs.
When colored interference is detected, eNodeB selects IRC; In other cases, eNodeB selects
MRC.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
The eNodeB must be equipped with two or more receive antennas.
PUCCH IRC isn't applicable to LBBPc board.
For Micro PRACH IRC is only applicable to3202E/3203E; PUCCH IRC is only
applicable to3203E.

Other features
LBFD-00202001 UL 2-Antenna Receive Diversity and LOFD-001005 UL 4-Antenna
Receive Diversity

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.3 QoS
1.3.1 LOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling
1.3.1.1 LOFD-00101501 CQI Adjustment
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This function reinforces the traditional AMC feature by introducing downlink Channel
Quality Indicator (CQI) adjustment.

Benefits
This feature brings the following benefits:

Effectively compensates for the inaccurate CQI measurement and makes the MCS
selection more accurate by using a closed-loop mechanism.

Improves the system capacity by selecting more accurate MCS.

Allows an adaptive CQI measurement for different scenarios and therefore improves the
system capacity.

Description
The CQI adjustment scheme enhances the conventional AMC scheme by introducing
downlink CQI adjustment. It could provide additional performance gains.
Under the conventional AMC scheme, the eNodeB chooses a Modulation and Coding Scheme
(MCS) for a UE based on the reported CQI. As a result, MCS will mainly change according to
the reported CQI. Since the UE measurement error and channel fading could make the
reported CQI somewhat inaccurate, the MCS selection based on the inaccurate CQI could
cause the DL transmission fails to reach the Block Error Rate (BLER) target. The
conventional AMC scheme does not have a closed-loop feedback mechanism to guarantee
that the actual BLER reaches the BLER target.
The CQI adjustment scheme introduces a closed-loop mechanism to compensate for the CQI
measurement errors. When an eNodeB selects the MCS for the DL transmission, besides the
CQI and transmits power, the eNodeB also considers the difference between the target BLER
and the actually measured BLER. Note that the actually measured BLER is calculated on the
basis of the closed-loop ACK/NACK that the eNodeB received from the DL transmission. In
addition, the closed-loop solution used by the CQI adjustment scheme allows the eNodeB to
instruct a UE to change the BLER target for CQI reporting, which could maximize the system
throughput.
A common target BLER is optimized for all common scenarios, but in some sceanrios cell
throughput can be increased by increase initial target BLER, especially for cell edge users or
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

users only transmit small packets. A switch allows operator to adjust the initial target BLER
for cells of such scenarios.

Enhancement

In eRAN6.0
This feature is enhanced to allow adjust initial target BLER of a cell.

Dependency
None

1.3.1.2 LOFD-00101502 Dynamic Scheduling


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The dynamic scheduling feature provides the function that guarantees the user QoS and
achieves efficient resource utilization. The fairness between different UEs is also considered
in the function. The dynamic scheduling algorithm mainly focuses on the GBR and non-GBR
services.

Benefits
The scheduling feature is the core function to provide QoS in a LTE system. Huawei
scheduling solution could provide the following benefits:

Guarantees the QoS for GBR, and non-GBR services.

Achieves an optimal tradeoff among throughput, fairness, and QoS.

Description
The scheduling function facilitates to the achievement of efficient resource utilization on a
shared channel. In a LTE system, the scheduler allocates resources to the UEs every 1 ms or
every one TTI. The scheduling algorithm needs to meet the QoS requirements for different
services and to achieve a good tradeoff between priority differentiation among different
services and the fairness among users.
The QoS specification is based on the nine QoS QCI defined in LTE standards. The nine
different QCI classes can be divided into GBR and Non-GBR service. The scheduling
solution is required to guarantee the bit rate requirement for GBR services, and enforce the
AMBR for Non-GBR services. Minimum GBR is set for Non-GBR services to avoid
starvation.
The uplink scheduler controls the service rates by using the token bucket algorithm for GBR
and Non-GBR services. Proportional Fair (PF) algorithm is the basic strategy to ensure
scheduling priorities (based on QCI) among different services. Higher priority is assigned to
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

IMS signaling and GBR services. Semi-persistent scheduling is employed for VoIP service to
ensure the voice quality. When the congestion indicator from load control algorithm is
received, the scheduler might reduce the guaranteed data rate for GBR service. The scheduler
might also consider the input from UL ICIC to reduce interference.
The uplink scheduler will divide the Logical Channel Groups (LCG) according to Operator
configuration. VOIP service is assigned with signaling in the same LCG and non-GBR
services belong to two LCG. Such configuration can guarantee the high priority non-GBR
services are scheduled in uplink. Prioritized bit rate (PBR) is not same as Minimum GBR and
PBR is configurable by operator.
The DL scheduler employs an enhanced scheduling strategy. During a given time window,
the scheduler is required to guarantee GBR and AMBR for all services. For GBR services, the
user channel quality and the service packet delay are taken into account when calculating the
priority. For Non-GBR services, in addition to the user channel quality, the scheduled service
throughput is also considered when calculating the priority. Note that semi-persistent
scheduling is used for VoIP service again and the bandwidth allocated for VoIP traffic is not
scheduled by the scheduler. The enhanced DL scheduler can achieve an optimal tradeoff
among throughput, fairness, and QoS guarantee. The same as the UL scheduler, the DL
scheduler also considers the input from DL ICIC to reduce the inter-cell interference.
As GBR services have higher priority than non-GBR services, when system is in congestion,
non-GBR service might be starving as it cannot be scheduled. The DL scheduler will reserve a
certain portion of resource for non-GBR services to prevent the issue.

Enhancement
In eRAN6.0 this feature is enhanced for DL non-GBR services to prevent non-GBR services
from starving at system congestion.

Dependency
None

1.3.2 LOFD-001026 TCP Proxy Enhancer (TPE)


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The TCP/IP protocol was initially developed for wired transmission and later also used in
wireless network, while the link characteristics in wireless network is quite different from the
wired network. A series of enhancement on TCP functions are implemented in the eNodeB.
This feature enables the performance of the TCP protocol derived from the wired network to
be greatly improved in the wireless network, thus improving user experience and system
efficiency.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Benefits
This feature mitigates the impact of some factors such as packet loss in the RAN side to
improve the performance of TCP data transmission, accelerates the slow startup of the server
during the data transmission, thus greatly improving the TCP transmission performance.

Description
The TCP/IP protocol is extensively used all over the world. It was initially developed for
wired transmission and later also used in wireless networks. However wireless networks have
some characteristics quite different from the wired network. To mitigate this effect, a number
of enhancements have been implemented in the eNodeB.
A TPE (TCP Proxy Enhancer) functionality is implemented in the eNodeB, which improves
the data transmission performance in the wireless network. The TPE processes the TCP/IP
packets by adopting TCP performance optimization technologies such as ACK splitting and
ACK control. This feature accelerates the slow startup of the server and decrease packet
drops. Therefore, this feature greatly improves the TCP transmission performance.

ACK splitting

In TCP, the congestion window is updated according to the number of received ACK
messages and is expanded by increasing the number of ACK messages. When a slow startup
occurs, ACK splitting can quickly increase the congestion window.

ACK Control

In LTE system, fluctuations over the air interface are inevitable. Therefore, HARQ/ARQ is
transmitted in the uplink to ensure data is transmitted properly. According to 3GPP
specifications, RLC must cache data and wait until the HARQ/ARQ completed, then hand in
data cached to PDCP in sequence. However, the HARQ/ARQ transmission takes at least 8 ms,
which could be delayed over air interface and burst layer. As a result, downlink TCP services
also burst, and causing packet loss if the buffer size of transmission equipment is limited. The
ACK control function controls the uplink ACK traffic to prevent bursts of downlink data.

MTU Control

When packet length is greater than PMTU(Path Maximum Transmission Unit), packet is
fragmented on transmission path, which will reduce efficiency of transmission and cause
packet drop probably. MTU Control allows operators to define the packet MSS (Maximum
Segment Size) so the packet fragmentation can be avoided.

Enhancement

In eRAN6.0
The uplink ACK control function is introduced.
The MTU Control function is introduced .

Dependency
None

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11

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.3.3 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management


(AQM)
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature provides an approach for buffer optimization to interact with the TCP protocol in
a favorable manner and shorten the buffering delay.

Benefits
The Active Queue Management feature improves the end user service in different ways. With
AQM, where the buffer fill level is balanced to the UE data rate, the delay is significantly
reduced.

Description
In an interactive connection, the packet data to be transferred is typically characterized by
large variations, so the buffer is introduced to even out the variations. However, if the buffer
is filled up or an overflow situation takes place, it will result in loss of data packets.
Currently, TCP as the main transport layer protocol is used on Internet. Packet loss is regarded
as link congestion by TCP, and TCP will correspondingly reduce the data transmission rate.
TCP protocol is also sensitive to round trip delay and it will take actions differently in case
just one packet is lost or if a burst of packets is lost. In case of uncontrolled packet losses, it
may take a considerable time for the data rate to increase again, leading to poor radio link
utilization and causing long delays for the end user.
In addition, in case a user is performing parallel activities, e.g. FTP downloading and web
browsing, if the file downloading as a dominant stream would fill the buffers and thereby
cause a long delay for web browsing, before anything would happen when clicking on a link.
The functionality of AQM is provided as an optimized buffer handling method, in order to
interact with the TCP protocol in a favorable manner and reduce the buffering delay.
Operators can switch on/off the Active Queue Management function.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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12

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.3.4 LOFD-001029 Enhanced Admission Control


1.3.4.1 LOFD-00102901 Radio/transport resource preemption
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature enables service differentiation when the network is congested to provide better
services for high-priority users.

Benefits
This feature provides operators with a method to differentiate users according to their priority.
High priority users can obtain the system resources in case of resource limitation. In this way,
operators can provide better service to those high priority users.

Description
Pre-emption is the function related to admission control and is the method for differentiating
services. It enables operators to provide different services by setting different priorities, which
will affect the user call setup success rate during the call setup procedure. If there are not
enough resources and a new call is not admitted to access to the network, high priority user
will have more chances to access to the network than low priority users by pre-empting other
low priority users.
The priority information is obtained from the E-RAB Level QoS Parameters including ARP
(Allocation / Retention Priority), in the message of ERAB SETUP REQUEST. The eNodeB
will assign the user priority based on ARP.
Pre-emption will take action if admitting a call fails due to lack of resource, including S1
transmission resource and radio resource (for example, QoS satisfaction ratio based admission
check is failure). The service with the attribution of Pre-emption Capability and Pre-emption
Vulnerability indicates the service ability of pre-empt and pre-emption vulnerability. The preemption capability indicates the pre-emption capability of the request on other E-RABs, and
pre-emption vulnerability indicates the vulnerability of the E-RAB to preemption of other ERABs.
In case of Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB), the pre-emption will not be triggered if resource
allocation for SRB fails. For the emergency call (e.g., E911) service, on account of their very
high priority, it always has the preemption capability. For the SRB, emergency call and IMS
signaling, they cannot be preempted.

Enhancement

In eRAN6.0

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

This feature enables preemption when the number of UEs that have accessed cells
reaches the maximum number of UEs supported by an eNodeB. With this enhancement,
high-priority services and services that must be guaranteed to comply with laws can
preempt resources of common services and therefore get better access.
An eNodeB admits all initially accessing UEs, allowing setup of Radio Resource Control
(RRC) connections for the UEs. Then during E-UTRAN radio access bearer (E-RAB)
setup, the eNodeB triggers preemption for high-priority services and emergency calls,
which are selected based on allocation/retention priority (ARP) values. The eNodeB
selects services to be preempted in the following sequence: non-GBR services on
unsynchronized UEs, non-GBR services on synchronized UEs, and low-priority GBR
services.

Dependency

CN
This feature needs the core network to bring the ARP IE to eNodeB during E-RAB
assignment procedure so that eNodeB can get the service priority with those E-RAB
parameters.

1.3.5 LOFD-001054 Flexible User Steering


1.3.5.1 LOFD-00105401 Camp & Handover Based on SPID
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.2

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature is used in the scenarios under which the operator wants to control the mobility of
an UE to make it camp on, redirect or handover to a suitable cell. The priorities for the cell
selection is predefined and configured to eNodeB through SPID (Subscriber Profile ID for
RAT/Frequency Priority).

Benefits
Operators can make its subscribers to camp in, redirect or handover to a suitable RAT (a cell
of LTE/UMTS/GSM) or frequency (a cell of LTE) based on the service characteristics. For
example, for a data centric subscriber, a LTE cell will be the more suitable selection than an
UMTS cell or a GSM cell; for a voice centric subscriber, a GSM cell or an UMTS cell will be
the more suitable selection than a LTE cell.

Description
The SPID is an index referring to user information (e.g. mobility profile, service usage
profile). The information is UE specific and applies to all its Radio Bearers.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

This index is mapped by the eNodeB to locally defined configuration in order to apply
specific RRM strategies (e.g. to define RRC_IDLE mode priorities and control InterRAT/inter frequency redirection/ handover in RRC_CONNECTED mode).
In RRC_IDLE mode, UE can camp in a cell with its suitable RAT or frequency.
In RRC_CONNECTED mode, when load balance or overload control triggers an interfrequency or Inter-RAT handover or redirection, eNodeB will choose a suitable target from
the cells according to the priorities indexed by its SPID. In addition, when UE finish its
service, eNodeB can release it into a suitable cell according to its SPID priority. For UE
without SPID, when overload happens, the UE could also be redirect to a suitable cell
according to common priority and overload information.
Thus, Operator can configure and push subscribers into the suitable cell according its
subscription. For example: a dongle user usually stays in a LTE high frequency band for a
high service rate; a VoIP user is prior to stay in a LTE low frequency band to guarantee the
continuous coverage.

Enhancement

In eRAN3.0
When UE triggers an inter-frequency or inter-RAT handover, eNodeB can not only
choose a suitable target from the cells but also choose a HPLMN cell for national
roaming subscribers according to the priorities indexed by its SPID. For national
roaming subscribers, HPLMN cell will be more suitable to be selected than roaming cell
when entering HPLMN LTE or 3G coverage area through connected mode handover.

Dependency

CN
It depends on SAE to support the SPID configuration.

Other features
The SPID-specific load-based handover policies function in this feature depends on
LOFD-001032 Intra-LTE Load Balancing or LOFD-001044 Inter-RAT Load Sharing to
UTRAN or LOFD-001045 Inter-RAT Load Sharing to GERAN.
The SPID-specific handover back to the HPLMN policies function in this feature
depends on LBFD-00201802 Coverage Based Inter-frequency or LOFD-001019 PS
Inter-RAT Mobility between E-UTRAN and UTRAN.

Others
GSM/UMTS network should support this functionality to avoid ping-pong handover.

1.3.6 LOFD-001059 UL Pre-allocation Based on SPID


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.2

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

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15

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Summary
Operator can configure a suitable SPID (Subscriber Profile ID for RAT/Frequency Priority) in
core network for each UE. When an UE accesses to the network, its SPID will be transmitted
to the eNodeB, by which the eNodeB can enable or disable the UL pre-allocation for the
corresponding UE.

Benefits
With this feature, Operator can assign different UL pre-allocation capability for different UE.
UL pre-allocation is used when the cell is in a light load situation to achieve the small latency
for a certain UE.

Description
The SPID is an index referring to user information (e.g. mobility profile, service usage
profile). The information is UE specific and applies to all its Radio Bearers.
This index is mapped by the eNodeB to locally defined configuration in order to apply
specific RRM strategies.
Operator can configure a suitable SPID in core network for each UE. When an UE accesses to
the network, its SPID will be transmitted to the eNodeB, by which the eNodeB can enable or
disable the UL pre-allocation for the corresponding UE.
UL pre-allocation functionality allocates PUSCH RBs to the UE while the cell is in light load
situation; even the UE's sending buffer is empty. It gives the UE the possibility to hit the
sending chance quickly. For instance, this functionality can accelerate the ACK of a DL RRC
signaling message.
With UL pre-allocation, the sending delay of UE will be shortened, but the power
consumption of UE will increase. Operators can adjust the related parameters to get
compromise on the latency and power consumption.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

CN
This feature depends on SAE to support the SPID configuration.

1.3.7 LOFD-001109 DL Non-GBR Packet Bundling


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN6.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN6.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

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16

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Summary
Delay-based downlink (DL) packet bundling introduces delay control and bundles DL packets
before transmission.

Benefits
Delay-based DL packet bundling offers the following benefits:

This feature reduces PDCCH overheads and increases the PDCCH capacity.

Compared with non-delay-based functions, this feature better meets the delay
requirements of best effort (BE) services and increases the eNodeB throughput in hybrid
service scenarios when both guaranteed bit rate (GBR) and non-GBR services exist.

Description
Delay-based DL packet bundling primarily introduces delay control for BE services.
If the network load is light and the resources for control and traffic channels are sufficient,
delay-based DL packet bundling is not necessary. When the network load increase, PDCCH
packet delay will also increase and PDCCH transmission might be congested. By bundling the
PDCCH packets, eNodeB reduced the overhead on the PDCCH transmission. This feature
improves BE user experience , and increases the eNodeB throughput in hybrid service
scenarios at high load.
When the feature is used, average PDCCH packet delay of GBR services might increase when
it is mixed with non-GBR services. For non-GBR services, when Proportional Fair (PF)
scheduling is used small PDCCH packet delay might increase.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

1.4 Signaling Storm & Terminal Battery Life


Saving
1.4.1 LOFD-070207 Intelligent Access Class Control
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN7.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN7.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN7.0

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17

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Summary
This feature enables access control in scenarios where a large number of users access the
network simultaneously, such as New Year party, concert, or gathering. Access control is
performed based on the cell congestion status to ensure smooth access of UEs and prevent a
sharp increase in signaling load.
This feature may affect user experience in network access. Therefore, it is recommended that
this feature be enabled only when a large number of users access the network simultaneously.

Benefits
This feature offers the following benefits:

Controls UE access to prevent a sharp increase in signaling load.

Relieves cell congestion and improves user experience of UEs that have accessed the
network.

Description
As defined in 3GPP specifications, access class control supported since eRAN2.1 enables an
eNodeB to send access control parameters in system information block type 2 (SIB2) to UEs
in a cell. Based on access control parameter settings, UEs then determine whether they can
access the cell.
Based on the access cause, SIB2 can contain access control parameters for different types of
services. The causes include MO Signaling, MO Data, Emergency, SSAC_MMTEL_Video,
SSAC_MMTEL_Voice, and CSFB.
For Emergency services, the access control parameter can specify whether to enable access
barring. For other services, access control parameters can specify the barring factor, barring
duration, and barring of access classes 11 to 15.
Intelligent access class control is an enhancement to access class control. With this
enhancement, an eNodeB can determine whether to start access class control based on the cell
congestion status. After access class control is started, the eNodeB can dynamically adjust
access control parameters until cell congestion is relieved.
Currently, only intelligent access class control for MO Signaling and MO Data are supported.
Intelligent access class control provides the following enhancement:

Enables an eNodeB to start access class control based on the cell congestion status.

Enables an eNodeB to dynamically adjust access control parameters after access class
control is enabled.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

UE
UEs must support AC barring control defined in 3GPP Release 8.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

1.5 Refarming
1.5.1 LOFD-001051 Compact Bandwidth
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.2

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
Huawei LTE supports the compact bandwidths by strict filter and RB punching. Compact
bandwidths for 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz are supported.

Benefits

Compact bandwidth configuration helps operators make full use of certain non-standard
frequency bands and reduce the waste of frequency fragment.

Compact bandwidth need not to accord with standard bandwidth; Compact bandwidth
produces higher throughput and better user experience.

Compact bandwidth is completely transparent to UE and has no impact to R8/R9 UE.

Description
Huawei LTE supports the Compact bandwidths listed as follows:
Table 1.1 Compact bandwidths list
None Standard
Bandwidth(MHZ)

Available RB number

Standard Bandwidth(MHZ)

4.8-4.9

25

9.6-9.9

50

10

14.6-14.9

75

15

18.3-18.5

94

20

18.6-18.9

96

20

19-19.2

96

20

19.3-19.9

100

20

Enhancement
None

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19

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Dependency

eNodeB
This feature is only supported on 1800M band with MRFUd, RRU3928 or RRU3929.

Other features
The feature LOFD-001014 Dynamic Inter-Cell Interference Coordination cannot be used
together with this feature when the compact bandwidth is from 18.3MHz to 19.2MHz.

1.6 High Speed Mobility


1.6.1 LOFD-001007 High Speed Mobility
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
Huawei eNodeB supports the mobility up to 120 km/h at 2.6GHz or 200km/h at 1.8GHz with
good performance.

Benefits
High speed access is one of the key differentiators for Huawei SingleRAN LTE solution to
provide high speed coverage. This feature brings the following benefits:

Allows Huawei LTE system to support high-speed UEs at different speed and frequency
combinations with good performance:

120km/h at 2.6GHz

160km/h at 2.1GHz

200km/h at 1.8GHz

450km/h at 700MHz & 800MHz

Provides a seamless user experience in a high-speed scenario.

Description
This feature allows a Huawei LTE system to operate in a high-speed scenario and deliver
good performance.
The higher the velocity that the UE experiences, the severer the effect of fast fading that the
system suffers. Therefore, it is more difficult to achieve the same performance in high-speed
scenario as in the normal speed.
Huawei eRAN1.0 supports the UE velocity at different frequencies as mentioned above,
which has almost covered all mobility scenarios in urban environment. The eNodeB should
measure the UE mobility speed and refine the channel estimation scheme accordingly. In
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

addition, the MIMO scheme and resource allocation mechanism is adaptively adjusted by the
radio resource management (RRM) function to meet the high-speed performance requirement.
For example, it is suitable to use frequency diversity mode rather than frequency-selective
scheduling, or transmit diversity rather than spatial multiplexing for a UE at a high speed.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

1.6.2 LOFD-001008 Ultra High Speed Mobility


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
Huawei eNodeB can support the mobility up to 450 km/h at higher frequency in LoS (Line of
Sight) scenario with good performance.

Benefits
High speed access is one of the key differentiators for Huawei SingleRAN LTE solution to
provide high speed coverage. This feature brings the following benefits:

Allows Huawei LTE system to be deployed in any high speed scenario and supports UEs
at a speed of up to 450km/h at higher frequency.

Provides a seamless user experience in a high speed scenario.

Description
In addition to the availability of speed in High Speed Mobility feature, this feature allows
Huawei LTE system to support UEs with almost any mobility profile at up to 450 km/h in
scenario with LoS path (e.g., Rician) and deliver good performance. For example, a UE on a
high-speed train could reach up to 450 km/h.
The higher the velocity that the UE experiences, the severer the effect of Doppler shift and
fast fading that the system suffers. In Huawei RRM solution, the MIMO scheme and resource
allocation mechanism is adaptively adjusted to meet the ultra high speed performance
requirement.

Enhancement

In eRAN2.0
450km/h is supported.

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21

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

Dependency
None

1.7 Coverage Enhancement


1.7.1 LOFD-001009 Extended Cell Access Radius
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
To improve wireless network coverage, 3GPP TS36.211 has defined four types of preamble
formats (0 - 3) for frame structure type 1. For format 0, it corresponds to small cell access
radius, for format 1, 2 and 3, they correspond to extended cell access radius.

Benefits
This feature is used in large cell scenario to extend the cell access radius.

Description
This feature provides operator with support of extended cell radius. According to the 3GPP
TS36.211, there are four types of preamble format (0-3) for PRACH are defined to support
different cell access radius, shown in Figure below.
Figure 1.1 Preamble formats and cell access radius

For format 0, the supported cell access radius is about 15 km, it is used in small cell scenario,
and considered as basic cell radius. The extended cell radius consists of format 1, 2 and 3. For

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22

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

format 3, the supported cell access radius is about 100 km, which is used in the large cell
scenario to enhance the system coverage.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

1.7.2 LOFD-001031 Extended CP


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
The Cyclic Prefix (CP) is the guard interval used in the OFDM to decrease the interference
caused by the multi-path delay. The 3GPP TS36.211 supports two types of CP length, namely
normal CP and extended CP.

Benefits
The normal CP and the extended CP are used in different cell scenarios. In case of small
multi-path delay scenario, normal CP can achieve better system performance. In case of large
multi-path delay scenario, extended CP can achieve better system performance.

Description
For both downlink and uplink, the extended CP is calculated as follows:
Extended cyclic prefix: TCP = 512*Ts
Where Ts = 1 / (2048*f), f = 15 kHz
For normal CP there are 7 symbols available in one slot. While for extended CP there are 6
symbols available in one slot. The extended CP increases overhead in exchange for larger
multi-path capability.
The CP length is set in the network planning phase according to the system application
scenario.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

UE

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

1 Radio & Performance

UEs should support the extended CP length as the eNodeB.

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24

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Networking & Transmission &


Security

About This Chapter


3.1 Transmission & Synchronization
3.2 IPv6
3.3 Security
3.4 Reliability
3.5 Site Architecture

2.1 Transmission & Synchronization


2.1.1 LOFD-003002 2G/3G and LTE Co-transmission
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

not applicable to Micro

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
2G/3G and LTE co-transmission provides the operators the possibility of LTE co-transmission
with legacy networks such as GSM, UMTS, or CDMA for better resources utilization and
OPEX reduction.

Benefits
In a co-site scenario:
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Better utilization of transmission resources is achieved.

OPEX (rental fees of the transmission resources) is reduced.

Description
The eNodeB supports co-transmission with other 2G/3G base stations.
During eNodeB site deployment, it is possible that an eNodeB shares a site with a base station
of different technologies such as GSM, UMTS, or CDMA. In this case, co-transmission
facilitates better utilization of transmission resources and reduces the OPEX (rental fees of the
transmission resources).
The following figure shows the 2G/3G and LTE co-transmission
Figure 1.1 2G/3G and LTE co-transmission

The implementation of the co-transmission function depends on four sub functions: multiple
ports, IP route, DHCP relay, and Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling. They are
described as follows:

Multiple ports: eNodeB supports several Ethernet and E1/T1 interfaces.

IP route: The data of the cascaded base station is switched to IP network by the IP route
function in the eNodeB. IP routes can be configured by users.

DHCP relay: In general, a cascaded base station obtains the IP address by the DHCP
function. With the DHCP function, the DHCP client, that is the base station, and the
DHCP server are required to be located in the same broadcast domain. In the cotransmission scenario, however, the cascaded base station is not located in the same
broadcast domain as the DHCP server. DHCP relay provides a means to transfer DHCP
messages between different broadcast domains.

WRR scheduling: It ensures fairness between the cascaded base station and the eNodeB
for the data transport. Data are scheduled on the basis of the weight computed according
to the traffic bandwidth. Each base station and eNodeB has a weight and then has a
chance to be scheduled.

Enhancement
None

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26

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Dependency

Others
2G/3G should support IP transmission.

2.1.2 LOFD-003011 Enhanced Transmission QoS


Management
2.1.2.1 LOFD-00301101 Transport Overbooking
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The transmission overbooking allows admission of more users with the guarantee of certain
quality with the enhanced admission control mechanism (TAC: Transport Admission Control)
and QoS mechanism (traffic shaping and congestion control).

Benefits
This feature allows admission of more users with the guarantee of certain traffic quality.

Description
The transmission overbooking mechanism allows admission of more users with the guarantee
of certain traffic quality.
The implementation of this function depends on the sub-functions TAC, traffic shaping, and
congestion control.

TAC: It allows the bandwidth for user admission control to be larger than the bandwidth
of the physical port. That is, operators can set the admission threshold to allow admission
of more users.

Traffic shaping: It guarantees that the total available traffic bandwidth is not larger than
the total configured bandwidth. The minimum transport bandwidth of each resource
group supported by eNodeB is 64kps for dual rate and 32kps for single rate The
bandwidth granularity is 1kbps.

Congestion control: It detects congestion. If congestion occurs, two steps would be


taken. First, a signal is sent to the data source to indicate the congestion. Second, some
low-priority packets are discarded.

Enhancement
None

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27

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Dependency
None

2.1.2.2 LOFD-00301102 Transport Differentiated Flow


Control
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Transmission Differentiated Flow Control enhances the admission control mechanism (TAC:
Transport Admission Control) ,Queue scheduling (Priority Queue-PQ scheduling and
Weighted Round Robin-WRR scheduling) and back-pressure flow control to provide users
with differentiated services while guaranteeing fairness.

Benefits
This feature provides users with differentiated services while guaranteeing fairness.

Description
Transmission Differentiated Flow Control provides users with differentiated services while
guaranteeing fairness.

Fairness: Each admission user should be allocated some bandwidth to avoid hungry
phenomenon.

Differentiation: High-priority users take precedence over low-priority ones.

The implementation of this function depends on the sub-functions TAC , Queue scheduling
and back-pressure flow control.

TAC: If the GBR requirement exists, the transport bandwidth is computed on the basis of
the GBR; otherwise, it is computed on the basis of the default reserved bandwidth of, for
example, non-GBR services.

Queue scheduling: services enter to PQ and WRR queues based on service priority.
Services that entered the PQ queues have the highest priority to be scheduled, Services
that entered the WRR queues are scheduled on the basis of the weight computed
according to the traffic bandwidth. Each service has a weight and then has a chance to be
scheduled.

Back-pressure flow control: It detects congestion S1 overhead . If congestion occurs, two


steps would be taken. First, a signal is sent to the data source to indicate the congestion.
Second, some low-priority packets are discarded.

Enhancement
None
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28

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Dependency
None

2.1.2.3 LOFD-00301103 Transport Resource Overload


Control
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Transmission Resource Overload Control is a way to rapidly enhance the transmission
stability when overloaded happen unexpectedly.

Benefit
This feature provides protection for the system when transmission resources are overloaded
unexpectedly

Description
Transmission Resource Overload Control provides protection for the system when
transmission resources are overloaded unexpectedly.
There are two scenarios of the unexpected overload:

A great bandwidth change of transport bearer (the bandwidth available in the system)
occurs. For example, the transmission bandwidth decreases from 20 Mb/s to 10 Mb/s
because of network failure.

A great bandwidth change of service traffic (the bandwidth used in the system) occurs.
For example, the traffic bandwidth increases from 5 Mb/s to 10 Mb/s rapidly.

When the above-mentioned scenarios happen, it is necessary to take some extreme actions
such as releasing low-priority users to guarantee high-priority users'QoS.
The strategy depends on QoS parameter Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP). ARP
defines whether user could be released during overload or not.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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29

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

2.1.3 LOFD-070219 IP Active Performance


Measurement
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN7.0

applicable to Micro from eRAN7.0

applicable to LampSite from eRAN7.0

Summary
IP performance monitoring (IPPM) introduced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
boosts IP transport network development and improves the test performance of IP links
between transmission devices and test devices.
This feature is developed based on IPPM specifications, including RFC5357 (TWAMP),
RFC2678, RFC2680, RFC2681, and RFC3393.
This feature supports IPPM between wireless network elements (NEs) and devices supporting
the Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP) in the wireless backhaul network. For
example, IPPM can be performed between:

eNodeBs over the X2 interfaces

Base stations and base station controllers in the GSM or UMTS network

eNodeBs and devices in the evolved packet core (EPC)

Base station controllers

Base station controllers and devices in the core network (CN)

Wireless NEs and transmission devices (such as routers)

Wireless NEs and test devices

Benefits
This feature supports the quality of service (QoS) test on the transport network, facilitates
problem location and rectification, and therefore reduces maintenance costs.
This feature supports traffic measurement over a long duration, enables operators to monitor
the QoS of the transport network, and therefore reduces maintenance costs.
This feature uses UDP packet injection for testing, consuming network bandwidths. For
example, if a piece of monitoring stream is sent in consecutive packet transmission mode at a
speed of 10 packets per second and the length of each packet is 80 bytes, the network
bandwidth to be consumed is 6.4 kbit/s.

Description
This feature detects the transmission performance of the IP network between eNodeBs and the
EPC, or between transport devices and test devices based on the TWAMP. Meanwhile, this
feature monitors changes in QoS parameters related to the transport network, such as roundtrip delay, one-way packet loss rate, and one-way jitter.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

A measurement model is defined based on the TWAMP. The measurement model provides
functions of the Controller and the Responder. The Controller consists of the Session-Sender
and Control-Client, and the Responder consists of the Session-Reflector and Server.
TWAMP control packets are transmitted between the Control-Client and Server for
measurement task negotiation (also known as initialization), start, and stop. TWAMP control
packets are transmitted based on TCP, and the Server uses port 862.
TWAMP test packets are transmitted between the Session-Sender and Session-Reflector based
on UDP.
The following figure shows the working mechanism of the measurement model.

The Controller sends TWAMP packets over a negotiated stream based on the measurement
task negotiation result. The stream consists of the Controller IP address, Responder IP
address, UDP port number, and Type-P information. Type-P information can be the protocol
type, port number, packet length, or differentiated services code point (DSCP). A TWAMP test
packet contains the sending sequence number and sending timestamp. Based on the TWAMP
test packets, link performance indicators (such as one-way delay, one-way jitter, one-way
packet loss rate, and round-trip delay) can be calculated.
The Responder sends responses to the packets sent by the Controller. The Responder records
the receiving timestamp, obtains the sending sequence number and timestamp, and generates
a response packet. The response packet contains the receiving timestamp, sending sequence
number, and sending timestamp of each packet sent by the Controller, as well as the sending
sequence number and sending timestamp of each packet sent by the Session-Reflector.
This feature works in unacknowledged mode, and supports the functions of the Controller and
Responder.

This feature calculates the packet loss rate within a measurement period using the following
formulas:

Packet loss rate in the direction from the Sender to the Reflector = (Number of packets
sent by the Sender Number of packets sent by the Reflector)/Number of packets sent
by the Sender

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Packet loss rate in the direction from the Reflector to the Sender = (Number of packets
sent by the Reflector Number packets received by the Sender)/Number of packets sent
by the Reflector

This feature calculates the round-trip time (RTT) using the following formula:
RTT = (T2 T1) + (T4 T3) = (T4 T1) (T3 T2)
where

T1: time that the Sender sends the packet

T2: time that the Reflector receives the packet

T3: time that the Reflector sends the response packet

T4: time that the Sender receives the response packet

This feature calculates the one-way jitter based on the delay between adjacent packets.
This feature supports fault location of the transport network in segments in daily operation
and maintenance by connecting the eNodeB and TWAMP supporting devices such as the
intermediate router. This feature supports traffic measurement over a long duration and
quality monitoring of the transport network.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
None

UE
None

Transport Network
None

CN
None

OSS
None

Other Features
None

Others
Peer devices must support the TWAMP protocol.

2.1.4 LOFD-003013 Enhanced Synchronization


2.1.4.1 LOFD-00301303 Clock over IP (Huawei proprietary)
Availability
This feature is

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32

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

not applicable to Micro

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Summary
Clock over IP is an alternative network clock synchronization solution if the network does not
support the IEEE1588 V2 Clock Synchronization. It is Huawei proprietary clock protocol.

Benefits
Huawei proprietary clock over IP protocol does not require extra requirement to be invested
into the IP network. This feature has the same requirements for the network as the service
transmission.

Description
The IEEE 1588V2 clock synchronization solution requires that all the devices on the clock
relay path support IEEE1588V2 protocol. If the network does not support IEEE1588V2
protocol, Huawei LTE eRAN2.0 can use Huawei proprietary protocol to support clock over
IP.
The following figure shows the framework of Huawei proprietary protocol. The clock servers
generate time stamps and send the time stamps to eNodeBs connecting to it, which act as
clock clients in this case. Because there is delay and jitter in packet networks, eNodeB uses an
adaptive method to get rid of the delay and retrieve the timing signals. The time stamps are set
in packets at the UDP layer and will be transmitted at the physical layer after the related
packet header is added, so there will be an extra expense in bandwidth.

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33

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Figure 1.1 Framework of Huawei proprietary protocol

Pay attention to the following information:

There are clock servers and clock clients. The servers can be located in the network
independently, and the clients are integrated into the eNodeBs.

An adaptive algorithm is involved in the system. The clock servers send time stamps,
and clock clients receive time stamps to retrieve the frequency.

One clock server serves a maximum of 512 eNodeBs.

Two or more clock servers can be used together to improve the reliability. This is
optional.

The required transmission bandwidth for time stamps in unicast mode is from 5kbit/s to
100kbit/s for each clock client. In most cases, 25kbit/s is recommended.

This proprietary protocol only supports frequency synchronization. Frequency accuracy


obtained in the eNodeB is 0.05ppm.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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34

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

2.2 IPv6
2.2.1 LOFD-003023 IEEE 1588v2 over IPv6
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN3.0

not applicable to Micro

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature enables eNodeB to provide frequency synchronization by transporting IEEE
1588v2 PTP messages through IPv6 unicast packet.
This feature is applicative in FDD system.

Benefits
When eNodeB accesses the IPv6 network, IEEE 1588 v2 clock synchronization could be used
in IPv6 transmission network, provide an alternative clock solution for the GPS clock
synchronization.

Description
IEEE 1588 v2 standard enables precise synchronization of clocks in measurement and control
systems implemented with technologies such as network communication, local computing and
distributed objects. It is applicable to systems communicating via packet networks.
The clocks in the communication system communicate with each other over a communication
network and the 1588 function generates a master slave relationship among the clocks in the
system. All clocks ultimately derive their time from a clock known as the grandmaster clock.
IEEE 1588 v2 over IPv6 enables the use of 1588 in networking environment deploying IPv6.
Time server as clock master sends the IEEE 1588v2 PTP message which encapsulated in IPv6
unicast packet. Then the eNodeB as clock client receives these message and uses the Adaptive
Clock algorithm to implement frequency synchronization.
The synchronization mechanism is the same as IEEE1588 v2 over IPv4, please refer to
LOFD-003013 Enhanced Synchronization.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

Transport network
The peer equipments should support IPv6.

Other features
This feature depends on LOFD-003013 Enhanced Synchronization.

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35

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Others
This feature needs time server support 1588v2 over IPv6.

2.3 Security
2.3.1 LOFD-001010 Security Mechanism
2.3.1.1 LOFD-00101001 Encryption: AES
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The encryption function provides confidentiality protection for both signaling data and user
data between the eNodeB and the UE.

Benefits
The procedure provides confidentiality protection for signaling data and user data in order to
keep them from illegal interception and modifying.

Description
LTE handles the ciphering protection for the RRC signaling and user data. The encryption
function includes both ciphering and deciphering and it is performed at PDCP layer. The
ciphering is activated by the initial security activation procedure after receiving the UE
context from the EPC. Upon connection establishment , the ciphering algorithm and key to be
used are generated by the RRC, which is common for all radio bearers, for example, the
configuration is used for the radio bearers carrying signaling data as well as for those carrying
user data.
The ciphering algorithms can only be changed with handover. The ciphering keys change with
handover or RRC connection re-establishment. An intra-cell handover procedure may be used
to change the keys in RRC_CONNECTED mode.
From eRAN1.0, encryption algorithm AES is supported.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

UE
The UE should support the same encryption algorithm as the eNodeB.

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36

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

2.3.1.2 LOFD-00101002 Encryption: SNOW 3G


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The encryption function provides confidentiality protection for both signaling data and user
data between the eNodeB and the UE.

Benefits
The procedure provides confidentiality protection for signaling data and user data in order to
keep them from illegal interception and modifying.

Description
LTE handles the ciphering protection for the RRC signaling and user data. The encryption
function includes both ciphering and deciphering and it is performed at PDCP layer. The
ciphering is activated by the initial security activation procedure after receiving the UE
context from the EPC. Upon connection establishment , the ciphering algorithm and key to be
used are generated by the RRC, which is common for all radio bearers, for example, the
configuration is used for the radio bearers carrying signaling data as well as for those carrying
user data.
The ciphering algorithms can only be changed with handover. The ciphering keys change with
handover or RRC connection re-establishment. An intra-cell handover procedure may be used
to change the keys in RRC_CONNECTED mode.
Huawei eRAN2.0 supports SNOW3G with 128 bits keys.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

UE
The UE should support the same encryption algorithm as the eNodeB.

2.3.2 LOFD-003009 IPsec


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

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37

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
IPsec is used to protect, authenticate, and encrypt data flow for necessary security between
two network entities at the IP layer.

Benefits
This feature provides the security mechanism, confidentiality, integrity, and authentication
between participating peers at the IP layer.

Description
The following figure shows the IPsec
Figure 1.1 IPsec

IP Security (IPsec) provides a framework of open standards dealing with data confidentiality,
integrity, and authentication between participating hosts. IPsec provides these security
services at the IP layer. It uses IKEV1 & IKEV2 (Internet Key Exchange) to handle
negotiation of protocols and algorithms based on the local policy and to generate the
encryption and authentication keys used by IPsec.
IPsec can be used to protect one or more data flows between two eNodeBs, between eNodeB
and SGW/MME, or between security gateway and eNodeB.
The key characteristics of IPsec are as follows:

Two encapsulation modes: transport mode and channel mode

Two security protocols: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulation Security Payload
(ESP)

Main encryption methods: NULL, Data Encryption Standard , Triple Data Encryption
Standard , and Advanced Encryption Standard

Main integrity protection methods: HMAC_SHA-1,AES-XCBC-MAC-96, SHA256 and


HMAC_MD5, where HMAC stands for Hash Message Authentication Code, SHA stands
for Secure Hash Algorithm, and MD5 stands for Message Digest 5

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Enhancement
In eRAN2.0, PKI (Public Key infrastructure) could be used to provide authentication for
IPsec. This needs the support of feature LOFD-003010 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
In eRAN3.0,two new integrity protection methods AES-XCBC-MAC-96 and SHA256 could
be use.

Dependency

Transport network
Security gateway is needed, and it should support IPsec.

Other features
This feature depends on LOFD-003010 Public Key Infrastructure(PKI).

2.3.3 LOFD-003014 Integrated Firewall


2.3.3.1 LOFD-00301401 Access Control List (ACL)
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Access Control List is comprised of a series rules, the eNodeB provides packet filtering based
on Access Control List.

Benefits

The eNodeB provides packets filtering according to Access Control List to prevent some
attacks.

The eNodeB identifies specific kinds of packets, which need to be encrypted and
authenticated by IPsec according to Access Control List.

Description
Access Control List (ACL) is comprised of a series rules. The operating in the system is
according to the rules of ACL.
ACL is supported by eNodeB. With ACL rules, the eNodeB provides packets filtering
according the packet attributes, such as, source IP addresses, destination IP addresses, source
port numbers and destination port numbers of the packets. The ACL rules can also be based
on the Type of service (TOS), DSCP and address wildcard.
When IPsec is applied to guarantee security of the data flows, operators can select data flows
that need to encrypted and authenticated by IPsec with Access Control List.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Enhancement

In eRAN3.0
ACL can be utilized by L2 filter; working under L2, ACL rule will filter packages by
VLAN identify. The eNodeB can identify the VLAN ID of the packages, only packages
with own VLAN ID will be allowed.
eNodeB support that IPsec encrypted and authenticate selected data flows with ACL
under IPv6.

Dependency
None

2.3.3.2 LOFD-00301402 Access Control List (ACL) Auto


Configuration
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN7.0

applicable to Micro from eRAN7.0

applicable to LampSite from eRAN7.0

Summary
This feature automatically creates access control list (ACL) rules for operation and
maintenance (O&M) data, service data, signaling data, data from the Certificate Authority
(CA), data from the security gateway (SeGW), and clock data. The automatic ACL rule
creation simplifies whitelist configuration for the packet filtering function.

Benefits
This feature reduces the complexity of configuring the packet filtering function.

Description
This feature works as follows:

Enables the eNodeB to obtain the IP addresses and port numbers of peer NEs from the
managed object (MO) information about O&M link, service link, signaling link, CA,
SeGW, and clock. Using the IP addresses and port numbers, this feature automatically
creates ACL rules. These automatically created ACL rules can ensure that the eNodeB
provides basic services.

Updates related ACL rules when MO information changes.

When an O&M function is enabled at the peer end, not at the local end, the eNodeB cannot
obtain the IP address of a maintenance packet. To ensure information security, ACL rules for
maintenance data must be manually created.

Enhancement
None
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40

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Dependency

eNodeB
None

UE
None

Transport Network
None

CN
None

OSS
None

Other Features
None

Others
None

2.4 Reliability
2.4.1 LOFD-001018 S1-flex
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature is part of the MME Pool solution which needs the support from both the eNodeB
and the MME. It allows an eNodeB to be connected to multiple MMEs simultaneously.
Huawei eNodeB supports a maximum of 16 S1 interfaces. There is one MME on each S1
interface which can be also connected to several MMEs.

Benefits
This feature increases the flexibility of S1 interface and provides the following benefits:

Increases the overall usage of capacity of MME pool.

Improves the load sharing across MMEs in pool.

Avoids unnecessary signaling in the core network when the UE moves in the MME Pool
Area because the served MME of the UE will not change.

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41

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Description
A connection topology between MME Pool and eNodeBs is shown as Figure 2-1:
Figure 1.1 connection topology between MME Pool and eNodeBs

If an eNodeB connects to a MME Pool, it indicates that the eNodeB must be able to determine
which MME in the pool should receive the signaling sent from a UE:
If the UE gives the MME information in the RRC signal message, the eNodeB will select the
MME according with this information.
If the UE does not give the MME information or the registered MME is not connected to the
eNodeB, the eNodeB will select a MME as follow:

Topology-based MME Pool selection

The MME pool is selected based the network topology to reduces the possibility of switching
MME during mobility.

Load-based MME selection

The MME is selected based on its capacity and load. The capacity of the MME can be
informed to the eNodeB during the S1 setup by the MME. When an MME is overloaded, the
eNodeB will limit assigning new UEs to the MME according to the overload action
information MME sent to it when overload started.

Enhancement

In eRAN6.0
The priority-based MME selection method is added. When MMEs or the S1 interfaces to
MMEs are assigned different priorities, the MME with the highest priority is

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

preferentially selected. If multiple MMEs have the highest priority, the MME with the
lowest load among them is preferentially selected. An MME with a low priority is
selected only when all high-priority MMEs are faulty or overloaded.
The cell-based MME information configuration is added. In the case of TDD and FDD
system sharing the same eNodeB but with separated MME group, UE will only access
the MMEs which have been configured to the cell.

Dependency

CN
MME must support MME Pool function simultaneously.

2.4.2 LOFD-003007 Bidirectional Forwarding


Detection
Model
LT1S000BFD00

Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
BFD is a kind of bidirectional-detecting mechanism, which can be used to detect the fault of
the IP route.

Benefits

BFD help the operator to detecting network fault.

BFD achieve reliability and high availability of Ethernet services, enables the service
provider to provide economical and efficient advanced Ethernet services.

Description
The BFD feature is a method for IP connectivity failure detection by periodically transmitting
BFD packets between two nodes. When no BFD packets are received during the detection
interval, failure is declared and related recover action will be triggered, such as IP route, to
avoid traffic drop. BFD can detecting the failure rapidly, so it could use for telecom service
above IP network.
The one-hop and multi-hop BFD is supported by eNodeB. Multi-hop means there is at least
one router on the IP path between the source node and destination node. Otherwise it is onehop.
The one-hop BFD is used for the gateway availability detection when router is used.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

The multi-hop BFD is used for detecting the connectivity of two network elements, such as
eNodeB to eNodeB, eNodeB to SGW/MME and eNodeB to transport equipment. The
following figure shows the one-hop and multi-hop BFD application scenarios:
Figure 1.1 the one-hop and multi-hop BFD application scenarios

Enhancement
None

Dependency

Transport network
The peer equipment must support BFD when BFD is used to detect the fault of the IP
route.

2.4.3 LOFD-003008 Ethernet Link Aggregation (IEEE


802.3ad)
Model
LT1S000ELA00

Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The Ethernet Link Aggregation binds several Ethernet links to one logical link.

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44

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Benefits

Ethernet link aggregation enhances the reliability of Ethernet link between eNodeB and
transport equipment.

Ethernet provides loading balance on the link between the eNodeB and transport
equipment and increases the bandwidth of the link.

Description
Ethernet link aggregation is a protocol defined in IEEE802.3ad. IEEE802.3ad defines a link
aggregation control protocol (LACP). The links status of link group could be detected by
LACP.
The eNodeB supports static LACP. For static LACP, the parameters of the link group are
configured manually. The fault detecting uses the LACP.
The Ethernet link aggregation can be used in the following figure.
Figure 1.1 the Ethernet link aggregation

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
This feature is not applicable to UMPT board.

Transport network
The tranport network's ingress equipment from eNodeB must support this function.
It must support Ethenet.

2.5 Site Architecture


2.5.1 LOFD-003029 SFN
Availability
This feature is
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45

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

applicable to Macro from eRAN6.0

not applicable to Micro

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

Summary
This feature combines multiple RRU(Radio Remote Unit) or pRRU(Pico RRU) into one
single frequency network (SFN) logical cell. Only one PCI (Physical Cell Identifier) is used
for this logical cell.SFN implements the joint scheduling of air interface resources in multiple
RRU/pRRU by transmitting the same data with the same time-frequency resources from
different RRU/pRRU.

Benefits
The SFN feature reduces interference and greatly improves the signal to interference plus
noise ratio (SINR) at the cell edge in a densely populated area.
The SFN feature improves the blind/weak point coverage and indoor coverage.
The SFN feature reduces handover times and call drop rate compared with the independent
RRU/pRRU depolyment.

Description
This feature provides independent demodulation of signals from multiple RRUs in one cell.

In uplink, the eNodeB performs independent demodulation of the multiple RRU receiver
signals within a BBU. The eNodeB receiving PRACH and SRS from all RRUs first.
Then the RRU with shortest RTD (Round Trip Delay) of PRACH loopback is selected
for PRACH receiving. The RRU with best SRS RSRP is selected for PUSCH and
PUCCH receiving.

In downlink, the eNodeB copies the signal of a cell and outputs it to multiple RRUs.
Comparing to single RRU cell, the multiple RRUs combined cell has no interference
between RRUs, but obtained gain from transmitting from multiple RRUs.

A cell can be divided into multiple coverage area, each coverage area has independent RRU,
and multiple RRUs belong to the same cell and have the same PCI.
This feature supports two to six RRUs/pRRU groups to be combined to support one SFN cell
based on LBBP board type. All RRUs/pRRU used for one SFN cells combination shall be
connected to same LBBP board.
When using this feature, Carrier Aggregation, Extended CP, Intra-eNodeB UL CoMP and UL
2x2 MU-MIMO can not be supported.

Enhancement
None.

Dependency

eNodeB
All RRUs used for one cell's combination shall be connected to same baseband board.
Multiple RRUs per eNodeB are needed.

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46

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

2 Networking & Transmission & Security

All RRUs used for one cell's combination shall be all 1T1R RRUs, all 2T2R RRUs or all
2T4R RRUs.
This feature is not supported with LBBPc for Macro RRU combination.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

O&M

About This Chapter


4.1 SON Self-Configuration
4.2 SON Self-Optimization
4.3 SON Self-Healing
4.4 Power Saving
4.5 Antenna Management

3.1 SON Self-Optimization


3.1.1 LOFD-001032 Intra-LTE Load Balancing
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
This feature resolves load imbalances between the serving cell and its inter-frequency
neighboring cells.

Benefits
This feature achieves better utilization of network resources and increases system capacity. In
addition, it reduces the probability of system overload and increases access success rates.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Description
Intra-LTE Load Balancing is recommended in commercial LTE networks with multiple LTE
frequencies where one frequency has a higher load but other frequencies have lower load.
After this feature is enabled, a local cell measures its own cell load If the local cell load
exceeds a preset threshold, the eNodeB of the local cell will collect neighboring cell load
information. If a neighboring cell's load is lower than a threshold, the eNodeB to which the
local cell belongs will decide whether to hand over some UEs to the lower loaded neighboring
cell. The cell load is represented by the physical resource block (PRB) usage, as defined in
3GPP TS 36.314.
The load balancing procedure consists of the following activities: load measurement and
evaluation, load information exchange, load balancing decision, load balancing execution and
performance monitoring.
Intra-LTE Load Balancing is used in scenarios where inter-frequency LTE cells have highly
overlapping coverage.
Blind load balancing is supported for the scenarios where no X2 interface is available or the
X2 interface does not support load information exchange.

Enhancement

In eRAN7.0
Frequency priority based MLB is supported.
Blind load balancing is applicable to scenarios where no X2 interface is available or the
X2 interface does not support load information exchange.

Dependency
None.

3.1.2 LOFD-002005 Mobility Robust Optimization


(MRO)
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
MRO aims to reduce ping-pong handovers, too early handovers, and too late handovers. It is
implemented by optimizing the typical mobility control parameters.

Benefits
This feature provides the following benefits:
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

Reducing ping-pong handovers, too early handovers, and too late handovers.

Saving labor cost for typical and common mobility optimization scenarios

3 O&M

Description
This feature reduces ping-pong handovers, too early handovers, and too late handovers in
different scenarios:

Ping-pong handovers, too early handovers, and too late handovers of Intra-LTE
scenarios.
The major MRO parameter adjustment are the CIO (Cell Individual Offset) of event A3
for intra-frequency MRO, CIO of event A3/A4 and measurement threshold of event A2
for inter-frequency MRO.
Both too early and too late handovers are captured at the source eNodeB. Only outgoing
handover failures are captured. There is no need to capture incoming handovers.
CIO offset is adjusted automatically by steps according to the number of abnormal
handovers in a certain period. CIO offset explicitly declares the handover threshold
between measurement results of signaling quality from both source and target cells.
Hence, changing the CIO offset will shift ahead or delay the happening of handovers.
The reduction of ping-pong handovers exploits the UE History Information that is passed
from the source eNodeB to the target eNodeB during the handover preparation. When
the UE History Information is received, the target eNodeB identifies ping-pong if the
second newest cell's GCI is equal to that of the target cell and the time spent in the
source cell is less than a ping-pong time threshold. Ping-pong is corrected by decreasing
the Cell Individual Offset, thus delaying handovers.
In the intra-frequency scenario, there is a UE specific ping-pong handover reduction
algorithm. If the UE is identified under ping-pong handover, specific CIO parameter is
applied for the UE to stop the ping-pong handover.

Too early handovers and too late handovers of Inter-RAT scenarios.


Event A2 and B1 measurements thresholds are adjusted for inter-RAT scenarios.

Enhancement

In eRAN2.1
MRO feature is enhanced with the following administration functions:

Feature On/Off Switch: operator can enable or disable the feature

Log: records the key event during the MRO process and this information can be used
for query and statistic. Operator can also analyze the log to check the feature running
status and key events.

In eRAN6.0
UE-level MRO against ping-pong handovers is introduced. The eNodeB identifies pingpong UEs and sends corresponding UE-level MRO parameters to these UEs. This type of
MRO reduces the number of ping-pong handovers, reduces Uu resource usage, and
improves quality of experience (QoE) of UEs.
The UE-level MRO algorithm is independent of the cell-level MRO algorithm. They are
controlled by different switches.

Dependency

eNodeB

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

For intra-LTE MRO scenarios, X2 interface is needed.

3.1.3 LOFD-002015 RACH Optimization


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.2

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The feature supports the following functions:

Dynamic adjustment of preamble groups

Dynamic assignment of PRACH resources

Optimize the back-off time

Benefits
The feature increases the random access success ratio.

Description
The number of PRACH preamble is 64, the preamble is divided into two parts which is for
contention-based random access and non-contention-based random access separately. The
eNodeB can detect which part is enough while another part is not enough, and eNodeB can
adjust the number of the preamble group dynamically according to the demand.
The PRACH configuration index indicates the number and positions of sub-frames which are
used to send random access preamble. The eNodeB measures the number of preamble during
the period, and eNodeB will adjust the PRACH configuration index to fulfill the demand. If
the number of preamble is more than threshold, the PRACH configuration index will be
adjusted to indicate more sub-frames, and vice versa.
When conflict on PRACH resource detected, eNodeB could send different back-off time
indicator to UEs. UE could select a random back-off time based on the back-off time indicator
to try access again, so that the chance of conflict again is reduced.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

3.2 SON Self-Healing


3.2.1 LOFD-002010 Sleeping Cell Detection
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
Sleeping cell refers to one cell may have some serious problems but no obvious abnormal
event or alarm had been triggered. UEs may camp in this cell but they cannot setup any
service connection or access into the network. This feature is provided to detect such issues
and to notify operator.

Benefits
This feature will shorten the time to detect some cell with serious fault problem but not
having triggered an alarm yet

Description
The sleeping cell detection is a function that an eNodeB can automatically detect faulty cell
which cannot provide normal service but eNodeB does not report alarm to EMS, so operator
does not know if cell is under sleeping status and cannot solve it in time.
eNodeB can detect sleeping cell itself and report alarm to EMS. EMS also can implement an
algorithm to detect sleeping cell and generate an alarm. These two ways can be combined
together to find sleeping cell more accurately than only by one way.
eNodeB uses the connected user measurement method to detect the sleeping cell. eNodeB will
count connected user every second. If the user number keeps zero for a given period of time
(this time value can be configured), eNodeB will generate an alarm to EMS. EMS will
correlate this alarm with some other alarms (for example, the alarm from antenna to which the
cell is associated, the alarm from the Tx/Rx channel, etc). This alarm is generated when the
eNodeB detects that the cell has no accessing of any user for a long time.
After detecting the dormant cell, the eNodeB will deactivate and activate the cell
automatically.
It is suggested that this feature will be used with EMS sleeping cell detection feature together
to get more accurate result.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

3.2.2 LOFD-002011 Antenna Fault Detection


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro form eRAN3.0

applicable to Lampsite from eRAN6.0

Summary
The faults on the antenna system and radio frequency (RF) channels are caused by the
improper installation of projects when the projects are created, relocated, or optimized. The
faults can also be caused by natural or external changes.
This feature provides the function of detecting faults on eRAN antennas and enables users to
detect and locate antenna faults.

Benefits
This feature implements the detection of common antenna faults, thus improving the
efficiency and accuracy of fault diagnosis.
By using this feature, RF engineers need not use equipment to measure eNodeB on site every
time, thus reducing the project cost.

Description
The antenna system plays an important role in mobile communications. The performance of
the entire network is affected by the following problems:

Improper type or location of the antenna system

Improperly configured parameters of the antenna system

Faulty antenna system

The antenna fault detection system can detect the following faults and raise related alarms:

Weak receiving signal

Unbalance of receiving signal between the main and the diversity

Voltages Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) abnormal

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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53

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

3.3 Power Saving


3.3.1 LOFD-001025 Adaptive Power Consumption
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
Huawei LTE supports the green eNodeB solution with power saving management. This
solution has two sub-features: Adaptive Power Adjustment and RF module regular time sleep
mode.

Benefits
This feature improves the efficiency of the PA and saves power consumption of the eNodeB.

Description
Huawei LTE supports the green eNodeB solution with power saving management. This
solution has two sub-features: Adaptive Power Adjustment and RF module regular time sleep
mode.

Adaptive Power Adjustment

Huawei Adaptive Power Adjustment solution, based on the traffic load, supports dynamic
adjustment of the PA working state, and thereby improves PA efficiency and saves eNodeB
power consumption.
The typical scenarios are described as follows:
1. Based on the change of cell load in the day and at night, the PA working state is changed
dynamically.
2. Based on the change of cell load in the working days and non-working days of the business
districts, the PA working state is changed dynamically.
3. At the early stage of network deployment, there are usually less users in the cell, and when
there's no any user in the cell, the PA working state is changed dynamically.

RF module regular time sleep mode

In some scenarios, such as high-speed railway, which will stop operating at late night, the RF
module of eNodeB can be put into sleep mode automatically at preset time based on the
operator's configuration.

Enhancement
None

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Dependency

OSS
This feature depends on OSS feature WOFD-200200 Base Station Power-Saving
Management -LTE.

Others
"Adaptive Power Adjustment" is not supported in 1.4, 3 and 5 MHz system bandwidth.

3.3.2 LOFD-001039 RF Channel Intelligent Shutdown


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
In MIMO mode, the carrier for a cell is transferred through different transmission channels.
When no traffic is on the cell, the carrier can be switched off on part of transmission channels.
In this way, the power consumption of the eNodeB in empty load mode is decreased. When
there is traffic, the carrier can be switched on automatically to have the cell run normally
again.

Benefits
Without load, the eNodeB can switch off carrier on some transmit channels to reduce the
power consumption of the eNodeB.

Description
An eNodeB in the LTE system is usually configured with two or four antennas. The traffic in
the cell varies by time. In some certain periods, for example, from the midnight to the early
morning (operators can customize the periods), there is no traffic. When the idle status is
detected by the eNodeB, it switched off the carrier on one transmission channel (if there are
two transmission channels) or on two transmission channels (if there are four transmission
channels) to decrease the power consumption. When a UE accesses the cell or the periods
end, the eNodeB can automatically switch on the carrier that is switched off. Then, the cell
recovers to the normal state and continues with services.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
The eNodeB must have more than one RF channel.

OSS

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

This feature depends on OSS feature WOFD-200200 Base Station Power-Saving


Management -LTE.

Other features
LOFD-001001 DL 2x2 MIMO or LOFD-001003 DL 4x2 MIMO

Others
This feature is not supported in 1.4, 3 and 5 MHz system bandwidth.

3.3.3 LOFD-001040 Low Power Consumption Mode


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
In some cases where an eNodeB detects a power outage or receives a command, the eNodeB
can opt to or be forced to enter low power consumption mode, which helps extend the inservice time of an eNodeB powered by batteries.

Benefits
Compared with the eNodeB in normal mode, an eNodeB in low power consumption mode
consumes less power and has a longer in-service time if powered by batteries. In addition, if
the power supply cannot be quickly restored, the probability of an eNodeB going out of
service is also lower.

Description
Low power consumption mode has three stages. If the eNodeB stays in a stage for a time
equal to the operator-defined duration threshold and the power supply fails to restore within
this time, the eNodeB enters the next stage. This process continues until the cell becomes out
of service.
An eNodeB enters low power consumption mode if either of the following conditions is met:

The power outage alarm is reported.


If power insufficiency or power failure lasts for a time equal to the operator-defined
duration, this alarm is reported and the eNodeB enters low power consumption mode.

The element management system (EMS) delivers a command.


The operator delivers a command using the EMS, instructing the eNodeB to enter or exit
from low power consumption mode.

Enhancement
None

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Dependency

eNodeB
This feature is only applicable to Macro eNodeB configured with Battery

OSS
This feature depends on OSS feature WOFD-200200 Base Station Power-Saving
Management -LTE.

3.3.4 LOFD-001041 Power Consumption Monitoring


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

applicable to Micro from eRAN3.0

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
The eNodeB reports the power consumption status to the EMS. Through the EMS, the change
in power consumption of the eNodeB can be monitored by the operator, and a report on the
power consumption can be generated.

Benefits
The eNodeB reports the power consumption status to the EMS. Therefore, the operator can
monitor the power consumption of the eNodeB. With the report on the power consumption,
the operator can exactly know the benefits brought by the decrease in power consumption.

Description
The eNodeB periodically monitors the power of each monitoring point and reports the power
consumption within a period. The EMS receives and collects all data about power
consumption. Through the EMS, the operator can observe the change in the power
consumption and analyze the power consumption according to a statistics report generated by
the EMS.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

OSS
This feature depends on OSS feature WOFD-200200 Base Station Power-Saving
Management -LTE.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

3.3.5 LOFD-001042 Intelligent Power-Off of Carriers


in the Same Coverage
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
When there is light traffic in an area that is covered by multiple carriers, some of the carriers
can be blocked, and all services can be automatically taken over by the carriers that remain in
service. When the traffic increases to a certain degree, the carriers that are blocked can be
unblocked again automatically to provide services.

Benefits
When there is light traffic in an area that is covered by multiple carriers, some of the carriers
can be blocked, and all services can be taken over by the carriers that remain in service. This
can help reduce the power consumption of the eNodeB without any impact on the service
quality.

Description
When multiple carriers provide coverage for the same area, the traffic of the area varies by
time. In some certain periods, for example from the midnight to the early morning (the
periods can be preset by the operator), the traffic is light. When the eNodeB detects the light
traffic, it triggers UEs to perform migration to some of the carriers and then blocks the
carriers without any load. In this way, the power consumption is reduced. When the traffic
increases or the preset periods end, the eNodeB can automatically switch on the carriers that
are unblocked to recover the functionality of the carriers. In this way, the system capacity is
increased without any impact on the service quality.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

OSS
This feature depends on OSS feature WOFD-200200 Base Station Power-Saving
Management -LTE.

Others
This feature should not work to a cell simultaneously with feature LOFD-001074
Intelligent Power-Off of Carrier in the Same Coverage of UMTS Network.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

3.3.6 LOFD-001056 PSU Intelligent Sleep Mode


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN2.2

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
This feature introduces the function of PSU (Power Supply Unit) intelligent Sleep Mode.
With this feature, certain PSUs can be powered on or off according to the power consumption
of the eNodeB, thus reducing the power consumption.

Benefits
When the traffic is light, the eNodeB can power off certain PSUs to reduce the power
consumption. In the following scenario, 3 PSUs in 1 eNodeB and low traffic, turning on this
feature could help to save 4% to %5 power consumption.

Description
If an eNodeB with AC input is configured with HUAWEI PSUs (converting AC into DC) and
HUAWEI PMU, the function of PSU intelligent Sleep Mode can be used. The number of
configured PSUs depends on the maximum power consumption of the eNodeB. The purpose
is to ensure that the eNodeB operates properly even at the maximum load. In most cases, the
eNodeB does not operate at full load, and thus the PSUs do not operate at full power.
Generally, the PSU conversion efficiency is proportional to its output power. In other words,
the decrease in the conversion efficiency increases the overall power consumption of the
eNodeB.
When the eNodeB is powered by multiple PSUs, the PSU intelligent shutdown function
enables shutting down one or several PSUs according to the actual load and the power supply
need. In this way, the remaining PSUs work in full load mode, thus ensuring their best level of
efficiency.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
The eNodeB with AC input must be configured with HUAWEI PSUs (converting AC
into DC) and HUAWEI PMU.

3.3.7 LOFD-001070 Symbol Power Saving


Availability
This feature is
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59

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

applicable to Macro from eRAN3.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

3 O&M

Summary
This feature introduces the function of symbol power saving. The eNodeB can shut down the
PAs (Power Amplifier) when a symbol is empty. MBSFN (Multicast Broadcast Single
Frequency Network) sub-frame could be used to reduce the reference signal further so that
more empty symbols are available for PA to shut down longer.

Benefits
When the traffic is light, the eNodeB can shut down the PAs when symbol is empty to save
the static power consumption of the PA. The power consumption of the eNodeB is reduced.

Description
PAs consume the most power in eNodeB. Even when there is no signal output, the PA has
static power consumption. If PA could be power on and off quickly, the system could utilize
this function to implement symbol power saving.
The eNodeB can shut down the PAs when symbol is empty to save the static power
consumption of the PA. In order to guarantee the integrity of data, the system needs to control
the time of PA's switching on and off.
For example: when there is no active user in the cell, in some sub-frames only RS (Reference
Signal) signal is transmitted, PA can be powered off in the OFDM symbols when there is no
RS.
And if the cell is not using eMBMS service, the eNodeB can configure some of the empty
sub-frames into MBSFN sub-frames for further power saving. When one sub-frame is
configured as MBSFN sub-frame, only the first RS need to be transmitted in the air interface.
The rest symbols in the sub-frame could be set to empty so that the PA could be powered off.
Figure 1.1 Symbol power saving (Normal CP)

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Figure 1.2 Symbol power saving with MBSFN subframe (extended CP)

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
This feature is only supported by the following LTE RF modules: LRFUe(800MHz),
RRU3221(2600MHz), RRU3240(2600MHz) and multi-mode RF modules:
mRFUd(1800MHz,900MHz),RRU3928(1800MHz,900MHz),RRU3929(1800MHz,900
MHz),RRU3841(AWS) working on LTE-only configuration.

Others
MBSFN sub-frame configuration need that UE can identify and apply the
serving/neighbor cell's MBSFN sub-frame configuration related.

3.3.8 LOFD-001071 Intelligent Battery Management


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN3.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
With this feature,

The battery management mode automatically changes depending on the selected grid
type, which prolongs the battery lifespan.

The battery self-protection function is triggered under high temperature, which avoids
the overuse of batteries and the consequent damages to the batteries.

The runtime of batteries is displayed after the mains supply is cut off. According to the
runtime, users can take measures in advance to avoid service interruption due to power
supply cutoff.

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Benefits

Prolonged battery lifespan

Reduced operation costs

Improved system stability

Automatic change of the battery management mode:

Description
The PMU board records the number of times power supply is cut off and the duration of each
cutoff. Then, the PMU board determines which grid type is chosen and correspondingly
activates a specific power management mode. In grid types 1 and 2, batteries can enter the
hibernation state in which batters do not charge or discharge, which helps prolong battery
lifespan.
Table 1.1 Battery management modes
Power
Supply
Cutoff
Duration
Within 15
Days
(Hours)

Grid Type

Charge
and
Discharge
Mode

Current
Limitation
Valve

Hibernatio
n Voltage
(V)

Hibernatio
n Duration
(Days)

Estimated
Battery
Lifespan
Improvem
ent Rate

Mode A

0.10 C

52

13

100%

5-30

Mode B

0.15 C

52

50%

30-120

Mode C

0.15 C

N/A

N/A

0%

120

Mode C

0.15

N/A

N/A

0%

The function of the automatic change of the battery management mode is under license
control. In addition, this function is disabled by default and you can enable it by running an
MML command.

Self-protection under high temperature:

When batteries maintain a temperature exceeding the threshold for entering the floating
charge state for 5 minutes, they enter the state and no alarms are generated.
When batteries maintain a temperature exceeding the threshold for the self-protection function
for 5 minutes, they are automatically powered off or the voltage of batteries is automatically
adjusted.

Display of the battery runtime:

After the mains supply is cut off, the base station works out the runtime of batteries based on
the remaining power capacity, discharge current, and other data. This runtime can be queried
by running an MML command.
To calculate the runtime of batteries, use the following formula:
Runtime of batteries = (Remaining power capacity x Total power capacity x Discharge
efficiency)/(Mean discharge current x Aging coefficient)
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62

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
The APM30H (Ver. C), BTS3900AL, TP48600A, and batteries must be configured.

3.3.9 LOFD-001075 RRU PA Efficiency Improvement


Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN6.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
This feature monitors the eNodeB transmitting power, and dynamically adjusts PA working
state when RRU transmitting power is low. Thereby it improves PA efficiency and saves
eNodeB power consumption.
This is similar to feature LOFD-001025 Adaptive Power Consumption, but it is specific to the
Blade RRU series which has utilized the new PA technologies. This feature provides more
power saving and can also be used at narrow frequency bandwidth (1.4MHz, 3MHz and
5MHz).

Benefits
This feature improves the efficiency of the PA and saves power consumption of the eNodeB.

Description
By decreasing equipment power consumption, operator's operating cost is decreased. The
lower power consumption also improves the reliability of equipment.
Blade RRU series utilized the latest PA technologies. When RRU transmitting power is low,
this feature will dynamically adjust the bias voltage of RRU, to improve the PA efficiency of
this kind of RRU.

PA Bias Voltage Dynamically Adjustment


In the commercial network, eNodeB traffic load is keep changing; PA transmitting power
is also changing with it. When PA transmitting power is high, PA efficiency is higher and
a higher PA bias voltage is needed. When PA transmitting power is low, if PA bias
voltage keeps high, the PA efficiency will be low.
This feature keeps monitoring the eNodeB traffic load. Based on the real time traffic
load, by decreasing the PA bias voltage PA efficiency is increased.

This feature is specific to the Blade RRU series. Comparing to LOFD-001025 Adaptive
Power Consumption, this feature provides more power saving and can also be used at narrow
frequency bandwidth (1.4MHz, 3MHz and 5MHz).
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

This feature cannot be used with LOFD-001025 Adaptive Power Consumption at same time.
eNodeB will only enable this feature when the RRU type is Blade RRU series.

Enhancement
None

Dependency

eNodeB
This feature is only supported by following RF module: RRU3268(2600MHz),
RRU3838

3.4 Antenna Management


3.4.1 LOFD-001024 Remote Electrical Tilt Control
Availability
This feature is

applicable to Macro from eRAN1.0

not applicable to Micro

not applicable to Lampsite

Summary
Remote Electrical Tilt Control improves the efficiency and minimizes the OM cost for
adjusting the down tilt of the antenna. Huawei LTE RET solution complies with the AISG2.0
specification, and it is backward compatible with AISG1.1.

Benefits
The application of the RET prominently improves the efficiency and minimizes the OM cost
for adjusting the down tilt of the antenna. The application of the RET brings the following
benefits:

The RET antennas at multiple sites can be adjusted remotely within a short period. This
improves the efficiency and reduces the cost of network optimization.

Adjustment of the RET antenna can be performed in all weather conditions.

The RET antennas can be deployed on some sites that are difficult to access.

RET downtilt adjustment can keep the coverage pattern undistorted, therefore
strengthening the antenna signal and reducing neighboring cell interference.

Description
The Remote Electrical Tilt (RET) refers to an antenna system whose down tilt is controlled
electrically and remotely.
After an antenna is installed, the down tilt of the antenna needs to be adjusted to optimize the
network. In this situation, the phases of signals that reach the elements of the array antenna
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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

3 O&M

can be adjusted under the electrical control. Then, the vertical pattern of the antenna can be
changed.
The phase shifter inside the antenna can be adjusted through the step motor outside the
antenna. The down tilt of the RET antenna can be adjusted when the system is powered on,
and the down tilt can be monitored in real time. Thus, the remote precise adjustment of the
down tilt of the antenna can be achieved.
Huawei LTE RET solution complies with the AISG2.0 specification, and it is compatible with
AISG1.1.

Enhancement
None

Dependency
None

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

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66

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Table 1.1 Acronyms and Abbreviations

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

3GPP

Third Generation Partnership Project

ABS

Almost-blank subframe

ACK

acknowledgment

ACL

Access Control List

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard

AFC

Automatic Frequency Control

AH

Authentication Header

AMBR

Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

AMR

Adaptive Multi-Rate

ANR

Automatic Neighboring Relation

ARP

Allocation/Retention Priority

ARQ

Automatic Repeat Request

BCH

Broadcast Channel

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

BITS

Building Integrated Timing Supply System

BLER

Block Error Rate

CA

Carrier aggregation

C/I

Carrier-to-Interference Power Ratio

CCCH

Common Control Channel

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

CEU

Cell Edge Users

CGI

Cell Global Identification

CP

Cyclic Prefix

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRS

Cell-specific reference signal

CSI-RS

Channel state information reference signal

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

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4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

69

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

DiffServ

Differentiated Services

DL-SCH

Downlink Shared Channel

DRB

Data Radio Bearer

DRX

Discontinuous Reception

DSCP

DiffServ Code Point

DTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

ECM

EPS Control Management

eCSFB

Enhanced CS Fallback

EDF

Early Deadline First

EF

Expedited Forwarding

eHRPD

Evolved high rate packet data

eICIC

Enhanced Inter-cell Interference


Coordination

eMBMS

evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multimedia


System

EMM

EPS Mobility Management

EMS

Element Management System

eNodeB

evolved NodeB

EPC

Evolved Packet Core

EPS

Evolved Packet System

ESP

Encapsulation Security Payload

ETWS

Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

E-UTRA

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio


Access

FCPSS

Fault, Configuration, Performance, Security


and Software Managements

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

GBR

Guaranteed Bit Rate

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

GERAN

GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network

GPS

Global Positioning System

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

HII

High Interference Indicator

HMAC

Hash Message Authentication Code

HMAC_MD5

HMAC Message Digest 5

HMAC_SHA

HMAC Secure Hash Algorithm

HO

Handover

HRPD

High Rate Packet Data

ICIC

Inter-cell Interference Coordination

IKEV

Internet Key Exchange Version

IMS

IP Multimedia Service

IP PM

IP Performance Monitoring

IPsec

IP Security

IRC

Interference Rejection Combining

KPI

Key Performance Indicator

CME

Configuration Management Express

LMT

Local Maintenance Terminal

MAC

Medium Admission Control

MIB

Master Information Block

MCH

Multicast Channel

MCCH

Multicast Control Channel

MCS

Modulation and Coding Scheme

MIMO

Multiple Input Multiple Output

min_GBR

Minimum Guaranteed Bit Rate

MME

Mobility Management Entity

MML

Man-Machine Language

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eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

MOS

Mean Opinion Score

MRC

Maximum-Ratio Combining

MTCH

Multicast Traffic Channel

MU-MIMO

Multiple User-MIMO

NACC

Network Assisted Cell Changed

NACK

Non acknowledgment

NAS

Non-Access Stratum

NRT

Neighboring Relation Table

OCXO

Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing

OFDMA

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing Access

OI

Overload Indicator

OMC

Operation and Maintenance Center

OOK

On-Off-Keying

PBCH

Physical Broadcast Channel

PCCH

Paging Control Channel

PCFICH

Physical Control Format Indicator Channel

PCH

Paging Channel

PCI

Physical Cell Identity

PDB

Packet Delay Budget

PDCCH

Physical Downlink Control Channel

PDCP

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

PDSCH

Physical Downlink Shared Channel

PF

Proportional Fair

PHB

Per-Hop Behavior

PHICH

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel

PM

Performance Measurement

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eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network

PMCH

Physical Multicast Channel

PRACH

Physical Random Access Channel

PUCCH

Physical Uplink Control Channel

PUSCH

Physical Uplink Shared Channel

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QCI

QoS Class Identifier

QoS

Quality of Service

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RA

Random Access

RACH

Random Access Channel

RAM

Random Access Memory

RAT

Radio Access Technology

RB

Resource Block

RCU

Radio Control Unit

RET

Remote Electrical Tilt

RF

Radio Frequency

RLC

Radio Link Control

RRC

Radio Resource Control

RRM

Radio Resource Management

RRU

Remote Radio Unit

RS

Reference Signal

RSRP

Reference Signal Received Power

RSRQ

Reference Signal Received Quality

RSSI

Received Signal Strength Indicator

RTT

Round Trip Time

RV

Redundancy Version

Rx

Receive

S1

interface between EPC and E-UTRAN

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eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

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76

eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

SBT

Smart Bias Tee

SC-FDMA

Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple


Access

SCTP

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SFBC

Space Frequency Block Coding

SFP

Small Form factor Pluggable

SGW

Serving Gateway

SIB

System Information Block

SID

Silence Indicator

SINR

Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio

SRB

Signaling Radio Bearer

SRS

Sounding Reference Signal

SSL

Security Socket Layer

STBC

Space Time Block Coding

STMA

Smart TMA

TAC

Transport Admission Control

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TDD

Time Division Duplex

TMA

Tower Mounted Amplifier

TMF

Traced Message Files

ToS

Type of Service

TTI

Transmission Time Interval

Tx

Transmission

UE

User Equipment

UL-SCH

Uplink Shared Channel

USB

Universal Serial Bus

U2000

Huawei OMC

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

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eLTE2.3
eLTE2.3 DBS3900 LTE FDD Optional Feature
Description

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations

VoIP

Voice over IP

WRR

Weighted Round Robin

X2

interface among eNodeBs

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