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1.

Serologicaltestingalwaysinvolvesreactionsbetweenspecificantibodyandantigens
a. True
b. False
2. Somediseasesarediagnosedwithouttheneedtoidentifymicrobesfromapatient
specimen
a. True
b. False
3. Undercertaincircumstances,apersonsresidentfloracanbeopportunisticpathogens
a. True
b. False
4. Foodallergiesincludegastrointestinalsymptomsandoftenhives
a. True
b. False
5. Systemicanaphylaxiscanquicklyresultinairwayblockage,shock,anddeath.
a. True
b. False
6. Atopyandanaphylaxisarehypersensitivitiesinthecategory
a. Type1only
b. Type1andType4
c. Type4only
d. Type1,Type2,Type3
e. Type1,Type2,Type3,andType4
7. Allofthefollowingaresignsofinfectiousdiseases,except
a. Fever
b. Leucopenia
c. Swollenlymphnodes
d. Antibodiesinserum
e. Nausea
8. Whichoftheimmunizationswouldcarrythegreatestriskforimmunocompromised
patients?
a. Killedattenuatedvaccines
b. Toxoids
c. Immuneserums
d. Subunitvaccines

9. Anexampleofartificialpassiveimmunitywouldbe
a. Chickenpoxinfectionisfollowedbylifelongimmunity
b. Chickenpoxvaccinetriggersextendedimmunitytochickenpox
c. Givingapersonimmuneserumglobulinstochickenpoxvirusafterexposureto
disease
d. AfetusacquiringmaternalIgGtothechickenpoxvirusacrosstheplacenta
e. Noneofthechoicesarecorrect
10. Theinitialencounterwithanallergeniscalledthe
a. Sensitizingdose
b. Provocativedose
c. Allergicdose
d. Hypersensitivitydose
e. Desensitizingdose
11. Diapedesisisthe
a. Loosofbloodduetohemorrhaging
b. Productionoftheonlyredbloodcells
c. Productionofwhitebloodcells,redbloodcells,andplatelets
d. Pluggingofbrokenvesselstostopbleeding
e. Migrationofwhitebloodcellsfromthebloodouttothetissues
12. Whichstructuresarefoundalonglymphaticvesselsbutareheavilyclusteredinthe
armpit,groinandneck?
a. Lymphnodes
b. Thymus
c. Spleen
d. GALT
e. Tonsils
13. Whichprocessinvolvesamorerapidsynthesisandgreatlyincreasedtiterofantibody
whensystemissubsequentlyexposedtothesameantigen?
a. Neutralization
b. Opsonization
c. Complementfixation
d. Agglutination
e. Anamnesticresponse
14. Thekeyphagocyticcellsofthebodyarethe
a. NeutrophilsandMacrophages
b. BasophilsandNeutrophils
c. EosinophilsandMacrophages

d. MacrophagesandMonocytes
e. NaturalKillercells
15. Live,attenuatedvaccines
a. Includethemeasles,mumps,rubellavaccine(MMR).
b. Containviablemicrobesthatcanmultiplyintheperson
c. Requiresmallerdosesandfeverboosterscomparedtoinactivatedvaccines
d. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
16. Lymphocytes:
a. PossessMHCantigensforrecognizingself
b. Havemembranereceptorsthatrecognizeforeignantigens
c. Gaintolerancetoselfbydestructionoflymphocytesthatcouldreactagainstself
d. DevelopintoclonesofBandTcellswithextremevariationofspecificity
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
17. Marionisgoingtothehospitalforatriplebypassoperation.Shewillhavegeneral
anesthesia,intravenouscatheter,surgicalwounds,andurinarycatheter.Which
nosocomialinfectionissheatgreatestriskforcontracting?
a. Respiratory
b. Septicemia
c. Urinarytract
d. Surgicalsite
e. Meningitis
18. Whichcelltypeisphagocyticandcanmigrateoutintobodytissuestodifferentiateinto
macrophages?
a. Basophils
b. Eosinophils
c. Neutrophils
d. Monocytes
e. Lymphocytes
19. Residentfloraarefoundin/onthe
a. Skin
b. Mouth
c. Nasalpassages
d. Largeintestine
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
20. Nonspecificchemicaldefensesinclude
a. Lysozyme
b. Lacticacidandelectrolytesofsweat

c. SkinsacidicpHandfattyacids
d. Stomachhydrochloricacid
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect

21. Anexampleofnaturalpassiveimmunitywouldbe
a. Chickenpoxinfectionisfollowedbylifelongimmunity
b. Chickenpoxvaccinetriggersextendedimmunitytochickenpox
c. Givingapersonimmuneserumglobulinstochickenpoxvirusafterexposureto
thedisease
d. AfetusacquiringmaternalIgGtothechickenpoxvirusacrosstheplacenta
e. Nonofthechoicesarecorrect
22. IftheIDforgonorrheais1,000cellsandtheIDfortuberculosisis10cells,which
organismismorevirulent?
a. Neisseriagonorrhoeae
b. Mycobacteriumtuberculosis
c. Theyareequallyvirulent
d. Itisimpossibletodetermine
23. Sputumisobtainedby
a. Swabbingthemouthtosamplesaliva
b. Acleancatchurinesample
c. Thepatientcoughingupmucusfromthelowerrespiratorysystem
d. Aspinaltapabovethechest
e. Athroatswab
24. HelperTcells
a. Secreteantibodies
b. Functioninallergicreactions
c. Directlydestroytargetcells
d. Suppressimmunereactions
e. ActivateBcellsandotherTcells
25. Whichofthefollowingisaspecialbindingsubstancethatenhancesimmugenicityand
prolongsantigenretentionattheinjectionsite?
a. Adjuvant
b. Booster
c. Antibodiestotoxin
d. Gammaglobulin
e. Trojanhorserecombinantvaccine
26. Anexampleofartificialactiveimmunitywouldbe

a. Chickenpoxinfectionisfollowedbylifelongimmunity
b. Chickenpoxvaccinetriggersextendedimmunitytochickenpox
c. Givingapersonimmuneserumglobulinstochickenpoxvirusafterexposureto
thedisease
d. AfetusacquiringmaternalIgGtothechickenpoxvirusacrosstheplacenta
e. Noneofthechoicesarecorrect
27. JoecontractedHepatitisAbyeatingcontaminateddoughnutsfromlocalbakery.
NormallyHepatitisAisfoundinthehumanpopulation.Thesourceofthediseaseis
________________andthereservoiris_________________.
a. Joe,thedoughnut
b. Thedoughnut,humans
c. Humans,flour
d. Flour,Joe
e. Humans,Joe
28. Whichismismatched?
a. FoodallergyType1hypersensitivity
b. PoisonivydermatitisType4hypersensitivity
c. ImmunecomplexdiseasesType3hypersensitivity
d. Transfusionreactions,fetalerythroblastosisType2hypersensitivity
e. HayfeverType4hypersensitivity
29. Whichglandshrinksinsizeduringadulthood,andhashormonesthatfunctionin
maturationofTlymphocytes?
a. Lymphnodes
b. Thymus
c. Spleen
d. GALT
e. Tonsils
30. Allofthefollowingarecharacteristicsofaneffectivevaccineexcept
a. Itshouldhavearelativitylongshelflife
b. Itshouldstimulateonlytheantibody(Bcell)response
c. Itshouldprotectagainstwildformsofthepathogen
d. Itshouldnotrequirenumerousboosters
e. Itshouldbeeasytoadminister
31. Allofthefollowingarecorrectaboutlymphexcept
a. Itscompositionissimilartoplasma
b. Ittravelsinvesselssimilartobloodvessels
c. Itismademostlyofwater
d. Ittransportsnumerouswhitebloodcells
e. Itistransportedthroughthebodybythesamepumpasblood,i.e.,theheart

32. Maryhadanaccidentalneedlestickonenightduringhershiftasanemergencymedical
technician.Initially,shetestedpositiveforHIVbytheELISAtest.Whichtestwouldbe
donenexttoconfirmanHIVinfection?
a. Immunoelectrophoresis
b. Ouchterlony
c. Complementfixation
d. Westernblot
e. Radioimmunoassay
33. Duetothewaythelymphdrainsfromlymphnodes,cellandproductsofimmunity
continually
a. Entertheregularcirculatorysystem
b. Entertheliver
c. Enterthegastrointestinaltract
d. Enterthegallbladder
e. Enterthethymusgland
34. Thehumanbodytypicallybeginstobecolonizedbyitsnormalflora
a. Beforebirth,inutero
b. During,andimmediatelyafterbirth
c. Whenachildfirstgoestoschool
d. Whenaninfantgetsitsfirstinfectiousdisease
e. Duringpuberty
35. Theprimary,naturalhabitatofapathogenwhereitcontinuestoexistiscalledthe
a. Fomite
b. Carrier
c. Vector
d. Reservoir
e. Source
36. Componentsofthefirstlineofdefenseincludeallofthefollowing,except
a. Thetoughcellsheetoftheupperepidermisoftheskin
b. Nasalhairs
c. Flushingactionoftearsandblinking
d. Flushingactionofurine
e. Phagocyticwhitebloodcells
37. Astudenthastheirteethcleaned.Thehygienistnickstheirgumtissue.Thestudent
developsendocarditis(infectionoftheheart)duetoStreptococcus.Whatkindofpattern
ofinfectionisthis?
a. Localized
b. Mixedinfection
c. Focal

d. Systemic
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
38. Specificityandmemoryareassociatedwithwhichbodydefensemechanism?
a. Inflammatoryresponse
b. Phagocytosisbymacrophagesandneutrophils
c. Interferon
d. TcellandBcellresponses
e. Anatomicalbarriersinthebody
39. Moldsporesandanimaldanderareconsideredtobewhichtypeofallergen?
a. Ingestant
b. Inhalant
c. Injectant
d. Contactant
e. Nonofthechoicesarecorrect
40. Lymphocytematurationinvolves
a. Hormonalsignalsthatinitiatedevelopment
b. Bcellsmaturinginbonemarrowsites
c. Tcellsmaturinginthethymus
d. Releaseofmaturelymphocytestobeginmigrationtovariouslymphoidorgans
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
41. Whichprocessinvolvesantibioticscoveringsurfacereceptorsonavirusortoxin
moleculetherebydisruptingtheiractivity?
a. Neutralization
b. Opsonization
c. Complementfixation
d. Agglutination
e. Anamnesticresponse
42. Codyis4monthsoldandisgivenaDtaPinjectionbyhispediatricianaspartofthe
routineimmunizationschedule.Whattypeofimmunitywilldevelopasaresultofthis?
a. Naturalactiveimmunity
b. Artificialpassiveimmunity
c. Naturalpassiveimmunity
d. Artificialactiveimmunity
e. Noneofthechoiceswillprotecthim
43. Beestingvenomisconsideredtobewhichtypeofallergen?
a. Ingestant
b. Inhalant

c. Injectant
d. Contactant
e. Nonofthechoicesarecorrect
44. Thereticuloendothelialsystem
a. Isasupportnetworkofconnectivetissuefibers
b. Originatesinthecellularbasallamina
c. Providesapassagewaywithinandbetweentissuesandorgans
d. Isheavilypopulatedwithmacrophages
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
45. Allergicpatientsreceivingsmall,controlledinjectionsofspecificallergensare
undergoing
a. Desensitization
b. Sensitization
c. Tissuematching
d. Degranulation
e. Noneofthechoicesarecorrect
46. Whichprocessinvolvesantibioticscoatingmicroorganismsinordertofacilitate
phagocytosis?
a. Neutralization
b. Opsonization
c. Complementfixation
d. Agglutination
e. Anamnesticresponse
47. Whichismismatched?
a. Secondaryinfectioninfectionspreadstoseveraltissuessites
b. Mixedinfectionseveralagentsestablishedatinfectionsite
c. Acuteinfectionrapidonsetofsevere,shortlivedsymptoms
d. Localinfectionpathogenremainsatornearentrysite
e. Toxemiapathogenstoxinscarriedbythebloodtotargettissues
48. Alaboratorytechnologistsplashedabloodspecimenontohisface,eyes,nose,and
mouth.ThisspecimenwasfromanHIVpositivepatient.Ifthisbloodexposureleadsto
HIVinfectioninthetechnologist,thetransmissionrouteis
a. Direct
b. Fomite
c. Vehicle
d. Aerosols

49. Whichofthefollowingmethodsiscategorizedasadirecttestinordertoanalyzea
specimen?
a. Catalasetest
b. Gramstain
c. Phagetyping
d. Antimicrobicsensitivity
e. Productionofgas
50. Thestageofaninfectiousdiseasewhenspecificsignsandsymptomsareseenandthe
pathogenisatpeakactivityiscalled
a. Prodromalstage
b. Convalescentstage
c. Incubationperiod
d. Periodofinvasion
e. Allofthechoicesarecorrect
51. Allofthefollowingaremethodtodiagnoseviralinfections,except:
a. Adetectionofviralnucleicacidusingspecificprobes
b. Westernblot
c. Cellstakenfrompatientareexaminedforevidenceofviralinfection
d. Signsandsymptoms
e. Thelightmicroscope
52. Thefourclassicsignsandsymptomsofinflammationincludeallofthefollowing,except:
a. Redness
b. Warmth
c. Swelling
d. Pain
e. Chills
53. Whichofthefollowingismismatched?
a. Ingestantnuts
b. Inhalantbeesting
c. Injectantvaccine
d. Contactantrubber
e. Ingestantfoodadditive