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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the Study
Unemployment is a phenomenon that affects not only the youths but
also other categories of people in the society. It is also a known fact
that youths all over Kaduna State and indeed Nigeria are affected by
the unwanted consequences of the phenomenon. Youths occupy a
prominent place in any society. They are one of the greatest assets any
nation can have. Apart from being the leaders of tomorrow, they outnumber the middle-aged and the aged. The youth are the foundation of
a society; their energies, inventiveness, character and orientation
define the pattern of development and security of a nation. Through
their creative talents and labour power, a nation can make giant
strides. The youth are a particular segment of the national population
that is sensitive, energetic, and active as well the most productive
phase of life as citizens. They are filled with energy that desires an
outlet. When this energy is positively channeled, the youths are highly
productive; hence, they are likely to contribute a great deal to the
socioeconomic development of their immediate environment and the
1

larger society. However, failure to utilize the youths canresult in


restiveness and it resultant effects on society likely to be devastating.
The youths remain one of the greatest assets that any community can
possess. Potentially, they are the greatest investments for a societys
sustainable development and future. This is why it is universally
acknowledged that positive fundamental and meaningful changes
across cultural settings are usually engineered, fostered and or shaped
by the generation of youths in that society. Therefore, any culture or
community, whether macro or micro that allows a good percentage of
her youths to be misdirected, risks her future viability and survival.
In the context of Nigerias historical experience, youth and students
have rendered valuable contributions to the struggle for liberation and
national development. They can constitute a reservoir of energy and
dynamism for any national struggle or campaign if they are correctly
guided, mobilized, and fully integrated into the social fabrics of the
nation. They may also constitute a threat to national survival and
stability if they are allowed to drift, are unemployed, undisciplined
and morally bankrupt. No nation aspiring to major national greatness
can afford to ignore the youths and allow them to constitute a major
social problem. They are a vital source of manpower and do
2

possesleadership potentials, can acquire knowledge, and are full of


future promises. Once these innate potentials in them are fully
exploited and properly channeled, their contributions to national
development can be immense.
The attainment of full employment mostly in the developing
economies can reduce poverty and foster their growth. The idea is
based on the linkage between income and poverty. Unemployment, it
is noted, generates low income or no income and therefore results in
low or poor living standard. Unemployment represents wasted
resources. Unemployed labor has the potential to contribute to
national income but is not doing so because there are jobless people.
Reduction of joblessness is a major concern of every responsible
government all over the world.
According to Ogunrinola and Osabuohien as cited in (Sodipe and
Ogunrinola 2011) the desire to expand decent and productive
employment is at the heart of any nations macroeconomic policies
geared towards poverty reduction. In spite of its importance, the
implementation of policies on employment creation in many
developing nations has not yielded much impact, as there is a wide

gap between the jobs available and the number of job seekers actively
seeking work in most poor nations.
Unfortunately, youth unemployment is becoming an increasingly
troublesome issue in many parts of the world. In Nigeria, it has
become one of the most serious socio-economic problems confronting
the country. It has indeed become a major problem bedeviling
the lives of Nigerian youth causing frustration, dejection and
dependence on family members and friends, who also have their own
problems to contend with. In recent times, there have been notable
adverse social, economic and political developments in Nigeria, a
consequence

of

youth

unemployment

and

underemployment,

particularly exemplified by increasing militancy, violent crimes,


kidnapping, restiveness and political instability. The Nigerian situation
is further compounded by the recent global financial crisis that has
crippled businesses and the prospect of securing jobs for young
people.
Unemployment has also been identified as one of the major causes of
social vices, including armed robbery, destitution, prostitution,
political thuggery, kidnapping and many more. Note that about 4.5
million youths enter the labour market every year without any hope of
4

getting employment for life sustenance. The precarious situation has


left the youths in a vicious cycle of poverty that daily erodes their
prospects of a bright future.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Youth unemployment poses a serious risk to Kaduna metropolis,
Kaduna State and the Nigerian society. The consequence of this
problem, if no major corrective measures are taken, could be
disastrous for the nation. Youth unemployment has national and global
impacts, notable among which are increased violence, political
instability, drug abuse and crimes such as petty theft, burglary, drug
trafficking, human trafficking, kidnapping, armed robbery and
terrorism. All the consequences coupled with poverty, psychological
problems of frustration, depression, hostility and all other vices are
causing widespread insecurity of life and property. It is also worthy to
point out the fact that desperation and the apparent dissatisfaction with
the status quo can drive many people into living outside the law in
order to survive and as a means of expressing dissatisfaction with the
apparent neglect of their very existence.

1.3 Hypothesis/Research Questions


This research work will answer the hypothesis stated below:
Ho: Unemployment does not serve as a catalyst for the
involvement of youths of Kaduna metropolis in crimes
H1: Unemployment is a catalyst for the involvement of youths
of Kaduna metropolis in crimes
1.4 Purpose of the Study
This research work is intended to find out whether unemployment
among the youths is also a major factor responsible for their
involvement in crimes and criminality and solutions proffered on how
to tackle the problem in Kaduna Metropolis
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research will be of benefit to the government by
identifying special needs of the youths especially with regards
to providing them awareness of earning a living through gainful
employment.
The research will also help educationists to identify the areas
for inclusion in general education curriculum to fast track
vocational and entrepreneurial skills acquisition as a means
ofcurbing the over reliance of the citizens of the country on

white collar jobs at the expense of setting up on their


businesses.
This research will help the youths understand the impact of
their involvement in crimes on the society and the need to be
self-reliant in an economy that cannot readily provide jobs for
its teeming unemployed graduates.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be limited to finding out how unemployment among
the youths of Kaduna metropolis is pushing them into committing
crimes. The area of coverage is Kaduna metropolis. It is expected that
this will offer a fair basis to apply the findings to the whole country
1.7 Research Methods
This research work will rely mainly on primary sources of data.
Questionnaires will be administered to the responding public eliciting
their views on salient areas of the subject and this will be analyzed
using the percentage method of deduction. The secondary sources
shall include books, Journals, Magazines and Newspaper articles

1.8 Definition of Terms


7

Catalyst- somebody or something that makes a change happen or


brings about an event
Crime- harmful act or omission against the public which the State
wishes to prevent and which, upon conviction, is punishable by fine,
imprisonment, and/or death. No conduct constitutes a crime unless it
is declared criminal in the laws of the country.
Unemployment- people who are without work but available for and
seeking work; including those who have lost jobs and those who have
voluntarily left jobs
Youth: is best understood as a period of transition from the
dependence of childhood to adulthoods independence and awareness
of our interdependence as members of a community.

CHAPTER TWO
8

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviews relevant literature and is organized under the
following sub-headings: conceptual framework, theoretical
framework, literature review and summary.
2.2The Concept of Youth
The advanced learners dictionary defines a youth as when a person
is young, especially the time before a child becomes an adult. This
may connote looking at the age bracket of eighteen to twenty five
years and young adults from twenty five years to thirty five years,
anyone within these age brackets is endowed with raw energy andis
usually high-spirited, with high hopes, big dreams, aspirations and
ideas of what his/her tomorrow will be (Daniel 2010).
To Sule Kano (as cited in Abdu, 2002), social conception and age
categorization of youths differ across societies and even organizations.
In some places the age bracket ranges from 12 years to 40 years. The
United Nations, for instance, defines youths to be in the age category
of 12 to 24 years, while the Commonwealth of Nations puts it
between 16 and 29 years. While the National Youth Service Corps
(NYSC) calls up only graduates below 30 years of age for the national
service, the National Youth Policy defines youth to mean all young
9

persons of ages 18 to 35, who are citizens of the Federal Republic of


Nigeria. The category represents the most active, the most volatile,
and yet the most vulnerable segment of the population socioeconomically, emotionally and in other respects (National Youth
Policy 2001).
According to Kenniston (as cited Mohammed, 2010), youth refers to a
period between adolescence and adulthood in a post-modern era. He
emphasized that it is a new stage of life, which millions of young
people regularly.
The United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF, 1972) sees
those between the ages of 15 and 25 years as youth. But Johnson,
cited in Mohammed (2010), argued thatthe membership of youth
programmes has no upper age limit, their membership in practice
cover people of over 35 to 45 years.
Berger, as cited in Mohammed (2010), insists that the concept of
youth cuts across age, pointing to culture as what really matters.
According to him, anyone who feels youthful, and exhibits such
qualities as spontaneity, impulsiveness, energy, etc is a youth.
2.3The Concept of Unemployment
10

The concept of unemployment has no precise definition in the


economic literature. While the concept means a state of joblessness to
the layman, unemployment could be defined as the percentage of the
labour force that is without job but is able and willing to work.
However, Gbosi (1997), has defined unemployment as a situation in
which people who are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate are
unable to find jobs. Here emphasis is placed on willingness.
Therefore, anybody who is not actively seeking paid employment
should not be counted as part of the unemployed labour force.
Within the Nigerian context, unemployment rate is defined as the
percentage of persons among the labour force (15 65 years)
excluding students and those medically unfit, available for work but
do not work (Central Bank of Nigeria, 1993).
The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines unemployment
as the number of the economically active population who are without
work but available for and seeking work, including people who have
lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work (World Bank,
1998). Also, for Adebayo (as cited in Okafor, 2011) unemployment
exists when members of the labour force wish to work but cannot get
jobs.
11

2.4 The Concept of Crime


The Merriam Webster online dictionary (2012) defined crime as the
intentional commission of an act usually deemed socially harmful or
dangerous and specifically defined, prohibited, and punishable under
criminal law.
According concise encyclopedia online (2012), crime is an act or the
commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is
commanded by a public law and that makes the offender liable to
punishment by that law,especially a gross violation of law.
A Criminologist Paul Tappan defines crimeas an intentional act or
omission in violation of criminal law , committed without defense
or justification, and sanctioned by the state as a felony or
misdemeanor
Crime has also been defined in social or non-legal terms. The social
definition of crime is that it is behaviour or an activity that offends the
social code of a particular community. Mower (1959) has defined it as
"an anti-social act".
Caldwell (1956) has explained it as "an act or a failure to act that is
considered to be so detrimental to the well-being of a society, as
12

judged by its prevailing standards, that action against it cannot be


entrusted to private initiative or to haphazard methods but must be
taken by an organised society in accordance with tested procedures."
Thorsten (1970), described crime as "violation of conduct norms of
the normative groups". Clinard (1957), however, maintained that all
deviations from social norms are not crimes. He talks of three types of
deviation: (i) tolerated deviation, (ii) deviation which is mildly
disapproved, and (iii) deviation which is strongly disapproved. He
perceives the third type of deviation as crime.
The definitions given above are by no means exhaustive but will
suffice for this study.
2.5 Theoretical Framework
Deprivation Theory of Ted Gurr
This classical theory explains why people engage in crimes and
violence (riots, rebellion, coups, criminal activities etc.). It examines
the psychological causes involving frustration and aggression as the
primary source of human capacity for violence. Frustration is neither
necessary nor sufficient to leads to violence but greed may drive to
violence. Frustration is a much stronger motivating force and
prolonged frustration may cause greater probability for aggression.
13

Relative deprivation is the discrepancy between what people think


they deserve and what they actually think they can get (Gurr, 1970).
It is noteworthy that Gurr does not look to a more absolute or
objective indicator of deprivation as the source of violence. People
can get used to a bad state of affairs, even one that offers so little
access to life-sustaining resources that members of the group are
starving or dying of remediable diseases or exposure. However, if
there is a significant discrepancy between what they think they
deserve and what they think they will get, there is a likelihood of
rebellion. Gurr posits this to be the case because there is a feeling that
their expectation cannot be met if the statusquo is maintained. The
first situation may be a desperate one, but it is the second that will be
frustrating. So frustration produces aggression at individual, group
and societal levels. This theory could be used to link rising number of
unemployed youths and violent crimes in Nigeria.
A country that produce thousands of university graduates every year
without commensurate employment opportunities may be creating a
fertile ground for a feeling of frustration among these unemployed
graduates.

14

Naturally, there is a feeling of joy and great expectations when a


student graduates from a university; these expectations gradually fade
away and are replaced by feelings of frustration after some years of
joblessness caused by the few opportunities the society offers the
young graduates. As frustration prolongs and the feeling of
deprivation of what is expected increases, there is a greater probability
that the individual or people can resort to illegal activities in order to
actualise their expectations in the society.
The rise in violent crimes (robbery, kidnapping, thuggery, terrorism)
committed by youths is a sign of a gap in the society. The society
already has expectations for individuals and established means of
achieving them. When the means are limited as the youth
unemployment was 46.5% in 2011, people are forced to achieve the
goals through illegal means to fulfill societal expectations.
Kidnappings are on the increase across Nigeria and the unemployed
youths view the business as lucrative. They are available for
recruitment by politicians. In the Northern part of Nigeria, they are
recruited both by politicians and religious groups to be used in
political and religious riots and act of terrorism. In the South West of
Nigeria, they find easy employment in petty criminal activities.
15

2.6 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.6.1 Concept of youth unemployment and its implications
Youth unemployment could be described as the gathering of youths
with diverse background, willing and able to work, but cannot find
any. When the supply of labour outstrips the demand for labour, it
causes joblessness and unemployment. Given the lack of sufficient
employment opportunities in the formal sector, young people may be
compelled to engage in casual work as sources of livelihood, thus
leading to underemployment (Echebiri, 2005; Gibb & George,
1990;Onah, 2001).
The causes are not farfetched as studies have associated rising youth
unemployment with increase of violent crimes in Nigeria. The
accelerating level of prostitution, armed robbery, rape, terrorism and
all forms of violence can be largely attributed to the incidence of
unemployment. Growth has not been in line with the aspirations of the
people and has not been driven by higher productivity. The public
perception is that there has been little job creation.
Many young people who fail to gain employment have become a
burden to the employed that bear the responsibility of meeting the
needs of millions of educated but increasing frustrated group, a
16

wasting generation. The problem of violent crimes in Nigeria has been


exacerbated by the high rate of unemployment and economic
hardship, which have pushed many jobless youths, some of who are
graduates, into various deadly crimes (Edward, 2011).
A 2009 World Bank report on 'Employment and Growth', warned that,
"The share of young people between the ages of 15 and 24 outside the
labour force is growing, despite the country's strong growth
performance over the years".
The UN-Habitat study on crimes and violence stressed that socioeconomic inequality and the lack of opportunities for social
advancement and employment are some of the root causes of crime
and violence. Children and youths from disadvantaged families are
likely to fall prey to criminal networks. Of the estimated 1 billion
people living in slums, over half are under the age of 25, and 40% are
estimated to be under the age of 19. They are the primary victims of
social exclusion through unemployment, lack of access to health and
education (UN-Habitat, 2008).
Furthermore, an empirical survey of Children and Youth in Organized
Armed Violence in Nigeria, reported that disenchantment and
17

frustration of young people due to mass poverty and unemployment,


have increased the number of aggrieved youths and resulted in the
emergence of area boys and Almajirai who target the very society
that alienated them (Ibrahim, 2006). The survey concluded that armed
militant groups in Nigeria namely Bakassi Boys, Odua Peoples
Congress (OPC) and Egbesu Boys were made up of youths within 16 17 years (40%), 18 19 years (10%), 20 - 21 years (20%), and 20
23 years (20%) while the remaining 10% represent between 23-25yrs
respectively (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010).
Bennel (2000) argued that urban society is becoming increasingly
criminalized, especially with the proliferation of youth gangs. Neither
homes, nor markets are safe in Nigeria because of frequent occurrence
of armed robbery incidents. Unemployment problem, which now
seems beyond remedy, has produced army of idle hands and some of
them have decided to punish the society that fails to provide them
with means of livelihood and dignity by robbing its members of their
property at gunpoint (Ideyi, 2005)
Unemployment appears to be the root cause of growing rate of crimes
and

violence

in

Nigeria.

The

unemployed

youths

are

disproportionately more likely to be perpetrators, as well as victims of


18

crime and violence (Okafor, 2011). The growing gap between the rich
and poor affects the society through increased Rate of violent crimes.
This is exacerbated by political corruption, poverty,bad governance,
increasing

population,

and

lack

of

policy

initiatives

and

implementation to some extent encouraged criminal groups to thrive


across Nigeria.
Olatunji and Abioye (2011), (as cited by Okafor, 2011), observed that:
the problem of chronic youth unemployment is very evident in
Nigeria. Every year thousands of graduates are turned out, for whom
there are no jobs. Nigerian streets arecram-filledwith youth hawkers
who ordinarily would have found gainful employment in some
enterprises.

The

self-employed

are

in

quandary

as

scanty

infrastructure makes it impossible for them to ply their trade. The


large number of youths who are unemployed is capable of
undermining democratic practice as they will constitute a serious
threat if engaged by the political class for clandestine activities.
Adejumobi (as cited by Okafor, 2011) remarked: Graduate
unemployment in Nigeria is over 50%, while Balogun (2010) opined
that: with over 40 million Nigerians effectively unemployed in a
population of 150 million, no doubt Nigeria has one of the highest
19

unemployment figures in the world despite her economic potential.


This situation clearly reveals its social essence when we consider it
against the fact that Nigeria has 45% of her population between the
ages of 15 and 40 years.
Therefore Nigerian youths are the hardest hit by this menace of
unemployment. With this figure in mind, it does not require the
wisdom of Solomon to clearly understand why there is so much crime,
spate of kidnappings, youth unrest and most significantly, an unstable
social economic structure that has hitherto been bedeviling Nigeria.
Okafor (2011) posited that the youths represent very important
stakeholders in any society. They are not only the future of Nigeria,
but also a major stakeholder and useful resource in nation building.
For the youths to become useful resource in the Nigerian project, they
must be gainfully employed.
However, available data show that youth unemployment is very
prevalent in Nigeria with far reaching implications for stability of
democracy. The utilization of the unemployed youths to perpetuate
ethno-religious clashes in the present democratic dispensation are well
documented. The utilization and manipulation of mostly unemployed
20

and ignorant youths to perpetuate post elections violence during 2011


presidential election adjudged to be free, fair, transparent and credible
by both local and international observers that claimed over five
hundred lives especially in states like Kaduna, Kano, Bauchi, Katsina
and Gombe (including over nine Youth Corps members on national
assignment) and displaced over fifteen thousand persons in the
Northern parts of Nigeria is a clear indication of an attempt to use this
category of youths to bring democracy to the brink and destabilize the
nation.
The Author further observed that there has been increase in the
involvement of youths in various anti-social activities and offences as
a result of unemployment. Such offences include; arson, assault,
murder, abduction, stealing, armed robbery, sex offences, unlawful
possession of arms and so on. Figures supplied by the Nigerian
Prisons Service (as cited in the National Bureau of Statistics, 2009)
actually confirmed this. For instance, the statistics of persons admitted
into the prisons between 2004 and 2008 showed that for the youths
between the ages of 16 and 20 years, 31,700 of them were admitted in
2004, 40170 in 2005, 19,122 in 2006, 16,236 in 2007 and 25,317 in
2008. As regards the youths between ages 21 and 25 years, 39,045 of
21

them were admitted in 2004; 34,600 in 2005, 28,705 in 2006, 57,736


in 2007 and 28,049 in 2008. Also, for persons between ages 25 and 50
years, 63,100 of them were admitted in 2004; 65,140 in 2005, 75,491
in 2006, 80,134 in 2007 and 73,071 in 2008. All these figures show
that the Nigerian political environment is not safe with large number
of youths who are into antisocial and criminal activities largely as a
result of unemployment.
The data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics (as cited by
Okafor, 2011) showed that as at March, 2009 in Nigeria, for persons
between ages 15 and 24 years, 41.6% were unemployed, whilefor
persons between 25 and 44 years, 17% were unemployed. Also, for
those with primary education, 14.8% were unemployed while for
those with only secondary education, 23.8% were unemployed.
Furthermore, for those with post-secondary education, 21.3% were
unemployed. For those who never attended school and those with
below primary education, 21.0% and 22.3% respectively were
unemployed.
2.6.2 Causes of unemployment
Bairoch (1976) argues that excessive supply of labour cannot be
dissociated from the issue of the rate of growth of the population in
22

that size and growth rate of labour force is said to depend primarily
on the size and growth rate of the population. He further added that
both have been growing too rapidly in developing countries, to the
extent that employment expansion could not keep pace, thus
resulting in growing unemployment.
Diejomaoh and Orimalade (1971) were of the opinion that in the
situation of limited labour demand, the acceleration in the growth of
labour force has led to increased unemployment problem in Nigeria
and will continue to do so in the future unless corrective measures
are taken. Another factor responsible for excessive labour supply is
the rapidly growing urban labour force. This arises from rural-urban
migration which generally transforms rural unemployment into
open-unemployment in the urban centers.
Edwards (1979) explains the rural-urban migration in terms of push pull factors although the dividing line is quite thin. The push factors
are said to include the pressure resulting from a rising man-land ratio
in the rural areas. In his own contribution, Todaro (1989) attributes
rural-urban migration to the relative unattractiveness of rural life due
to lack of basic amenities. He asserts that the pull factors include a
constantly widening rural-urban income gap in favour of urban
23

dwellers and a presumed higher probability of securing wage


employment in the cities.
Ojegbile (1986) reveals that the more cogent explanation of the
growing unemployment especially in Nigeria is the neglect of the
agricultural sector, which could have provided gainful employment
for job seekers.

Inadequate educational facilities such as non-

provision for thorough vocational training in the schools academic


curricula and the entrepreneurs preference for capital intensive
rather than labour intensive techniques of production have also
contributed to growing unemployment.

Williams (1988) posits that our early development planners focused


on maximum growth as being essential to full employment. They
assumed that if all efforts were devoted to production, then
unemployment could take care of itself. Consequently, employment
oriented programmes were not formulated. On the demand side of
the labour market, conventional explanations of low demand for
labour and unemployment in less developed countries include
shortage of complementary factors of production e.g. capital and
materials.

Others are technical rigidity arising from low factor


24

substitution possibility, deficiency of aggregate demand and


excessive capital intensity of the production process.

Todaro (2000) asserts that the downward wage inflexibility caused


by various unions prevented the forces of labour supply and demand
from clearing the labour market of excess labour supply, thus
accelerating the problem of unemployment in the urban sector.
Rama (1998) shows that cultural factors also increases the length of
time that job seekers spend on the job queue. Many first time job
seekers take advantage of family support to wait for the suitable job
opening thus rejecting existing work opportunities that are as at then
unattractive to them a case of voluntary unemployment.
Yesufu (2000) discovered that a new and profound cause of
unemployment also derives from attempt to manage the economy
with policy instruments that are irrelevant, ill-advised and/or far in
advance of the stage of development.

Curiously, these policy

instruments are fashioned and insisted upon by some international


organizations, notably the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and
the World Bank (IBRD). The enforcement of the type of Structural
Adjustment Programme (SAP) that was imposed upon Nigerian in
25

1986 is typical. The insistence, for example on rationalization of


employment levels in the public service (i.e. a massive reduction in
staff strength) without first addressing the issue of alternative job
possibilities caused tremendous unemployment in the most important
employment sector and threw into the entire national job market, the
nations most educated and most articulate manpower.
2.6.3 Causes of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria
The level of unemployment is highly dependent on the overall status
of the economy (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). Despite its high
revenue from oil economy, employment rate in Nigeria is actually
falling. The years of corruption, civil war, military rule, and
mismanagement have hindered economic growth. Nigeria is endowed
with diverse resources, both human and material but years of
negligence and adverse policies have led to the under-utilization of
these resources. These resources have not been effectively utilized in
order to yield maximum economic benefits.
These are primary causes of unemployment; however, scholars have
identified other causes of unemployment as well (Adebayo, 1999;
Alanana, 2003; Echebiri, 2005; Ayinde, 2008; Murphy, 2008;
Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010; and Anyadike et al, 2012). The first

26

is population growth (140,431,790 as per 2006 census) and is


projected to be over 180 million by 2020 if the annual growth rate of
3.2% continues (National Population Commission2009). While the
population increases, the rate of growth of industries is dwindling and,
if nothing serious is done, both population and unemployment will
continue to rise.
The second is outdated school curricula and lack of employable skills:
Some scholars have argued that as far as the formal sector is
concerned, the average Nigerian graduate is not employable and
therefore, does not possess the skills needed by the employers
(Anyadike et al, 2012). This is due to the curricula of most Nigerian
schools that do not include entrepreneurial skill acquisition to benefit
job seekers.
The third is adoption of untimely economic policy measures that
contributed to the demise of small scale and cottage industries
operated in both formal and informal sectors. Following the
introduction of Structural Adjustment Program in September 1986 that
ushered in liberalization, deregulation and devaluation program of the
domestic currency, many of the teething domestic firms collapsed;
that resulted in serious job losses (Bello, 2003).
27

The fourth factor which contributes to youth unemployment is over


emphasis on university certificates and the neglect of skill acquisition
trainings. According to Manning and Junankar (1998), the total
number of graduates produced in Nigeria was 73,339 in 1986/1987;
that rose to 131,016 in 1996/1997. Over 97 universities exist in
Nigeria, while there is problem of unemployment. The reality is that
the economy does not have the capacity to absorb all unemployed
graduates because over 800 industries and 37 factories were closed
down in 2009 alone (Anyadike et al, 2012).

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the research design, population and sample
size,sampling procedure/technique, as well as the necessary
instrumentation, and methodology data analysis to ensure the success
of this study.
28

3.2 Research Design


This study adopts the survey design in carrying out the study. A
survey research also concerns itself with the selection of the
population, selection of the sample for the study, data gathering
techniques and data analysis as well as the selection of variables for
study. Different problem may warrant different research designs. For
the purpose of this study, the survey research design has been selected
for use. It is convenient, yields more output and easy to administer.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population of study is the drawn from Tudun-Wada, Unguwan
Sanusi and Rigasa,an area with an estimated population of about four
hundred

and

eight

thousand

two

hundred

and

thirty

(408230).According to the National Population Commission the adult


population will be about two hundred and thirteen thousand five
hundred and ninety (213590)
3.4 Population Sample
The sample for this study is four hundred elements drawn from as
follows:
Rigasa
200
Unguwan Sanusi
100
Tudun-Wada
100
Total
400
The sample size represents 0.097% of the population size.
3.5 Sampling Procedure/Technique
29

The convenience (Accidental Sampling procedure was adopted for use


in getting the required units that madethe sample size for the study.
With this sampling procedure, units are selected on the basis of
availability.
3.6The Research Instrument
The instrument for the collection of data was questionnaire.It was
structured and made up of the bio-data section and the questions
section.
3.7 Administration of Questionnaire
For the purpose of data collection four hundred (400) self-constructed
and pilot tested questionnaires wouldbe administered to members of
the general public within Rigasa, Tudun-Wada, and Uguwan-Sanusi
all in Kaduna metropolis eliciting their responses on the issue. The
units for questionnaire administration were selected based on their
availability using the accidental/convenience sampling method.
While three hundred and eighty three (383) questionnaires were
properly completed, seventeen were not, rendering them invalid.
Given the fact the questionnaires were administered across the three
wards in proportion to their population sizes, valid judgments can be
made from the responses retrieved.
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
30

The graphs, proportions and percentages method of data analysis will


be adopted for use in this research work to analyze the data gotten
from the field using the questionnaires. On the basis of this analysis,
conclusions will be drawn on whether unemployment among the
youths of Kaduna metropolis is the factor pushing them into
commission of crimes

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, the researchers presented the data collected,
interpreted the data and provide analysis so that the reader will
understand the basis and importance of each question asked. The
researcher collected data through a close-ended questionnaire method
where four hundred and fifty (400) questionnaires were distributed
31

across Kaduna metropolis. The researcher divided Kaduna into


segments represented by Rigasa ward where two hundred, (200)
questionnaires were distributed, Unguwan Sanusi and Tudun Wada
had one hundred questionnaires distributed in each of them and all
these respondents were selected through accidental/convenience
sampling method. Out of the four hundred (400) questionnaires
distributed through research assistants, all 400 questionnaires were
retrieved

completed,

seventeen

(17)

out

of

the

completed

questionnaires were rendered invalid because they were not completed


correctly. The data analysis for this project work is therefore based on
383 completed and valid respondents. Below are the various data
presentations and analysis.

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS


TABLE: 4.1.1 Do you understand what unemployment is?
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Yes
371
96.87
No
12
3.13
Total
383
100%
Chart: 4.1.1Do you understand what unemployment is?

32

400
350
300
250
No of Respondents

200
150
100
50
0

Yes

No

From Table 4.1.1 and Chart 4.1.1 above, three hundred and seventyone (371) respondents or 96.87% of the sample understood what the
concept of unemployment is while twelve (12) respondents
representing 3.13% of the total sample did not have understanding of
what unemployment is.

TABLE: 4.1.2Do you understand who a youth is?


Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Yes
378
98.69
No
5
1.31
Total
383
100%
Chart 4.1.2Do you understand who a youth is?

33

400
350
300
250
No of Respondents 200
150
100
50
0

Yes

No

From Table 4.1.2 and Chart 4.1.2 above, three hundred andseventyeight (378) respondents or 98.69% of the sample understood what the
concept of youth is while five (5) respondents representing 1.31% of
the total sample did not have understanding of what youth is.

TABLE: 4.1.3 Do you understand what crime is?


Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Yes
381
99.48
No
2
0.52
Total
383
100%
Chart: 4.1.3Do you understand what Crime is?

34

450
400
350
300
250
No of Respondents

200
150
100
50
0

Yes

No

From Table 4.1.3 and Chart 4.1.3above, three hundred and eighty-one
(381) respondents or 99.48% of the sample understood what the
concept of crime is while two (2) respondents representing 0.52% of
the total sample did not have understanding of what crime is.
TABLE: 4.1.4 Causes of widespread unemployment among the
youths in Kaduna metropolis
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages
Illiteracy
97
25.32
Bad government policies
155
40.47
Laziness
83
21.67
Others
43
11.23
I dont know
5
1.31
Total
383
100%

35

Chart: 4.1.4 Causes of widespread unemployment among the


youths in Kaduna metropolis
200
180
160
140
120
100
No of Respondents

80
60
40
20
0

In Table 4.1.4 and Chart 4.1.4 above an assessment of the causes of


widespread unemploymentamong the youths ofKaduna metropolis is
recorded. While ninety-seven (97) respondents representing 25.32%
of the sample said that illiteracy is the major cause of unemployment
among the youths of Kaduna metropolis, one hundred and fifty-five
(155) respondents representing 40.47% of the sample size held the
opinion that bad government policies are responsible for the level of
unemployment among the youths in Kaduna metropolis. Eighty-three
36

(83) respondents or 21.67% of the samplefelt that laziness is the


reason that accounts for the widespread unemploymentamong the
youths

of

Kaduna

metropolis

forty-three

(43)

respondents

representing 11.23% of the sample size were of the opinion that other
reasons beside theones listed above account for the widespread
unemployment among the youths of Kaduna metropolis. While the
remaining five (5) respondents representing 1.31% of the sample size
did not know the causes of the widespread unemployment among the
youths in Kaduna metropolis.

Table 4.1.5Level of involvement of unemployed youths in crimes


within Kaduna metropolis
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Very high
189
49.35
High
98
25.59
Mild
57
14.88
Low
33
8.61
I dont know
6
1.57
Total
383
100
Chart: 4.1.5Level of involvement of unemployed
youths in crimes within Kaduna metropolis

37

200
180
160
140
120
No of Respondents

100
80
60
40
20
0

Very high

High

Mild

Low

I dont know

In Table 4.1.5 and Chart 4.1.5 above the views of respondents are
captured on the level of involvement of the youths in the commission
of crimes in Kaduna metropolis. A total one hundred and eighty-nine
(189) respondents representing 49.35% said that the involvement of
youths in the commission of crimes in the metropolis is very
high.Ninety-eight (98) respondents representing 25.59% of the
samplesaid that the level of involvement of youths in the commission
of crimes is just high. Fifty-seven (57) respondents representing
14.88% of the sample thoughtthat the level of involvement of youths
in the commission of crimes within the metropolis is just mild,thirtythree (33) respondents representing 8.61% of the sample thought the
level of involvement of youths in the commission of crimes in the
38

metropolis is low. While the remaining, six (6) respondents


representing 1.57% of the sample did not know the level of
involvement of youths in the commission of crimes in the metropolis.

TABLE: 4.1.6Impact of youth unemployment on the development


of Kaduna metropolis
Responses
Frequencies Percentages %
Positive
5
1.32
Negative
359
93.73
No impact
7
1.82
Dont know
12
3.13
Total
383
100%
Chart 4.1.6Impact of youth unemployment on the
development of Kaduna metropolis

39

400
350
300
250
No of Respondents

200
150
100
50
0

Positive

Negative

No impact

Dont know

Table 4.1.6 and Chart 4.1.6 above capture responses of the public on
what the impact of crime andyouth unemployment has been on the
development of Kaduna metropolis. Five (5) respondents representing
1.32% of the sample were of the view that youth unemployment has
had positive impact on the development of Kaduna metropolis. Three
hundred and fifty-nine (359) respondents representing 93.73% of the
sample held the opinion that the impact of youth unemployment has
been negative on the development of Kaduna metropolis,seven (7)
respondents or 1.82% of the total sample argued that youth
unemployment have had no impact on the development of Kaduna
metropolis while twelve (12) respondents representing 3.13% of the
sample could not say whether youth unemployment have had any
40

impact on the development of Kaduna metropolis or not.


TABLE: 4.1.7Other Factorsresponsible for involvement of
unemployed youths in crimes in Kaduna metropolis
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Bad parental training
67
17.49
Peer group pressure
89
23.24
Poverty
127
33.15
Religious extremism
83
21.67
Others
17
4.45
Total
383
100%

Chart: 4.1.7Other factors responsible for


involvement of unemployed youths in crimes in
Kaduna metropolis
140
120
100
80
No of Respondents

60
40
20
0
Bad parental training

Poverty

Others

In Table 4.1.7 and Chart 4.1.7,an assessment of the other


factorsresponsible for the involvement of youths in crimes in Kaduna
metropolis are captured. While sixty-seven (67) respondents
41

representing 17.49% of the sample size held the opinion that bad
parental training is responsible for the involvement of youths in the
commission of crimes in the metropolis, eighty-nine (89) respondents
representing 23.24% of the sample were of the opinion that peer group
pressureis generally is responsible for the involvement of youths in
the commission of crimes in Kaduna metropolis. Similarly one
hundred and twenty-seven (127) respondents or 33.15% of the sample
thoughtthat poverty isa factor pushing many unemployed youths into
committing crimes.Eighty-three (83) respondents representing 21.67%
of the sample were of the opinion that religious extremism accounts
for the involvement of youths in the commission of crimes while the
remaining seventeen (17) respondents representing 4.45% thoughtthat
there were other reasons apart from the ones mentioned here that are
responsible for the involvement of youths in the commission of crimes
Table: 4.1.8 How to tackled problem of youth unemployment
Responses
Frequencie Percentages
s
Good governance and legislations
107
Skill acquisition and self-reliance
83
Youth empowerment programmes
103
Involvement
of
youths
in 85

%
27.94
21.67
26.89
22.19

Agriculture
Others
Total

1.31
100%

5
383
42

Chart 4.1.8How
unemployment

to

tackle

problem

of

youth

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

In Table 4.1.8 and Chart 4.1.8 above, the responses of the public on
the responses to the question How can the problem of youth
unemployment be tackled in Kaduna metropolis? are captured. One
hundredand seven (107) respondents representing 27.94% of the
sample saidthat good governance and legislations that have positive
43

bearing on the lives of the people can help transform the lives of the
people for the better thereby giving no excuse for the youth to be
involved in the commission of any crime. Similarly, eighty-three (83)
respondents representing 21.67% of the sample were of the view that
skill acquisition and self-reliance programmes will go a long way in
fighting unemployment among the youths of Kaduna metropolis. One
hundred and three respondents representing 26.89% of the sample
thought that youth empowerment programmes would enable them
have a means of livelihood enabling them to live worthy lives. Eightyfive (85) respondents or 22.19% of the sample thoughtthat involving
the youths in agriculture would go a long way in helping to reduce or
eradicateunemployment among the youths in the metropolis while five
(5) respondents or 1.31% of the samplesaid that other measures can
also be put in place to tackle the problem of unemployment among the
youths in the metropolis
TABLE: 4.1.9 Impact of crimes on the development of Kaduna
metropolis
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Positive
5
1.32
Negative
359
93.73
No impact
7
1.82
Dont know
12
3.13
Total
383
100%

44

Chart 4.1.9 Impact of youth unemployment on the


development of Kaduna metropolis

400
350
300
250
No of Respondents

200
150
100
50
0

Positive

Negative

No impact Dont know

In Table 4.1.9 and Chart 4.1.9 above capturethe responses of the


public to the questionnaire, What the impact ofyouth unemployment
has been on the development of Kaduna metropolis. Five (5)
respondents representing 1.33% of the sample were of the view that
youth unemployment has positive impact on the development of
Kaduna metropolis. Three hundred and fifty-nine (459) respondents
45

representing 93.73% of the sample held the opinion that the impact of
youth unemployment has been a negative on the development of
Kaduna metropolis,seven (7) respondents or 1.82% of the total sample
argued that youth unemployment has had no impact on the
development of Kaduna metropolis while the remaining twelve (12)
respondents representing 3.13% of the sample could not say whether
youth unemployment has had any impact on the development of
Kaduna metropolis or not.
Table: 4.1.10Categories of crimes mostly committed by
unemployed youths
Responses
Frequencies
Percentages %
Drug trafficking
6
1.57
Arson
86
22.45
Petty theft
107
27.94
Thuggery
85
22.19
Kidnapping
11
2.87
Rape

2.09

Terrorism

73

19.06

Others
I dont know
Total

5
2
383

1.31
0.52
100%

46

Chart 4.1.10Categories of crimes mostly committed


by unemployed youths
120
100
80
60
No of Respondents

40
20
0

In Table 4.1.8 andChart 4.1.8 above, the responses of the public on the
to the question What are the categories of crimes mostly committed
by unemployed youths in Kaduna metropolis? are captured. Six (6)
respondents

representing

1.57%

of

the

sample

saidthat

unemployedyouths are mostly involved in trafficking of drugseightysix (86) respondents representing 22.45% of the sample were of the
view that unemployed youths are mostly involved in arson, while one
hundred and seven (107) respondents representing 27.94% of the
sample thought that unemployed youths are mostly involved in petty
theft,eighty-five (85) respondents representing 22.19% of the sample
47

were of the opinion that unemployed youths are mostly involved in


thuggery, eleven (11) respondents or 2.87% of the samplesaid
unemployed youths are mostly involved in kidnapping of people eight
(8) respondents representing 2.09% of the sample were of the view
that unemployed youths are mostly involved in cases of rape,seventythree (73) respondents representing 19.06% of the sample were of the
opinion that unemployed youths are mostly involved in acts of
terrorism,five (5) respondents or 1.31% of the sample were of the
opinion that unemployed youths are mostly involved in armed
robbery, while the remaining two (2) respondents or 0.52% of the
sample did not know what crimes unemployed youths are mostly
involved in.

CHAPTER FIVE
48

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 SUMMARY
This research work wasconducted to find out the relationship between
youth unemployment and criminalityusing,Kaduna metropolis as a
case study. In chapter one, the research topic was introduced and
views of different authors and scholars on the subject were articulated.
Chapter two reviewed relevant materials on the concepts of youth,
unemployment and crime/criminality. The chapter also introduced the
deprivation theory of crime by Ted Gurr and Beckers Economic
theory of crime. Chapter three introduced and dwelled on the research
methodology adopted for this research. Here also the research design,
the population of study, the sample and sampling procedure as well as
the method of data analysis were identified. In chapter four, the data
captured via the questionnaires administered were analyzed. Four
hundred (400) questionnaires were distributed and all were retrieved
completed; seventeen (17) out of the completed questionnaires were
rendered invalid because they were not completed correctly, leaving a
total of 383 completed and valid questionnaires.

5.2 CONCLUSION
This research work found out that unemployment is a catalyst for the
49

involvement of youths of Kaduna metropolis in the commission of


crimes by the youths in Kaduna metropolis as captured by the
responses of the public on the question what is the level of
involvement of unemployed youths in crimes within Kaduna
metropolis? A total of one hundred and eighty-nine (189) respondents
representing 49.35% thought that the involvement of unemployed
youths in the commission of crimes in the metropolis is very high
while ninety-eight (98) respondents representing 25.59% of the
sample thought that the level of involvement of unemployed youths in
the commission of crimes is just high. These figures, put together,
gives a value of 287 respondents or a total of 74.94% of the total
sample who were of the opinion that the unemployment is a factor
propelling youths into the commission of crimes in Kaduna
metropolis.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
The following are recommendations that will help keep in check the

50

The people in government whether in the executive or the


legislative arm must strive to govern well by ensuring that good
legislations and programmes aimed at reducing the rate of
youth unemploymentin the country are implemented always.
Government at all levels must put in place skill acquisition and
self-reliance programmes that will enable the youths stand on
their own rather than depending on government for white collar
jobs that are not forthcoming
Youth empowerment programmes aimed at taking them off the
streets should be fashioned out as this will help curtail their
involvement in crimes
Law enforcement agencies and reform institutions should be
empowered to adequately handle criminals properly so as to
help them become better people.
The education system in Nigeria is such that lays emphasis on
churningout individuals that cannot stand on their own
tomorrow. This has led to the growing pool of unemployed
graduates who roam the streets every day looking for whitecollar jobs that are not forthcoming and as such are readily
available for recruitment to carry out dastardly acts. The
emphasis of our education system should shift to skills
acquisition.
51

The Government of the day should see unemployment as a


national emergency to be tackled and should accord it the
priority needed by spending in the key sectors of the economysectors that have the potentials to bring forth others and in the
process create jobs for the teeming population of the
unemployed youths.
The erstwhile moribund rural development programmes of
Government should be revamped and positioned to deliver the
required results needed to make the unwanted population in
cities go back and be engaged in productive activities
irrespective of where these are carried out. Incentives should
also go with these programmes to encourage people to
participate.

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Unemployment in Nigeria's Depressed Economy from
52

http://www.nuc.edu.ng/nucsite/File/ILS%202005/ILS157.pdfaccessed 13 October, 2013


3. Awogbenle, A.C. & Iwuamadi, K.C. (2010), Youth
Unemployment: Entrepreneurship Development Programme as
an Intervention Mechanism. African Journal of
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4. Anyadike Nkechi, EmehIkechukwu EJ and
UkahFinianOkechukwu (2012). Entrepreneurship development
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5. Bennel, P, (2000). Improving Youth Livelihood in SS.A Report
to the International Development Center
6. Central Bank of Nigeria (1993), Perspectives of Economic
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8. Echebiri, R.N. (2005). Characteristics and Determinants of
Urban Youth Unemployment in Umuahia, Nigeria: Implications
for Rural Development and Alternative Labor Market Variables.
A Paper presented at the ISSER/Cornell/World Bank
conference on SharedGrowth in Africa held in Accra, Ghana,
July 21-22.
9. Edward UzomaEzedike, (2011). Violent Crimes, Economic
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11.Manning, C. & Junankar, P.N. (1998). Choosy Youth or


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outh%20Unemployment%20and%20Implications%20For
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Appendix

Dear Sir/Madam

QUESTIONNAIRE
55

I am an undergraduate of CRIMINOLOGYAND SECURITY


STUDIES at the National Open University of Nigeria, currently
working on a research: Unemployment as a Catalyst for Youth
involvement in Crimes: Case Study of Kaduna Metropolis.Kindly
tick or fill the appropriate option in the space provided
representingyour answer to each of the questions below.
I wish to assure you that all information provided will be treated with
utmost confidentiality and will only be used for the purpose of this
research.
Thank you
Sani Abubakar
Matric No: NOU070309489

SECTION A: Bio-data
1. SEX
a) Male
b) Female
2. MARITAL STATUS
a) Married
b) Single
c) Divorced
56

d) Widow
e) Separated
3. AGE DISTRIBUTION
a) 18 29 years
b) 30 39 years
c) 40 49 years
d) 50 59 years
e) 60 years and above
4. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
a) Primary Certificate
b) Secondary Certificate
c) Certificate/Diploma/NCE
d) Degree
5. OCCUPATION
a) Civil Servant/Public Servant
b) Politician
c) Business
d) Student
e) Unemployed

Please tick or fill the space as appropriate


SECTION B:
1. Do you understand what unemployment is?
a) Yes
b) No
57

2. Do you know who a youth is?


a) Yes
b) No
3. Do you understand what crime is?
a) Yes
b) No
4. What are the causes of widespread unemployment among the
youths in Kaduna metropolis?
a) Illiteracy
b) Bad government policies
c) Laziness among the youths
d) Others (please specify)
e) Dont know
5. What is the level of involvement of unemployed youths in
crimes within Kaduna metropolis?
a) Very high
b) High
c) Mild
d) Low
e) Dont know
6. What is the impact of youth unemployment on the
development of Kaduna metropolis?
a) Positive
b) Negative
c) No impact
d) I dont know
7. What other factors are responsible for the involvement of
unemployed youths in crimes in Kaduna metropolis?
a) Bad parental training
b) Peer group pressure
c) Poverty
58

d) Religious extremism
e) Others (please specify)
..
8. How can the problem of youth unemployment be tackled in
Kaduna metropolis?
a) Good governance and legislations
b) Skill acquisition and self-reliance
c) Youth empowerment programmes
d) Involvement of youths in Agriculture
e) Others (please specify)

9. What is the impact of crimes on the development of Kaduna


metropolis?
a) Positive
b) Negative
c) No impact
d) Dont know
10.What are the categories of crimes mostly committed by
unemployed youths?
a) Drug trafficking
b) Arson
c) Petty theft
d) Thuggery
e) Kidnapping
f) Rape
g) Terrorism
h) Others (please specify)
i) Dont know

59