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Scale Services

Overview
Reasons for Scale Control
Causes of Scale
Formation
Candidate Identification

Contents
Overview
Reasons for Scale Control

Causes of Scale Formation


Candidate Identification

Initials

Impact of Scale
% of each factor on production
decline
44%

28%

20%
Scale

Initials

8%

Natural Decline

North Sea
Example
1996 - 130M
BOPD

Lift

Water Cut Rise

1997 - 65M BOPD

Scales
Hard inorganic crystals (~ 3 4 mhos)
Slightly less than steel (5 mhos)
Diamond, 9 mhos

Variable crystal size


Microns to centimeters

Produced form aqueous solutions


Soluble in specially formulated
solutions

Initials

Most Common Types


Calcite (CaCO3)
Formed due to the presence of calcium
ions and bicarbonate ions in the
produced water
Pressure changes may cause
precipitation

Barite (BaSO4)
Generally formed when there is coproduction of formation water (Ba2+)

and injection water (SO4-)


Barite
Anhydrite

Initials

Contents
Overview
Reasons for Scale Control

Causes of Scale Formation


Candidate Identification

Initials

Reason for Scale Control: Matrix


Damage
Scale deposition restricts flow
Scale reduces matrix
permeability

Complete scaling of pore throat


not likely; however,

Small quantity of scale large


loss in permeability
Large loss in permeability
Initials significant reduction in
productivity

Scale

Pore system - Flowpath

Hydrocarbon flow through


water-saturated matrix

Reason for Scale Control: Tubing


Damage
Tubing ID Restriction
Constrained production
Often layered with scale, wax,
asphaltene, etc.

Completion components
blocked with scale
Gas Lift Mandrels
SSSV
Nipples

Corrosion under scale


deposition
Bacterial / H2S
Pitting
Loss of steel integrity
8

Initials

Scale Deposition in Tubing


FeS - Layer
BaS04 Layer

Under-deposit Corrosion
Asphaltene layer
H2S Pitting Corrosion
CaC03 layer
Wax Layer
Note : Actual Scale may have all or just some of these
layers

Reason for Scale Control: Injector


Wells
Injection water

Typically caused by T-activated


autoscaling of the injected
water
Scale damage located in the
NWB region of the injection well
Reduction in Kf

Reduction in the effectiveness


of the waterflood strategy

Initials

SCALE DAMAGED ZONE

Reason for Scale Control: Surface


Process
Gas

Reduction in tubing ID
Under-deposit corrosion
Reduction in process
system volume/ residence
time
Increased oil-in-water
values

Blocking of water lines


Reduction in efficiency of
heat exchangers

Damage to valves/ valve


10 seats
Initials
Reduction in effectiveness

Oil
Oily
Water

Oil

Produced
Fluids
Water
Disposal
Injectio
n

Location for potential scale


deposition

Contents
Overview
Reasons for Scale Control

Causes of Scale Formation


Candidate Identification

11 Initials

Cause of Scale Formation:


Autoscaling
View of a perforation throat

Pressure drop over NWB matrix


4 feet

Precipitation
produces further
pressure drop,
leading to
further
precipitation
12 Initials

Ca2+ + 2HC03
CO2

Ca+

Pressure drop causes CO2 to break out of solution


causing precipitation of calcium carbonate scale

Solubility of Various Minerals


Solubility Comparison
Scale

Solubility in distilled
water (mg/l)

Sodium Chloride

318,300.0

Calcium Sulfate

2,080.0

Calcium Carbonate

53.0

Barium Sulfate

2.3

Exceed solubility mineral may precipitate

Below solubility potentially dissolve more


mineral
13 Initials

Mechanism of Scale Precipitation


Nucleation and Growth (two step process)
Ba2+ + SO42- = BaSO4
Super-saturation
Ba2+

SO4

Ion pairs

Clusters / Nuclei

Ba2+ SO4

Transient Stability
Ba2+ SO4
2

14

Further growth at sites of


Initials
crystal imperfections

Imperfect Crystallites

Cause of Scale Formation: Mixed


Water
BaSO occurs where mixing of
4

incompatible water co-mingle


CaCO3 occurs where Ca2+ and
HCO3- exceed the solubility
product
Increased by draw down and psi
drop

SW

Scale can occur


in the NWB matrix
4 feet - Skin zone
and/ or the production tubular
Injected Seawater
Scale

Scales from Mixing


SW

HCO3

SO4

Ca

CaCO3

CaS04

Ba

BaSO4

Sr

SrS04

FW

15 Initials

Formation Water

FW

Cause of Scale Formation:


Evaporation
Evaporation of water into an expanding gas, as
the gas bubble travels to surface
Salt precipitates from the solution
Major problem in HTHP gas wells
Serious problem with NaCl saturated formation
waters

Serious but uncommon source of scale


Inhibited by saturating the gas bubble with water
at the point of entry into the wellbore
16 Initials

Contents
Overview
Reasons for Scale Control

Causes of Scale Formation


Candidate Identification

17 Initials

Candidate Identification
Production & Treatment History
Production Histories
Treatment Histories

Diagnosing a Scale Problem


Log Responses (Production,
Caliper, Gamma ray)
Scale Samples
Water Samples
18 Initials

Diagnostics Production History

19 Initials

Log
Responses
Caliper
Run in production
tubing
Detects the presence
and position of scale

Measure changes in
tubing ID

Gamma Ray
Detects the presence
of barite Naturally
Occurring Radioactive
Material (NORM)

20 Initials

Water Analysis
Brine Composition of Two Different Waters

21 Initials

Ion Species

Formation Water
(ppm)

Injection Sea Water


(ppm)

Sodium

31,275

10,890

Potassium

654

460

Magnesium

379

1,368

Barium

269

Strontium

771

Sulfate

2,960

Chloride

60,412

19,766

Calcium

5,038

428

Summary of Required Data

Water analysis formation and injection


Carbonate and bicarbonate analysis
Density and pH of any fluid
BHT and BHP
Composition of any gas phase
Scale samples and scale source
Formation mineralogy
Production history

22 Initials