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# PIRT

## ASNT NDT LEVEL III

NDT BASIC
Question Bank
Problems and Solutions

## MATERIALS AND PROCESSING FOR NDT TECHNOLOGY

29. A particular material has an Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) of 45000 psi and a yield strength
of 30000 psi. An allowable design stress is l5000 psi. What is the factor of safety based on UTS?
Safety factor = Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) / Allowable design stress
= 45000/ 15000
=3

## 30. A steel with 28 points of carbon contains

Carbon % = Carbon points/100
= 28/100.
= 0.28% carbon

72. The tensile stress in a bar of 15 in. long and 3 in. wide and 2 in. thick subjected to a tensile
load, acting along the length, of 30000 pounds will be equal to
Stress = Load / Initial cross -sectional area
= 30000 / (3 x 2)
= 5000 psi

155. Calculate the factor of safety if a material has a working stress of 15000 lbs per square inch
and an Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) of 60000 lbs per square inch.
Safety factor = Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) / Allowable design stress
= 60000/ 15000
=4

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239. When carrying out a tensile test the maximum load to fracture is 3.2 tons and the test piece
is 0 5 inches diameter. What is the tensile strength?
Diameter = D = 0 5 inches
Radius = r = D/2 = 0 5/2 = 0.25 inches
Tensile strength = Load / Initial cross -sectional area = Load / (3.14 x r2)
2
= 3.2 / (3.14 x 0.25 )

## = 16.29 tons per square inch

275. Calculate the factor of safety given that a material has an Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS)
of 16000 psi. An allowable design stress is 4000 psi.
Safety factor = Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) / Allowable design stress
= 16000/ 4000
=4

## 291. ASTM grain size number 4 corresponds to:

n =4
N = 2 (n - 1) = 2 (4 - 1) = 8 grain in 1 sq. inch at 100X.

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## OTHER NDT METHODS

74. Total atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101 kPa. Find the partial pressure of helium (He),
if helium concentrations is 5 ppm (by volume).
Helium concentrations = CHe-gas = 5 ppm = 0.0005%
Ptotal = 101 kPa
PHe = Ptotal (CHe-gas / 100) = 101 x (0.0005 /100) = 0.0005 kPa

177. An excellent radiograph is obtained under given exposure conditions with a tube current of
5 milli-amperes and an exposure time of 14 minutes. If other conditions are not changed, what
exposure time would be required if the X-ray tube current could be raised to 10 milli-amperes?

M1 T1 = M2 T2
5 x 14 = 5 x T2

T2 = 5 x 14 / 10 = 7 minutes

9
1 GBq = 10 Bq

## = 2220 x 109/ 1012 = 2.22 TBq

191. Converting old units to SI units, 100 rads = 1 gray (Gy). How- many mGys are there in 1
1 Rads = 1/100 Gy = (1/100) x 1000 Gy = 10 mGy

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192. What thickness of a flat type penetrameter (ASTM) would be used on a 35 mm material
thickness for a 2% sensitivity?
T =S X
where T = thickness of a flat type penetrameter (mm)
X = section thickness to be radiographed (mm)
S = penetrameter sensitivity (%)
T = (2 / 100 ) x 35 = 0.7 mm

205. Now the activity of Ir-192 source is 8 TBq, what will be its approximate activity after 150
days?
A1 = Initial Activity (today) = 8 TBq

## time gap = t = 150 d

number of half-life = n = t/ T1/2
= 150/75 = 2
A2 / A1 = 1/2n = 1/22
= 1/4
A2 = A1 x (1/4) = 8 x (1/4) = 2 TBq

206. An unshielded radioactive source gives a dose rate of 1600 mR/h at 1.8 m (6 ft). What
would be the unshielded dosage rate at 7.3 m (24 ft)?
I 1 = 1600 mR/h

I2 = ?

d1 = 6 ft

d2 = 24 ft

I2 = I 1 (d 1 ) 2 / (d2)2
= 1600 (6)2 / (24) 2 = 100 mR/h

207. The tenth-value layer of lead for 250 kVp X-rays is 2.9 mm. What thickness of lead would
be needed to reduce the exposure rate for this energy of radiation by a factor of 1000?
Dose reduction factor = 1000 = 103
Required shielding =3 TVL
= 3 x 2.9 = 8.7 mm
4

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208. If an exposure time of 2 minutes was necessary using a 0.6 m (2 ft) source-to-film distance
for a particular exposure, what time would be necessary if a 0.3 m (1 ft) source-to-film distance
is used and all other variables remain the same?
t 1 /(d1)2 = t2 / (d 2 ) 2
t2

= t1 (d2)2 / (d 1 ) 2
= 2 x (1)2 / (2) 2 = 0.5 min. = 30 s

209. The use of 3 half-value layers of shielding will reduce the radiation intensity by a factor of:
Dose reduction factor = 2n = 23 = 8

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