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# TIMBER DESIGN

NSCP Specs:
Compression at Angle to Grain:
The allowable unit stress in compression at an angle of load to grain between 0 to 90 shall be
computed from the Hankinson Formula as follows:

Fn

Fpa Fpe
Fpa sin 2 Fpe cos 2

In which Fn is the allowable unit stress acting perpendicular to the incline surface, F pa is the allowable
unit stress in compression parallel to the grain, Fpe is the allowable unit stress in compression perpendicular to

## the grain and

1.

is the angle between the direction of the load and the direction of grain.

(CE Board May 2012) The truss shown in is made from Guijo 100mm x 150mm.
The load on the truss is 20 kN. Neglect friction.
Allowable stresses for Guijo:
Compression parallel to grain = 11

MPa
Compression perpendicular to grain
= 5 MPa
Shear parallel to grain = 1 MPa
Shear longitudinal for joints = 1.45
MPa
a. Determine the minimum value of x.
b. Determine the minimum value of y in mm.
c. What is the axial stress on the member AC in MPa?
NSCP Specs:
SEC. 3.3 SIZE OF STRUCTURAL MEMBER
Sizes of lumber and structural glued-laminated timber refered to in this code are normal sizes.
Computations to determine the required sizes of member shall be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes)
and not the nominal sizes. The rough size of lumber shall not be less than the nominal size and the reduction in
face dimensions of dressed lumber shall not more than 6mm of the nominal size.
2.

A timber beam having a simple span of 4m carries a total load including its own
weight of 10 kN/m. It has a width of 200mm and a depth of 260mmm, used dressed
dimensions by reducing its dimensions by 10mm. The wooden section is made up of
80% grade Apitong. (Use table on figure TM-6)

## 3. A beam is to be loaded with a uniformly distributed load 8kN/m throughout the 5m

span the following data are given:
Allowable bending stress = 24 Mpa

## Allowable shear stress = 1.24 MPa

Allowable deflection = 1/240 of span
Modulus of elasticity = 18,600 Mpa
Wt. of wood = 8 kN/m3
If the width of the section is 100mm, determine:
a. The depth considering bending stress.
b. The depth considering shear stress.
c. The depth considering deflection.
4. (CE board November 2011, December 2014) To retain the backfill as shown, treated
timber piles braced by horizontal struts with a depth of 300mm are anchored to be
dropped at 3m spacing. The piles are considered hinged at the base. Allowable
bending stress and shear stress are 14.7 MPa and 1.48 MPa respectively.

## a. What is the design moment of the struts?

b. What is the value of struts width b based on bending?
c. What is the value of struts width b based on shear?
5. (CE Board November 2012, May 2013, December 2014) The 50mm x 75mm timber
column shown is subjected to a load P = 200 kN. The plane A-A makes an angle 15
with the x-axis.

## a. What is the normal stress on plane A-A

b. What is the shearing stress on plane A-A
c. Find the angle of plane A-A for maximum
stress.

shearing

6. A wooden mast 15m high tapers linearly from 100mm diameter at the free top to
250mm diameter at the fixed base.
a. If a horizontal force P is applied at the top to break the mast causing a maximum
direct stress, where will be the mast break?
b. If the breaking strength of the wood is 35 MPa, find the breaking force P.
TIMBER COLUMN
Straight-Line Formula for Columns

Le

F 'c 0.75Fc

15

when

L d

F 'c Fc 1 e
60

15

Le

50

when
7.

Find the axial load that can be supported by a 200mm x 300mm timber column
with effective length of 4.5m. Fc=8.60 MPa (Use Straight-Line Formula)

NSCP Specs:
3.7.3 Simple Solid-Column Design

Le

11

Short Column :

F 'c Fc
Le

11

Intermediate Columns :

k
but less than

Le

F 'c Fc

E
k 0.671
Fc

Le
d
1 1
3 k

Long Columns :

F 'c

0.30 E

Le d

## 3.7.4 Tapered Columns

In determining the d for tapered column design the diameter of a round column or least dimensions of
a column of rectangular section, tapered at one or both ends, shall be taken as the sum of the minimum
diameter or least dimension and one-third the difference between the minimum and maximum diameters or
least dimensions.
8.

Find the effective length for a 200 mm diameter column that can support a load
of 125 kN. Use Fc=10.40 MPa and E=8,600 MPa (A round column will carry
approximately the same load as a square column having the same crosssectional area)

9.

## A timber column tapers linearly from 150 mm to 270 mm diameter between

pinned-end supports 4.50 m apart. Calculate the safe load of the circular tapered

## column could support if the allowable compression parallel to grain is F c=7.50

MPa.
TIMBER CONNECTORS AND FASTENERS
10.
Two piece of 75mm x 400mm Yacal (80% stress grade) members under tension
are connected together by means of a lap splice with 9 pcs of 25 mm diameter bolts
arrange in three rows as shown. (refer to TM-6 for allowable loads)
a. Determine the net area of a timber member. Consider
hoe diameter to be 2mm larger than the bolt
diameter.
b. Determine the safe value of P considering
net area of the member timber.
c. Determine the safe value of P considering the
bearing of the bolts on the timber.

the

11.
Two 75mm x 250mm secondary Apitong members are connected to a 100 mm
thick main Apitong member by means of six bolts as shown. If the secondary
member carries a combined axial tension of 44 kN, determine: (refer to
TM-7 for Specs.)
a. Force carried by each bolt
b. The required bolt diameter if failure occurs at
secondary member.
c. The required bolt diameter if failure occurs on the main
member.

NSPC Specs:
3.4.3.6 Slenderness Factor Adjustment. When the depth of beam exceeds its width, lateral support may be
required and the slenderness factor Cs shall be calculated by the following formula:

CS

Le d
b2
where:

## d = depth of the beam, in mm.

b = width of the beam, in mm.
Le = effective length
Single-span, uniformly distributed load, Le =1.92L
Cantilever, concentrated load at unsupported end, Le =1.69L
Cantilever, uniformly distributed load, Le =1.06L
Single span or cantilever any other load, Le =1.92L

When the slenderness factor Cs is greater than 10 but does not exceed C k the allowable unit stress in bending
Fb shall be determined from the following formula:

C
F 'B FB 1 1 S
3 C

Ck 0.811 E

FB

where

Cs
In no case shall
exceed 50.
When the slenderness factor C s is greater than Ck but less than 50 allowable unit stress in bending F B shall be
determined from the formula:

F 'B

0.438 E
(CS ) 2

12.
A timber wall is 50 mm wide, 150 mm deep and having a height of 3.50m is
assumed to be hinged at top and bottom (use k=1.0). It is subjected to uniformly
distributed load of 300 N/m acting along the weaker axis of its entire height. The wall
is made-up of Apitong wood stresses are shown in the TM-6 (use 80% stress grade).
To be safe, the actual stresses should not exceed the allowable stresses. Also, the
wall must be checked using the formula:
NSCP Specs:
3.8.2 Flexure and Axial Compression
Member subjected to both flexure and axial compression shall be proportioned such that

fC
fB

1.0
F 'C F 'B Jf c

J
where

Le d 11
k 11

J
expect that

## shall not be less than zero or greater than

one.
a. Determine the allowable compressive stress.
b. Determine the value of allowable bending stress.
c. What is the maximum axial load?
UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING (DESIGN OF PURLINS)
A wooden purlin is used on the truss with a top chord inclined at 30 with the horizontal.
The purlin is 50mm x 100mm and has length of 3.5m spaced by 0.45m on center. It
carries a live load of 750 Pa, weight of roofing is 120 Pa and ceiling load equal to 140 Pa.
Using Apitong.
a. Determine the uniform load carries by the purlin in N/m.
b. Determine the maximum flexural stress.
c. What is the vertical deflection of the purlin?

## Working Stresses for Visually

Timber of Philippine Woods