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Heat Exchanger Foundation

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3.4 Heat Exchanger Foundation


Total six types of Heat Exchanger are allowed to design. They are Stacked Exchanger combined footing
option, isolated footing option, strap beam option and Single Exchanger combined footing option,
isolated footing option, strap beam.

Exchanger Geometry page


Footing Geometry page
Beam Geometry page
Primary Load page
Wind Load Generation page
Seismic Load Generation page
Load Combination page
Design Parameters page

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Exchanger Geometry page


Used to input all the geometric data for the Heat Exchanger.
Clicking on any input fields creates a description of the corresponding field below the diagram.

Exchanger / Vessel Type


Select either a Single Exchanger or Stacked Exchanger, for the type of heat exchanger vessel will
be supported by the foundation.
Footing Type
Combined Footing - footing will be designed as monolithic footing connecting two piers. Design
philosophy is same as combined footing from General Mode.

Isolated Footing - footing will be designed as two isolated footing supporting each pier. These
footing can be made identical from footing geometry page. Design philosophy is same as isolated
footing from General Mode.

Strap Beam
(Isolated Footing type only) Exchanger footing will be designed as two isolated footing below the
piers connected by a strap beam.
Bottom of Footing Elevation (B.O.F.)
Bottom of footing elevation is used for detail drawing purpose. Based on this input elevation at
top of concrete (T.O.C.), elevation at top of soil (T.O.S) and elevation at top of pedestal (T.O.P.)
are displayed in detail drawing
Unit

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Unit of length for all the input in this page only.


Heat Exchanger Length (L)
Length of the heat exchanger.
Upper Exchanger Diameter (UD)
(Stacked Exchanger only) Diameter of the upper exchanger.
Lower Exchanger Diameter (LD)
Diameter of the lower exchanger or, if a Single Exchanger, the diameter of the sole exchanger.
Height from Pier Top to Upper Exchanger (H)
Height from the top of the pier to the center line of the upper exchanger. For a single exchanger,
the height is measured to the center line of the single vessel.
Soil Depth (SD)
Depth of soil from top of the footing.
Height of Pier Top from Base (B)
Height from the top of the pier to the base of the foundation.
Spacing of Exchanger (S)
(Stacked Exchanger only) Spacing of the central line of the exchanger in case of stacked
exchanger.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Footing Geometry page


This page will have a different set of parameters displayed depending on the Footing Type selected on
the Exchanger Geometry page.

Combined Footing
Isolated Footing
Strap Beam
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.

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Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Beam Geometry page


Used to specify grade beam geometry for isolated footings connected by a strap beam.

Here UDL with unit over beam option is available. Max & Min Depth Range of Beam, Width of Beam
(with unit input), Main Bar Range, Stirrup Bar Range, Stirrup Type (Number of legs), Stirrup Spacing
Range ( with input) are available in this page.
Beam Loading - UDL On Beam
Specify a uniform dead load applied over the length of the grade beam, in the selected units.
For example, this may be the weight of a wall load over the beam.
Min / Max Depth
Enter the range of beam depth permissible for design, in the selected units. The design process
will begin with the minimum depth and iterate designs up to and including the maximum depth
specified.

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Beam depth is taken from top of grade beam to bottom of spread footing.
Beam Width
Width of the beam above the spread footing, in the selected units.
Min / Max Bars Size (Main Bar)
Specify the range of permissible longitudinal reinforcing bar sizes.
Min / Max Bars Size (Stirrup)
Specify the range of permissible stirrup sizes.
Min / Max Spacing of Stirrup
Specify the permissible range of stirrup spacing, in the selected units.
Type of Stirrup
Select the number of stirrup legs present in a cross section.
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Primary Load page


Used to input the primary loads other than wind load and seismic load.
In case of stacked exchangers, primary loads entered in this page are for the entire heat exchanger
assembly not for single exchanger

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Force Unit
Select a unit for all axial loads specified on this page.
Moment Unit
Select a unit for all moment loads specified on this page.
Heat Exchanger Loads
Six types of axial forces are used for input. They are:

Empty Load - Exchanger assembly Weight in empty condition


Operating Load - Exchanger assembly weight with fluids at operating level condition
Test Load - Exchanger assembly weight with fluids at test level condition
Live Load - Superimposed live load on exchanger assembly e.g. platform live load attached
to the exchanger
Erection Load - Construction loading on exchanger assembly e.g. crane loading
Miscellaneous Axial Load
Thermal load - Load generated by thermal expansion of exchanger assembly, thermal load
is entirely applied at fixed end
Bundle Pull - Axial couple loading is considered on piers for Bundle pull force. Lateral load
imposed on exchanger assembly under maintenance procedure, program distributes bundle
pull force equally on piers.

Application of all primary load is in accordance with PIPSTE03360


The program generates axial, lateral forces and moments based on primary load input. Additional
loading can be entered through user defined moment.
User Defined Moment
Four types of moments are used for input. They are:

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Empty Moment
Operating Moment
Longitudinal Miscellaneous Moment
Transverse Miscellaneous Moment

Direct inputs are always applied at top of pedestal (bottom of base plate), it is per industry
standards. Vendors provide the loads at bottom of base plate of vessel. All program generated
loads are applied at center of vessel.
Pedestal Load Distribution %
Give the load distribution percentage for Shell End and Channel End. Channel End is usually
considered as sliding end and Shell End is considered as fixed end.
Vertical loads are not affected by pedestal type (fixed or sliding). Vertical loads are distributed per
pedestal load distribution percentage. Conventionally channel end is heavier than shell end.
Standard percentage of distribution for vertical loads is - Channel End 60% & Shell End 40%.
Design Self Weight
This option enables user to select self weight of the footing, self weight of the pedestal and self
weight of the soil above footing to be considered for reinforcement design or not.
Self weight is always considered for service checks.
Self Weight Factor
Coefficient of calculated self weight for use in dead load cases. Further to design self weight
option, self weight considered can be modified using this factor.
Slide Plate Parameter
Sliding plate coefficient only affects the seismic loads on exchanger assembly.
Slide plate coefficient of friction is used to determine % longitudinal lateral loads distributed on
Shell End and Channel End.
Per PIPSTE03360 4.3.2.3, for low friction plates (0.2) entire earthquake load is applied on
fixed pier (Shell End). In case of high friction plates ( 0.2), 70% of earthquake load applied on
fixed pier.
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Wind Load Generation page


Inputs for wind load can be given in two ways. You can directly input the shear force & moment values
with choosing the proper unit or you can use the software to calculate those values using ASCE 7-2005.

User Defined Wind Load


Program Calculated Wind Load
Partial Wind Case %
This value represents percentage of full wind speed used in case of test load or erection load
combination. As probability of getting full wind speed while test is being carried out is very low.
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Seismic Load Generation page


Used to input seismic load data, either directly or by parameters which the program will then use to
calculate code-specified seismic loads per ASCE 7-2005.

Directly Input Seismic Loads


Select this option to specify values for shear force and moment. Otherwise, seismic load generation
parameters are required to generate loads.

Directly Input Seismic Loads


Program Calculated
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel

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Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load
combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load
Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

Load Combination Table


Select either of the two code specified load combinations or input your own.
ASCE 7-05
PIP STC01015
User defined
Update Table

Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the
Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default.
Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only.
Delete
Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table.

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To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the
Update Table button after deleting.
Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables
Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.

Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination.
toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you wish to use.
Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is
represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination
factor for a given load type in the cell.
The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it
appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row.
To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to
click the Update Table button after making changes.
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Next >
Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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Design Parameters page


Used to enter design parameters for the Heat Exchanger footing; including reinforced concrete, soil, and
safety factors.

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Unit
First give the units for three types of dimensions, density, length and stress.

Concrete and Rebar


Concrete Unit Weight
Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC).
Fc
Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c).
Fy
Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy).
Max / Min Bar Spacing
Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars.
Max / Min Bar Size
Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design.

Cover and Soil


Pedestal Clear Cover
Specify clear cover distance between face of pedestal and edge of reinforcing bars.
Footing Bottom Cover
Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing
reinforcement.
Soil Unit Weight
Specify a density to be used for the soil.
Soil Bearing Capacity
Specify the allowable bearing capacity of the soil, in the selected units.
Soil Depth
Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing.

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Load Surcharge
Specify a surcharge loading above the footing.
Minimum Permissible Area in Contact With Soil
Specify a percentage of area of contact between footing and soil.

Sliding and Overturning


Coefficient of Friction
Specify a coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete.
Factor of Safety (Sliding)
Specify a factor of safety against sliding.
Factor of Safety (Overturning)
Specify a factor of safety against overturning.
< Previous
Steps the Wizard to the previous step.
Cancel
Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.
Finish
Closes the Wizard and creates the Heat Exchanger Footing job in the current project.

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