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Laplace Transform

Laplace Transform
Example 1:
Find the Laplace transforms of
a. f(t) = a
where: a = constant
b. f(t) = eat
c. f(t) = cos(at)
d. f(t) = sinh(at)

Solution to Example 1
(a) f(t) = a

where: a = constant

L{a} e st (a )dt
0

L{a} a e st dt
0

st

ae
L{a}
s

ae s ( ) ae s ( 0 ) a
L{a}

s
s
s

Solution to Example 1
(b) f(t) = eat
L{e
L{e
L{e
L{e

at

} e
0

at

st

(e

at

)dt

} e ( s a )t dt
0

at

at

( s a ) t

e
}
sa
e

( s a )( )

( s a )( 0 )

1
}

sa
sa
sa

Solution to Example 1
(c) f(t) = cos(at)
Eulers
e

jat

Identity

cos at j sin at

e jat cos at j sin at


e jat e jat
cos at
2
e jat e jat st e jat e jat
dt
L{cos at} L
0 e
2
2

Solution to Example 1
(c) f(t) = cos(at)
L{cos at}
L{cos at}
L{cos at}
L{cos at}

1 ( s ja )t
( s ja ) t
e

e
dt

2 0
( s ja ) t
( s ja ) t

1 e
e

2 s ja 0 s ja 0

1 e ( s ja )( ) e ( s ja )( 0) e ( s ja )( ) e ( s ja )( 0 )

2 s ja
s ja s ja
s ja
1 1
1 1 ( s ja ) ( s ja )
s

2
2
2

2 s ja s ja 2
s a
s

Solution to Example 1
(d) f(t) = sinh(at)
Eulers

Identity

e at cosh at sinh at
e at cosh at sinh at
e at e at
sinh at
2
e at e at st e at e at
dt
L{sinh at} L
0 e
2
2

Solution to Example 1
(d) f(t) = sinh(at)

1 ( s a )t
L{sinh at} e
e ( s a )t dt
2 0
( s a )t
( s a )t

1 e
e
L{sinh at}

2 sa 0 sa 0

1 e ( s a )( ) e ( s a )( 0) e ( s a )( ) e ( s a )( 0)

L{sinh at}

2
sa
sa sa
s a
1 1
1 1 ( s a) ( s a)
a
L{sinh at}


2
2
2
2

2 s a s a 2
s a
s

Laplace Transform
Example 2:
Find the Laplace transforms of
1. x(t) = -1 0<t<2
= 0 2<t<4
=1
t>4
2. (t) = 2
0<t<2
= -4t +10 2<t<3
= -2
t>3

Solution to Example 2
(1)
2

L{x(t )} e (1)dt e (0)dt e st (1)dt

L{x(t )}

st

st 2

st

st

e s ( 2) e s (0) e s ( ) e s ( 4)
1 e 2 s e 4 s


L{x(t )}

s
s
s
s
s
s
s

Solution to Example 2
(2)
2

L{ (t )} e (2)dt e (4t 10)dt e st (2)dt


st

st

L{ (t )} e (2)dt e (4t )dt e (10)dt e st (2)dt


0

st

st

u t

st

dv e st dt

e st
du dt v
s
st
e st 2 e st 3
e st 3 e st
3e
L{ (t )} 2
4 t

dt 10
2

s
s s
s 2 2 s

0
2
3




e st 2 e st 3 e st 3 e st 3 e st
L{ (t )} 2
4 t
2 10
2

s
s 2 s 2 s 2 s 3
0


Solution to Example 2
(2)
s ( 3)
s ( 2)
s ( 3)
s ( 2)
e s ( 2 ) e s ( 0 )


e
e
e
e

L{ (t )} 2

4 (3)
(2)
2 2

s
s
s
s s
s

e s ( 3) e s ( 2 ) e s ( ) e s ( 3)
2

10

s
s
s
s

2e 2 s 2 12e 3 s 8e 2 s 4e 3s 4e 2 s 10e 3 s 10e 2 s 2e 3 s


L{ (t )}

2 2

s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
2 4e 3s 4e 2 s
L{ (t )} 2 2
s
s
s

Seatwork 1
Derive the following f(t):
1. sin(at)
2. cosh(at)
3. tn
4. tcost

Laplace Transform
Example 4:
Use Table 1 to determine the Laplace transform of each
of the following functions:

(a) : t 3
(c ) : sin 4t

( f ) : sinh 3t
( g ) : cosh 5t
( h ) : t sin 4t

(d ) : e 2t

(i ) : e t sin 2t

t
(e) : cos
2

( j ) : e 3t cos t

(b ) : t 7

Solution to Example 4
(a) t t

n!

(b)

n!

s n 1
3!
6
3
t 31 4
s
s
t t
7

s n 1
7!
5040
7
t 7 1 8
s
s

(c)

(d)

sin 4t sin t

s2 2
4
4
sin 4t 2
2
2
s 4
s 16

e
e

sa

2t

2t

s2

at

Solution to Example 4
(e) cos t

s
cos t 2
2
s 2
t
s
s
cos 2

2 s (1 2) 2 s 2 1 4

(f)

sinh 3t sinh t 2
s 2
3
3
sinh 3t 2
2
2
s 3
s 9

(g)

cosh 5t cosh t

(h)

t sin 4t t sin t

s
s2 2
s
s
cos 5t 2
2
2
s 5
s 25

t sin 4t

2(4) s
2

2 2

2s
2

8s

2 2

16

Solution to Example 4
(i)
t

e sin 2t e

(j)
at

sin t

( s a) 2 2
2
2
e t sin 2t

( s 1) 2 22 ( s 1) 2 4

( s a)
e cos t e cos t
( s a) 2 2
( s 3)
( s 3)
e 3t cos t

( s 3) 2 12 ( s 3) 2 1
3t

at

Laplace Transform Property


Example 5:
Find the Laplace transforms of the
following functions:

(a) : 3 2t
(b) : 5t 2e
2

Solution to Example 5
(a)

3 2(1!) 3 2
F ( s) 11 2
s s
s s
(b)

5(2!) 2(1) 10
2
F ( s) 21
3
s 1 s
s 1
s

Laplace Transform Property


Example 6:
Find the Laplace transforms of the following:
(a) : 5 cos 3t 2 sin 5t 6t 3
(b) : e t 12 (sin t cos t )

Solution to Example 6
(a)

5s
2(5)
6(3!)
F (s) 2
2
31
2
2
s 3
s 5
s
5s
10
36
F (s) 2
2
4
s 9 s 25 s

(b)

1
F (s)

s 1
1
F (s)

s 1

1 2 (1) 1 2 ( s)
2 2
2
2
s 1
s 1
12
1 2 ( s)
2
2
s 1 s 1

Laplace Transform Property


Example 7:
a.) Use Table1 to find the Laplace transform

f (t ) t sin 5t
b.) Use the first shift theorem to write down

3t

L e t sin 5t

Solution to Example 7
(a)

F ( s)

(b) F (s)

2(5) s
2

2 2

10( s 3)

(s 3)

10s
2

2 2

2 2

10s 30

(s 3)

2 2

Laplace Transform Property


Example 8:
The Laplace transform of a function, f(t) is
given by:
2s 1
F ( s)
s( s 1)
State the Laplace transform of

(a) : e

2 t
3t

f (t )

(b) : e f (t )

Solution to Example 8
(a)
2( s 2) 1
2s 4 1
2s 5
F ( s)

2
( s 2)[(s 2) 1] ( s 2)(s 3) s 5s 6

(b)
2( s 3) 1
2s 6 1
2s 5
F ( s)

2
( s 3)[(s 3) 1] ( s 3)(s 2) s 5s 6

Laplace Transform Property


Example 9:
Given:
2s
L f (t )
, find : L(t 2) f (t 2)
s9

Use the second shift theorem with d=2.

Solution to Example 9

F ( s)

2 s

(2s)
s9

Laplace Transform Property


3 s

e
Example 10:
The Laplace transform of a function is s 2 .
Find the function.

Solution to Example 10
F ( s)

3 s

(1)

, d 3

s
Lt 3 f t 3
f (t ) t

Laplace Transform Property


Example 11:
2t
Verify the final value theorem for f (t ) e

Solution to Example 11
lim sF ( s ) lim f (t )
s 0

1
2t
lim s

lim
e

s 0
s

t
1
2( )
(0)

00

Laplace Transform Property


Example 12:
Verify the initial value theorem for
4( s 2)
F (s)
2
( s 2) 25

Solution to Example 12
4( s 2)
2t
F (s)
;
f
(
t
)

4
e
cos 5t
2
( s 2) 25
lim f (t ) lim sF ( s )
t 0

lim 4e
t 0

2t

4( s 2)
cos 5t lim s

2
s
(
s

2
)

25

(
s
2s)
2t
lim 4e cos 5t lim 4 2

t 0
s
s 4s 29

Solution to Example 12
2s
1 s 2

lim 4e 2t cos 5t lim 4
t 0
s
1 4 s 25

s 2 s 2
2( )
1

2
( )
2(0)

4e
cos[5(0)] 4
4()
25
1

2
( )
( ) 2
44

Laplace Transform Property


Example 13:
Find the laplace transform of f (t ) t sin 2t
using differentiation of laplace transform.

Solution to Example 13
2
sin 2t 2
s 4
d 2
t sin 2t 2

ds s 4
0( s 2 4) 1 2(1)(2 s 0)

t sin 2t
2

4s
t sin 2t
2
2
s 4

Laplace Transform Property


Example 14:
Given x(0) = 2 and x(0) = -1
Write expressions for the Laplace
transforms of:
(a) 2x 3x + x
(b) -x + 2x + x

Solution to Example 14
(a) x" s 2 X ( s) sX (0) X ' (0) s 2 X ( s) 2s 1
x' sX ( s ) X (0) sX ( s ) 2
x X (s)

2 s 2 X ( s ) 2 s 1 3sX ( s ) 2 X ( s ) 0
2 s 2 X ( s ) 4 s 2 3sX ( s ) 6 X ( s ) 0
2 s 2 X ( s ) 3sX ( s ) X ( s ) 4 s 2 6

2s

3s 1 X ( s ) 4 s 8
4s 8
X ( s) 2
2 s 3s 1
2

Solution to Example 14
(b)

x" s 2 X ( s ) sX (0) X ' (0) s 2 X ( s ) 2 s 1


x' sX ( s ) X (0) sX ( s ) 2
x X (s)

s 2 X ( s ) 2 s 1 2sX ( s ) 2 X ( s ) 0
s 2 X ( s ) 2 s 1 2 sX ( s ) 4 X ( s ) 0
s 2 X ( s ) 2 sX ( s ) X ( s ) 2 s 1 4

s 2 X ( s ) 2 sX ( s ) X ( s ) 2 s 5

2s 1 X ( s) 2s 5
2s 5
X ( s) 2
s 2s 1
2

Seatwork 2
Find the laplace transform of the following
function
t 2 1
1. 2
t 1
t 1
t 1
2t 2

2. (t )
2t 6
t
3. cosh 2t sinh 2t

, 0 t 1
, 1 t 2
, 2t3
,
t 3

4. y" '4 y"2 y cosh t 0


1
5. t 2 cosh 2t
2

where : y" (0) 0, y ' (0) 2, and

y (0) 0

Seatwork 2
6. Perform the following operations:
a. Find the final value of X ( s) 5 3
s s2

2 s
s
2 s
2
e

e
e
b. Find the initial value of X ( s)

2
s
s
s

Inverse Laplace Transform

Inverse Laplace Transform


Example 1:
Find the inverse Laplace transforms of the
following:
2
(a) : 3
s
16
(b) : 3
s
s
(c ) : 2
s 1
1
(d ) : 2
s 1
s 1
(e) : 2
s 1

Solution to Example 1
2
(a ) F ( s ) 3 ; f (t ) t 2
s
16
(b) F ( s ) 3 ; f (t ) 8t 2
s
s
(c ) F ( s ) 2
; f (t ) cos t
s 1
1
(d ) F ( s) 2
; f (t ) sin t
s 1
s 1
s
1
(e) F ( s ) 2
2
2
s 1 s 1 s 1
f (t ) cos t sin t

Inverse Laplace Transform


Example 2:
Find the inverse Laplace transforms of the
following functions:
10
(a) :
( s 2) 4
( s 1)
(b) :
( s 1) 2 4
15
(c ) :
( s 1) 2 9

Solution to Example 2
10
10 3!
10 2t 3
(a) F ( s)

; f (t ) e t
4
4
3! ( s 2)
6
( s 2)
( s 1)
( s 1)
t
(b) F ( s )

;
f
(
t
)

e
cos 2t
2
2
2
( s 1) 4 ( s 1) 2
15
5(3)
t
(c ) F ( s )

;
f
(
t
)

5
e
sin 3t
2
2
2
( s 1) 9 ( s 1) 3

Inverse Laplace Transform


Example 3:
Find the inverse Laplace transforms of the
following functions:
s3
(a) : 2
s 6s 13
2s 3
(b) : 2
s 6 s 13
s 1
(c ) : 2
2 s 8s 11

Solution to Example 3
s3
s3
(a) F ( s) 2

s 6s 9 4 s 32 2 2
f (t ) e 3t cos 2t

Solution to Example 3
2s 3
2s 9 6
(b) F ( s ) 2

s 6s 9 4 s 32 2 2
2( s 3) 6
2( s 3)
3(2)
F ( s)

2
2
2
2
2
s 3 2 s 3 2 s 3 2 2

f (t ) 2e 3t cos 2t 3e 3t sin 2t

Solution to Example 3
s 1
s 1
(c ) F ( s ) 2
2
s 4 s 5.5 s 4 s 4 1.5
s 1
s 23
F ( s)

2
s 22 1.5
s 22 1.5

F ( s)

s2

s 2

f (t ) e

2t

1.5

cos 1.5t

1.5

e 2t sin 1.5t

1.5

1.5 s 2
2

1.5

Inverse Laplace Transform using


Partial Fraction Expansion
Example 4:
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:
4s 1
(a) : 2
s s
6s 8
(b) : 2
s 3s 2

Solution to Example 4
(a)

6s 8
6s 8
A
B
4s 1
4s 1
A
B
(
b
)


2
s 2 3s 2 ( s 2)( s 1) s 2 s 1
s s s ( s 1) s s 1

4s 1
1
A s

s ( s 1) s 0 1
4s 1
3
B ( s 1)

s ( s 1) s 1 1
1
3
F ( s)
s s 1
f (t ) 1 3e t

6s 8
4
A ( s 2)

(
s

2
)(
s

1
)

s 2
6s 8
2
B ( s 1)

( s 2)( s 1) s 1 1
4
2
F (s)

s 2 s 1
f (t ) 4e 2t 2e t

Inverse Laplace Transform using


Partial Fraction Expansion
Example 5:
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:

3s 6s 2
s 3 3s 2 2s
2

Solution to Example 5
3s 2 6 s 2
3s 2 6 s 2
A
B
C

2
s ( s 3s 2) s ( s 2)( s 1) s s 1 s 2
3s 2 6 s 2
2
A s

s ( s 2)( s 1) s 0 2
3s 2 6 s 2
1
B ( s 1)

s ( s 2)( s 1) s 1 1
3s 2 6 s 2
2
C ( s 2)

s ( s 2)( s 1) s 2 2
1
1
1
F ( s)

s s 1 s 2
f (t ) 1 e t e 2t

Inverse Laplace Transform using


Partial Fraction Expansion
Example 6:
Find the inverse Laplace transform of:

2
F ( s) 4
s 5s 3 4 s 2

Solution to Example 6
F (s)

2
2
A B
C
D

s 4 5s 3 4 s 2 s 2 ( s 4)( s 1) s 2 s s 4 s 1

2
2
D ( s 1) 2

s
(
s

4
)(
s

1
)

s 1 3

2
2
1
C ( s 4) 2

24
s
(
s

4
)(
s

1
)

s 4 48
1 d
B

(2 1)! ds

( 2 1)

2

2
2(2 s 5)
(
s
)

2

2

s ( s 4)( s 1) s 0 s 2 5s 4

2
2 1
A (s 2 ) 2

4
2
s
(
s

4
)(
s

1
)

s 0
5
2
1
1

F ( s ) 22 8 24 3
s
s 4 s 1
s
1
5 1
2
f (t ) t e 4t e t
2
8 24
3

s 0

10
5

16
8

Inverse Laplace Transform using


Complex Numbers
Example 7:
Find the inverse Laplace transform of :

s3
s 2 6s 13

Solution to Example 7
s3
s3
A
B

6 36 4(13) 2
s
s 6s 13 ( s a)( s b) s a s b
2
6 16
s
2
6 j4
s
2
s 3 j 2

s 3 A( s b) B( s a)
let :
s a 3 j 2

Solution to Example 7
1
s 3 1 1 1
L 2

6
s

13
2
s

a
s

A 12
1 at
1 A B
.... (e ebt )
2
1
B2
1 ( 3 j 2 )t
... e
e( 3 j 2 ) t
2
s3
1 1
1
1 3t j 2 t
j 2t

...

e
(
e

e
)
s 2 6 s 13 2 s a s b
2
1 3t
... e (cos 2t j sin 2t cos 2t j sin 2t
2
... e 3t cos 2t
j 2 A(3 j 2 b) A( j 4)

Convolution Theorem
Example 8:
Find the convolution of 2t and t3.

Solution to Example 8
f (t ) 2t
g (t ) t

f (t v) 2(t v)
g (v ) v 3

f (t ) * g (t ) 2(t v)v 3dv


0

2t * t 2(t v)v 3dv


3

........... 2 (tv 3 v 4 )dv


0

t (t ) 4 t (0) 4 t 5 05
tv
v

.......... 2
2

5 0
4 5 5
4
4
t5 t5
5t 5 4t 5
.......... 2 2

4
5
20

t5
..........
10

Convolution Theorem
Example 9:
Show that f*g = g*f
where f(t)=2t and g(t) = t3

Solution to Example 9
t5
( g * f )(t ) 2t * t
10
5

g * f t 3 * 2t
t

......... (t v) 3 2vdv
0

( g * f )(t ) g (t v) f (v)dv
0

g (t ) t , so
3

g (t v) (t v)3 , and
f (v) 2v

......... (t 3 3t 2 v 3tv 4 v 3 )2vdv


0

......... 2 (t 3v 3t 2 v 2 3tv 3 v 4 )dv


0

t v
3tv
v
2 3
......... 2
t v

4
5 0
2
3 2

t5
.........
10

Inverse Laplace Transform using


Convolution Theorem
Example 10
Use the convolution theorem to find the inverse
Laplace transform of the following functions:

1
(a)
( s 2)( s 3)
3
(b) 2
s ( s 4)

Solution to Example 10
1
1
(a) : F ( s)
, G(s)
s2
s3
then ,
f (t ) L1{F ( s )} e 2t
g (t ) L1{G ( s)} e 3t

1
1
L

L
{F ( s )G ( s )}

( s 2)( s 3)
.............................. ( f * g )(t )
1

.............................. e 2 ( t v )e 3v dv
0

.............................. e 2t e 2 v e 3v dv
0

.............................. e 2t e v dv
0

.............................. e

2t

v t
0

.............................. e 2t (e t 1)
.............................. e 2t e 3t

Solution to Example 10
3
1
(b)..F ( s ) ,.....G ( s ) 2
s
s 4
then ,
..... f (t ) 3,.......g (t ) 12 sin 2t

3
1
L 2

L
{F ( s )G ( s )}

s ( s 4)
......................... ( f * g )(t )
1

......................... 3
0

sin 2v
dv
2

3 t
......................... sin 2vdv
2 0
3 cos 2v
.........................
2 2 0
t

3
......................... (1 cos 2t )
4

Solving Linear Constant Coefficient Differential


Equations using Laplace Transforms
Example 11
Solve the differential equation using Laplace
transform

dx
x 0,.....x(0) 3
dt

Solution to Example 11
dx
L L ( x ) 0
dt
[ sX ( s ) x(0)] [ X ( s )] 0
sX ( s ) 3 X ( s ) 0
sX ( s ) X ( s ) 3
( s 1) X ( s ) 3
X (s)

3
s 1

x(t ) 3e

Solving Linear Constant Coefficient Differential


Equations using Laplace Transforms
Example 12
Solve the equation using Laplace transform

dx
x 9e 2t ,........x(0) 3
dt

Solution to Example 12
9
sX ( s ) x(0) X ( s )
s2
9
sX ( s ) 3 X ( s )
s2
9
9 3s 6 3s 3
( s 1) X ( s )
3

s2
s2
s2
3( s 1)
( s 1) X ( s )
s2
3( s 1)
3
X ( s)

( s 2)( s 1) s 2

x(t ) 3e 2t

Seatwork 3
1. Find the inverse laplace of the following:
a.

12
s4

1
b. 2
s 2 s 10
s2
c.
s 2 2 4
s
d. 2
s 6 s 13
1
e. 2
s 4s 4

Seatwork 3
2. Use complex operation in finding the inverse
laplace:

3s 1
a. 2
s 6s 13

2s 3
b. 2
s 4s 8

3. Use partial fraction expansion to find the inverse


laplace transform

a.

2s 3

s 4

2s 2 1
b.
2
s( s 1)

Seatwork 3
4. Find the convolution of the following
functions
g (t ) sin 3t
a. f (t ) t
t
f
(
t
)

e
g (t ) cos 2t
b.

Seatwork 3
5. Find the inverse laplace of the given
laplace equations using convolution theorem
a.
b.

3
L 2 2

s ( s 9)
1

1
L

2
( s 1)( s 1)
1

6. Find the solution to


2t
x" (t ) 4 x' (t ) 4 x(t ) 4e
where : x(0) 1; x' (0) 4

Electrical Circuits

Example
Find i(t) of the circuit

Solution

Solution
Apply Kirchoffs Voltage Law

E VR VC 0
VR VC E
1
RiR ic dt E ; iR iC i
C
1 I ( s ) CVC (0) E
RI ( s )

C s
s s
I ( s ) VC (0) E
q
0.015
RI ( s )

;VC (0)
37.5V
Cs
s
s
C 0.0004

Solution
I (s)
37.5 50
10 I ( s )

0.0004 s
s
s
2500 I ( s ) 50 37.5 12.5 s

10
I
(
s
)

s
s
s
s 10
sI ( s ) 250 I ( s ) 1.25
( s 250) I ( s ) 1.25
1.25
I ( s)
( s 250)
i (t ) 1.25e 250t

Example
The network shows that the switch is
closed when t = 0,assume that i(0) = 0;
q(0) = 0. Find i(t)

Solution

Solution
Apply Kirchoffs Voltage Law

E VR VL VC 0
VR VL VC E
diL 1
RiR L
ic dt E ; iR iL iC i
dt C
1 I ( s ) CVC (0) E
RI ( s ) LsI ( s ) I (0)

; i (0) I (0) 0

C s
s s
I ( s ) VC (0) E
q (0)
0
RI ( s ) LsI ( s )

;VC (0)

0V
Cs
s
s
C
0.00005

Solution
I ( s)
60
40 I ( s ) 0.02 sI ( s )

0.00005s
s
20000 I ( s ) 60 s

40 I ( s ) 0.02 sI ( s )
s
s 0.02
s 2 I ( s ) 2000 sI ( s ) 1000000 I ( s ) 3000
( s 1000) 2 I ( s ) 3000
3000
I ( s)
( s 1000) 2
i (t ) 3000e 1000t t

Derivation
F ( s ) 0 f (t )dt
L f (t )dt

s
s

idt

1
1 I ( s) 0
L idt

; q idt
s
C
C s

1
1 I ( s ) q (0) I ( s ) q(0)
L idt

s Cs
Cs
C
C s
1
I ( s ) VC (0)
L idt

s
C
Cs

q / C VC

Example
Find the currents in the network shown
when the switch is closed at t = 0 and the
capacitor carries a charge of 0.03
coulomb.

Solution
At t>0, using Kirchoffs Law

Solution
At t>0, using Kirchoffs Law

Solution
Using Kirchoffs Current Law

I1 I 2 I 3 0
I1 I 2 I 3

eqn(1)

Solution
Using Kirchoffs Voltage Law in loop 1
E VR1 VC 0
E VR1 VC
1
E R1 I 1 I 2 dt
C

eqn (2)

Solution
Using Kirchoffs Voltage Law in loop 2
E VR1 VR2 0
E VR1 VR2
E R1 I 1 R2 I 3

eqn (3)

Solution
Solving eqn. 2
1
I 2 dt

C
0.03
q
I 2 ( s ) VC (0)
E
60V
; VC (0)

R1I1 ( s )
C 0.0005
s
Cs
s
60
I ( s)
60

10 I1 ( s ) 2
0.0005s s
s
I 2 ( s)

10
2000

)
s
(
I
10

0
1

s
I 2 ( s)
eqn (4)
0
I1 ( s ) 200
s
E R1I1

Solution
Solving eqn. 3
E R1 I 1 R2 I 3
E
R1 I 1 ( s ) R2 I 3 ( s )
s
60

s 10 I 1 ( s ) 20 I 3 ( s ) 10
6
I1 ( s) 2 I 3 ( s)
s

but
I 3 I1 I 2

substitute
6
I 1 ( s) 2I 1 ( s ) I 2 ( s )
s
6
I1 ( s) 2 I1 ( s) 2 I 2 ( s)
s
6
3I 1 ( s ) 2 I 2 ( s )
eqn (5)
s

Solution
Combining eqn (4) and eqn (5)
I 2 (s)

I 1 ( s) 200 s 0 3

6
3I 1 ( s ) 2 I 2 ( s )
s
I 2 (s)
3I 1 ( s) 600
0
s
6
3I 1 ( s ) 2 I 2 ( s )
s
I 2 ( s)
6

2 I 2 ( s ) 600 s s 2

I 2 ( s)
3
I 2 ( s ) 300

s
s
3
300
I 2 ( s ) 1

s
s

3
s 300
I 2 (s)

s
s
3
I 2 (s)
s 300
I 2 3e 300t
(answer )

Solution
Substituting I2(s) in eqn (4)
3
s 300
I1 ( s ) 200
0
s
3
I1 ( s ) 200
0
s ( s 300)
600
I1 ( s )
0
s ( s 300)
600
A
B
I1 ( s )

s ( s 300) s s 300

600
600
A s

s ( s 300) s 0 300
600
600
B ( s 300)

s ( s 300) s 300 300


2
2
I1 ( s )
s s 300
I1 2 2e 300t
(answer )

Solution
Substituting the value of I1(s) and I2(s) in
eqn (1)
I1 I 2 I 3
I 3 I1 I 2

I 3 2 2e 300t 3e 300t
I 3 2 e 300t

(answer )

Example
The switch is closed at t = 0 with the
network is in the steady state prior to t = 0.
Find i(t).

Solution
For t<0;

Solution
Apply Kirchoffs Voltage Law (t=0)

E V8 V4 0
V8 V4 E
Ri8 Ri4 E; i (0 ) i8 i4
E
24V
i (0)

2A
R8 R4 (8 4)

Solution
For t > 0

Solution
For t > 0

Solution
Apply Kirchoffs Voltage Law
E VR VL 0
VR VL E
diL
RiR L
E ; iR iL i (t )
dt
E
RI ( s ) LsI ( s ) I (0) ; i (0) I (0) 2 A
s
E
RI ( s ) LsI ( s ) 2 L
s

Solution
24
8 I ( s ) 2 sI ( s ) 4
s
4 s 24 s


8 I ( s ) 2sI ( s )

s 2
s 2 I ( s ) 4 sI ( s ) 2 s 12
s ( s 4) I ( s ) 2s 12
2s 12 A
B
I (s)

s ( s 4) s s 4

Solution
2 s 12
12
A s

s ( s 4) s 0 4
2 s 12
4
B ( s 4)

s ( s 4) s 4 4
3
1
I ( s)
s s4
i (t ) 3 e 4t

Seatwork 4
1. The circuit is in dc steady state prior to t
= 0. Find v(t) when the switch is opened
at time t=0.

Answer: v(t) = 25 e-2t V

Seatwork 4
2. In the network shown, the switch is closed
at t = 0. Find i(t).

Answer: i(t) = 6 - 6e-2t