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AUGUST 2011

The Better Business Publication Serving the Exploration / Drilling / Production Industry

Modeling Complexities
Of Natural Fracturing
Key In Gas Shales
By William Dershowitz
and Thomas W. Doe
REDMOND, WA.Safe, efficient, and profitable development of shale
natural gas resources depends on achieving a clear understanding of the
role of natural fractures in shale gas production.
Natural fracturing is critical to enhancing stimulation treatment design and
optimizing well performance. Although every shale formation is somewhat
different, there can be significant variations in natural fracture systems from
one location to another within a given play area, with equally significant
differences in production rates from one well to another.
Reservoir development is impacted by natural fractures in three ways. First,
natural fractures are planes of weakness that may control hydraulic fracture
propagation. Second, high pressures from the hydraulic frac treatment may
cause slip on natural fractures that increases their conductivity. Third, natural
fractures that were conductive prior to stimulation may affect the shape and
extent of a wells drainage volume.

Reproduced for Golder Associates Inc. with permission from The American Oil & Gas Reporter
www.aogr.com

SpecialReport: Hydraulic Fracturing Technology


FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2
Leak-Off from Hydraulic Fracture
To Natural Fracture Network

Type A Gas Shale Reservoir


(Flow from Hydraulic Fractures only)
Well - 9 Frac Stages
Drainage from Shale

Natural Fracture Network (DFN)


Hydraulic Fracture
Hydraulic Fractures (blue)

Leak-Off to Natural Fracture Network

There are three classes of shale gas reservoirs, and the strategy for developing each class of reservoir can be dramatically
different. The reservoir classifications are based on the degree
of natural fracturing and how gas is stored within the shale:
Type A: Hydraulic fracture propagation provides the only
flow pathway to the well.
Type B: Hydraulic fracture propagation provides the primary flow pathway to the well, but is supplemented by natural
fractures that are critically stressed by frac fluids (especially
rough fractures).
Type C: Frac fluid leak off to natural fractures is extensive (Figure 1), and production is through a combined network defined by the hydraulic fractures and natural fractures
(or perhaps by the natural fractures alone).
While a play may include all three types of reservoirs, it is
essential to identify which reservoir type is dominant. For Type
A reservoirs (Figure 2), where the only flow paths are hydraulically induced fractures, gas storage is exclusively within the
shale rock matrix. For Type B (Figure 3) and C (Figure 4) reservoirs, gas can be stored in some combination of shale rock matrix and natural fractures. The reservoir type has a profound influence on the reservoir recovery factor, initial production, and
the decline curve of production over time.
This type of fine-tuning of the choice of approaches works

well in shale gas plays, because in many cases, these developments have the advantage that comes from having plentiful
high-quality data characterizing reservoirs, even in early stages
of development.
Fracture image logs provide insights into the natural fracture pattern, production logs and gas returns support understanding of how gas is delivered to the well bore both before
and after fracturing, and 3-D seismic provides a clear picture
of stratigraphy and faulting. Microseismic and seismic energy
monitoring provides a 3-D visualization of hydraulic fractures
and reactivated natural fractures.
Despite this wealth of information, many operators still develop shale gas fields using empirical approaches, ignoring the
natural fracture patterns and spending tens of millions of dollars on inefficient or even counterproductive hydraulic fracturing strategies. Operators tend to develop shale gas as a resource play, as if the production from each well was equivalent,
while in fact, some wells in a reservoir can produce 5, 10 or
even 20 times more gas than average wells.
Fracture network models provide a means of quantifying hydraulic properties from measured fracture data. Depending on
the scale of fracturing, fracture network models can be used to
FIGURE 4
Type C Gas Shale Reservoir
(Reactivated and Connected Natural Fractures
Dominate Production)

FIGURE 3
Type B Gas Shale Reservoir
(Flow from Hydraulic and Natural Fractures)
Drainage Volume Accessed from
Hydrofrac and
Reactivated Natural Fractures (yellow)

Natural Fractures (colored by gas flow)

Well - 2 Stages Shown


Hydraulic Fractures (blue)
Drainage Volume Accessed
by Natural Fractures

Natural Fractures (green)

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FIGURE 5

Impact of Natural Fracture Properties on Stimulated Reservoir Volume

Stubby

Narrow Elongate

estimate hydraulic parameters for reservoir simulation and production performance. Discrete fracture network (DFN) technology leverages the wealth of available data to understand both
the storage of gas in the shale reservoir, and the delivery of gas
through fracturesboth natural and hydraulically induced.
DFN Analysis
Figure 5 shows the impact of key natural fracture properties
on the stimulated reservoir volume after hydraulic fracturing.
The DFN approach for natural and hydraulic fractures provides
analyses and workflows that help leverage the wealth of data
collected for shale gas reservoirs, and uses that information to
determine the type of shale reservoir and the best strategy for
its development.
In terms of natural fracture geometry and properties, fracture image logs provide information on electrically conductive
and resistive natural fractures and bedding at well control. Image log technology is increasingly being used on horizontal
wells to provide improved insights into subvertical fracture sets,
which can dominate shale gas plays.
New drill bit fracture imaging technologies provide significant improvements to imaging, particularly for the horizontal
wells that are used for shale gas development. The DFN approach utilizes geologic, geophysical and geomechanical information to extrapolate the natural fracture pattern beyond
well control to the entire reservoir.
Where controlling the vertical extent of fractures is a concern, it is essential to start fracture image logging substantially
above the targeted reservoir horizon. It has been observed that
in some reservoirs, only electrically conductive (open and
partially open) fractures are important, while in other reservoirs, closed and healed fractures, and bedding planes can provide a significant influence on shale gas production.
Stratigraphic surfaces and faulting can be derived from 2-D
seismic data, but are now routinely supplemented by 3-D seismic interpretations. Seismic processing technologies such as
amplitude-variation-with-offset have the additional advantage
of characterizing liquids, which has been problematic.
While it is widely recognized that in situ stress plays an essential role in controlling hydraulic fracturing, the role of local
in situ stress variability in fractured rocks also can be very important. Each hydraulic fracture provides a stress shadowas
indeed do many natural fractures. Also, fault blocks can create
local in situ stress conditions that are significantly different
from regional conditions.
The propagation of hydraulic fractures, and their interaction with natural fractures, is tightly dependent on in situ
stress conditions. Consequently, the derivation of in situ stress
and its spatial variability is a key portion of the discrete frac-

Broad
Elongate

ture network workflow. In some cases, in situ stress can be


derived from drilling-induced tension fractures and bore hole
breakouts seen in fracture image logs, while in other cases,
it is best back-calculated from frac records and microseismic monitoring, or estimated from calibrated geomechanical
simulations.
Rock mass and fracture geomechanical properties are keys
to understanding fracture propagation, and especially, vertical
controls on propagation beyond reservoir horizons. Rock mass
elastic modulus and strength properties can be estimated from
wireline and seismic, but are more accurate when supplemented by core and sidewall core testing. In particular, fracture
toughness and rock mass modulus (compressibility) are very
important controls on the hydraulic fracturing process, and
should be estimated as part of any DFN analysis workflow.
Reservoir pressures are also crucial. Hydraulic fracture propagation is controlled by effective stress, which is defined by
the total stress minus the reservoir pressure. As a result, accurate evaluation of fracture propagation also requires accurate
estimates of reservoir pressure. This is particularly important
where the reservoir pressure is a significant fraction of the minimum stress, which can occur frequently, particularly in overpressured reservoirs.
While hydraulic fractures generally are assumed to propagate in tension, the combination of pre-existing natural fractures and high reservoir pressures can result in hydraulic fractures formed primarily as a coalescence of natural fractures
affected by frac fluid pressures. This process occurs as a combination of tensional and shear propagation.
Geomechanical Simulation
Discrete fracture network geomechanical simulation has the
advantage that it starts from a realistic model of the natural
fractures, so that the natural fracture/hydraulic fracture interaction can be modeled explicitly. Geomechanical modeling requires the ability to model both the deformation of the rock
mass (allowing fractures to accept frac fluids and proppant),
and the fracture propagation process itself.
Rock mass deformation is a combination of fracture deformation and the deformation of the rock matrix to accommodate frac fluids penetrating natural and induced fractures. It has
been demonstrated clearly that rock mass effective deformability is a combination of rock mass deformability (generally
characterized by shear modulus and Poissons ratio) and fracture deformability (generally characterized as fracture shear
and normal stiffness). Procedures exist for estimating rock mass
deformability based on the types of fracture and rock characterization activities that are typically carried out for shale reservoirs, as well as for estimating where detailed characterization

SpecialReport: Hydraulic Fracturing Technology


has not yet been carried out.
The derived rock mass deformability parameters then can
be used in geomechanical simulations. When fractures and bedding are considered, rock mass deformation in shale is generally anisotropic, which needs to be considered carefully in frac
job design and monitoring.
Two approaches are available for geomechanical simulation
of hydraulic fracture propagation and interaction with natural
fractures within a DFN. The fully coupled, flow/geomechanical approach requires the use of a finite element code that can
simulate both fracture and rock mass deformation, and also
simulate frac fluid and proppant flow and fracture propagation.
The distinct element method meets all these requirements,
particularly when integrated with a conventional finite element
analysis approach such as Rockfield Software Ltd.s ELFEN
code for numerical modeling. The advantage of the code in fully coupled 2-D or 3-D geomechanical simulation is somewhat
balanced by the limitations of computation time, which limits
the number of natural fractures that can be considered. The simpler alternative, a fully 3-D DFN approach, uses a less rigorous analysis, constrained by mass balance and simple elastic
models of fracture growth and inflation (for example, the PKN
model).
Answering Key Questions
Discrete fracture network analyses synthesize available
reservoir geologic, frac and production data to answer key reservoir development questions, such as:
What tributary drainage volume is drained by any given
hydraulic fracture or series of fractures?
What depth of rock matrix is effectively drained to hydraulic fractures?
How are fracture heights controlled both to improve production efficiency and to minimize environmental risk?

What is the most effective frac stage spacing and length


to maximize production?
What portions of a field are likely to be most productive?
Is water production a risk, and if so, how can it be mitigated?
This type of analysis can help improve production efficiencies and improve environmental safety in shale gas extraction.r

WILLIAM DERSHOWITZ is the technical director of the


FracMan Technology Group and a principal of Golder Associates Inc. in Redmond, Wa. He has pioneered natural
fracture analysis for oil and gas reservoirs for more than
25 years, introducing FracMan, the first commercial discrete fracture network modeling software in 1987. Dershowitz received a Ph.D. in rock mechanics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1985. He serves as
treasurer of the American Rock Mechanics Association,
and serves on the advisory board of the Rock Mechanics
and Rock Engineering journal.
THOMAS W. DOE is an authority on hydraulic fracturing,
with more than 30 years of hydraulic fracturing experience
on six continents. He is a principal of Golder Associates in
Redmond, Wa., and a member of the FracMan Technology
Group. Doe served on the U.S. National Committee for Rock
Mechanics Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow, and is the author of Fractured Bedrock Field Methods and Analytical Tools, a standard reference for fractured
rock characterization. He holds a B.A. in geology from Pomona
College, and a Ph.D. in geology and mining engineering from
the University of Wisconsin-Madison.