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Classwebsite:www.pippanorris.com

August11,2014

DPI413

ChallengesofDemocratization

PippaNorris

Fall2014
ContactDetails:............................................................................................................................2
CourseSynopsis:..........................................................................................................................2
CourseObjectives:.......................................................................................................................3
ClassSchedule:.............................................................................................................................4
RequiredReadings:......................................................................................................................4
SharedDatasets...........................................................................................................................6
Assignments:................................................................................................................................7
Researchpaper(35%)Duebythestartofclasson8thOct....................................................................7
BriefingMemo(15%)Duebythestartofclasson17thNov..................................................................7
ConsultancyReport(40%)Duebythestartofclasson3rdDec.............................................................7

Topics,discussionquestions,&requiredreadings......................................................................8

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ContactDetails:

Classtime:
Classplace:
Shopping:
Firstclass:
Lastclass:
Professor:

MondaysandWednesdays2.40to4.00pm
RubensteinBuilding,RG20
Wednesday3rdSeptember2014
Friday5thSept2014
Wednesday3rdDec2014
PippaNorris,McGuireLecturerinComparativePoliticsatHarvardandARCLaureateand
ProfessorofGovernmentandInternationalRelationsattheUniversityofSydney
Office:
Littauer110,JohnF.KennedySchoolofGovernment
OfficeHours: Tuesdays2.404.00pmSignupfirstvia:http://www.wejoinin.com/sheets/bobwp
Tel:

(617)4951475
Fax:(617)4962850
Email:
Pippa_Norris@hks.harvard.edu
http//:
www.pippanorris.com
Classwebsite: www.pippanorris.comunderTeaching
Courseassistant:Tbc
FacultyAssistant:PatriciaTimmonsLittauer-209 617-495-8660 patricia_timmons@hks.harvard.edu
Assessment:
Courseassignments
Methods:
Statisticalanalysisandillustrativecasestudies

CourseSynopsis:

This course covers the basic principles, theories, conceptual tools, and comparative methods useful for
understandingthechallengesofdemocracyanddemocratization.EventsduringtheArabuprisingshave
highlightedtransitionsfromautocracyinheadlinenews,althoughthisisfarfromanovelissue.Sincethe
early1970s, there have been successive waves of regime change. The international development
communityhasfocusedincreasedattentiononthechallengesoffacilitatingthetransitionfromautocracy
and the consolidation of democratic states. Advocates argue that democratic governance is a universal
humanright.Moreoverthistypeofregimeisalsobelievedtohelppeoplelivewealthier,healthier,and
moresecurelives.Theprocessofdemocratizationisthoughttoelectleaderswhoaremoreaccountable
andresponsivetotheneedsofordinarycitizens,includingthepoor.Moreover,democraticgovernanceis
alsobelievedtopromoteinternationalpeaceandcooperation,reducingthecausesofconflictandviolence
betweenandwithinstates.

Theinternationaldevelopmentcommunity,multilateralorganizations,andnationalstakeholdershaveused
multiple strategies to promote democratic governance. Many resources have been devoted to
strengthening the capacity of political institutions, notably through encouraging multiparty competitive
elections,independentjudiciaries,andeffectivelegislaturesdesignedtocurbandcounterbalancestrong
executives,aswellasimplementingdecentralizationstrategies,anticorruptiondrives,andpublicsector
reforms.Democraticassistancehasflowedintoattemptstofosterandexpandcivicsocietybynurturing
grassrootsorganizations,advocacyNGOs,humanrightswatchgroups,andtheindependentnewsmedia.
And aid has been invested in attempts to expand economic growth, peacebuilding, and sustainable
development,asanindirectroutetodemocraticgovernance.

Despiteprocessesofregimechangeanddemocratizationsincetheearly1970s,onepartystates,military
backeddictatorships,autocraticregimes,elitistoligarchies,andabsolutemonarchiespersist.Todaythere
arealsomanyelectoralautocracies,instatesasvariedasSingapore,Burma,RussiaandPakistan,which
holdmultipartyelectionsbutfailtoinstitutethefullpanoplyofhumanrightsandpoliticalfreedoms.Many
stateshavealsoseenonlypartialorunstablestepstowardsdemocraticelections,andthenreverses,for
example in Thailand, Bangladesh, Kenya, Nigeria, and Venezuela. Major problems confront attempts at
building stable nationstates and effective governance in places such as Libya and Tunisia. In many
2

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countries,therefore,theprocessofregimechangeandfurtherdemocratizationthereforeremainsdeeply
flawed,incompleteoruncertain.

Tounderstandtheseissues,PartIprovidesthefoundationaloverviewbyestablishinganalyticalconcepts
and indicators suitable for comparative policy research into democratic governance; Part II considers
alternativeexplanationsfortheunderlyingdriversofdemocratization;PartIIIconsiderstheconstitutional
designsmostconducivetostrengtheningprocessesofdemocratization;PartIVfocusesuponcivicsociety,
andtheroleofpoliticalculture,religionandsocialcapital.PartVIlooksattheconsequencesofdemocratic
governanceforprosperity,welfareandpeace.

CourseObjectives:
Therearemanystagesinthecyclicalprocessofpolicyadvocacy,policyanalysis,policyimplementation,and
policyevaluation.Althoughusefulforeachofthese,thecourseisfocuseduponthefirstandsecondstages,
policy advocacy and policy analysis. That is, you will sharpen your understanding of the challenges of
democratic governance and also understand the range of practical policy recommendations which
reformerscouldadopttostrengthentheprocessofdemocraticgovernance.Thecoursewilluseabroadly
comparative methodology incorporating evidence from a wide range of countries worldwide, including
developedanddevelopingsocieties.Thisclassisevaluatedthroughmixedtypesofassignments,including
astandardacademicessay,abriefingmemoandaprofessionalreport.Therearenoprerequisitesfortaking
theclass.Somevisitingspeakerswillbearrangedandannouncedduringthecourseofthesemester.
Class website

Theclasswebsiteisavailableatwww.pippanorris.com.Thiscontainsalltheessentialmaterialsforthe
course,includingtheonlinesyllabus,supplementarybibliography,onlinelinkedresources,course
calendar,powerpointslides,announcements,andothermaterials.Bookmarkthissite!

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ClassSchedule:

Class

Date

Topic

Assignmentdue
dates(i)

PartI:Foundations

5Sept

Introduction:Roadmapofthecourse

7Sept

Theoreticalframeworksand concepts:classifyingregimes

9Sept

Concepts,benchmarksandindices:Liberaldemocracy

15Sept

Concepts,benchmarksandindices:Governance capacity

PartII:ContextualDriversofDemocratization

17Sept

Explanatoryframeworks ofdemocratization

22Sept

Socialdeterminants ofdemocratization

24Sept

Economicdeterminants ofdemocratization

8.

6Oct

Internationalagencies &democracypromotion

8Oct

Civilsociety,protestpolitics, andrevolution

Researchpaper

PartIII:Constitution building

10

15Oct

Theprinciplesandpracticesofconstitution building

11

21Oct

Elections:freeandfairelectoralandpartylaws

12

22Oct

Electoralmanagement andelectoralintegrity

13

27Oct

Inclusivelegislatures andminorityrepresentation

14

29Oct

Executivepowers:presidential,mixed,orprimeministerial

15

3Nov

Decentralizingdecisionmakingtolocaland federallevels

16

5Nov

Independentmedia andsocialnetworks

17

12Nov

Casestudy:BuildingtheLibyanandEgyptianconstitutions

PartIV:StrengtheningCivicSociety

18

17Nov

Cultureanddemocratization

Briefingmemo

19

19Nov

Religionanddemocracy

20

18Nov

Socialcapitalanddemocracy

21

24Nov

Civicsocietyanddemocracy

PartVI:Consequencesofdemocraticgovernance

22

1Dec

Conclusions:Impactsonprosperity

23

3Dec

Conclusions:Impactsonpovertyandpeace

Professional
Report

Note:OfficialHarvardUniversityholidaysareasfollows:ColumbusDay:Oct13;Veteran'sDay:Nov11
(Observed);Thanksgiving:Nov2628.PleasenotethatnoclasseswillbeheldonMon29SeptandWed1
Oct,duetopriortravelcommitmentstoSydneyforAPSA2014.Someguestspeakersmayalsobearranged
onseveraltopics.(i)Assignmentsareduetobehandedinatthestartoftheclassonthesedates.

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Required Readings:

Bookscanbeordereddirectfromthepublishers,orfromAmazon.comWordsworth'sbooksorBarnesand
Noble.Thetotalcostoftherequiredbooksshouldbearound$90.Therequiredbooksareavailableon
reserveattheKennedySchoollibrary.

NotetheDOIlistedinthesyllabusforarticles.Thisisauniqueandstaticidentifierforeachjournalarticle.
Togetaccess,
I.
LogintoHarvardlibrarysCitationLinker.http://sfx.hul.harvard.edu/citation/sfx_local/

II.
III.
IV.

a.

TypeorpastetheDOIintoCitationLinker.HitFindit.
Chooseanarticlesourcefordownloading.
YouwillneedtosigninonceusingHarvardUniversitysPinidforaccess.

Furtherresourcesarelistedundereachweekstopicfordownloading.ThereisnoCMDOpacketforthis
class.

1.JanTeorell.2010.DeterminantsofDemocratization:Explainingregimechangeintheworld,19722006.
NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress
Whatarethedeterminantsofdemocratization?Dothefactorsthatmovecountries
towarddemocracyalsohelpthemrefrainfrombackslidingtowardautocracy?This
book attempts to answer these questions through a combination of a statistical
analysis of social, economic,and international determinants of regimechange in
165 countries around the world in 19722006, and case study work on nine
episodesofdemocratizationoccurringinArgentina,Bolivia,Hungary,Nepal,Peru,
the Philippines, South Africa, Turkey, and Uruguay. The findings suggest that
democracyispromotedbylongtermstructuralforcessuchaseconomicprosperity,
butalsobypeacefulpopularuprisingsandtheinstitutionalsetupofauthoritarian
regimes. In the shortrun, however, elite actors may play a key role, particularly
throughtheimportanceofintraregimesplits.JanTeorellarguesthattheseresults
haveimportantrepercussionsbothforcurrenttheoriesofdemocratizationandfor
the international community's effort in developing policies for democracy
promotion.
CambridgeUniversityPressISBN:9780521139687$29.99
http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item5655760/?site_locale=en_GB

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2. Christian W. Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald F. Inglehart and Christian Welzel. 2009.
Democratization.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.
Democratization focuses on the "global wave of democratization" that has been
occurring since around 1970. Bringing together leading authors from diverse
internationalbackgrounds,itintroducesstudentstothetheoreticalandpractical
dimensions of the subject. The book takes into account the international factors
thataffectpoliticsatthelevelofthenationstate,showingstudentsthedirectionin
which the discipline is moving. It is accompanied by a companion website that
providesnumerousresourcesforstudentsandinstructors
(ReferredtoafterwardsasHaerpferetalDemocratization).Paperback$43.55from
Amazon.ISBN10:0199233020/ISBN13:9780199233021

3. Pippa Norris. 2008. Driving Democracy: Do Powersharing Institutions Work? Cambridge University
Press.
As illustrated by contemporary constitutional debates in Iraq, Afghanistan,
andSudan,controversycontinuestosurroundtheprosandconsofpower
sharing institutions. This debate is vital for scholarly research seeking to
understand the underlying drivers of democratization, development, and
conflict.Itisevenmoreimportantforpolicymakersconcernedwithpromoting
sustainable governance, practical institutional reforms, and durable peace
settlements.
Thisbookhastwomainaims.Thefirstistoupdateandrefinethetheoryof
consociationalism,originallydevelopedinthelate1960s,totakeaccountof
the flood of contemporary developments in powersharing which have
occurredworldwide.Thisstudycomparestheconsequencesfordemocracyof
fourdimensionsofpowersharingregimes:thebasictypeofelectoralsystem,
whether there is a parliamentary or presidential executive, the
decentralizationofpowerinunitaryorfederalstates,andthestructureand
independenceofthemassmedia.
Building on this classification, the study tests the potential advantages and
disadvantagesofeachoftheseinstitutionsusingawiderrangeofempirical
evidencethanpreviousstudies.
CambridgeUniversityPress.2008.9780521694803$16.74Paperbackfrom
AmazonISBN10:0521694809/ISBN13:9780521694803.

SharedDatasets

Asanoptionaladdition,twosharedclassdatasetsareavailablefrommywebsitepippanorris.comforthose
whowouldliketousetheseforassignments.Thecrossnationaldatasetcontainsmorethan700variables
for191nationsworldwide,withthemostrecentyearofdataavailable.Thereisalsoacrossnationaltime
series dataset from 19722007 for all countries worldwide. The datasets are available in Spss and Stata
formats.Theseresourceswillbediscussedinmoredetailduringclass.Thosefamiliarwithstatisticsmay
wanttousethesedatasetsbuttheyarenotessentialfortheassignments.Selectedqualitativecasescan
alsobeusedtoexplorethequestions,ormixedmethodsmaybeappliedcombiningbothapproaches.

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Assignments:
Students are expected to keep up with the required readings and to attend classes every Monday and
Wednesday.Theinclassdiscussionswillprovidesomeideasontheseassignmentsandyoumaychooseto
workcollaborativelywithothersintheclass,buteachstudentshouldsubmithisorherownpaperforan
individualgrade.Latepolicy:Barringanextraordinaryexcuse,alllateassignmentswillbemarkeddowna
thirdofagrade(suchasfromAtoA)foreachdayfollowingtheduedate.

Researchpaper(35%)Duebythestartofclasson8thOct
Youcanchoosetoansweronequestionoutofanyquestionslistedinthesyllabusfromclasses19.The
papershouldbeabout2500wordsinlength.Itshouldbedesignedprimarilyfortheresearchcommunity
andstructuredwithstandardsubheadingsasfollows.
I.
Theselectedquestion,theplanofyourpaperandsynopsisofyourargument
II.
Reviewofthecoretheoreticaldebate
III.
Summaryoftheempiricalliteratureandexistingevidence
V.
Conclusionsandimplications.
VI.
Endnotes:comprehensivelistofliteratureandreferencesusedinthepaper
Thefirstassignmentrequiresyoutodevelopacoretheoreticalargumentinresponsetothequestion,to
readwidelyandprovideathoroughandbalancedsynthesisoftheexistingresearchpublishedinjournals
andbooksonthetopic,toconsiderwhatevidenceisavailablefromtheresearchtosupportyourclaims,
and then to summarize the key points and consider their implications in your conclusion. Your ideal
templateisaresearcharticlepublishableinapeerreviewedscholarlyjournal.

BriefingMemo(15%)Duebythestartofclasson17thNov
Youareaskedtowriteabriefingmemo(2,000words)designedforreadershipbymembersofthenational
legislature or the constitutional deliberative body in one country (select either Libya, Nepal, Egypt,
Myanmar,orSouthSudan).Youneedtosummarizetheinstitutionaldesignyouwouldrecommendfora
newconstitutiondesignedtostrengthendemocraticgovernanceinthiscountry.

YouneedtomakerecommendationsforONEofeither:(a)theframeworkofhumanrights;(b)thetypeof
electoral system; (c) the type and powers of the executive; or (d) the type of federal or decentralized
arrangements.Eachsetofrecommendationsshouldclearlyoutlinethecoregoals,andtheprosandconsof
alternativechoicesinmeetingthesegoals,givingregionalexamples,sothatyouprovidecogentreasons
andcomparativeevidencesupportingyourrecommendations.Illustrationsshouldbedrawnfromrelevant
cases.Althoughamemo,youmustuseendnotesfromtheresearchliteraturethroughouttosupportyour
argumentsandprovidealistofendnotesources.Thisshouldbeevidencebased.

ConsultancyReport(40%)Duebythestartofclasson3rdDec
Youcanchoosetoaddressoneofthedimensionsofinstitutionbuildinglistedinthesyllabusfromclasses
1023(egelections,legislatures,executives,media,etc)foranominalmultilateralclientsuchasIDEA,IFES,
OAS,AU,UNDPorWorldBank.Thereportshouldbeabout2500wordsinlength.Yourreportshouldbe
structuredwithsubheadingsasfollows.
I.
Theselectedtopic,nominalclient,andtheexecutivesummaryofyourreport
II.
Summaryofwhythetopicyouhaveselectedmatters(advocacy)
III.
Identifytherangeofpolicyoptionswiththeirprosandcons,supportingyourclaimsby
usingevidencefromtheresearchliteratureandsecondarysources
V.
Summaryofkeyrecommendationsandthenextsteps
VI.
Endnotes:comprehensivelistofliteratureandreferencesusedinthereport.
Your ideal template is a consultancy report commissioned by an international or regional agency and
disseminatedforapractitionerreadership.

ClassParticipation(10%)
Finally the quality of your contributions to the discussions and the short exercises in class will also
contributetowardsyourfinalgrade.

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Topics,discussionquestions,&requiredreadings

Part I: Foundations
1

Introduction:RoadMapoftheCourse

Noreadingrequired

Theoreticalframeworksandconcepts:classifyingregimes

Questiontopics

WhatisthebestwaytoclassifycontemporaryregimesgoverningtodayinEastAsia?Which
regimesarethemostdifficulttocategorizeandwhy?

Whatismeantbytheconceptofcompetitiveauthoritarianism?Discussthemainfeaturesof
thistypeofregimeusingthreeillustrativecasesfromoneregion.

AreRussia,SingaporeorNigeriademocraticstates?

RequiredReading

RichardRose.2009.DemocraticandundemocraticstatesCh2inChristianW.Haerpferetal.
Democratization.NY:OUP.

StevenLevitskyandLucanA.Way.2002.TheRiseofCompetitiveAuthoritarianism.Journal
ofDemocracy13(2):5165.DOI:10.1353/jod.2002.0026

DohChullShinandRollinTusalemEastAsiainChristianW.Haerpferetal.Democratization.
NY:OUP.

Onlineresources

For background information on specific countries, consult the CIA World Factbook,
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworldfactbook/, Human Rights Watch,
www.hrw.org/,andFreedomHouse,http:www.freedomhouse.org

Concepts,benchmarksandindices:Liberaldemocracy

Questiontopics

CompareoneworldregiontoevaluatehowfartheFreedomHouseIndexofpoliticalrights
andcivillibertiesisreliable,comprehensive,andaccurate.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Economist Intelligence Unit composite
annualindexofdemocracy?HowwouldyouimprovetheEIUIndex?

WhataretheprosandconsofthePolityIVscaleofautocracydemocracy?

WhataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofIDEAsqualitativedemocraticaudit?

RequiredReading

PatrickBernhagen.2009.MeasuringdemocracyanddemocratizationCh3inHaerpferetal.
Democratization.NY:OUP

PippaNorris.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter3.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

Munck, Geraldo L. and Jay Verkuilen. 2002. Conceptualizing and measuring democracy
Evaluating alternative indices. Comparative Political Studies. 35 (1): 534. DOI:
10.1177/001041400203500101

MichaelCoppedgeetal.2011.ConceptualizingandMeasuringDemocracy:ANew
Approach.9:247267.DOI:10.1017/S1537592711000880

Onlineresources

EconomicIntelligentUnitdownloadreport:DemocracyIndex2011
http://www.eiu.com//public/topical_report.aspx?campaignid=DemocracyIndex2011

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FreedomHouse'FreedomintheWorld(latestyear)ReadespeciallyEssayandTablesand
FreedomintheWorld,Methodology.http://www.freedomhouse.org

InternationalIDEA.StateofDemocracyProject.http://www.idea.int/democracy/

Concepts,benchmarksandindices:stategovernance

Questiontopics

What are advantages and limitations of using the KaufmannKraay World Bank Institute
indicatorsofgoodgovernance?

How would you explain the challenges to state governance in SubSaharan Africa, as
documentedbytheKaufmannKraayindicators?

Explain and assess the conditionality requirements for good governance contained in the
MillenniumChallengeAccount?

Whatistherelationshipbetweengovernanceanddemocracy?

RequiredReading

MerileeS.Grindle.2007.Goodenoughgovernancerevisited.DevelopmentPolicyReview25
(5):553574.

Carmen.RApaza.2009.Measuringgovernanceandcorruptionthroughtheworldwide
governanceindicators:Critiques,responses,andongoingscholarlydiscussion.PS
PoliticalScience&Politics42(1):139143.DOI:10.1017/S1049096509090106

PippaNorris.2012.MakingDemocraticGovernanceWork:Howregimesshapeprosperity,
welfareandpeace.NY:CUP(2012)availableunderbooksatpippanorris.com.See
ch3.

Onlineresources

WorldBankGovernanceIndicatorshttp://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.asp

QualityofGovernanceInstitute,Sweden.http://www.qog.pol.gu.se/

Explanatoryframeworksofdemocratization

Questiontopics

What explains divergent trajectories of democratization? Select two countries which are
culturally and socially similar yet with divergent political developments and examine the
reasonsforthisdifference,usingtheframeworksprovidedfromyourreading.

Compareandevaluatetheunderlyingtheoreticalassumptions,methodologicalapproaches,
evidence,andfindingsintwoofthetheoriesofdemocratizationdiscussedbyeitherWelzelor
byTeorell.

Thereis,then,aneconomicbasisfortheabsenceofdemocracyintheArabworld.Butitis
structural. It has to do with the ways in which oil distorts the state, the market, the class
structure,andtheentireincentivestructure.Diamond(2010)p98.Doyouagree?

RequiredReading

ChristianWelzel.Theoriesofdemocratization.Ch6inChristianW.Haerpferetal.
Democratization.NY:OUPpp7488

JanTeorell.ExplainingdemocratizationIntroductionandCh1Determinantsof
Democratization.NY:CUPpp.128.

LarryDiamond.2010.WhyaretherenoArabdemocracies?JournalofDemocracy
21(1):93104DOI:10.1353/jod.0.0150http://muse.jhu.edu.ezp
prod1.hul.harvard.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/v021/21.1.diamond.html

Socialdeterminantsofdemocratization

Questiontopics

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Whathavebeenthemostimportantsocialdriversofdemocratizationsincetheearly1970s?
Whatarethepolicyimplicationsfortheinternationalcommunity,multinationalorganizations,
andnationalstakeholdersseekingtostrengthendemocraticgovernance?

SelectanytwostatesinLatinAmericaandcomparethemtoassesstherelativeimportanceof
theinternaldriversofdemocratizationidentifiedbyTeorell.

Is the growth of the middle class (the Lipset thesis) a necessary or sufficient condition for
enduringprocessesofdemocratization?Discussillustratingyourargumentbyusingthreecase
studies.

RequiredReading

JanTeorell.2010.DeterminantsofDemocratization.NewYork:CUP.Chapter2pp3952.

SeymourMartinLipset.1994.Thesocialrequisitesofdemocracyrevisited.American
SociologicalReview59:122.

BarbaraGeddes.1999.Whatdoweknowaboutdemocratizationaftertwentyyears?
AnnualReviewofPoliticalScience2:115144DOI:
10.1146/annurev.polisci.2.1.115

Economicdeterminantsofdemocratization

Questiontopics

WhataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthePrzeworskietal.dichotomousmeasureof
regimetypesforcomparingtheprocessofdemocratization?

Doeseconomicmodernizationdrivedemocratization?

Howfaristheprocessofdemocratizationdeterminedbyeconomicdevelopment,compared
withtheimpactofpoliticalinstitutionsandpoliticalculture?

RequiredReading

PippaNorris.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter4.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

JanTeorell.2010.DeterminantsofDemocratization.NewYork:CUP.Chapter3pp5476.

CarlesBoixandSusanC.Stokes.2003.Endogenousdemocratization.WorldPolitics55(4):
517.DOI:10.1353/wp.2003.0019

Internationalagenciesanddemocracypromotion

Questiontopics

Whataremosteffectiveexternaldriversinthespreadofdemocraticgovernancesincethe
early1970s?Whataretheimplicationsfortheinternationaldevelopmentcommunity?

Select two states in subSaharan Africa, such as Liberia, Mali, South Africa and Ghana, and
comparethemtoassesstherelativeimportanceoftheexternaldriversofdemocratization
identifiedbyTeorell.

CompareandassessthepolicyprioritiesandstrategiesofUNDPandtheWorldBankwhen
seekingtostrengthendemocraticgovernance.

RequiredReading

JanTeorell.2010.DeterminantsofDemocratization.NewYork:CUP.Chapter4pp7799.

HakanYilmazTheinternationalcontextinChristianW.Haerpferetal.Democratization.NY:
OUPpp7488.

Civilsociety,protestpolitics,andrevolution

Questiontopics

Whatistherelativeimpactofelitedivisionsfromaboveversusmobilizationfrombelowon
regimetransitionsanddemocraticconsolidation?Discussusingtrendsindemocratizationin

10

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CentralandEasternEuropeorinLatinAmericaduringthethirdwaveeratoillustrateyour
arguments.
RequiredReading

JanTeorell.2010.DeterminantsofDemocratization.NewYork:CUP.Chapter5pp7799.

Federico Rossi and Donatella della Porta. Social movements, trade unions and advocacy
networks.Ch12inChristianW.Haerpferetal.Democratization.NY:OUPpp7488.

PartIII:Constitutionaldesignofstateinstitutions

10

Keyprinciplesofconstitution building

Questiontopics

Whatisthetheoryofconsociationalism?Isthetheorystillrelevant?

Explainthekeyadvantagesanddisadvantagesofconsensusormajoritariandemocraciesby
comparing and contrasting the constitutional features of two countries exemplifying each
type.

In the most deeply divided societies, like Northern Ireland, majority rule spells majority
dictatorshipandcivilstriferatherthandemocracy.Whatsuchsocietiesneedisademocratic
regimethatemphasizesconsensusinsteadofopposition,thatincludesratherthanexcludes,
andthattriestomaximizethesizeoftherulingmajorityinsteadofbeingsatisfiedwithabare
majority.(Lijphart).Isthisarobustandwellsubstantiatedclaim?

What contexts make powersharing constitutional settlements most likely to fail? What
contextsmakethemmostlikelytosucceed?Discussandillustratewithtworecentcases.

RequiredReading

PippaNorris.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter1.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

Winluck Wahiu. 2011. A Practical Guide to Constitution Building. International IDEA.


http://www.idea.int/publications/pgcb/index.cfmIntroduction.

Ginsburg,Tom,ZacharyElkins,andJustinBlount.2009.DoestheProcessofConstitution
MakingMatter?AnnualReviewofLawandSocialScience5:201223DOI:
10.1146/annurev.lawsocsci.4.110707.172247

Onlineresource

ConstitutionNethttp://www.constitutionnet.org/Thisincludesatrainingprogram,handbook,
news,andissuepapers.

1112

DemocraticInstitutions:Electoralintegrity

Questiontopics

Whatarethemostimportantchallengesofelectoralintegrity?Discussinthelightofrecent
electionsineither(a)Russia;(b)Mexico;(c)Egyptor(d)theUSA.

Whatarethemajordistinctionsbetweenpluralityfirstpastthepost,thealternativevote,the
singletransferablevote,combined,andpartylistelectoralsystems?Discusswithillustrations
ofrecentelectionsheldundereachtypeofrules.

Aremixedmember(combined)electoralsystemsthebestofallpossibleworlds?

Doweknowenoughabouttheimpactofpoliticalinstitutionstoengageinsuccessful
constitutionalengineering?ComparetheoutcomeofelectoralreformsinItaly,New
ZealandandIsraeltoconsidertheseissues.

Comparetwocountriesanddiscusstheprimaryadvantagesanddisadvantagesofproportional
ormajoritarian/pluralityelectoralsystemsforeachstate.

Doproportionalelectoralsystemsgeneratefragmentedorextrememultipartysystems?

Whatiselectoralintegrity?Defineandexplainthisconcept.

11

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RequiredReading

Norris,Pippa.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter5.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

Matthijs Bogaards. 2009. Electoral systems Ch 15 in Christian W. Haerpfer et al.


Democratization.NY:OUPpp219231.

Norris,Pippa.WhyElectoralIntegrityMatters.NY:CUP.Ch1.Availableat
www.pippanorris.com

ElectoralIntegrityProjectwww.electoralintegrityproject.com

Onlineresources

ACEElectoralKnowledgeNetworkhttp://aceproject.org/

InternationalFoundationforElectoralSystemshttp://www.ifes.org/

TheElectoralintegrityProject.www.electoralintegrityproject.com

InternationalIDEA.2008.ElectoralSystemDesign.ThenewIDEAInternationalHandbook.Ed.
AndrewReynolds,BenReillyandAndrewEllis.
http://www.idea.int/publications/esd/upload/ESD_Handb_low.pdfpp129.

13

Elections:Inclusivelegislaturesandminorityrepresentation

Questiontopics

Whyhavegenderquotasforelectedofficespreadsorapidlyworldwide?

Whatreformshaveprovedmosteffectiveincontributingtowardsachievinggenderequality
andwomensempowermentinelectedoffice?

RequiredReading

RonaldInglehartandPippaNorris.2003.RisingTide.NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Available at: www.pippanorris.com under http://www.pippanorris.combooks
Chapter13

Lane,KenworthyandMelissaMalami.1999.GenderInequalityinPoliticalRepresentation:A
WorldwideComparativeAnalysis.SocialForces78(1):235269.

Pamela Paxton. Gender and democratization Ch 10 in Christian W. Haerpfer et al.


Democratization.NY:OUP.Pp145155.

Krook, Mona Lena. 2007. Candidate gender quotas: A framework for analysis. European
JournalofPoliticalResearch46(3):367394.
DOI:10.1111/j.14756765.2007.00704.x
Reynolds,Andrew.1999.WomenintheLegislaturesandExecutivesoftheWorld:Knocking
attheHighestGlassCeiling.WorldPolitics51(4):547572.

Onlineresource

QuotaProjecthttp://www.quotaproject.org/

14

Democratic Institutions: Executive powers: presidential, mixed and prime


ministerial

Questiontopics

ExplainandassessLinzsclaimthatpresidentialgovernmentleadstodemocraticinstabilityby
comparingexamplesofpresidentialandparliamentarygovernmentineitherLatinAmericaor
inCentralandEasternEurope.

RequiredReading

Norris,Pippa.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter6.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

Siaroff, Alan. 2003. Comparative presidencies: The inadequacy of the presidential, semi
presidentialandparliamentarydistinction.EuropeanJournalofPoliticalResearch
42:287.DOI:10.1111/14756765.00084

12

DPI413NORRISFALL2014WWW.PIPPANORRIS.COM

8/11/20149:50PM

Van Cranenburgh, Oda. 2008. 'Big Men' Rule: Presidential Power, Regime Type and
Democracy in 30 African Countries. Democratization 15(5): 952973. DOI:
10.1080/13510340802362539.

15

Decentralizingdecisionmakingtolocalandfederallevels

Questiontopics

Does decentralizing decisionmaking to local government help or hinder democratic


governance?

Doesfederalismencourageordetersuccession?

RequiredReading

Norris,Pippa.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter7.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

Devas,Nick,andSimonDelay.2006.Localdemocracyandthechallengesofdecentralising
thestate:AninternationalperspectiveLocalGovernmentStudies32(5):677695.
DOI:10.1080/03003930600896293

Christina W. Andrews and Michiel S. de Vries. 2007. High expectations, varying outcomes:
decentralizationandparticipationinBrazil,Japan,RussiaandSweden.International
ReviewofAdministrativeSciences200773:424DOI:10.1177/0020852307081151

16

Independentmediaandsocialnetworks

Questiontopics

Whataretheidealrolesofthenewsmediaasagendasetters,watchdogsandinthepublic
sphere in the democratization process? What are the primary barriers to achieving these
roles?

Is there good evidence of the socalled Twitter revolution in the use of social media in
processesofregimetransition,oristhisanexaggeration?

RequiredReading

Norris,Pippa.2007.DrivingDemocracy.Chapter8.Availableatwww.pippanorris.comunder
books

KatrinVoltmer.2011.TheMediainHaerpferetalDemocratizationCh16pp234248

Philip N. Howard and Muzammil M. Hussain . 2011. The Role of Digital Media Journal of
Democracy22(3)

17

Casestudy:BuildingtheLibyanandEgyptianconstitutions

Questiontopics

WhatwouldyourecommendforthedesignoftheLibyanandEgyptianconstitutionsandwhy?

WhatarethelessonsforconstitutionbuildingfromtheprocessinIraqandAfghanistan?

RequiredReading

FrancescoCavatorta.2009.TheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica.Ch21inChristianW.Haerpfer
etal.Democratization.NY:OUP.

LucanWay.2011.ComparingtheArabRevolts:Thelessonsof1989JournalofDemocracy
22(4):

TarekMasoud.2011.Theroadto(andfrom)liberationsquare.JournalofDemocracy22(3):
2034.http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/articles/gratis/Masoud223.pdf

Fullbriefingdetailswillbemadeavailableonlinenearerthedateofthisclass:seetheclass
websiteatwww.pippanorris.com

PartIV:Strengtheningcivicsociety
13

DPI413NORRISFALL2014WWW.PIPPANORRIS.COM

8/11/20149:50PM

18

Cultureanddemocratization

Questiontopics

Is there good evidence supporting Ingleharts claims of a substantial cultural shift in


orientationstowardsdemocraticvaluesinaffluentsocieties?

Doestheconsolidationofdemocracyrequireademocraticculture?

RequiredReading

ChristianWelzelandRonaldInglehart.2009.Politicalculture,massbeliefsandvaluechange.
Ch9inChristianW.Haerpferetal.Democratization.NY:OUP.Pp126143.

Ronald Inglehart. 2003. How solid is mass support for democracy and how do
wemeasureit?PS:PoliticalScienceandPolitics.

19

Religionanddemocracy

Questiontopics

If secularization has occurred in most postindustrial societies, why not in the case of the
UnitedStates?

RequiredReading

Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris. 2003. Muslims and the West: A Clash of Civilizations?
Foreign
Policy.
March/April:
6370.
Available
here:
http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.pnorris.shorenstein.ksg/ACROBAT/Clash.pdf

PippaNorrisandRonaldInglehart.2004.SacredandSecular:Religionandpoliticsworldwide.
Chapter1and3.Availableonlineatwww.pippanorris.comunderbooks.

20

SocialCapitalandDemocracy

Questiontopics

Doyouagreethatsocialcapital,includingdensesocialnetworksandrichreservoirsofsocial
trust,helptoexplainwhysomedemocraticgovernmentssucceedwhileothersfail?Explain
andassessPutnamstheory.

Doessocialtrustmatter?Explainwhyandwhynot.

DothecentralclaimsinPutnamstheoryofsocialcapitalholdincrossculturalperspective?

RequiredReading

PutnamRobertD.2007.Epluribusunum:Diversityandcommunityinthetwentyfirstcentury
the2006JohanSkyttePrizeLecture.ScandinavianPoliticalStudies30(2):137174
DOI:10.1111/j.14679477.2007.00176.x

Natalia Letki. 2009. Social capital and civil society ch 11 in Christian W. Haerpfer et al.
Democratization.NY:OUP

21

Civicsocietyandcitizenparticipation

Questiontopics

HowfarhastheUnitedStatesexperiencedalongtermerosionofcivicengagementand,ifso,
explainandassesssocialcapitaltheoriesaboutthecausesofthisphenomenon.

Isthemassmembershipbasisofpoliticalpartiesinterminaldecline?

RequiredReading

Putnam,RobertD.1995.TheStrangeDisappearanceofCivicAmerica.TheAmericanProspect
7(24).http://www.prospect.org/print/V7/24/putnamr.html

Putnam,RobertD.1995.Tuningin,tuningoutthestrangedisappearanceofsocialcapitalin
America.PSPoliticalScience&Politics28(4):664683DOI:10.2307/420517

14

DPI413NORRISFALL2014WWW.PIPPANORRIS.COM

8/11/20149:50PM

Ian McAllister and Stephen White Conventional citizen participation ch 13 in Christian W.


Haerpferetal.Democratization.NY:OUP.Pp186197.

22

Conclusions:Democraticgovernanceandeconomicgrowth

Questiontopics

Dogovernanceinstitutionsgenerateeconomicgrowth?

RequiredReading

Rodrik,Dani,ArvindSubramanian,andFrancescoTrebbi.2004.Institutionsrule:The
primacyofinstitutionsovergeographyandintegrationineconomicdevelopment.
JournalofEconomicGrowth9(2):131165.DOI:
10.1023/B:JOEG.0000031425.72248.85

Siegle,JosephT.,MichaelWeinsteinandMortonHalperin.2004.Whydemocraciesexcel.
ForeignAffairs83(5):5772.http://www.jstor.org/stable/20034067

23

Conclusions:Democraticgovernance, humandevelopment&conflict

Questiontopics

Underwhatconditions,ifany,doesdemocraticgovernancedeliverhumandevelopment
outcomes?

Doesdemocraticgovernancebringapeacedividendorincreaserisksofinstability?

RequiredReading

Ross,Michael.2006.Isdemocracygoodforthepoor?AmericanJournalofPoliticalScience
50(4):860874.http://www.jstor.org/stable/4122920DOI:10.1111/j.1540
5907.2006.00220.x

PippaNorris.2012.MakingDemocraticGovernanceWork:Howregimesshapeprosperity,
welfareandpeace.NY:CUP(forthcoming)availableunderbooksat
pippanorris.com.Seech6.

Mansfield, Edward D. and Jack Snyder. 1995. Democratization and the Danger of War
International
Security
20
(1):
538

http://links.jstor.org.ezp
prod1.hul.harvard.edu/stable/pdfplus/2539213.pdf

Fukuyama,Francis.2007.Liberalismversusstatebuilding.JournalofDemocracy18(3):10
13.DOI:10.1353/jod.2007.0046

Carothers, Thomas, 2007. The "sequencing" fallacy. Journal of Democracy 18(1): 1227.
DOI:10.1353/jod.2007.0002

Pippa Norris. 2012. Making Democratic Governance Work: How regimes shape prosperity,
welfare and peace. NY: CUP (forthcoming) available under books at
pippanorris.com.Seech7.

Forfurtherresearchresources:
IngeneralfortheClassWebsiteseewww.pippanorris.com

For relevant literature always check the online Social Science Citation Index via Hollis or the Harvard
KennedySchoolLibraryswebsite,www.hks.harvard.edu/library,underkeyresourcesforhks

15