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( Reaffirmed 1999 )

IS t 11105- 1984

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
DESIGN ASPECTS OF TUNNEL PLUGS
Water

Conductor

Systems Sectional

Committee,

BDC 58

Chairman
SHRI P. M. MANE
39 Shivaji Cooperative Housing Society,

Pune

RePresenting

Members
Mukerian Hyde1 Project Design, Chandigarh
CHIEF ENGINEER
DIRECTOR ( Alternate )
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Coimbatore
CHIEF ENQINEER ( HP )
SUPERINTENDINOENQINEER ( Alternate )
Public Works Department, Madras
CHIEF ENQINEER ( GENERAL )
CHIEB ENQINEER ( IRRIQA~ION)
( Alternate )
CHIEB ENQINEER ( CIVIL DESIQNS ) Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Bangalore
SHRI P. R. MALLI KARJIJNA
( Alternate )
Beas Sutlaj Link Project, Sundernagar
CHIEB ENQINEER
SHRI SUDERSHAN KTJUAR ( Alternate )
CHIEW ENQINEER ( IRRIQATION Public Works and Electricity Department, Mysore
South )
ENGINEER
SUPERINTENDINQ
( Alternate)
In personal capacity ( Muttada P. O., Trivandrum )
SHRI C. ETTY DARWIN
Cent;lw S,Jphiand Materials
Research
Station,
DIRECTOR
e
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( Alternate )
Central Water Commission, New Delhi
DIRECTOR ( HCD-I )
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( HCD-I )
( Alternate )
Central Mining Research StationUnit,
Roorkee
DR A. K. DTJBE
DR J. L. JETHWA ( Alternate )
Power House Designs, Irrigation
Department,
SHRI J. P. GUPTA
Roorkee
The Hindustan Construction Company Limited,
SHRI M. V. S. IYENQAR
New Delhi
SHRI M. G. KHAN ( Alternate )
Research Designs and Standards Organization,
JOINT DIRECTOR, RESEARCE
Lucknow
( GE-II )
( Continued on page 2 )

@ Copyright 1985
INDIAN STANDARDS
INSTITUTIoN
This publication
is protected
under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957) and
reproduction in whole or in part by any -means except with written permission of the
publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS f 11105 1984
l

( Continued from page 1)


Refiresenting

Members

Power
National
Hydroelectric
Limited, New Delhi
National
Projects
Construction
Limited, New Delhi

SHRI P. N. KHAR
SRRI A. K. MEHTA

Corporation
Corporation

SHRI~S. C. BALI ( Alternate )


Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum
MEYBER ( CIVIL )
Geological Survev of India. New Delhi
SHRI G. PANT
SHRI N. K. MANDWAL ( Alternate )
R. J. Shah and Compsya;eLimited,
Bombay
SHRI A. R. RAICHUR
Board,
Electricity
Pradesh
Andhra
SHRI K. SUNKI REDDY
Hyderabad
ENQINEER
SUPERINTENDING
( DESIQN AND PLANNINQ )
( Alter&e )
Central Designs Organization, Nasik
SHRI G. V. SATHAYE
Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi
DR H. R. SRARMA
Assam State Electricity Board, Gauhati
SHRI S. C. SEN
SHRI N. K. DAS ( Alternate )
Himachal
Pradesh
State
Electricity
Board,
SECRIA. K. SRIKANTIAH
Sundernagar
\
SHRI RANJODH SINGH ( Alternate )
Director General, IS1 ( Ex-oficio Member )
SHRI G. RAYAN,
Director ( Civ Engg )
Secretary
SHRI HEXANT KUMAR
Assistant Director ( Civ Engg ), IS1

Panel for Design of Tunnels, BDC 58 : Pl


Convener
SHRI C. K. CEOKSHI

Pate1 Engineering

Company

Limited,

Bombay

Members
University of Roorkee, Roorkee
Government
of
Public
Works
Department,
Tamil Nadu
SUPERINTENDING ENQINEER ( Alernate )
Central Water Commission. New Delhi
DIRECTOR ( HCD-I )
DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( HCD-I ) ( Alternate )
Power House Designs, Irrigation
Department,
SHRIJ. P. GUPTA
Government of Uttar Pradesh, Roorkee
Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh
SARI D. R. MEHTA
SHRI J. K. BHALLA ( Alternate )
Geological Survey of India
SHRI G. PANT
SHRI R. P. SINGH ( Alternate )
R. J. Shah and Company Limited, Bombay
SHRI A. R. RAI~HUR
Central Designs Organization,
Nasik
ENGINEER
SUPEZINTENDING
( POWER HOUSE )

DR BHAWANI SINCH
CIXIEF ENGINEER ( IRRIQATION )

1s : ill05 - 1984

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
DESIGN ASPECTS OF TUNNEL PLUGS
0.

FOREWORD

0.1 This

Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution


on 30 November
1981, after the draft finalized by the Water Conductor
Systems Sectional Committee
had been approved by the Civil Engineering
Division Council.
0.2 Diversion tunnels are constructed to take care of a river during construction stage of a dam.
These tunnels would need to be suitably plugged
after the utilization of diversion works.
0.3 To facilitate
construction,
adits are provided at one or more intermediate points of long tunnels.
These
adits would need to be suitably
plugged before commissioning
of the tunnels.

1. SCOPE
1.1 This standard
covers design aspects of tunnel plugs
length, plug grouting and cooling of concrete, if required.

including

plug

1.2 This standard does not cover the criteria for suitability or otherwise of
providing solid concrete plug or concrete plug with gated access for facilitating inspection.
1.3

This

standard

does not cover design of adit section.

1.4 This
standard does not cover
recess in the body of the plug.

the structural

design

of gate

and

its

2. MATERIAL

2.1 Plain and reinforced

concrete

work shall conform

to IS : 456-1978*.

2.2 Plug concrete shall preferably be placed at about 13C and situations
where such facilities do not exist, special care shall be taken at lift joints
to ensure adequate shear resistance.
*Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ).
3

IS : 11105- 1984
3. LOCATION
3.1 For permitting utilization of diversion tunnels as outlet and penstock
tunnels, the plugs shall be placed immediately upstream of the permanent
intake of the tunnels.
3.2 For plugging construction adits, solid concrete plugs shall be provided
at their junctions with main tunnel, gates should be as close to the water
surface of the tunnel as possible structurally to cause minimum hydraulic
losses.
It shall open inside the tunnel so that water pressure shall force
closure and sealing of gates.
In case of gated access through concrete
plug, gate shall be located away from the junction so as to have minimum
effect on it due to water turbulence.
4. TYPES

OF PLUGS

a) Solid concrete plug ( see Fig. 1 ); and


b) Hollow plug ( concrete plug with gated opening, see Fig. 2 ).
i$pd,,,,,,
#

FLOW
_-

1/;

OF

TUNNEL
INITIAL
LINING
CONCRETE

SECOND
STAGE
CONCRETE

FIRST
STAGE
CONCRETE

SECTION

XX

FIG. 1 L-SECTION
( SHOWING CONCRETEPLUG IN STAGES)
4

_-L.

OF

TUNNEL
PLUG

FLOW

(2

CONCRETE
ND

>

vc

Or=

STAGE)

PERFECT
2ND

STAGE

ENLARGEG
SECTION
b

OF

ADIT

Fro.

PLAN

PLAN SHOWINO GATEDPLU~

XX

ADT

f$ t 11105 - 1984
5. SECTION

OF PLUG

5.1 Wedge shaped


plug action.

keys are generally

provided

in poor-rocks for better

5.2 Keys shall be provided in rock/concrete lining ( except where it is not


feasible due to practical considerations ) to strengthen the plug and
establish proper bond between the subsequent plug concrete and tunnel
lining excavation.
The keyways in the tunnel lining may be fihed up with
lean concrete, masonary with lean mortar or shotcreting depending upon
the site conditions and this shall be removed prior to the concreting of
the plug.
5.3 Keyways provided in the first stage plug concrete shall be designed
for anticipated horizontal thrust on final closure plug. Keyways thus
provided shall be filled up with the material given in 5.2 so long as the
tunnel is used for restricted flow purposes.
The plugging in
5.4 The solid concrete plug may be provided in stages.
stages may be provided due to operational/functional
requirements for set
of diversion tunnels ( see Fig. 1 ). Keyways in the first stage concrete may
be dispensed with, in view of the anticipated high velocity in the
constructed section and their provision may be made by chipping off the
plug concrete later on prior to the second stage concrete pour.
5.5 The concrete plug in the tunnel, without keys will depend mainly
upon frictional resistance offered by the surrounding initial. concrete or
rock and bearing on the rock depending upon shape of the plug.
6. WATER

HEAD

6.1 Plugs in the tunnel are designed for the maximum reservoir
no flow or minimum flow in the tunnel.

level with

6.2 Allowance shall be made for increase in water head in reservoir due
to surface wave action and water hammer in case of sudden stoppage of
flow in the tunnel.
7. PLUG

LENGTH

7.1 The length of the plug shall not be less than the diameter of the
tunnel.
The plug length may be calculated by the following three
The over all
formulae and minimum of these lengths should be adopted.
length of the plug may be increased to keep an allowance for seals at the
near ends.
Hydrostatic force on the plug due to water
head
a) Length of the plug =
Permissible average shear stress x
Perimeter of tunnel section

-6

18:11105 -1984

b) Length

c) Length

of the plug =

of the plug =

Hydrostatic
force on the plug due to water
head
Frictional resistance of plug
Hydrostatic force on the plug due to water
head
Frictional resistance of plug and shear
resistance of anchors.

NOTE - Value of permissible average shear stress/shear friction between the


plug and surrounding concrete/rock
should allow for any imperfections in contact
grouting between the plug and the tunnel lining.

7.2 It is preferable
to provide
without any contraction joint.

the

whole

length

of plug

in one block

7.3 In case of horse-shoe type tunnel section, bed contact along the sides
and bottom shall be considered for working out the area in shear,
8. DEPTH

OF KEYWAYS

8.1 Key in Concrete


8.1.1 The depth of key may be calculated from the average bearing
stress in concrete
from the following formula,
the permissible
stresses in
concrete shall be in accordance
with IS : 456-1978*.
Average

bearing

stress =

Hydrostatic
force on the plug
Effective projected bearing area

NOTE 1 - Effective projected bearing area shall be assumed 75 percent


total projected bearing area of the keys to allow imperfections in grouting.
NOTE 2 450 mm.

8.2

The depth of any key where feasible shall not be provided

of the

less than

Key in Rock

8.2.1 The depth of rock key, beyond the excavated


tunnel lines
shall be so designed that the bearing
stress in the surrounding
rock mass
and failure by shear of rock and cement concrete shear shall be less than
the allowable stresses.
9. GROUTING

9.1 General
9.1.1 Grouting is required in order to improve the quality of the rock
bearing by filling the fissures/voids of the rock surrounding the plug. This
shall also be done to ensure better shear friction.
*Code of practice

for plain and reinforced

concrete

( third reuision ).

IS: lllO- 1984


9.2 Types of Grouting
9.2.1 Following are the two types of grouting:
a) Consolidation grouting ( see IS : 6066-1971*
b) Contact grouting.

), and

9.2.1.1 Consolidation
grouting is done to improve the quality of
bearing rock in the vicinity of plug and to reduce leakage at that location.
In poor rocks, high pressure grouting is done to make good any fissures
in the rock which may either be existing previously or caused during
tunnel driving.
High pressure grouting also reduces the possible leakage
Consolidation grouting of the rock surrounding the
through the rock.
plug shall be done prior to the placement of the plug ( see Fig. 3 ).

CONSOLIDATION

PLUG
CONCRETE

GROUT

INITIAL

LINING

CONCRETE

FIG. 3

TYPICAL SECTION

( SHOWING CONSOLIDATION GROUTING )

9.2.1.2 Contact grouting is low pressure grouting through shallow


holes. Contact grouting shall be done to ensure better shear friction and
prevent excessive leakage along with the contact of plug concreting and
*Recommendations

for pressure grouting of rock foundations of river valley projects.


8

IS:11105 - 1984
It shall be done from the outer ends of the plugs by
rock/tunnel lining.
-means of system of supply, return and vent headers embedded in the plug
Contact grouting shall be done after 6 weeks of concreting the
concrete.
plug ( see Fig. 4 ).
OF

ADIT
VENT

INITIAL
LINING
CONCRETE

Fro. 4

TYPICAL SECTION

( SHOWING CONTACT GROUTING )

9.2.1.3 In case of hollow plug, contact grouting may also be done by


direct holes from the gallery.
9.3 Cooling
9.3.1 Cooling of plug concrete may be done by circulating chilled water
through coils of thin tubing installed on top of each lift of concrete
( see Fig. 5 ).

Is t 11105 h 1984
,-$

OF

ADIT

INITIAL
LINING
CONCRE
TEI

~cool

.LIFT

FIG. 5

TYPICAL SECTION

( SHOWING COOLING ARRANGEMENT)

10

JNG
TUB ES

1SINES