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AG RIC ULT URA L E NGI NEE RIN G S ector al Rep ort,
AG RIC ULT URA L E NGI NEE RIN G S ector al Rep ort,
AG
RIC
ULT
URA
L
E
NGI
NEE
RIN
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S
ector al Rep
ort, 2
009
Nati onal Ins titute of Agricult ural Ext ension M anagem ent (MA NAGE) Hyd

Nati onal Ins titute of Agricult ural Ext ension M anagem ent (MA NAGE)

Hyd erabad

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al Rep ort, 2 009 Nati onal Ins titute of Agricult ural Ext ension M anagem

Table of Contents

1

AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY

5-9

1.1

Introduction

5

1.2

Farm Mechanization

5

1.3

Growth of Mechanization

6

1.4

Mechanization Penetration and Growth Potential

7

2

TRACTOR INDUSTRY

10-17

2.1

Introduction

10

2.2

Export Market

12

2.3

Drivers of Tractor Growth

12

2.4

Challenges for Tractor Industry

13

2.5

Profiles of Major Players

15

3

MICRO IRRIGATION

16-18

3.1

Introduction

16

3.2

Nature of Scheme

16

3.3

Drip Irrigation

16

3.4

Sprinkler Irrigation

18

4

SUBSIDY POLICY

19-20

4.1

Macro-Management of Agriculture

19

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List Of Tables

 

.

1.1

Availability of agriculture equipment in India

7

1.2

Sales of tractors and power tillers in India

9

3.1

Average of unit cost for installing drip irrigation system

17

3.2

Cost of sprinkler irrigation system

18

4.1

Equipments covered under subsidy

19

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List of Figures

1.1

Availability of various farm equipments/1000ha of land

8

2.1

Percentage of sales

10

2.2

State-wise sale of tractors (%)

11

2.3

Agricultural equipment exports (US$ million)

12

3.1

Area covered under drip irrigation up to year 2005

17

3.2

Area covered under sprinkler irrigation up to 2005

18

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1. Agricultural Equipment Industry

1.1 Introduction

India’s agricultural sector is one of the most significant components of the country’s economy, though its share in the GDP has been decreasing over the years. Nearly 60 per cent of India’s population is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. Performance of the agricultural sector continues to have a crucial impact on the prices of essential goods and market demand for various consumer products. Agricultural Equipment industry plays a key role in supporting the performance of the agricultural sector in India. Farming activities are increasingly getting mechanized, and the availability, quality and performance of agricultural equipment has an increasing impact on improving the output and productivity of the agricultural sector. While India manufactures and deploys a range of agricultural equipment across the industry value chain, tractors and tillers are the two that constitute the bulk of the industry.

The Indian agricultural equipment industry covers the gamut of equipment used for different activities across the agriculture value chain. The manufacturing of basic agricultural implements is largely performed by village artisans and tiny units, small scale industries and the State Agro-Industrial Development Corporations. The traditional artisans and small scale industries rely upon their own experience, user’s feedback and government owned research and development institutions for technological support. They typically operate out of their own homes or basic establishments that are often without regular utility services. Medium scale industries operate in their own premises with adequate infrastructure, sometimes forming a part of an industrial estate. They also have manufacturing and marketing facilities and employ skilled manpower.

Products such as diesel engines, electric motors, irrigation pumps, sprayers and dusters are produced in this sector. Complex products such as land development machinery, tractors, power tillers, post harvest and processing machinery and dairy equipment are manufactured by large players in the organized sector. These firms typically have large manufacturing facilities, professional marketing network of dealers and provide effective after sales service. They also have in-house research and development facilities or have joint ventures with advanced countries for technology up gradation. Mahindra & Mahindra’s Farm Equipment Sector (FES), which designs, develops, manufactures and markets tractors for Indian and overseas markets, is the largest manufacturer of tractors in India. Other major players include TAFE, New Holland, John Deere and Punjab Tractors Ltd.

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1.2 Farm Mechanization

Mechanization refers to interjection of machinery between men and materials handled by them. In agriculture, materials are soil, water, environment, seed, fertilizer, pesticides, growth regulators, irrigation, agricultural produce and by-products such as food grains, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, cotton, sugarcane, jute & kenaf and other cash crops, milk, meat, eggs and fish etc. There is scope of mechanization in every unit operation of production agriculture, post- harvest and agro-processing, and rural living.

Mechanization has varied connotations. While in the developed world it tends to be synonymous to automation but in developing countries, like India, mechanization means any improved tool, implement, machinery or structure that assists in enhancement of workers’ output, multiplies the human effort, supplements or substitutes human labor that is enabling and removing, avoids drudgery or stresses that adversely affect human mental faculties leading to errors, imprecision and hazards and eventually loss of efficiency. It also means automation and controls that assure quality, hygiene. Agricultural mechanization in a limited sense relates to production agriculture.

1.3 Growth of Mechanization Land development, Tillage, Seed bed preparation Sowing & Weeding, Harvesting &
1.3 Growth of Mechanization
Land
development,
Tillage, Seed bed
preparation
Sowing &
Weeding,
Harvesting &
Planting
Intercultivation,
Threshing
Plant
Post harvest &
agricultural
Processing
protection
1. Tractors
1. Drill
1.Shovel/Plough
1. Harvester
1. Seed Extractor
2. Seeder
2. Harrow
2. Thresher
2. Dehusker
2. Levelers
3. Planter
3. Tiller
3. Digger
3.Huller/Dehuller
3. Ploughs
4. Dibbler
4. Sprayer
4. Reaper
4. Cleaner
4. Dozers
5. Trans-
5. Duster
5. Sheller
5. Grader
Scrapers
5. planter
6. Sickle/Dao
6. Mill

7. Dryer

Over the years, the share of human and animal power in agriculture has reduced drastically, paving the way for a variety of equipment to emerge. Many of these are driven by tractors, diesel engines or tillers. Several of the traditional processes in agriculture have been transformed with the advent of mechanization. For example:

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Land development, tillage and seedbed preparation, together account for a major share of power utilization in the crop cycle. From animal driven plough and blade harrow, the process is now being transformed by utilization of tractor driven devices.

Sowing and planting as a process, though not power intensive, has traditionally been sub- optimal due to the complexity of drilling of land and then uniformly sowing the seeds. This process is now being transformed by modern seed drills and planters.

Irrigation of farmland has been largely automated and the use of diesel and electric motors and pumps is now well established.

Similarly, the activities pertaining to plant protection, harvesting and threshing are being automated, largely with the help of sprayers and tractor mounted equipment, respectively. As a result of these developments, the use of animals to power farming activities has been continuously declining.

The consumption of electric power for farming has also been increasing steadily – another indication of the increasing mechanization in the sector.

1.4 Mechanization Penetration and Growth Potential

Agricultural mechanization in India, while growing rapidly, is still at a nascent stage. The penetration of almost all categories of agricultural equipment, as measured by the number of equipments per hectare, is quite low in India. This indicates significant growth potential for the industry in the future. India’s experience in consumer durables and automobiles over the past decade has been that when there is a low market penetration, coupled with availability of high quality, high technology products and ease of financing, the market booms. All these factors are present in the agricultural equipment sector today and hence the confidence in future growth appears sound. This factor, coupled with the growth in the tractors segment, indicates that these could be quite attractive growth options for investors.

Table 1.1: Availability of agriculture equipment in India

Type of equipment

Availability in Numbers Per 1000 Hectare Net Area Sown

Manual Seed Drill/Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill

153.2

Animal Drawn Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill

36.1

Tractor Drawn Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill

7.2

Animal Drawn Leveller

84.8

Tractor Operated Leveller

6.2

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Manually Operated Plant Protection Equipment

28.5

Power Operated Plant Protection Equipment

4.3

Drip & Sprinkler Equipments

8.3

Horticultural Tools (Power Operated)

8.9

Tractors

16.7

Power Tillers

2.0

Tractor Operated Dise Harrow

6.6

Tractor Operated Cultivator

12.5

Tractor Operated Rotavator

0.9

Potato Digger

2.1

Straw Reaper

18.8

Forage Harvester

18.2

(Source: www.indiastat.com)

Figure 1.1: Availability of various farm equipments/1000ha of net area sown

Availability in Numbers Per 1000 Hectare Net Area Sown 6.6 12.5 0.9 2.1 18.8 18.2
Availability in Numbers Per 1000 Hectare Net Area Sown
6.6 12.5 0.9 2.1 18.8 18.2
2
16.7
8.9
153.2
8.3
4.3
28.5
6.2
84.8
36.1
7.2
Manual Seed Drill/Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill
Tractor Drawn Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill
Tractor Operated Levellers
Power Operated Plant Protection Equipment
Horticultural Tools (Power Operated)
Power Tillers
Tractor Operated Cultivator
Potato Digger
Forage Harvester
Animal Drawn Seed Cum Fertilizer Drill
Animal Drawn Leveller
Manually Operated Plant Protection Equipment
Drip & Sprinkler Equipments
Tractors
Tractor Operated Dise Harrow
Tractor Operated Rotavator
Straw Reaper

(Source: www.indiastat.com)

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Table 1.2: Sales of tractors and power tillers in India

Year

Sale (number)

Tractors

Power Tillers

2002-03

247531

17481

2003-04

296080

22303

2004-05

352835

24791

2005-06

202708

18375

2006-07

190336

15665

2007-08

173098

14613

(Source: www.indiastat.com)

The farm equipment sector in India is nascent, but a fast growing one, that is set to experience sustained growth due to increased mechanization of farming, easy availability of credit and emerging practices, such as contract farming. Tractors and related equipment form the major part of the industry and given their low penetration levels in India, look set to continue having a significant share in the market. These appear the most attractive segments for investment and have been attracting multinational players such as John Deere. Punjab and Maharashtra appear attractive locations for investment given the favorable demand, supply and regulatory scenario in these states. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu could be other options.

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2. Tractor Industry

2.1 Introduction

Tractor industry plays an important role as agriculture sector has a major contribution to India’s GDP. Tractors are part of agricultural machinery industry. Tractors came to India through imports and later on were indigenously manufactured with the help of foreign collaborations. There were only 8,635 imported tractors in use in 1951. The manufacturing process started in 1961-62 with 880 numbers, but India continued to import tractors to meet the total needs up to the late 1970s due to the slow pace of production.

Indian tractor industry is relatively young but now has become the largest market worldwide, accounting for one third of global production. The tractor market in India is cyclic and has been growing steadily over the years. There has been a continuous growth of about 20 % Y-o-Y for the industry since 2003. There was a recession between 2000 and 2002 owing to poor monsoons. The market is segmented in terms of horsepower into the 30 HP and less (lower) segment, the 30 HP – 40 HP segment, 41 HP – 50 HP segment and the higher segment beyond 50 HP. The medium horse power category tractors, 31-40 HP, are the most popular in the country and fastest growing segment, which contributes 51 % of the total market. All major players cater to all the three segments. There has been a trend to move towards higher HP tractors, in recent years. This has been prompted by the need for newer applications and increasing awareness among farmers about new mechanization options.

Figure 2.1: Percentage of sales

awareness among farmers about new mechanization options. Figure 2.1 : Percentage of sales (Source: www.ibef.org) Page
awareness among farmers about new mechanization options. Figure 2.1 : Percentage of sales (Source: www.ibef.org) Page

(Source: www.ibef.org)

Page | 10

Punjab, U ttar Prades h and Ha ryana are

accoun ting for mo re than 50

% of sales ( 2006-07).

the larges t markets

for tractor s, togethe r

Figure 2.2: State- wise sale of tractors (% )

togethe r Figure 2.2 : State- wise sale of tractors ( % ) 2% 3% 3%
2% 3% 3% 4% 5% 7% 7%
2%
3%
3%
4%
5%
7%
7%
9% 36 % 10% 7% 7%
9%
36 %
10%
7%
7%
( % ) 2% 3% 3% 4% 5% 7% 7% 9% 36 % 10% 7% 7%
Punjab Haryan a Gujarat Bihar
Punjab
Haryan a
Gujarat
Bihar

Karnata ka

Uttar P r adesh

Rajasth a n

Madhy a Pradesh

Mahara shtra

West B e ngal

(Sourc e: www.ibef. org)

In the last

six years,

the tracto r market h as grown

by 89%.

For year 2 008-09, the

domest ic market w as about 3 ,04,000 tra ctors compa red with 1 ,60,000 trac tors in 200 3. The yea r

(FY09) saw a pret ty good firs t half at a time when commodity prices wer e going up ; lot of high

minimu m support prices and

then ca me the glo bal meltdo wn and its i mpact on I ndia. Ther e was a gen eral econo mic drop in

sentime nts despite

credit a s they were worried. T he industry took a hit. It ended wi th almost a flat growth .

big credit

waiver wa s announc ed by the

government . However ,

a third co nsecutive

great mons oon last ye ar. The ba nks clampe d down on

Tractor ind ustry sales volume terms to re ach a size

of 4-6 % in

units by 20 13-14. Dom estic dema nd is projec ted to grow industry is s estimated to increase from Rs 15 3 billion in

Rs 215 bi llion by 20 13-14. Ope rating mar gins for tra ctor manuf acturers are

(including exports) ar e expected to grow at

of 4.3 lakh

a CAGR

by 3-5 % by 2013- 14. In valu e terms, the

2008-0 9 to around

estimat ed to remai n under pre ssure in 20 08-09 and r emain flat i n 2009-10.

In India, tr actor owner ship is ver y low. Look ing at all f arming hou seholds, th e ownership

at the same time the u sage is as high as 35 %. This me ans a large

is less

number

penetra tion in the

than 10%.

However,

hire tracto rs. There i s clearly a lot of scop e for more ownership and greate r market.

of farmers

(Source: www.econo mictimes.com )

Page | 1 1

2.2 Ex port Ma rket

Agricultura l equipme nt exports,

primarily

tractor fr om India

have been

registering

continu ous growth

rose to US$ 451.7 7 million in FY07, a C AGR of 31 per cent.

over the

past five ye ars. From US$ 117.4

million in FY03, tra ctor export s

Figure 2.3: Agricu ltural equi pment expo rts (US$ m illion)

2007 ‐08 4 51.77 2006 ‐07 354. 64 2005 ‐06 276. 91 2004 ‐05 171.42
2007
‐08
4
51.77
2006
‐07
354.
64
2005
‐06
276.
91
2004
‐05
171.42
2003
‐04
117.4
7
0
50
100
15 0
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
E
xports

(Sour ce: www.ibe f.org)

Sizeable q uantities a re exported

to Africa,

the Middl e East, Asi a, South A merica and

during the

other n ations. The re has been

year 20 08-09. Exp orts are esti mated to g row by 8-1 0 per cent b y the year 2 013-14.

an overal l drop of 2 0% in the

exports of t he industry

(Source: CRISIL Re port April 20 09)

2.3 Dr ivers of

Tractor G rowth

Major dem and come s from the

agricult ural growt h and the se condary de mands ema nates from the dual us e of tractor s, primarily haulage . The majo r usage (ag riculture) is dependent upon the fo llowing dr ivers:

Various fa ctors influ ence the

demand of

tractors.

Credit and

money av ailability h as always

been a maj or factor in tractor ind ustry’s and

mechanisa tion’s fortu nes. More

than 90%

of tractor

purchases

in the cou ntry are on

credit. Th us, it becom es crucial

that a long term policy

of zero or marginal i nterest rate s

to enhance the use of agricultura l mechanisa tion must b e initiated by the gove rnment. Emergenc e of contrac t farming.

Page | 1 2

Contract farming enables the farmer to get the benefit of technology, training and financing with the contractor’s support. This facilitates adoption of mechanised farming practices.

Migration of agricultural labour to urban areas

Decrease in number of manual workers in farming has necessitated the move towards increased mechanisation. As a result, the domestic market for tractors has been growing steadily for the past few years.

Expansion and extension of area under agriculture:

From the past 20 years it is evident that irrigated and arable land has not increased considerably. There is a need to increase agri-land by converting the wasteland.

In the last few years there have been very few additions with respect to direct- irrigation potential. There has been exploitation and depletion of groundwater. Thus, availability of water is an important factor in having a good agricultural yield, without having to depend on seasonality of monsoons.

The government’s short term focus must be on increasing and maintaining natural water sources such as natural water storages, ponds, lakes and retention dams.

Farming – Value additions:

Our aim should be to get the maximum yield from least inputs.

Government must encourage farming community to move from low yield to high yield crops in a judicious manner. This will help in increasing the farming income and attract young blood in farming.

2.4 Challenges for Tractor Industry

The tractor industry in India faces numerous challenges that are unique in their own respect. Following are some of the challenges faced:

Buying Capacity – Reducing of average age of tractor buyers from the age group of above 40 to younger people. Implications are:

Increasing demands

Higher expectations on comfort levels

Importance for styling and appearance

Better finish (paint finish like cars)

Importance fro brand identies

Fuel economy

Awareness about latest technologies

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Longer life – resale value

New product development

Rapid prototyping – component development

Engine development – power train research and development

Styling – availability of latest softwares and technologies

Accelerated testing techniques reduce the development lead time to help industry to introduce new models in shorter periods.

New emission norms in near future – Bharat TREM IV/ EURO 3/ US TIER 3

Homologation test facilities

Dedicated engine development test cells and research labs

Accelerated durability test rigs

Engine performance improvement

New regulations – Noise/ safety/ other regulations

NVH Centre of Excellence Availability of anechoic chambers

Quiet rooms for subsystem level development

Specialised test tracks

Centre of Excellence for passive safety

Roll over testing Crash testing

Various gradients

Various braking surfaces

Vehicle dynamics

Alternate Energy – Alternate energy source development and tractor development are interdependent:

Increased focus on agri based energy policy in future

Production of fuel oil and biomass power

Lucrative alternate markets for farm produce

Reduction of country’s dependence on imported fuels

Alternate energy development

Application of electronics - Recent developments in use of electronics like GPS and Auto Cruise System on tractors have helped farmers greatly.

Export potential

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Testing under various climatic conditions

Testing and certification as per OECD

Cooperation with other test agencies worldwide

Advanced homologation labs to test as per regulations by 2015

2.5 Major Players

There are currently 14 players in the industry. This includes some foreign companies too. Below is the list of tractor manufacturing companies:

1. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

2. TAFE Ltd.

3. Escorts Ltd.

4. HMT

5. Punjab Tractors Ltd.

6. Sonalika

7. John Deere

8. New Holland

9. Same-Deutz-Fahr

10. Indo Farm

Page | 15

Micro Irrigation

3.1 Introduction

Although water is a renewable resource, its availability in appropriate quality and quantity is under severe stress due to increasing demand from various sectors. Agriculture is the largest user of water, which consumes more than 80% of the country’s exploitable water resources. The overall development of the agriculture sector and the intended growth rate in GDP is largely dependent on the judicious use of the available water resources. While the irrigation projects (major and medium) have contributed to the development of water resources, the conventional methods of water conveyance and irrigation, being highly inefficient, has led not only to wastage of water but also to several ecological problems like water logging, salinization and soil degradation making productive agricultural lands unproductive. It has been recognized that use of modern irrigation methods like drip and sprinkler irrigation is the only alternative for efficient use of surface as well as ground water resources. Hence, this scheme on Micro Irrigation (MI), which aims at increasing the area under efficient methods of irrigation viz. drip and sprinkler irrigation.

3.2 Nature of Scheme – Micro Irrigation Scheme

This is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under which out of the total cost of the MI System, 40% will be borne by the Central Government, 10% by the State Government and the remaining 50% will be borne by the beneficiary, either through his/her own resources or soft loan from financial institutions. In other words, out of the Governmental assistance, 80% share (40% of unit cost) will be met by the Government of India (GOI) and the balance 20% (10% of unit cost) will be met by the participating State Government. The concerned States shall make available their share of 20% to the Implementing Agencies (IA) during the financial year.

3.3 Drip Irrigation

Drip Irrigation involves technology for irrigating plants at the root zone through emitters fitted on a network of pipes (mains, sub-mains and laterals). The emitting devices could be drippers, micro sprinklers, mini sprinklers, microjets, misters, fan jets, micro sprayers, foggers and emitting pipes, which are designed to discharge water at prescribed rates. The use of different emitters will depend upon specific requirements, which may vary from crop to crop. Water requirement, age of plant spacing, soil type, water quality and availability are some of the factors which would decide the choice of the emitting system. Sometimes microtubes are also used as an emitter, though it is inefficient. All types of surface and subsurface irrigation systems are covered under MI Technology.

Page | 16

Table 3 .1: Averag e unit cost for installin g drip irrig ation syste m

State Category

Aver age Cost ( Rs./ha)

A

40, 000

B

46,000

C

50,000

States wh ere more t han 10,000 hectares h ave been b rought und er drip irrig ation as on

1.4.2004

would com e under ‘A’ Category.

All the S tates exce pt those c overed un der Catego ry ‘A’ and Himalaya n belt woul d come und er Categor y ‘B’.

those fal ling in the

All the

Uttarakhan d and Darj eeling distr ict of West Bengal wo uld come u nder Catego ry ‘C’.

North

East ern

States ,

Sikkim,

Himachal

Pradesh,

Jammu

&

Kashmir ,

Figur e 3.1: Area covered un der drip irr igation up t o year 200 5

2 19696 116 665 114304 111407 1 6686 1055 9 10025 6483 46 0 9
2
19696
116
665 114304
111407
1
6686
1055 9
10025
6483
46
0 9
4262
4219
State s
Area (ha)
Maharashtra
Tamil Nadu
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat
Kerala
Rajasthan
Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
a
a es
Punjab
Haryana

(Source: www.indias tat.com)

Page | 1 7

3.4 Sp rinkler I rrigation

Under

sprinkler

irrigation w ater is spr inkled und er pressure

into the ai r and plan t

foliage through a s et of nozzl es attached to network of aluminiu m or High Density Po ly Ethylene

(HDPE ) pipes in t he form of rainfall. T hese system s are suita ble for irri gating crop s where the

plant d ensity is ve ry high w here adopti on of Drip

Sprinkl er irrigatio n is suit able for h orticultural

Conven tionally, s prinkler irri gation has Seeds a nd other fie ld crops.

Irrigation

Systems m ay not be

economical .

crops lik e vegetab les and s eed spices .

Pulses, Oi l

been wide ly in use f or irrigatin g Cereals,

Table 3 .2: Cost of sprinkler i rrigation sy stem

Coupler dia meter (m m)

C ost (Rs.)

63

mm

13690

75

mm

14270

90

mm

17280

Figure 3.2: Area c overed und er sprinkle r irrigation up to 2005

5038 62 460529 157028 1 1 1500 2 0 7320 100000 84490 36333 26 3
5038
62
460529
157028 1 1
1500
2 0
7320
100000
84490
36333
26
3
32
20220
State s
Area(ha)
Haryana
Rajasthan
Karnataka
Maharashtra
West Bengal
Andhra Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Tami il Na d u
Gujarat
Orissa

(Source: www.indias tat.com)

Page | 1 8

4. Subsidy Policy

4.1 Macro-Management of Agriculture

The States have been given flexibility to develop & pursue activities on the basis of their regional priorities. The States are free to include new interventions in their Work Plans provided these are not covered under any other scheme of the Central Government or are not a part of any ongoing State Scheme. The expenditure on any new initiative should not be more than 10% of the total allocation to the State (for the year) under Macro-Management Scheme. As per approved pattern, there would be a cap on subsidy to the farmers incorporated in the Work Plans. Subsidy per farmer or per activity should not exceed 25% of the cost or the present subsidy level approved under 27 identified schemes, whichever is lower. Besides, the subsidy is also available on identified agricultural implements under the schemes of oil seeds production programme National Pulses Development Project, Technology Mission on Cotton, Technology Mission on Horticulture for North Eastern Region.

The following agricultural equipments are available on subsidy under Central Sector Plan Schemes. The subsidy is available to the farmers @ 25% of the cost of equipment subject to certain ceiling limits.

Table 4.1: Equipments covered under subsidy

S. No.

Name of Implements/Machines

1.

Tractor

2.

Power Tiller

3.

Power Drawn implements

4.

Power Threshers (all types)

5.

Sprinklers

6.

Drip Irrigation

7.

Animal drawn implements

8.

Manually operated implements/ tools including Horticultural Tools

9.

Plant Protection Equipment

i) Manual

ii) Power operated

iii) Tractor mounted

Page | 19

10.

Self Propelled reaper, paddy transplanter and other similar self propelled machines

11.

Specialised power driven equipment such as Sugarcane cutter planter, potato planter, rotavator, straw reaper, strip till drill, tractor drawn reaper etc.

Page | 20

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