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Date: 22.03.


Oils and Fats Analysis

1. Theoretical background:
Naturally occuring glycerides are called fats or oils depending on their
aggregation state at room temperature. Of course that, because they are being
extracted from living tissues, other compounds may be found into the composition
of these products such as: phsopholipids, sterols, hydrocarbons, vitamins, waxes,
pigments etc.
Glycerides are esters of glycerol with fatty acids. Like it has been said
before, glycerides represent the most of fats and oils. However, among the
glycerides, about 97% are triglycerides, up to 3% are diglycerides and up to 1%
are monoglycerides. The melting point and consequenty the aggrergation state at
room temperature for every fat or oil, depends on the content in longer or shorter
fatty acids and on the content in more saturated or less saturated fatty acids.
Glycerides are compounds with high importance in biochemistry. Among the
most common reactions glycerides can suffer, hydrolysis is the most important on
an industrial scale.
The iodine value is a measure of the total unsaturation of a fatty acid
but does not permit conclusions to be made about the content of saturated fatty
acids. Thus, oleic acid has the same iodine value (90) as a fatty acid consisting
of a 1 : 1 mixture of stearic and linoleic acids.
From the acid and saponification values, the average molecular mass and
thus the average chain length of the fatty acids can be calculated. If a distilled
fatty acid contains no esters or anhydrides components the saponification value is
identical to the acid value. The difference between the saponification and acid
values is the so-called ester value.

2. Uses:
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Fatty acids are used in various branches of industry mostly in the form of
One of the oldest applications of fatty acids is in the manufacture of
candles. Stearin (saturated C16C18fatty acids) has been used for over 150 years
as the basic material for this purpose. In recent years, stearin has been replaced
largely by paraffin (Candles).
Fatty alcohols, fatty amines, and fatty acid esters represent important
intermediates in many different fields of application. The syntheses of these
derivatives are analogous to those of other monocarboxylic acids, and reactivity
decreases with increasing molecular mass. The fatty acid esters include methyl
esters, partial glycerides, wax esters (esters of fatty acids with long-chain
fatty alcohols), and ester oils (esters of fatty acids with polyalcohols). Fatty
acid methyl esters are intermediates in the manufacture of fatty alcohols and
fatty acid alkanolamides. The partial glycerides (mono- and diglycerides) of
hardened fatty acids in the palmitic stearic acid range are used in the food
industry as emulsifiers in cakes, pastries, and ice cream. Ester oils are used as
lubricants for engines. Epoxidized fatty acid esters are used as stabilizers and
softeners in plastics such as poly(vinyl chloride). Lead and cadmium stearates are
good stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride), but they are being replaced by other
substances because of their toxicity.
In detergents, soaps, and cosmetics, fatty acids are used primarily in the
form of their sodium soaps. The sodium soaps used in the manufacture of soap bars
are sometimes made from fatty acids or their methyl esters but are still obtained
mainly by saponification of neutral oils. Fatty acid alkanolamides and quaternary
fatty alkylammonium salts are also used in detergents. Recently, sulfonated fatty
acid methyl esters have become of interest as readily biodegradable detergents.
Esters such as isopropyl myristate and the triglycerides of short-chain fatty
acids are employed as the oil component of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.
Metal soaps, such as aluminum, magnesium, and zinc soaps, serve as thickening
agents in cosmetic creams. These metal soaps are also used in powders, because of
their lubricating properties.
Large quantities of fatty acids are required in the production of alkyd
resins used to make enamels for wood and metal. The polyunsaturated fatty acids
obtained from soybean and sunflower oils are reacted with phthalic anhydride and
polyalcohols to form alkyd resins and are especially important for this purpose.
Conjugated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and short-chain fatty acids
are also used in making paints. Dimeric fatty acids from tall, soybean, or
sunflower oil are also employed in the paint industry.

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Amides of dimeric fatty acids are effective hardeners for epoxy resins.
Polyamides are used in hotmelt adhesive formulations.
In the rubber industry, various types of stearin are used as lubricants.
In tire manufacture, stearic acid is also used as a separating agent during
molding. Zinc and magnesium stearates act as accelerators in the vulcanization
process. Soaps of diverse fatty acids are used as emulsifiers in emulsion
polymerization for the manufacture of synthetic rubber.
Olein, i.e., technical-grade oleic acid, has been used for many years as a
lubricant in the textile industry. Fatty acid derivatives are employed as wetting,
leveling, and finishing agents in many other operations in textile manufacturing.
Thus, N-methyloleyltaurine is used in dyeing textiles, and sulfonated
monoethanolamides are used in washing printed cloths. Finishing agents contain
esters and amides of longer chain fatty acids with polyglycols or polyamines.
Melamine resins modified with fatty acids serve as impregnating agents.
Sodium, lithium, and calcium soaps are employed in lubricants for high-performance
engines, where up to 30 % soap is added to the mineral oils.

3. Reagents and materials:

1. oil;
2. 0.5 N KOH;
3. toluene;
4. benzene/alcohol mixture;
5. Hanus solution;
6. chloroform;
7.0.1 N KOH;
8. 0.1 N Na2S2O3.
4. Experimental Procedure:
In order to determine the saponification index (S.I.), about 1 g of oil is
mixed in a round-bottomed flask with 20 mL of toluene and 25 mL of 0.5 N KOH.
Titration with conc. HCl is performed in presence of phenolphtalein. A blank test
is also done.
For the acid index (A.I.) 1 g of sample is mixed with 10-15 mL of
benzene/alcohol mixture. A titration with KOH 0.1 N solution is performed in
presence of phenolphtalein.
For the iodine index (I.I.) 1 g of oil os mixed with 10 mL of chloroform
and 25 mL of Hanus solution. After being left in the dark for 30 min a titration
is performed with 0.1 N Na2S2O3 solution. Also a blank is performed.
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5. Calculations:
S.I. calculation:

A.I. Calculation:

I.I. Calculation:

6. Results and Discussion:

The S.I. is a direct consequence of the esterification degree of the oil
Also, the A.I. shows the amount of fatty acids or acidic compounds in
general which are found in 1 g of oil.
The I.I. shows the unsaturation level of the fatty acids which build up
the glycerides. Since the sample was an oil, the fact that I.I. = 72 is not

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