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1. (a) Explain the various types of material used in construction of core of trans-

former? Briefly explain all the properties. Explain how quality of core material

is related with core losses in transformer.

(b) A single phase transformer has 400: 1000 turns ratio. The net cross sectional

area of the core is 60 cm2. The primary winding be connected to 50 Hz supply

& 500 V. Calculate the peak value of flux density in the core. The voltage

induced in the secondary winding. [8+8]

2. (a) Why it is essential to calculate all day efficiency for distribution transformers.

How it is different from full load efficiency.

(b) A 20 kVA transformer has maximum efficiency of 98% when delivering 75%

load at 0.95 pf. If during the day transformer is delivering load as follows, find

the all day efficiency of transformer. [6+10]

12 hours No load

6 hours 12 kW, 0.8 pf

6 hours 20 kW at upf.

3. (a) Explain the various simple tests conducted on a single transformer to find the

approximate equivalent circuit of transformer.

on HV side. Explain the reasons. [10+6]

4. (a) What is the three winding transformer? What is the third winding called as?

Why third winding is needed?

(b) A Scott connected transformer is fed from a 6600 V, 3-_ network and supplies

2-_ power at 500 V/Ph. Calculate the line current on 3-_ system, if the load

on the 2-_ sides are 500 A at 0.8 pf lagging (teaser) and 400 A at 0.9 lagging(main). [6+10]

5. (a) Deduce the expression for (rotor side) starting current, starting power factor,

standstill frequency and standstill EMF of squirrel cage IM.

(b) A 4-pole IM is fed from 50 Hz supply and has rotor speed of 1425 RPM find

slip speed & slip.

(c) A 12 pole, 3-_ alternator driven at a speed of 500 rpm supplies power to an

8-pole, 3-_, IM. If the slip of the motor at full load is 3 %, calculate the full

load speed of the motor. [8+4+4]

6. The parameters of a 3-_ IM are r1 = 0.8 , x1 = 1.4 , r2′ = 0.4 , x2′ = 0.7 ,

Xo = 40 , Ro = 160 . The supply voltages are Va = 150 at 00 , Vb = 250 at

−900, Vc = 350 at 1100. If the slip is 0.04 find:

(a) air gap power for positive and negative sequence

(b) rotor copper loss for positive & negative sequence

(c) total mechanical power developed. [16]

7. With neat diagram explain the various tests to be conducted on 3-_ IM to plot the

circle diagram. [16]

8. Explain all the modes of operation of Induction machine. Plot the neat character-

istics. [16]

SET 2

1. (a) Explain the various types of material used in construction of core of trans-

former? Briefly explain all the properties. Explain how quality of core material

is related with core losses in transformer.

(b) A single phase transformer has 400: 1000 turns ratio. The net cross sectional

area of the core is 60 cm2. The primary winding be connected to 50 Hz supply

& 500 V. Calculate the peak value of flux density in the core. The voltage

induced in the secondary winding. [8+8]

(b) A single phase 150 kVA transformer has efficiency of 96 % at full load, 0.8 pf

and at half load, 0.8 pf lagging. Find maximum efficiency of transformer and

corresponding load. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain the working principle of auto transformer and give the constructional

features for the same.

(b) An auto transformer has input voltage of 9.5 V at its input terminal AC.

The output terminals AB are shorted. The ratio of transformer is 2:1. The

resistance and leakage reactancesof section AB are 0.06 & 0.2 respectively,

whilethose for section BC are 0.04 & 0.1 respectively. Find the input

current & power. [8+8]

4. (a) With neat phasor diagram, explain the voltage regulation of three-phase trans-

former.

(b) An ideal 3-_ step down transformer connected in delta/star delivers power

to a balanced 3-_ load of 120 kVA at 0.8 pf. The input line voltage is 11

kV and the turn’s ratio of transformer (phase to phase) is 10. Determine the

line voltage line currents, phase voltages, phase currents on both primary &

secondary sides. [8+8]

5. (a) A four pole/ eight pole multi speed 60 Hz, 10 HP, 240 V, 3-_, IM operating

with 4 poles runs at 1750 RPM when fully loaded with its rated voltage &

frequency. Determine:

i. slip speed

ii. % slip

iii. The synchronous speed if operating in the 8 pole mode and at 20 % rated frequency

(b) Obtain the direction of rotation of RMF, rotor, rotor MMF. Obtain the rela-

tion between them. [8+8]

6. (a) Explain the effect of load on performance of IM. How the operating range of

IM can be improved.

(b) The power supplied to a 3-_ IM is 40 kW and the corresponding stator losses

are 1.5 kW. Calculate: total mechanical power developed rotor copper loss &

efficiency when the slip is 4 %. [8+8]

7. (a) A 4 pole, 3-_, 50 Hz, IM has a starting current which is 5 times its full load

value when switched on directly. What will be the % reduction in starting

torque if the motor is started with

i. with star-_ starter

ii. Auto transformer starter with 65 % tapping.

(b) What are the specific advantages of rotor resistance starter over any other

type of starter? What is the reason that rotor resistance starters are limited

in use? [8+8]

8. Compare various methods of speed control of 3-_ IM. [16]

SET 3

1. (a) Obtain the expression for the EMF induced in the transformer.

(b) The cross section of the core of a 4 kVA, 5000/500 V, 50 Hz single phase

transformer having maximum flux density of 1.5 T is 500 cm2. Determine thefollowing:

i. The number of turns of primary and secondary windings

ii. The EMF per turn. Take staking factor = 0.85. [8+8]

(b) A single phase 150 kVA transformer has efficiency of 96 % at full load, 0.8 pf

and at half load, 0.8 pf lagging. Find maximum efficiency of transformer and

corresponding load. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain how voltage regulation & approximate equivalent circuit of trans-

former can be obtained from OC & SC test data.

(b) A 30 kVA, 6000/230 V, 50 Hz, single-phase transformer has the following

winding resistances and leakage reactances:

R1=10 , R2 (ref to primary) = 10.8 ,

X1= 16 , X2(ref to primary) = 18 .

Calculate the primary current with SC secondary. [8+8]

4. (a) With neat phasor diagram, explain the voltage regulation of three-phase transformer.

(b) An ideal 3-_ step down transformer connected in delta/star delivers power

to a balanced 3-_ load of 120 kVA at 0.8 pf. The input line voltage is 11

kV and the turn’s ratio of transformer (phase to phase) is 10. Determine the

line voltage line currents, phase voltages, phase currents on both primary &

secondary sides. [8+8]

5. A 3-_, 50 Hz, 4 pole, 400 V IM has a delta connected stator winding has 240

conductors per phase and rotor winding has 48 conductors/phase. The per phase

rotor resistance & standstill rotor reactance are 0.02 and 0.08 . Neglect stator

impedance.Find with slip rings short circuited:

(a) Flux per pole

(b) Rotor emf/ph (stand still)

(c) Rotor current (stand still)

(d) Rotor power factor (stand still)

(e) Rotor EMF/ph (at 4% slip)

(f) Rotor current (at 4% slip)

(g) Rotor power factor (at 4% slip)

(h) Speed at 4 % slip [16]

(b) A 3-_, 50 Hz, 4 pole slip ring IM gives a reading of 120 V across slip rings

on open circuit, when at rest and supplied with normal supply voltage. The

rotor impedance per phase is 0.3 + j1.5 . Find the rotor current and torque

when machine is running at 5 % slip. [8+8]

7. A 3-_, star connected, 3.73 kW, 200 V, 4-pole, 50 Hz IM gave the following test

results:

No load Test: 200 V, 5 A, 350 W

Blocked rotor test: 100 V, 26 A, 1700W

All above are the line values. Plot the circle diagram and for full load find:

(a) The line current

(b) The power factor

(c) Slip

(d) Torque

(e) Efficiency

(f) Maximum power factor

Given that rotor copper losses are 50% to stator copper losses at stand still. [16]

8. Explain all the modes of operation of Induction machine. Plot the neat characteristics. [16]

SET 4

1. (a) Explain the various types of material used in construction of core of trans-

former? Briefly explain all the properties. Explain how quality of core material

is related with core losses in transformer.

(b) A single phase transformer has 400: 1000 turns ratio. The net cross sectional

area of the core is 60 cm2. The primary winding be connected to 50 Hz supply

& 500 V. Calculate the peak value of flux density in the core. The voltage

induced in the secondary winding. [8+8]

(b) A single phase 150 kVA transformer has efficiency of 96 % at full load, 0.8 pf

and at half load, 0.8 pf lagging. Find maximum efficiency of transformer and

corresponding load. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain why short circuit test is conducted on transformer. Give related

calculations.

(b) Obtain the equivalent circuit of a 200/400 V, 4 kVA transformer, referred to

LV side; with following test data:

OC test: 200 V, 0.8 A, 70 W (LV side)

SC test: 20 V, 10 A, 60 W (HV side) [6+10]

4. (a) With neat phasor diagram, explain the voltage regulation of three-phase trans-

former.

(b) An ideal 3-_ step down transformer connected in delta/star delivers power

to a balanced 3-_ load of 120 kVA at 0.8 pf. The input line voltage is 11

kV and the turn’s ratio of transformer (phase to phase) is 10. Determine the

line voltage line currents, phase voltages, phase currents on both primary &

secondary sides. [8+8]

5. A 3-_, 50 Hz, 4 pole, 400 V IM has a delta connected stator winding has 240

conductors per phase and rotor winding has 48 conductors/phase. The per phase

rotor resistance & standstill rotor reactance are 0.02 and 0.08 . Neglect stator

impedance.Find with slip rings short circuited:

(a) Flux per pole

(b) Rotor emf/ph (stand still)

(c) Rotor current (stand still)

(d) Rotor power factor (stand still)

(e) Rotor EMF/ph (at 4% slip)

(f) Rotor current (at 4% slip)

(g) Rotor power factor (at 4% slip)

(h) Speed at 4 % slip [16]

6. (a) A 4 pole, 400 V, 3-_ IM has a standstill rotor EMF of 100 V per phase.

The rotor has resistance of 50 m/ph and standstill reactance of 0.5 /ph.

Calculate the maximum torque & slip at which it occurs. Neglect stator

impedance.

(b) Explain the various losses taking place in IM. Explain the effect of slip on the

performance of IM. [8+8]

7. With neat diagram explain the various tests to be conducted on 3-_ IM to plot the

circle diagram. [16]

8. (a) Give the connections of poles in consequent pole method of speed control.

(b) A 6-pole, 3-_, 50 Hz, slip ring IM has its rotor resistance of 0.3 /ph and full

load speed of 975 rpm. Calculate the external resistance per phase required

to be added in rotor circuit to decrease the speed to 800 rpm. The torque

remains the same as before. [8+8]

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