You are on page 1of 14

PRODUK NATA SEBAGAI SERAT

PANGAN FUNGSIONAL

pina,, nata de tofu,


Nata de coco, nata de cacao, nata de banana, nata de pina
nata de molases

by

Dr. Ir. Sony Suwasono, M.App.Sc


Neny Novita, S.Si.
Department of Agricultural Product & Food Technology
Faculty of Agricultural Technology
University of Jember

NATA
Air kelapa (nata de coco)
Pulp kakao (nata de cacao)
Nanas (nata de pina)
Pisang (nata de banana)
Ampas tahu (nata de tofu)
Kulit pisang (nata de banana skin)
Tetes tebu (nata de molases)

Gula + Mineral + Asam + Protein


Acetobacter xylinum
Nata = Selulosa (dietary fiber)

Air kelapa

1 Ha tanaman kelapa
1000 tanaman kelapa
10.000 kelapa per tahun
5.000 Liter air kelapa
5.000 kg nata de coco
Rp. 15.000.000 20.000.000

Kulit Pisang

1 Ha tanaman pisang
2.500 tanaman pisang
25.000 kg buah pisang
15.000 kulit pisang
15.000 kg nata de banana skin
Rp. 30.000.000 45.000.000

Kulit pisang mengandung vitamin C,


vitamin B, kalsium, protein, dan juga
lemak yang cukup (Sulffahri.2008).
Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan
bahwa komposisi kulit pisang banyak
mengandung air yaitu 68,90% dan
karbohidrat sebesar 18,50%.

KUALITAS NATA
Bahan
bersih : bebas kotoran (batu, pasir) dan kontaminasi (jamur, yeast)
segar : tidak berbau rusak atau tengik

Bahan Pembantu
amonium sulfat, amonium fosfat, urea, atau ZA.
mineral : Kalium, Magnesium, Natrium, Kalsium, Fosfor
vitamin : jumlah sangat kecil
sukrosa atau gula pasir
asam asetat glacial 99,8% atau asam cuka
esense, sirup, pewarna

Alat
Ember, baskom, botol
Panci pemanas
Pengaduk

Pekerja
mikroba : starter Acetobacter xylinum

Produk
Warna
Ketebalan
Kekenyalan

Proses Nata

Kulit Pisang 500 g


Pencucian
Penghancuran
kulit : air = 500 g : 500 ml
Penyaringan dengan kain saring

Media cair +
Acetobacter xylinum

Penambahan gula pasir 4 g


NPK 0,3 g + ZA 0,16 g
Panen Nata
Perebusan dan Pengadukan
Pencucian & Perebusan

Pemeraman suhu kamar Penambahan asam asetat 5 ml


28 31oC, 5 hari
Pendinginan
Starter

Penambahan starter 10%


Pemeraman suhu kamar
28 31oC, 10 hari

Pemotongan &
Penambahan sirup
Pengemasan
Pemasaran

Gambar produksi nata de banana skin

KULIT PISANG

PEMERAMAN 10 HARI

SARI KULIT PISANG

LEMBARAN NATA

Acetobacter xylinum

PRODUK NATA KOMERSIAL

KUALITAS NATA
Bahan
bersih : bebas kotoran (batu, pasir) dan kontaminasi (jamur, yeast)
segar : tidak berbau rusak atau tengik

Bahan Pembantu
amonium sulfat, amonium fosfat, urea, atau ZA.
mineral : Kalium, Magnesium, Natrium, Kalsium, Fosfor
vitamin : jumlah sangat kecil
sukrosa atau gula pasir
asam asetat glacial 99,8% atau asam cuka
esense, sirup, pewarna

Alat
Ember, baskom, botol
Panci pemanas
Pengaduk

Pekerja
mikroba : starter Acetobacter xylinum

Produk
Warna
Ketebalan
Kekenyalan

Tabel Komposisi Vitamin Nata de Coco :

Jenis Vitamin

ug/ml

Asam nikotinat

0.01

Biotin

0.02

Asam pantotenat

0.52

Riboflavin

0.01

Asam fosfat

0.03

Sumber: Dolendo dan Pacita, 1967; cit. Khak, 1999.


Tabel Komposisi Kimiawi Nata de Coco :

Komponen

(%)

Air

95.50

Kalium

6.60

Zat padat total

4.71

Gula total

2.08

Gula reduksi

0.80

Kalium oksida

0.69

Mineral

0.62

Magnesium oksida

0.59

Asam fosfat

0.56

Zat besi

0.50

Nitrogen

0.05

Sumber: Woodroof, 1970; cit. Khak, 1999.

MANFAAT NATA
Makanan
makanan penyegar
makanan penutup
nilai gizi kecil bahkan tidak ada

Makanan Fungsional
serat fungsional (dietary fiber)
membantu pencernaan di usus halus dan usus besar
meningkatkan kesehatan
fungsi dietary fiber  lihat slide DIETARY FIBER

Functional
Foods
Ingredients:
Functional
Food
Ingredients

Commercial Functional Food

Serat makanan (dietary fibers)


Oligosakarida & gula alkohol
- karoten
DHA
Prebiotik & Probiotik
Peptida & protein
Glikosida
Asam lemak tak jenuh
Isoprenoid & Vitamin
Mineral
Antioksidan

Vegeta
Yoghurt, Kefir, Coumiss
Yakult
Breakfast cereals
Biscuit
Minuman
Permen

SERAT MAKANAN

DIETARY FIBER

SERAT MAKANAN - DIETARY FIBER


Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant
foods that move food through the digestive system,
system
absorbing water and making defecation easier.
Bahan pangan dari tanaman
yang tidak dapat dicerna namun
mampu menggerakan makanan
melalui sistem pencernaan,
menyerap air, mempermudah
pembuangan

Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as


cellulose (NATA) and many other plant components such as
dextrins, inulin, lignin, waxes, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans and
oligosaccharides.

SOLUBLE FIBERS and INSOLUBLE FIBERS


Sumber serat makanan (dietary fiber) terdiri dari water-soluble or not soluble.
Kedua tipe fiber tersedia dalam plant foods dengan jumlah bervariasi.

1. Insoluble fiber possesses passive water-attracting


properties that help to increase bulk, soften stool and
shorten transit time through the intestinal tract =
memiliki kemampuan menyerap air yang membantu
meningkatkan volume feses,
mengempukkan feses, dan
memperpendek waktu saat
melalui usus.

Other sources of insoluble fiber include


whole wheat, wheat and corn bran, flax
seed lignans and vegetables such as
celery, green beans and potato
skins..nata cellulose

SOLUBLE FIBERS and INSOLUBLE FIBERS


2. Soluble fiber undergoes metabolic processing via
fermentation,
fermentation, yielding endend-products with broad, significant
health effects = ikut terlibat dalam metabolisme melalui
fermentasi dan menghasilkan produk akhir yang
memberikan manfaat kesehatan.
kesehatan.
For example, plums (or prunes)
have a thick skin covering a juicy
pulp. The plum's skin is an
example of an insoluble fiber
source, whereas soluble fiber
sources are inside the pulp.

FERMENTABLE FIBER
The American Association of Cereal Chemists : soluble fiber = the
edible parts of plants or similar carbohydrates resistant to digestion
digestion
and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial
partial
fermentation in the large intestine
intestine.
edible parts of plants all parts of a plant we eat : skin, pulp, seeds, stems,
leaves, roots contain fiber. Both insoluble and soluble sources are in plant.
carbohydrates complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also
called starch, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides, are excellent sources of
fiber.
resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine foods
nutrients are digested by gastric acid and digestive enzymes in the stomach
and small intestine where the nutrients are released then absorbed through the
intestinal wall for transport via the blood throughout the body. A food resistant to
this process is undigested, as insoluble and soluble fibers are. They pass to the
large intestine only affected by their absorption of water (insoluble fiber) or
dissolution in water (soluble fiber).
complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine additional nutrient
absorption occurs through the process of fermentation in colon. Fermentation
occurs by the action of colonic bacteria on the food mass, producing gases and
short-chain fatty acids.

SHORT-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS


Fermentable fibre  asam butirat,
butirat, asam asetat,
asetat, asam propionat,
propionat, asam valerat
 Memberi efek kesehatan

1. Menstabilkan blood glucose levels dengan membebaskan pancreatic


insulin release dan kontrol liver pada pemecahan glycogen breakdown.
2. Menekan cholesterol synthesis oleh liver and mengurangi
LDL
cholesterol dan triglycerides penyebab atherosclerosis.
3. Merendahkan pH usus besar sehingga melindungi diri dari
pembentukan colonic polyps dan meningkatkan absorpsi mineral.
4. Merangsang produksi T helper cells, antibodies, leukocytes, cytokines
dan kerja lymph yang berperanan dalam sistim immune.
5. Meningkatkan jumlah bakteri menguntungkan bagi kesehatan usus
Bifidobacteria dan Lactobacilli (probiotic).
6. Memperbaiki sifat pertahanan mukosa usus, menghambat infeksi dan
iritasi

GUIDELINES ON FIBER INTAKE


The American Dietetic Association (ADA) :
recommends for adult = a minimum of 20-35 g/day depending on calorie
intake (e.g., a 2000 cal/8400 kJ diet should include 25 g of fiber per day).
recommends for children = equal age in years plus 5 g/day (e.g., a 4 year
old should consume 9 g/day).
No guidelines have yet been established for the elderly or very ill.
The US National Academy of Sciences,
Sciences, Institute of Medicine :
recommend for adult = 20-35 grams of dietary fiber per day,
but the average American's daily intake of dietary fiber is
only 12-18 grams.
The British Nutrition Foundation :
recommends for adult = a minimum fiber intake of 12-24 g/day

10

SUMBER SERAT
The American Dietetic Association recommends consuming a variety of fiber-rich foods.

Soluble Fiber
legumes (peas, soybeans, and other beans)
oats, rye, chia, and barley
some fruits and fruit juices (particularly prune
juice, plums and berries)
certain vegetables such as broccoli and
carrots
root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet
potatoes, and onions (skins of these
vegetables are sources of insoluble fiber)
psyllium seed husk (a mucilage soluble
fiber).
Legumes also typically contain shorter-chain
carbohydrates indigestible by the human
digestive tract but are metabolized by
bacterial fermentation in the large intestine
(colon), yielding short-chain fatty acids and
gases (flatulence).

Insoluble fiber
whole grain foods
bran
nuts and seeds
vegetables such as
green beans, cauliflower,
zucchini, and celery
the skins of some fruits,
including tomatoes

11

Kandungan Serat Makanan Pada BuahBuah-buahan


JENIS BUAH

KANDUNGAN SERAT
(GR)

Alpukat
Anggur
Apel
Belimbing
Jambu Biji
Jeruk Bali
Jeruk Sitrun
Mangga
Melon
Nanas
Pepaya
Pisang
Semangka
Sirsak
Srikaya

1,4
1,7
0,7
0,9
5,6
0,4
2
0,4
0,3
0,4
0,7
0,6
0,5
2
0,7

Kandungan Serat Makanan Pada SayurSayur-sayuran


JENIS BUAH

KANDUNGAN SERAT (GR)

Bayam
Kangkung
Daun Pepaya
Daun Singkong
Kol
Sawi Hijau
Seledri
Selada
Tomat
Paprika
Cabai
Buncis
Kacang Panjang
Bawang Putih
Bawang Merah
Kentang
Lobak
Wortel
Brokoli
Kembang Kol
Asparagus
Jamur

0,8
1
2,1
1,2
1,2
1,2
0,7
0,6
1,2
1,4
0,3
1,2
2,5
1,1
0,6
0,3
0,7
0,9
0,5
0,9
0,6
1,2

12

Kandungan Serat Makanan Pada KacangKacang-kacangan


JENIS BUAH

KANDUNGAN SERAT (GR)

Kacang Kedelai
Kacang Tanah
Kacang Hijau
Jagung
Kedelai Bubuk
Kecap Kental
Tahu
Susu Kedelai
Taoge
Tempe

4,9
2
4,1
2,9
2,5
0,6
0,1
0,1
0,7
0

Produk Komersial Serat Makanan

13

14