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1 FLUID PROPERTIES

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Water is the fluid which is of primary interest to civil and environmental engineers. Areas of key

interest include: water conservation and supply; wastewater disposal; harbour and river works; flood

mitigation; coastal and ocean engineering; irrigation; and, drainage.

They may be concerned with the behaviour of other liquids and, to a limited extent, with water

vapour, air and other gases.

Therefore, an essential component of their knowledge is the branch of the science of fluid mechanics

known as hydraulics, which deals with the mechanical properties and the motion of liquids. They also

require an insight into the physical properties and behaviour of fluids generally including the

theoretical behaviour of fluids or hydrodynamics.

Fluid mechanics involves the study of fluid behaviour under particular boundary conditions and the

prediction of patterns of fluid motion and of the pressures and forces associated with those patterns.

Engineers need to understand the statics, kinematics and dynamics of fluids and the ability to apply

the principle of conservation of mass, Newton's laws of motion, the equation of state for gases, the

concepts of elasticity and viscosity and other fluid properties and the theory of dimensions.

These form the background to the study of hydrostatics, the stability of floating bodies, energy and

momentum changes in fluid flow, hydraulic model theory, turbulence, fluid drag, flow in pipes and

channels, flow measurement and the performance of pumps and turbines.

In Introduction to Water Engineering, we restrict our studies to the behaviour of internal flows: flow

in which movement is constrained by a conduit primarily pressurised flow in pipes. Later in your

course you will be introduced to the behaviour of open channel flow, sediment transport, surface

water and groundwater systems and the linkages between these.

1.2 DIMENSIONS

The science of mechanics is based upon Newton's laws of motion, which involve the basic

dimensions: length (L), time (T), force (F) and mass (M). These are the only basic dimensions which

may be involved in any mechanics equation. Since, from Newton's second law:

force = mass acceleration, or,

=m

F

a

(1)

F = M LT-2

Any one of the four basic dimensions can be expressed by a combination of the other three. Hence, a

mechanics equation can be considered as involving no more than three basic dimensions. It is

convenient, at times, to consider these three as L, T and M and, at other times, as L, T and F.

Physical equations have a requirement that they be dimensionally homogeneous. Consider, for

example, the equation p= V 2 /2 in which p is a pressure change, is density and V is a velocity.

The equivalent dimensional equation in terms of M, L and T are derived as follows. p is a force

change divided by an area (MLT-2/L2ML-1T-2) and V 2 /2 has dimensions (ML-3.LT-1.LT-1ML-1T2

). Hence, the equation is dimensionally homogeneous.

1/9

Fluid Properties

Dimensional analysis is a powerful tool in the treatment of the complex processes inherent to

fluid mechanics. Dimensional analysis will be discussed later in the session.

Some engineers do not use dimensionally homogeneous equations the practice is unscientific,

has specific hazards associated and is to be avoided except in quite specific cases.

1.3 FLUIDS

A fluid is a substance that can flow. That is, when subjected to a shear stress, fluids will deform

continuously.

In contrast to solids, fluids generally offer relatively little resistance to the action of shearing

forces and it cannot maintain a condition of static equilibrium under such action. A liquid is a

fluid which, placed in an open container, takes the shape of the container and has a free surface.

A gas is a fluid which, placed in a closed container, expands so as to fill the container. It is

much less dense than a liquid and has a considerably lower modulus of elasticity, that is, it is

more easily compressed. Liquids may contain gases in solution or gas bubbles or solid particles

in suspension.

1.4 MASS, WEIGHTS AND DENSITIES

The mass of a body is the amount of matter it contains expressed in kg.

The weight of a body is the force due to gravitational attraction exerted on the body expressed

in N (Newtons). Weight is equal to mass times acceleration due to gravity.

Density () is the mass per unit volume (kg/m-3) having the dimensions ML-3. Important

approximate values are:

1000 kg/m3

Fresh water (20C)

1025 kg/m3

Sea water (20'C)

1. 23 kg/m3

Air (15C)

Unit weight () is the weight per unit volume. It has the dimensions ML-2T-2 and =g .

Relative density (r.d.) or specific gravity (s.g.) is the ratio of the density of a material to that of

pure water at some specified temperature (often 20C). It is dimensionless.

Specific volume (vs) is the volume per unit mass. vs=1/. This quantity is rarely used for liquids

but may be convenient for describing gas behaviour.

1.5 PRESSURE

The pressure at a point in a fluid, p, is equal to the normal force applied to a surface element of

fluid divided by its area when the limit is taken of the area of the surface element containing the

point approaches zero. The surface element may be part of a solid boundary or of an imaginary

plane through the point within the fluid. Provided that no shearing stresses exist in the region, p

has the one value at the point for all orientations of the surface element. It is a scalar quantity. In

general, p varies from point to point within a fluid.

The unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa), which is one Newton per square metre (N/m2). Pressure

referred to absolute zero as datum is an absolute pressure. It is frequently more convenient to

use the local atmospheric pressure as the reference datum. As this is the pressure recorded by

some forms of pressure gauge, it is termed gauge pressure.

2/9

Fluid Properties

Atmospheric pressure varies with location, elevation and time, an approximate working value at

ground level being 101,300 Pa abs.

1.6 IDEAL GAS

The inter-relationship between pressure, volume and temperature of real gases, at temperatures

well above liquefaction temperature and at other than high pressure, is closely approximated by

the gas law for "ideal" or "perfect" gases. It can be expressed as:

pv s =RT

(2)

or

p= RT

(3)

where p is the absolute pressure and T is the absolute temperature K = C + 273 and R is the

gas constant for the particular gas under consideration.

The Universal Gas Constant, 8314 JK-1(kg-mole)-1, is the energy per degree for a mass equal to

the relative molecular mass M, expressed in kg (such a mass being called a kg-mole) and it is

the same for all gases, assuming ideal conditions.

The corresponding energy per unit mass is therefore the universal gas constant divided by the

relative molecular mass R = 8314/M JK-1kg-1

Example

Calculate vs, and for methane (CH4) at 50C and 100 kPa gauge.

M = 12 + 4 = 16

R = 8314/16 = 520 JK-1kg-1

p = 100 + 101.3 = 201.3 kPa = 2.01 x 105 Pa abs.

T = 50 + 273 =323 K

vs = RT/p = 0.84 m3/kg; = 1.20 kg/m3; =11.73 N/m3.

The effect of a change in pressure on the volume of a gas depends upon the extent of heat

energy lost or gained in the process. Limiting cases are the isothermal change, which occurs

sufficiently slowly for heat to be exchanged so that the temperature of the gas remains constant;

and the adiabatic change, in which there is neither heat exchange nor creation by turbulence.

For isothermal processes pvs = constant p/ = C1

For adiabatic processes pvsk = constant p/k= C2

where k is the adiabatic exponent = the specific heat at constant pressure (or cp) divided by the

specific heat at constant volume (or cv).

The adiabatic exponents, k, for air, H2, O2 and N2 are all 1.40.

1.7 COMPRESSIBILITY

The change of density with increase of pressure is of importance in certain situations, both for

liquids and gases. The compressibility of a fluid is expressed by its bulk modulus of elasticity,

E, which is the ratio of the increase in pressure to the resulting volumetric strain.

dp

E =

dV

(4)

V

or

3/9

Fluid Properties

E =+

dp

dp

=

d

d

(5)

where V represents volume. Note the changes in sign above and that in eqn. (4), the sign

denotes a negative volume change for a positive pressure change.

For liquids E is very much greater than for gases. For water, E = 2.2 x 109 Pa or 2.2 GPa at

20C. It increases to nearly 2.3 GPa at 50C and decreases thereafter. It also increases slowly

with increase in pressure, at a rate of about 1% per 3500 kPa.

Example

Find the change in volume of one m3 of water due to an increase in pressure of 4 atmospheres

(405 kPa).

dV/V=-dp/E=-405103/2.2109=-1/5429 or dV=-1/5429 m3

For gases, E is proportional to p, the constant of proportionality depending upon the extent of

heat exchange.

For isothermal processes, p = C1

dp

p

=C 1=

d

dp

p

E= = = p

d

(6)

dp

kp

=kC 2 k 1=

d

dp

kp

E= = =kp

d

(7)

Under adiabatic conditions, the retention of heat energy in a gas undergoing compression makes

it more resistant to compression than it would be if the heat energy were able to escape and the

process were isothermal.

When a small pressure disturbance (such as a sound wave) travels through an elastic medium its

celerity c, or velocity relative to the medium, is the acoustic or sonic velocity:

(8)

c= E /

Owing to the rapidity of the compression and/or expansion of the medium, there is negligible

heat exchange and the process is regarded as adiabatic. For a gas, it follows from equations (3)

and (7) that:

(9)

c= kRT

so that for a particular gas, c depends only on T.

For air at 15C (285 K) c= 1. 4287285=338 m/s

For water c= E / = 2 . 1510 9 /1000=1470 m/s

4/9

Fluid Properties

If the fluid is in a conduit, the elastic deformation of the conduit reduces the sonic celerity.

1.8 VISCOSITY.

The effect of viscosity can be described by reference to a simple example of viscous (or laminar

or non-turbulent) flow.

If a flat, solid boundary in contact with a fluid moves in its own plane, that is, tangentially, the

fluid molecules in contact with it, move with it, without slipping along it.

Consider two parallel, horizontal plates, a small distance Y apart, with a fluid occupying the

space between them. (Figure 1) If the upper plate moves in the x-direction with a velocity U and

the lower one is stationary, the molecules in contact with the upper plate move with it and those

in contact with the lower plate remain stationary.

Owing to inter-molecular cohesion and to the vertical transfer of momentum of the rapidly

fluctuating molecules, the fluid between the plates is subjected to forward drag from above and

a restraining drag from below. In effect, all of the fluid suffers a shearing deformation and

offers resistance to the shearing motion. This property possessed by all fluids whereby they

resist shearing stresses and is called viscosity.

U

F o r c e F m o v in g

u p p e r p la te

Y

F o r c e F r e s tr a in in g

lo w e r p la te

M o v in g p la te

V e lo c ity U

y

V e lo c it y

d is tr ib u tio n

S h e a r s tre s s

d is tr ib u tio n

x

F ix e d p la te

between a fixed plate and a parallel, moving plate.

The force, F, moving the upper plate and the equal and opposite force restraining the lower

plate result in a constant shear stress throughout the fluid equal to F/A where A is the area of

the plates.

The fluid velocity, u, in the x-direction will vary along a line normal to the plates, the velocity

gradient along such line being du/dy The relationship between shear stress and the velocity

gradient in a direction normal to that of the shear stress, according to Newton's law of viscosity,

is:

du

=

(10)

dy

where is the viscosity (also called the dynamic viscosity or the absolute viscosity).

Many common fluids, including air and water, conform to this relationship and are called

Newtonian fluids. Some (notably slurries for us), do not.

For the case in Figure 1, since and are constant, du/dy is also constant and a linear

relationship exists between velocity and distance from the lower plate.

The difference between the shear stress / shear strain relationship for solids and for liquids

should be noted.

5/9

Fluid Properties

A solid, under a shearing action, deforms to an equilibrium condition at which the internal

resistance balances the external shearing couple; and the shear stress = G the shear strain,

where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. When the cause of shear stress is removed, the solid

returns to its original form, provided that the proportional limit has not been exceeded.

A fluid continues to deform so long as a shearing action is applied and the shear stress = the

rate of shear strain. When the shearing action ceases, the shear stress disappears and the fluid

remains in the deformed state.

For practical purposes, viscosity is independent of pressure changes. The viscosity of liquids,

being due primarily to molecular cohesion, decreases with increase in temperature. The

viscosity of gases is due primarily to molecular momentum transfer and increases with

temperature.

At 20C, the viscosity of water is approximately 10-3 Pa.s.

At 15C, the viscosity of air at atmospheric pressure is 1.8 x 10-5 Pa.s about 1/56 of the

viscosity of water.

The kinematic viscosity () of a fluid is the ratio of its dynamic viscosity to its density:

(11)

The kinematic viscosity of a liquid is scarcely affected by increase in pressure and it decreases

with increase in temperature. In the case of a gas, decreases with an increase in pressure and

increases with an increase in temperature.

Example

The space between two parallel plane walls 5mm apart is filled with the fuel oil with a relative

density of 0.86 and a dynamic viscosity of 0.0072 Pa.s.

A flat plate 1.5m long, and 0.25m wide and

one mm thick is pulled in the direction of its

length, parallel to and midway between the

walls at a speed of 0.4m/s.

0 .4 m /s

2m m

1m m

2m m

dv/dy = 0.4/0.002 = 200s-1

F = 2A = 2A dv/dy = 2 1.5 0.25 0.0072 200 = 1.08 N

Example

A flat, cylindrical container 302mm in

y

diameter and 4mm deep is filled with a

liquid with a kinematic viscosity of 1.19

dr

-3

2

10 m /s and a relative density of 1.26. A

circular disc 300mm in diameter is placed

in contact with the liquid surface and

rotated at 30 revolutions per minute.

Assuming that centrifugal effects are

negligible, find the torque required to rotate

the disc.

6/9

Fluid Properties

= 2 30/60 = rad/s

At any radius r, dv/dy = v/h = r/h

= dv/dy = r/h

dT = dA r = (r/h)(2rdr)r

R

0

1.9

Surface Tension.

The mutual attraction of adjacent molecules in a liquid results in a liquid molecule very close to

a free surface being subjected to a net inward force perpendicular to the surface (Fig. 3a). Work

must be expended to separate a body of liquid so as to create two free surfaces - that is to

overcome the molecular cohesive force (Fig. 3b). This work is stored as surface energy in the

surfaces so formed, the energy per unit surface area being designated by joules per square

metre (J/m2) which is dimensionally equivalent to N/m, a force per unit length.

L iq u id s u r fa c e

S e p a r a t io n o f a

liq u id t o fo r m tw o

fr e e s u r fa c e s

N e t in w a r d fo r c e s

o n m o le c u le s n e a r

liq u id s u r f a c e

(b )

(a )

Figure 3 (a) Intermolecular farces within a liquid. (b) Formation of free surfaces.

The effect of this surface phenomenon, in the case of a curved free surface (such as that of a

drop of water) is in some respects similar to that of a membrane or skin covering the surface: the

membrane sustaining a tensile force of N/m acting across any line on the surface.

To determine the excess of pressure within a spherical drop of liquid over that outside the

surface, consider a small portion of a sphere of liquid (Fig. 4).

a

2

a s in

2

a s in

2

a

pa

Figure 4. Excess pressure on the concave side of liquid surface due to surface tension.

The "surface tension" force on each edge, of length a, of the surface is a. If the central angle

is small, the sum of the vertically downward components of the tensile forces on the 4 edges is

7/9

Fluid Properties

balanced by the vertically upward reactive force due to the excess internal pressure, p.

Therefore, 4a sin /2 =pa2.

Since sin /2 /2 a/2r where r is the drop radius, it follows that, as approaches zero, we

can write:

4 a 2

pa 2 =

2r

or

2

p=

(12)

r

In the case of a hollow drop, that is, a bubble, there are both inner and outer surfaces, so that the

tension in the film is twice that of a single surface and the excess internal pressure is 4/r.

For a non-spherical curvature, with radii of curvature r1, and r2 in two planes at right angles,

1 1

p=

(13)

r1 r2

For water at 20C, is 0.073 N/m or 73 mN/m and it decreases to 59 mN/m at 100C.

Adhesion.

At a junction of a solid, a liquid and a gas, such as where a free surface of liquid meets a solid

boundary, the angle of contact of the liquid-gas surface with the solid surface depends on the

relative magnitudes of the adhesion of the liquid molecules to the solid molecules and the

cohesion of the liquid molecules to each other. If the adhesion exceed the cohesion, the solid

surface is said to be completely wetted and the contact angle is as shown in Figure 5a. This is

the case with water and a clean glass surface.

N /m

G as

G as

180

L iq u id

L iq u id

0

N /m

(b )

(a )

Figure 5. Wetting and non-wetting of solid surfaces

If the cohesion greatly exceeds the adhesion, there is negligible wetting and the contact angle is

as shown in Fig. 6(b). Mercury and clean glass form such a contact, the angle being

approximately 135.

Capillarity

Adhesion and surface tension result in the phenomenon of capillary rise of liquids in narrow

conduits such as tubes and passages in porous materials. Assuming complete wetting and the

formation of a hemispherical meniscus of radius r, in a narrow tube of radius r open to the

8/9

Fluid Properties

atmosphere (Fig. 6), the excess pressure due to surface tension on the concave side of the

meniscus over the pressure, p, on the liquid side is:

p= p atm p abs =

p abs = p atm

O p e n -e n d e d

tu b e , d ia = 2 r

2

r

a tm

2

r

abs

N /m

h ( m e a n h e ig h t)

p=

2

r

(14)

At the tube wall, the total surface tension force, acting vertically upward, that is, 2r, supports

the weight of the liquid in the tube

2 r =r 2 h

h=

2

r

(15)

where h is the capillary rise. This relationship is applicable in the case of distilled waters in

clean glass tubes up to 5 mm in diameter. For larger tubes, the surface is no longer

hemispherical and the formula overstates the rise, which is about 1 mm in a 14 mm diameter

tube.

1.10 VAPOUR PRESSURE

The escape of liquid molecules from a free surface, (that is, evaporation), occurs at all

temperatures above freezing point. The escaped molecules form a vapour and exert a pressure

which depends upon the temperature and increases with it. The vapour pressure of water at

100C is 101.3 kPa, that is, it equals atmospheric pressure, and boiling occurs with the water

rapidly changing to vapour. Boiling results when the vapour pressure equals the pressure above

the liquid surface, so that; if, for example, the air pressure above a water surface is decreased to

2 kPa, which is the vapour pressure of water at 18C, the water will boil at 18C.

As we shall see later in this course, under certain conditions of high velocity flow of liquids, the

liquid pressure in a local region may fall until it equals the vapour pressure corresponding to the

liquid temperature. If this happens, the liquid in the region boils and it flashes into vapour. This

phenomenon is called cavitation and it is to be avoided in design, because of the loss of

hydraulic efficiency and the damage that it may cause. The vapour-filled cavities are swept

downstream into regions of high pressure, where they collapse or implode producing

instantaneous, pin-point pressures of extremely high intensity. Such high pressures occurring at

the surfaces of conduits or machinery parts cause severe pitting and erosion.

Example

At Karels T-bar, mean atmospheric pressure falls to about 80kPa, and your kettle will boil at

only 93.

9/9

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