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Battle of the Camel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other battles in the area, see Battle of Basra.


Battle of the Camel

Part of the First Fitna

Ali and Aisha at the Battle of the Camel


Date
Location
Result

7 November 656
Basra, Iraq
Rashidun Caliphate victory

Belligerents

Rashidun Caliphate

Aisha's forces
and

Umayyad

Caliphate

Commanders and leaders

Ali ibn Abi Talib

Aisha

Malik al-Ashtar

Talhah

Hasan ibn Ali

Muhammad ibn

Ammar ibn Yasir

Talha

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi

Kaab ibn Sur

Bakr

Abd Allah ibn alMuslim ibn Aqeel

Zubayr

Harith ibn Rab'i

Marwan I (POW)

Jabir ibn Abd-Allah

Waleed ibn

Muhammad ibn al-

Uqba (POW)

Hanafiyyah
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
Abu Qatada bin Rabyee
Qays ibn Sa'd
Qathm bin Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Khuzaima ibn Thabit

Strength

~20,000[1]

~30,000[1]

Casualties and losses

~5,000[2][3]

~13,000[2][3]

[show]

First
Islamic
Civil War
[show]

Civil wars of

the early Caliphates

The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took
place atBasra, Iraq on 7 November 656. A'isha heard about the killing of Uthman (644-656), the
third Caliph. At the time she was on a pilgrimage to Mecca. It was on this journey that she became
so angered by his unavenged death, and the naming of Ali as the fourth caliph, that she took up
arms against those supporting Ali. She gained support of the big city of Basra and, for the first time,
Muslims took up arms against each other. This battle is now known as the First Fitna, or Muslim civil
war.
[4]

[5]

Contents
[hide]

1 Before the conflict

2 Preparation for battle

3 Battle
o

3.1 Casualties

4 Aftermath

5 Image and legacy of A'isha


o

5.1 Sunni and Shi'i split


6 Participants

6.1 Soldiers of Caliph Ali's Army

6.2 Soldiers of Aisha's Army

6.3 Others involved

6.4 Unclassified

7 References

8 External links

Before the conflict[edit]


The Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib forgave his opponents after the Battle of the Camel.

Talhah and Zubeir asked Ali the permission for pilgrimage. He let them and they departed.
The Medina people wanted to know Alis point of view about war against Muslims by asking his view
about Muawiyah I and his refusal to give Ali his allegiance. So they sent Ziyad Bin Hanzalah of
Tamim who was an intimate friend to Ali. He went to him and sat for a while.

He went back and told the people in Medina that Ali wanted to confront Muawiyah. In Medina,
Marwan manipulated people. In Iraq many people hated the Syrians following the ByzantineSassanid Wars.
Aisha (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow), Talhah (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Zubayr ibn
al-Awam(Abu Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) set off from Makah on their way to Iraq to ask Ali to
arrest Uthman ibn Affan killers, not to fight Muawiyah.
[6][7]

Preparation for battle[edit]


While passing Medina, on their way to Iraq, Aisha, Talha and Zubair passed a group of Umayyads
leaving Medina led by Marwan who said that the people who had killed Uthman, had also been
causing them trouble. Everyone then went to Basra, which was the beginning of the first civil war in
Islam. Some historians put the number at around 3000 people.
[8]

[9]

Zubair and Talha then went out to meet Ali. Not all Basra was with them. Beni Bekr, the tribe once
led by the second Caliph, joined the army of Ali. Beni Temeem decided to remain neutral.
[10]

Battle[edit]
Writer Leila Ahmed claims that it was during this engagement that Muslims fought Muslims for the
first time. The battle was a reflection of pre-Islamic practices of bloodshed for vigilante causes.
[11]

Some chieftains of the Kufa tribes contacted their tribes living in Basra. A chieftain contacted Ali to
settle the matter. Ali did not want to fight and agreed to negotiate. He then contacted Aisha and
spoke to her, "Is it not wise to shed the blood of five thousand for the punishment of five
hundred." She agreed to settle the matter. Ali then met Talha and Zubair and told them about the
prophecy of Muhammad. Ali's cousin Zubair said to him, "What a tragedy that the Muslims who had
acquired the strength of a rock are going to be smashed by colliding with one another." Talha and
Zubair did not want to fight and left the field. Everyone was happy except the people who had killed
Uthman and the supporters of the Qurra, who later became the Khawarij. They thought that if a
settlement was reached, they would not be safe. The Qurra launched a night attack and started
burning the tents. Ali tried to restrain his men but no one was listening. Everyone thought that the
other party had committed breach of trust. Confusion prevailed throughout the night. The Qurra
attacked the Umayyads and the fighting started.
[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

[8]

Talhah had left. On seeing this, Marwan (who was manipulating everyone) shot Talhah with a
poisoned arrow saying that he had disgraced his tribe by leaving the field. According to some Shia
accounts Marwan ibn al-Hakam shot Talha, who became disabled in the leg by the shot and was
carried into Basra, where he died later of his wound.
According to Shia sources Marwan said,
[8]

[8]

[12]

[13][14][15]

By God, now I will not have to search for the man who murdered Uthman.

[16]

In the Sunni sources it says that he said that Talha had disgraced his tribe by leaving the field.

[8]

With the two generals Zubair and Talhah gone, confusion prevailing and the Qurra and the
Umayyads fought.
[8][17]

Qadi Kaab ibn Sur of Basra held the Quran on his head and then advised Aysha to mount her camel
to tell people to stop fighting, until he was killed by arrows shot by the forces of Ali. As the battle
raged Ali's forces targeted their arrows to pierce the howdah of Aisha. The rebels lead by Aisha then
gathered around her and about a dozen of her warriors were beheaded while holding the reins of her
camel. However the warriors of Ali faced much casualties during their attempts to reach Aisha as
dying corpses lay pilled in heaps. The battle only came to an end when Ali's troops as commanded
attacked the camel from the rear and cut off the legs of the beast. Aisha fled from the arrow-pierced
howdah and was captured by the forces of Ali.
[8]

[18]

Ali's cousin Zubair was by then making his way to Medina; he was killed in an adjoining valley.

Aisha's brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who was Ali's commander, approached Aisha, who was
age 45. There was reconciliation between them and Ali pardoned her. He then sent Aisha to Medina
under military escort headed by her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, one of Ali's commanders. She
subsequently retired to Medina with no more interference with the affairs of state. Muhammad ibn
Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr, the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the great-grandfather of
Jafar al-Sadiq. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was raised by Ali alongside Hasan and Husein. Hassan
also accompanied Aisha part of the way back to Medina. Aisha started teaching in Medina and
deeply resented Marwan.
[8][19]

[20][21]

Tom Holland writes in the best selling book The shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire
and the End of the Ancient World "Marwan was fabulously venal and slippery. Nothing he had done
had helped to improve his reputation for double dealing.
[21][22]

Casualties[edit]
According to historian William Muir, 10,000 people lost their life in this battle, with each party bearing
equal loss. In the three days after the battle, Ali performed a funeral service for all the dead from
both parties.
[19]

Aftermath[edit]
Ali's forces overcame the rebels, and the defeated army was treated with generosity. Ali met Aisha
and there was reconciliation between them. He sent her back to Medina under military escort
headed by her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, one of Ali's commanders. She subsequently retired
to Medina with no more interference with the affairs of state.
[19]

Talha, who became disabled in the leg by the shot and fled the battlefield was carried into Basra,
where he died later of his wound.
[13]

When the head of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam was presented to Ali by Ahnaf ibn Qais, the Caliph Ali
couldn't help but to sob and condemn the murder of his cousin. This reaction caused Ahnaf ibn Qais
resentment and, drawing his sword, stabbed it into his own breast.
[23]

Marwan I and the Qurra (who later became the Khawarij) manipulated every one and created
conflict. Marwan was arrested but he later asked Hassan and Hussein for assistance and was
released.
[6]

Ali was later killed by a Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam while he was praying in the mosque of
Kufa.
[24]

Two decades later, after years of planning and scheming and making every one else fight, Marwan
came to power in Syria and the Qurra (the Kharijites) established a state in southern Iraq.
[25]

Image and legacy of A'isha[edit]


The name of the battle refers to the camel ridden by isha once the camel had fallen, the battle
was over. Some Muslim scholars believe the name was recorded as such in history to avoid linking
the name of a woman with a battle.
[26]

Although ishah's role in the Battle of the Camel is very controversial, it is clear that some see her
as a role model for Muslim women in politics and other roles of leadership. Fatima Mernissi is an
example of a Muslim feminist and scholar who sees ishah as a model for her and other women.
She proves this through her works by questioning the authority of the Hadith that say women should
not lead. Specifically, she states as the mission of her text that "This book is a vessel journeying
back in time in order to find a fabulous wind that will swell our sails and send us gliding toward new
worlds, toward a time both far away and near at beginning of the Hejira, when Muhammad could be
a lover and a leader hostile to all hierarchies, when women had their place as unquestioned partners

in a revolution that made the mosque an open place and the household temple of debate." By stating
this as her mission she highlights that she would like people to remember the time of clear gender
equality and leadership, as demonstrated by ishah. A'isha's symbolic significance for believers is
justified through her close proximity to the Muhammad. "Identified as part of the new Islamic female
elite, the mothers of the believers, isha's political importance was not achieved, but ascribed."
[27]

[28]

Sunni and Shi'i split[edit]


isha's depiction in regards to the first civil war in the Muslim community reflected the molding of
Islamic definition of gender and politics. Sunni Muslims recognized the tension between isha's
exemplary status as the acknowledged favorite wife of Muhammad and her political actions as a
widow. The Sunni task was to assess her problematic political participation without complete
disapproval. Shi'i Muslims faced no such dilemma in their representation of the past. isha had
opposed and fought Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Shi'i male political and spiritual ideal in the Battle of the
Camel. Her involvement in the First Fitna provoked Shi'i scorn and censure, while Sunni authors had
the more difficult task of defending her.
[29]

Moreover, Shias regard Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib as the successor to the Holy Prophet, as such, they
see the following verse- in Surah At-Tahrim where it begins with condemning 'Aisha- as Ali carrying
out divine duties against the hypocrites,
"O Prophet! Strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their
abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed)."
[Quran 66:9 (Translatedby Pickthall)]

Participants[edit]
Soldiers of Caliph Ali's Army[edit]

Ali

Malik al-Ashtar

Hasan ibn Ali

Hussain ibn Ali

Ammar ibn Yasir

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Muslim ibn Aqeel

Harith ibn Rab'i

Jabir ibn Abd-Allah

Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah

Abu Ayub Ansari

Abu Qatada bin Rabyee

[30]

[30]

[31]

[31]

Qays ibn Sa'd

Qathm bin Abbas

[31]

[31]

Soldiers of Aisha's Army[edit]

Aisha

Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah

Muhammad ibn Talha

Zubayr ibn al-Awwam

Marwan ibn al-Hakam

Abd al-Rahman I

Abdullah ibn al-Walid (KIA)

Abdullah ibn Hakim (KIA)

Abdullah ibn Saffron

Yahya ibn Hakim ibn Safwan

Amir ibn Mascud ibn Umayya ibn Khalaf

Ayyiib b. Habib b. Alqama b. Rabia

Utba

Abdullah ibn Abi Uthman ibn al-Akhnas ibn Sharlq (KIA)

[30]

[30]

[32]

[30]

[30]

[33]

[33]

[33]

[33]

[33]

[33]

[33]

[33]

Others involved[edit]

Abd-Allah ibn Umar

Hafsa bint Umar

Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya

[30]

[30]

[30]

Unclassified[edit]

Abdullah bin Aamir Hadhrami of Makkah

Ya'la bin Umayya

[30]

[30]

[33]

Abdullah bin Aamir bin Kurayz of Basra

Saeed bin Aas

Mughira bin Shaaba

[30]

[30]

[30]

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=axL0AkjxrYC&pg=PT472&dq=Ali+20,000+battle+of+the+camel&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PNcUresF4nAtQaZioGQCg&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Ali%2020%2C000%20battle%20of%20the


%20camel&f=false

2.

^ Jump up to:a b Jibouri, Yasin T. Kerbal and Beyond. Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse, 2011. Print. ISBN
1467026131 Pgs. 30

3.
4.

^ Jump up to:a b Muraj al-Thahab Vol. 5, Pg. 177


Jump up^ http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Battle_of_the_Camel. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
5.

Jump up^ Mernissi, Fatima. "A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam". Retrieved 2014-04-30.

6.

^ Jump up to:a b Nahj al Balagha Sermon 72

7.

Jump up^ Medieval Islamic civilization By Josef W. Meri Page 131

8.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Nadvi, Sulaimn. Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa: Her Life and Works. Safat,
Kuwait: Islamic Book, 1986. Print. Pg. 44

9.

Jump up^ Dr. Mohammad Ishaque in Journal of Pakistan Historical Society, Vol 3, Part 1

10.

Jump up^ Sir John Glubb, The Great Arab Conquests, 1967, p. 320

11.

Jump up^ Goodwin, Jan. Price of Honour: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World. UK:
Little, Brown Book Group, 1994

12.

Jump up^ anwary-islam.com

13.

^ Jump up to:a b http://anwary-islam.com/companion/ten-talhah-ibn-ubaydullah.htm

14.

Jump up^ http://www.al-islam.org/restatement/61.htm

15.

Jump up^ http://www.islam4theworld.com/Sahabah/talhah_bn_ubaydullah_R.htm

16.

Jump up^ Ibn Saad, Tabaqat, vol. III, p. 223

17.

Jump up^ The Early Caliphate, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Al-Jadda Printers, pg. 169-206, 1983

18.

Jump up^ http://www.alim.org/library/biography/khalifa/content/KAL/53/3

19.

20.

^ Jump up to:a b c William Muir, The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline and Fall from Original Sources. Chapter XXXV:
"Battle of the Camel". London: 1891. p. 261.
Jump up^ Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 352

21.

^ Jump up to:a b The shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the Ancient World, Tom
Holland, ISBN 9780349122359 Abacus Page 409

22.

Jump up^ See:

Lapidus (2002), p.47

Holt (1977a), p.70 - 72

Tabatabaei (1979), p.50 - 53

Nahj Al-Balagha Sermons 8, 31, 171, 173

23.

Jump up^ http://www.alim.org/library/biography/khalifa/content/KAL/53/4

24.

Jump up^ Tabatabae (1979), page 192

25.

Jump up^ Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 228:[1] Narrated by Abu Al-Minhal. When Ibn Ziyad
and Marwan were in Sham and Ibn Az-zubair took over the authority in Mecca and Qurra' (the Kharijites) revolted in
Basra, I went out with my father to Abu Barza Al-Aslami till we entered upon him in his house while he was sitting in the
shade of a room built of cane. So we sat with him and my father started talking to him saying, "O Abu Barza! Don't you
see in what dilemma the people has fallen?" The first thing heard him saying "I seek reward from Allah for myself
because of being angry and scornful at the Quraish tribe. O you Arabs! You know very well that you were in misery and
were few in number and misguided, and that Allah has brought you out of all that with Islam and with Muhammad till He
brought you to this state (of prosperity and happiness) which you see now; and it is this worldly wealth and pleasures
which has caused mischief to appear among you. The one who is in Sham (i.e., Marwan), by Allah, is not fighting except
for the sake of worldly gain.

26.

Jump up^ Mernissi, Fatima (1987). The Veil and the Male Elite. New York: Basic Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-20163221-7.

27.

Jump up^ Mernissi, Fatima. The Veil and the Male Elite. Basic Books. ISBN 0-201-52321-3.

28.

Jump up^ Spellberg, D.A. (1994). Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past. New York: Columbia University Press.
p. 102. ISBN 978-0-231-07999-0.

29.

Jump up^ Spellberg, D.A. (1994). Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past. Columbia University Press.
p. 102. ISBN 978-0-231-07999-0.

30.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Razwy, Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims: 579 to 661
CE. Stanmore: World Federation of KSI Muslin Communities, 1997. Print. Ch. 62

31.

^ Jump up to:a b c d Islamic period

32.

Jump up^ www.islam4theworld.com

33.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997. Print. ISBN 0521646960 Pg. 18

External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Battle of
the Camel.

Ali ibn Abi Talib (1984). Nahj al-Balagha (Peak of Eloquence), compiled by ash-Sharif arRadi. Alhoda UK. SBN 0940368439.

Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings, translation and
commentary issued by R. Stephen Humphreys. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0154-5. (volume
XV.)

Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.

Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.

William Muir. The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall [2].

Ridda wars
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline
citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2012)
[hide]

Civil wars of
the early Caliphates
Ridda wars
First Fitna
Second Fitna
Revolt of Ibn al-Ash'ath
Revolt of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab
Revolt of Harith ibn Surayj
Zaydi Revolt
Berber Revolt
Third Fitna
Abbasid Revolution
Alid Revolt (762763)
Alid Revolt (786)
Mudhari Revolt
Fourth Fitna
Anarchy at Samarra
Kharijite Rebellion (866896)

Map detailing arenas of Ridda campaigns.

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The Ridda wars (Arabic: ) , also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military
campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633 AD,
just after Muhammaddied. The rebels' position was that they had submitted to Muhammad as the
prophet of God, but owed nothing to Abu Bakr. Some rebels followed
either Tulayha or Musaylima or Sajjah, all of whom claimed prophethood. Most of the tribes were
defeated and reintegrated into the Caliphate. The peoples surrounding Mecca did not revolt.
[1]

Contents
[hide]

1 Prelude
o

1.1 Defense of Madinah

2 Abu Bakr's Strategy

3 Campaign of Apostasy

4 Central Arabia
o

4.1 Buzakha

4.2 Najd

4.3 Yamamah

5 Oman

6 Northern Arabia

7 Yemen

8 Mahra

9 Bahrain

10 Hadhramaut

11 Aftermath

12 See also

13 References

14 Further reading

15 External links

Prelude[edit]
In about the middle of May 632, Muhammad, now ailing, ordered a large expedition to be prepared
against the Byzantine empire in order to avenge the martyrs of battle of Mu'tah. 3000 Muslims were
to join it. Usama ibn Zaid, a young man and son of Zayd ibn Harithah who was killed in the battle at
Mu'tah, was appointed as commander of this force so he could avenge the death of his father.
However, Muhammad died in June 632 and Abu Bakr claimed to be Caliph with the help of a group
of his friends.
[2][3]

[4]

On the first day of his caliphate, Abu Bakr ordered the army of Usama to prepare for march. Abu
Bakr was under great pressure regarding this expedition due to rising rebellion and apostasy
across Arabia, but he was determined. Before his march, Usama sent Umar to Caliph Abu Bakr and
is reported to have said:
[5]

Go to the Caliph, ask him to permit the army to remain at Medina. All the leaders of the community
are with me. If we go, none will be left to prevent the infidels from tearing Medina to pieces.
[6]

However, Abu Bakr refused. He was moved to this decision at least partially by his desire to carry
out the unfulfilled military plan of Muhammad.
On June 26, 632 the army of Usama broke camp and moved out. After leaving Medina, Usama had
marched to Tabuk. Most of the tribes in this region opposed him fiercely but were defeated by Abu
Bakr's army. Usama raided far and wide in the region of Northern Arabia, starting with the Quza'a,
and then made his way to Dawmatu l-Jandal (modern Al Jawf, Saudi Arabia).
As a direct result of his operations, several rebel tribes resubmitted to Madinian rule and claimed
that they re-acceptedIslam. The Quza'a remained rebellious and unrepentant, however 'Amr ibn
al-'As later attacked them and forced them to surrender again.
[1]

Usama next marched to Mu'tah, attacked the Christian Arabs of the tribes of Banu
Kalb and Ghassanids in a small battle. Then he returned to Medina, bringing with him a large
number of captives and a considerable amount of wealth, part of which comprised the spoils of war
and part taxation of the re-conquered tribes. The Islamic army remained out of Medina for 40 days.

Defense of Madinah[edit]
The concentrations of rebels nearest Madinah were located in two areas: Abraq, 72 miles north-east
of Madinah, and Dhu Qissa, 24 miles east of Madinah. These concentrations consisted of the tribes
of Banu Ghatafan, the Hawazin, and the Tayy. Abu Bakr sent envoys to all the enemy tribes, calling
upon them to remain loyal to Islam and continue to pay their Zakat.
[7]

A week or two after the departure of the Islamic army under Usama, the rebel tribes surrounded
Medina, knowing that there were few fighting forces in the city. Meanwhile, Tulayha, a selfproclaimed prophet, reinforced the rebels at Dhu Qissa. In the third week of July 632, the apostate
army moved from Dhu Qissa to Dhu Hussa, from where they prepared to launch an attack on
Medina.
Abu Bakr received intelligence of this move of rebels, and immediately prepared for the defense of
Medina. As the main army was out of Medina under Usama, Abu Bakr scraped together a fighting
force mainly from the clan of Mohammad, the Banu Hashim. The army had stalwarts like Ali ibn Abi
Talib r.a, Talha ibn Ubaidullah r.a and Zubair ibn al-Awam r.a, who would later (in the 640s) conquer
Egypt. Each of them was appointed as commander of one-third of the newly organised force. Before
the apostates could do anything, Abu Bakr launched his army against their outposts and drove them
back to Dhu Hussa.
The following day, Abu Bakr marched from Medina with the main army and moved towards Dhu
Hussa. As the riding camels were all gone with Usama's army, he could only muster inferior pack
camels, and the army mounted these camels. These pack camels, being untrained for battle, bolted
when Hibal, the apostate commander at Zhu Hussa, made a surprise attack from the hills on the
Muslims; and the Muslims retreated to Medina. The apostates recaptured the outposts that they lost
a few days earlier. At Medina Abu Bakr reorganised the army for the battle and attacked the
apostates during the night, taking them by surprise. The apostates retreated from Dhu Hussa to Dhu
Qissa. On the morning Abu Bakr led his forces to Dhu Qissa and defeated the rebel tribes and
captured Dhu Qissa on 1 August 632.
[1]

The defeated apostate tribes retreated to Abraq, where more clansmen of the Ghatfan, the Hawazin,
and the Tayy were gathered. Abu Bakr left a residual force of soldiers under the command of AnNuman ibn Muqarrin at Dhu Qissa and returned with his main army to Medina. On 4 August 632,
Usama's army arrived in Medina. The army had been away for 40 days.
Abu Bakr ordered Usama to rest his men in Medina and re-equip them to fight against the rebels.
Meanwhile in the second week of August 632 Abu Bakr with his army moved to Zhu Qissa. Taking
the remaining forces from Numan ibn Muqarrin under his command, he moved to Abraq, where the
retreated rebels had gathered, and defeated them. The remaining rebels retreated to Buzakha,
where Tulayha had moved with his army from Samira.

Abu Bakr's Strategy[edit]


In the fourth week of August 632, Abu Bakr moved to Zhu Qissa with all available fighting forces.
There he planned the strategy of the Campaign of the Apostasy to deal with the various enemies
who occupied the entire land of Arabia except for the small area in the possession of the
Muslims. The battles which he had fought recently against the apostate concentrations at Zhu
Qissa and Abraq were in the nature of immediate preventive action to protect Medina and
discourage further offensives by the enemy. These actions enabled Abu Bakr to secure a base from
which he could fight the major campaign that lay ahead, thus gaining time for the preparation and
launching of his main forces. Abu Bakr had to fight not one but several enemies: Tulayha
at Buzakha, Malik bin Nuwaira at Butah, Musaylima atYamamah. He had to deal with widespread
apostasy on the eastern and southern coasts of Arabia: in Bahrain, in Oman, in Mahra,
in Hadhramaut and in Yemen. There was apostasy in the region south and east of Mecca and by the
Quza'a in northern Arabia.
[7]

Abu Bakr formed the army into several corps. The strongest corps, and this was the main punch of
the Muslims, was the corps of Khalid ibn Walid. This was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel
forces. Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to subdue the less
dangerous apostate tribes. The first corps to go into action was that of Khalid, and the timing of the
despatch of other corps hinged on the operations of Khalid, who was given the task of fighting the
strongest enemy forces one after the other. Abu Bakr's plan was first to clear the area of west central
Arabia (the area nearest to Medina), then tackle Malik bin Nuwaira, and finally concentrate against
the most dangerous and powerful enemy: the self-proclaimed prophet Musaylima.

Campaign of Apostasy[edit]
The caliph formed 11 main corps, each under its own commander. A standard was given to each
corps. The available manpower was distributed among these corps, and while some commanders
were given immediate missions, others were given missions for which they would be launched later.
The 11 corps commanders and their assigned objectives were as follows:

Khalid Ibn Walid: First Tulaiha bin Khuwailad Al-Asdee ( ) from the Asad
Tribe ( ) at Buzaakhah (), then Malik bin Nuwaira, at Butah.

Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl: Confront Musaylima at Yamamah but not to get involved until more
forces were built up.

Amr ibn al-As: The apostate tribes of Quza'a and Wadi'a in the area of Tabuk and Daumat-ulJandal.

Shurahbil bin Hasanah: Follow Ikrimah and await the Caliph's instructions.

Khalid bin Saeed: Certain apostate tribes on the Syrian frontier.

Turaifa bin Hajiz: The apostate tribes of Hawazin and Bani Sulaim in the area east of Medina
and Mecca.

Ala bin Al Hadhrami: The apostates in Bahrain.

Hudhaifa bin Mihsan: The apostates in Oman.

Arfaja bin Harthama.: The apostates in Mahra.

Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah: The apostates in the Yemen, then the Kinda in Hadhramaut.

Suwaid bin Muqaran: The apostates in the coastal area north of the Yemen.

As soon as the organisation of the corps was complete, Khalid marched off, to be followed a little
later by Ikrimah and 'Amr ibn al-'As. The other corps were held back by the caliph and despatched
weeks and even months later. Their despatch was conditioned by the progress of Khalid's operations
against the hard core of enemy opposition.
[1]

Before the various corps left Zhu Qissa, however, envoys were sent by Abu Bakr to all apostate
tribes in a final attempt to induce them to submit.
Apart from their specific objectives, the corps commanders were given the following instructions:

1. Seek the tribes which are your objectives


2. Call the Azaan.
3. If the tribe answers with the Azaan, do not attack. After the Azaan, ask the tribe to confirm its
submission, including the payment of zakat. If confirmed, do not attack.
4. Those who submit will not be attacked.
5. Those who do not answer with the Azaan, or after the Azaan do not confirm full submission,
will be dealt with by the sword.
6. All apostates who have killed Muslims will be killed.
With these instructions Abu Bakr launched the forces of his Caliphate against the apostates.

Central Arabia[edit]
Apostasy and rebellion in central Arabia was led by Musaylima, a self-proclaimed prophet, in the
fertile region of Yamamah. He was mainly supported by the powerful tribe of Banu Hanifa. At
Buzakha in north central Arabia, another self-proclaimed prophet, Tulaiha, a tribal chief of Bani Asad,
led the rebellion against Medina aided by the allied tribes of Banu Ghatfan, the Hawazin, and
the Tayy. At Najd, Malik ibn Nuweira led the tribes of Banu Tamim against the authority of Medina.
[8]

Buzakha[edit]
On receiving intelligence of the Muslims preparations, Tulayha too prepared for a battle, and was
further reinforced by the contingents of the allied tribes.
Before launching Khalid against Tulayha, Abu Bakr sought ways and means of reducing the latter's
strength, so that the battle could be fought with the maximum prospects of victory. Nothing could be
done about the tribes of Bani Assad and Banu Ghatafan, which stood solidly behind Tulayha, but
the Tayy were not so staunch in their support of Tulayha, and their chief, Adi ibn Hatim, was a devout
Muslim.
Adi was appointed by Abu Bakr to negotiate with the tribal elders to withdraw their contingent from
Tulayha's army. The negotiations were a success, and Adi brought with him 500 horsemen of his
tribe to reinforce Khalid's army.
Khalid next marched against another apostate tribe, Jadila. Here again Adi ibn Hatim offered his
services to persuade the tribe to submit without bloodshed. Bani Jadila submitted, and their 1000
warriors joined Khalid's army.
Khalid, now much stronger than when he had left Zhu Qissa, marched for Buzakha. There, in midSeptember 632 CE, he defeated Tulayha in the Battle of Buzakha. The remaining army of Tulayha
retreated to Ghamra, 20 miles from Buzakha, and were defeated in the Battle of Ghamra in the third
week of September 632 CE.
Several tribes submitted to the Caliph after Khalid's decisive victories. Moving south from Buzakha,
Khalid reached Naqra in October 632 CE, with an army now 6000 strong, and defeated the rebel
tribe of Banu Saleem in the Battle of Naqra. 632 In third week of October 632 CE, Khalid defeated a
tribal mistress, Salma, in the battle of Zafar. Afterwards he moved to Najd against the rebel tribe
of Banu Tamim and their Sheikh Malik ibn Nuwayrah.

Najd[edit]

At Najd, getting the news of Khalid's decisive victories against apostates in Buzakha, many clans
of Banu Tamim hastened to visit Khalid, but the Banu Yarbu', a branch of Bani Tamim, under their
chief, Malik ibn Nuwayrah, hung back. Malik was a chief of some distinction: a warrior, noted for his
generosity, and a famous poet. Bravery, generosity, and poetry were the three qualities most
admired among the Arabs.

Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's conquest of Arabia.

At the time of Muhammad, he had been appointed as a tax collector for the tribe of Banu Tamim. As
soon as Malik heard of the death of Muhammad, he gave back all the tax to his tribespeople, saying,
"Now you are the owner of your wealth." Most scholars agreed that he was adhering to the normal
beliefs of the Arabs of his time in which they should cease to pledge their allegiance to a tribe upon
the death of its Sheikh.
[9]

His riders were stopped by Khalid's army at the town of Buttah. Khalid asked them about the signing
of pact with Sajjah; they said it was just because they wanted revenge against their terrible enemies.
[10]

When Khalid reached Najd he found no opposing army. He sent his cavalry to nearby villages and
ordered them to call the Azaan (call for prayers) to each party they meet. Zirrar bin Azwar, a
squadron leader, arrested the family of Malik, claiming they did not answer the call to prayer. Malik
avoided direct contact with Khalid's army and ordered his followers to scatter, and he and his family
apparently moved away across the desert. He refused to give zakat, hence differentiating between
prayer and zakat
[11]

Nevertheless, Malik was accused of rebellion against the state of Medina. He was also to be
charged for his entering in an anti-Caliphate alliance with Sajjah, a self-proclaimed prophetess.
Malik was arrested along with his clan men,
[12]

[13]

Malik was asked by Khalid about his crimes. Malik's response was "your master said this, your
master said that" referring to Abu Bakr. Khalid declared Malik a rebel apostate and ordered his
execution. Khalid bin Walid killed Malik ibn Nuwayra.
[14]

In Medina, Umar told Khlid: You are an enemy of Allh! You killed a Muslim man and then raped
his wife. By Allh, I will stone you". his wife, Layla bint al-Minhal.
[15]

Shias claim that Islamically, Khalid would have had to wait for her to complete the waiting period
iddah (3 menstrual cycles) before Khalid would have been able to marry her. Sunnis believe that
since Malik and his tribe were judged apostates, they were taken captives and Idda rules do not
apply to apostates.
Shias also claim that Abu Qatada Ansari was so shocked at Malik's murder by Khalid that he
immediately returned to Medina, and told Abu Bakr that he would not serve under a commander who
had killed a Muslim.
[16]

The death of Malik and Khalid's taking of his wife Layla created a controversy. Some officers of his
armyincluding a prominent companion of Muhammad, Abu Qatadahbelieved that Khalid killed
Malik to take his wife.
After the pressure exerted by UmarKhalid's cousin and one of Caliph Abu Bakr's main advisors
Abu Bakr called Khalid back to Medina to explain himself.
[17]

In Medina, Umar told Khlid: You enemy of Allh! You killed a Muslim man and then rape his wife.
By Allh, I will stone you".
[15]

Yamamah[edit]
Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, one of the corps commanders, was instructed to make contact
with Musaylima at Yamamah, but not to engage in fighting until Khalid joined him. Abu Bakr's
intention in giving Ikrimah this mission was to tie Musaylima down at Yamamah. With Ikrimah on the
horizon, Musaylima would remain in expectation of a Muslim attack, and thus not be able to leave
his base. With Musaylima so committed, Khalid would be free to deal with the apostate tribes of
north-central Arabia without interference from Yamamah.
Meanwhile Abu Bakr sent Shurhabil's corps to reinforce Ikrama at Yamamah. Ikrimah, however, in
early September 632 A.D attacked Musaylima's forces and was defeated. He wrote the details of his
actions to Abu Bakr, who, both pained and angered by the rashness of Ikrimah and his
disobedience, ordered him to proceed with his force to Oman to assist Hudaifa; once Hudaifa had
completed his task, to march to Mahra to help Arfaja, and thereafter go to Yemen to help Muhajir.
[18]

Meanwhile Abu Bakr sent orders to Khalid to march against Musaylima. Shurhabil's corps, that was
stationed at Yamamah, was to reinforce Khalid's corps. In addition to this Abu Bakr assembled a
fresh army of Ansar and Muhajireen in Medina that joined Khalid's corps at Butah. From Butah
Khalid marched to Yamamah to join with Shurhabil's corps.
Though Abu Bakr had instructed Shurhabil not to engage Musaylima's forces until the arrival of
Khalid, shortly before the arrival of Khalid, Shurhabil engaged Musaylima's forces and was defeated
too. Khalid joined with the corps of Shurhabil early in December 632.
The combined force of Muslims, now 13,000 strong, defeated Musaylima's army in the Battle of
Yamama, which was fought in the third week of December 632 CE. The fortified city of Yamamah
surrendered peacefully later that week.
[18]

Khalid established his headquarters at Yamamah, from where he despatched columns to all over the
plain of Aqraba to subdue the region around Yamamah and to kill or capture all who resisted.
Thereafter all of central Arabia submitted to Medina.
What remained of the apostasy in the less vital areas of Arabia was rooted out by the Muslims in a
series of well planned campaigns within five months.

Oman[edit]
In mid-September 632, Abu Bakr dispatched Hudaifa bin Mihsan's corps to Oman to tackle the
apostasy in Oman, where the tribe of Azd, that dominated the region of Oman, had revolted under
their chief Laqeet bin Malik, known more commonly as "Dhu'l-Taj", i.e. "the Crowned One."
According to some reports, he also claimed prophethood.
Hudaifa entered the province of Oman, but not having strong enough forces to fight Dhu'l-Taj, he
decided to wait for reinforcement, and wrote to the Caliph accordingly. The Caliph sent Ikrimah to aid
him in late September 632. Ikrimah marched from Yamamah to Oman, and the combined forces of
these two generals defeated Dhu'l-Taj at the Battle of Daba, fought in late November 632 at Dibba, a
stronghold of Dhu'l-Taj. Dhu'l-Taj was killed in battle.
[14]

Being appointed governor of Oman, Hudaifa next set about the re-establishment of law and order.
Ikrimah, having no local administrative responsibility, used his corps to subdue the neighbourhood of
Daba, and in a number of small actions succeeded in breaking the resistance of those of the Azd
who had continued to defy the authority of Medina.
[1]

Northern Arabia[edit]
Some time in October 632, Amr's corps were dispatched to Syrian border to subdue the apostates
tribes, most importantly the tribes of Quza'a and the Wadi'a (a section of Bani Kalb), in the region
around Tabuk and Daumat-ul-Jandal (Al-Jawf). Amr was not able to beat the tribes into submission
until Shurhabil joined him in January after Battle of Yamamah.

Yemen[edit]
The Yemen had been the first province to rebel against the authority of Islam when the tribe of Ans
rose in arms under the leadership of its chief and self-proclaimed prophet Al-Aswad, the Black One,
who was killed by Fairoz the Persian, while the Prophet Mohammad still lived, and thereafter Fairoz
had acted as governor of Yemen at San'a.
[7]

When word arrived that the Prophet Mohammad had died, the people of the Yemen again revolted,
this time under the leadership of a man named Qais bin Abd Yaghus. The avowed aim of the
apostates was to drive the Muslims out of the Yemen, and they decided to achieve this objective by
assassinating Fairoz and other important Muslim leaders, thus rendering the Muslim community
leaderless.
Fairoz somehow managed to escape and took shelter in the mountains. This happened in June or
July 632. For the next six months Fairoz remained in his mountainous stronghold, where over the
months he was joined by thousands of Muslims of Yemen.
[14]

When he felt strong enough, Fairoz led his men against Qais, and marched to San'a and defeated
Qais, who retreated with his remaining men northeast to Abyan, where they all surrendered and
were subsequently pardoned by the Caliph.
[7]

Mahra[edit]
From Oman, following the orders of Abu Bakr, Ikrimah marched to Mahra to join Arfaja bin
Harthama. As Arfaja had not yet arrived, Ikrimah, instead of waiting for him, tackled the local rebels
on his own.
At Jairut Ikrimah met two rebel armies preparing for battle. Here he persuaded the weaker to
embrace Islam and then joined up with them to defeat their opponents. Having re-established Islam
in Mahra, Ikrimah moved his corps to Abyan, where he rested his men and awaited further
developments.

Bahrain[edit]
After the Battle of Yamamah, Abu Bakr sent Ula bin Al Hadhrami's corps against the rebels
of Bahrain. Ula arrived in Bahrain to find the apostate forces gathered at Hajr and entrenched in a
strong position. Ula mounted a surprise attack one night and captured the city. The rebels retreated
to the coastal regions, where they made one more stand but were decisively defeated. Most of them
surrendered and reverted to Islam. This operation was completed at about the end of January 633.

Hadhramaut[edit]

The last of the great revolts of the apostasy was that of the powerful tribe of Kindah, which inhabited
the region of Najran, Hadhramaut, and eastern Yemen. They did not break into revolt until January
633.
[14]

Ziyad bin Lubaid, Muslim governor of Hadhramaut, operated against them and raided Riyaz, after
which the whole of the Kinda broke into revolt under Ash'as bin Qais and prepared for war. However,
the strength of the two forces, i.e. apostate and Muslim, was so well balanced that neither side felt
able to start serious hostilities. Ziyad waited for reinforcements before attacking the rebels.
Reinforcements were on the way. Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah, the last of the corps commanders to be
despatched by Abu Bakr, defeated some rebel tribes in Najran, south-eastern Arabia, and was
directed by Abu Bakr to march to Hadhramaut and join Ziyad against the Kinda. The Caliph also
instructed Ikrimah, who was at Abyan, to join Ziyad and Muhajir's forces.
In late January 633 the forces of Muhajir and Ziyad combined at Zafar, capital of Hadhramaut, under
the overall command of the former, and defeated Ash'as, who retreated to the fortified town of Nujair.
Just after this battle the corps of Ikrimah also arrived. The three Muslim corps, under the overall
command of Muhajir, advanced on Nujair and laid siege to the fortified city.
Nujair was captured some time in mid-February 633. With the defeat of the Kinda at Nujair the last of
the great apostate movements collapsed. Arabia was safe for Islam.
The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the 11th year of the Hijra. The year
12 Hijri dawned, on March 18, 633, with Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at
Medina. This campaign was Abu Bakr's greatest political and military triumph with the great help of
Ali bin abiTalib who was afraid of collapse of Islamic civilization.

Aftermath[edit]
With the collapse of the rebellions and Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at
Medina, Caliph Abu Bakr now decided to expand the empire. It is unclear what his intentions were;
whether it was a full scale expansion plan or preemptive attacks to secure more territory to create a
buffer zone between the Islamic state and the powerful Sassanid and Byzantine empires. This set
the stage for the Islamic conquest of Persia to begin. Khalid was sent to the Persian Empire with
an army consisting of 18,000 volunteers to conquer the richest province of the Persian empire: Iraq.
After the successful conquest of Iraq, Abu Bakr sent his armies to invade Roman Syria, a main
province of the Byzantine Empire.
[14]

[19]

See also[edit]

Byzantine-Arab Wars

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e Laura V. Vaglieri in The Cambridge History of Islam, p.58

2.

Jump up^ Ibn Sad: p. 707

3.

Jump up^ https://books.google.com/books?id=czSP046th6IC&pg=PA65&dq=usama+byzantine+ibn+sa


%27d&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EWNWVYq9Ccj38QXUi4GgAg&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&f=false

4.

Jump up^ https://books.google.com/books?


id=qVYT4Kraym0C&pg=PA187&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Q2VWVaCAPMfe8AWHx4HQBA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&f
=false

5.

Jump up^ Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 461.

6.

Jump up^ Tabari: Vol. 2, p. 462.

7.

^ Jump up to:a b c d Frank Griffel: Apostasie Und Toleranz Im Islam, p. 61.

8.

Jump up^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Vol. 1, p. 110.Peter Hellyer, Ibrahim Al-Abed, Ibrahim Al
Abed, The United Arab Emirates, A New Perspective, London, Trident Press Ltd., 2001, p. 81-84. ISBN 1-900724-47-2.

9.

Jump up^ reference=al-Balazuri: book no: 1, page no:107.

10.

Jump up^ reference= Tabari: Vol) p. 501-2.

11.

Jump up^ Al-Tabari 915, pp. 501502

12.

Jump up^ Al-Tabari 915, p. 496

13.

Jump up^ Al-Tabari 915, p. 502

14.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e reference=Tabari: Vol. 2, Page no: 5)

15.

^ Jump up to:a b Tabari, Al (1993), The conquest of Arabia, State University of New York Press,
p. 104, ISBN 978-0791410714

16.

Jump up^ (A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, Ali Razwy, Chapter 55)

17.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 183

18.

^ Jump up to:a b John Glubb, The Great Arab Conquests, 1963, p. 112.

19.

Jump up^ Akram, chapter 18.

Further reading[edit]

Fred McGraw Donner: The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton University Press, 1986.ISBN
0691053278

Elias S. Shoufani: Al-Riddah and the Muslim conquest of Arabia. Toronto, 1973. ISBN 08020-1915-3

Meir J. Kister: The struggle against Musaylima and the conquest of Yamama. In: Jerusalem
Studies in Arabic and Islam, 27 (2002)

Ella Landau-Tasseron: The Participation of Tayyi in the Ridda. In: Jerusalem Studies in
Arabic and Islam, 5 (1984)

Battle of Yarmouk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Yarmouk

Part of the Muslim conquest of Syria


(ArabByzantine Wars)

Across the ravines lies the battlefield of Yarmouk, this picture


taken about 8 miles away, from Jordan.
Date
Location

1520 August 636


Near the Yarmouk River
32.81411N 35.95482ECoordinates:
32.81411N 35.95482E

Result
Territorial
changes

Decisive Rashidun victory


The Levant is annexed by the Rashidun
Caliphate

Belligerents

Rashidun Caliphate

Byzantine Empire,
Ghassanid Kingdom

Commanders and leaders

Umar ibn al-

Heraclius
Theodore Trithyrius [1]

Khattb

Vahan g[]

Khalid ibn al-Walid

Jabalah ibn al-Aiham

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-

Dairjan

Jarrah

Niketas the Persian

Amr ibn al-A'as

Buccinator (Qanateer)

Khawla bint Al-

Gregory[2]

Azwar
Shurahbil ibn
Hassana
Yazid ibn Abi
Sufyan
Al-Qa'qa'a ibn Amr
at-Tamimi
Ayadh bin Ghanim
Dhiraar bin Al-Azwar
Abdul-Rahman ibn
Abi Bakr.[3][4]

Strength

15,000150,000

15,00040,000

(modern estimates) 100,000


a[]

400,000

(modern estimates)d[]
24,00040,000

(primary Arab sources)c[]

(primary sources)e[]

140,000 (primary Roman


sources)b[]

Casualties and losses


45% or 50,000+ killed

3,000 killed[5]

(modern estimates)[5][6]
70,000120,000 killed
(primary sources)f[]
[show]

ArabByzantine wars
[show]

Campaigns of
Khalid ibn al-Walid
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The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and
the Muslim Arabforces of the Rashidun Caliphate. The battle consisted of a series of engagements
that lasted for six days in August 636, near the Yarmouk River, along what today are the borders
of Syria-Jordan and Syria-Israel, east of the Sea of Galilee. The result of the battle was a complete
Muslim victory which ended Byzantine rule in Syria. The Battle of Yarmouk is regarded as one of the
most decisive battles in military history, and it marked the first great wave of Islamic
conquests after the death of Muhammad, heralding the rapid advance ofIslam into the then
Christian Levant.
[7][8]

In order to check the Arab advance and to recover lost territory, Emperor Heraclius had sent a
massive expedition to the Levant in May 636. As the Roman army approached, the Arabs tactically
withdrew from Syria and regrouped all their forces at the Yarmouk plains close to Arabia where, after
being reinforced, they defeated the numerically superior Byzantine army. The battle is considered to
be one of Khalid ibn al-Walid's greatest military victories. It cemented his reputation as one of the
greatest tacticians and cavalry commanders in history.
[9]

Contents
[hide]

1 Prelude

2 Byzantine counterattack

3 Muslim strategy

4 Battlefield

5 Troop deployment
5.1 Rashidun army

5.1.1 Weaponry

5.2 Byzantine army

5.2.1 Weaponry

6 Tensions in the Byzantine army

7 Battle
o

7.1 Day 1

7.2 Day 2

7.3 Day 3

7.4 Day 4

7.5 Day 5

7.6 Day 6

8 Aftermath

9 Evaluation

10 References

11 Notes

12 Bibliography

12.1 Primary sources

12.2 Secondary sources


13 External links

Prelude[edit]
Further information: Rashidun Invasion of Levant (634) and ByzantineSassanid War of 602628
During the last ByzantineSassanid Wars in 610, Heraclius became the emperor of the Byzantine
Empire, after overthrowing Phocas. Meanwhile the Sassanid Persians conquered Mesopotamia and
in 611 they overranSyria and entered Anatolia, occupying Caesarea Mazaca. Heraclius, in 612,
managed to expel the Persians from Anatolia, but was decisively defeated in 613 when he launched
a major offensive in Syria against the Persians. Over the following decade the Persians were able
to conquer Palestine and Egypt. Meanwhile Heraclius prepared for a counterattack and rebuilt his
army. Nine years later in 622, Heraclius finally launched his offensive. After his overwhelming
victories over the Persians and their allies in the Caucasus andArmenia, Heraclius, in 627, launched
a winter offensive against the Persians in Mesopotamia winning a decisive victory at the Battle of
Nineveh thus threatening the Persian capital city of Ctesiphon. Discredited by these series of
disasters, Khosrau II was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at
once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories of the Byzantine Empire.
Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.
[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

Meanwhile there had been rapid political development in Arabia, where Muhammad had been
preaching Islam and by 630, he had successfully united most of the Arabia under a single political
authority. When Muhammad died in June 632, Abu Bakr was elected Caliph and his political
successor. Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, when several Arab tribes openly
revolted against Abu Bakr, who declared war against the rebels. In what became known as
the Ridda wars (Arabic for the Wars of Apostasy, 63233), Abu Bakr managed to unite Arabia under
the central authority of the Caliph at Medina.
[15]

Map detailing the Rashidun Caliphate's invasion of the Levant.

Once the rebels had been subdued, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest, beginning with Iraq.
Sending his most brilliant general, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Iraq was conquered in a series of successful
campaigns against the Sassanid Persians. Abu Bakr's confidence grew, and once Khalid established
his stronghold in Iraq, Abu Bakr issued a call to arms for the invasion of Syria in February 634. The
Muslim invasion of Syria was a series of carefully planned and well coordinated military operations
that employed strategy instead of pure strength to deal with Byzantine defensive measures. The
Muslim armies, however soon proved to be too small to handle the Byzantine response, and their
commanders called for reinforcements. Khalid was sent by Abu Bakr from Iraq to Syria with
reinforcements and to lead the invasion. In July 634, the Byzantines were decisively defeated
at Ajnadayn. Damascus fell in September 634, followed by the Battle of Fahl where the last
significant garrison of Palestine was defeated and routed.
[16]

[17]

[18]

Caliph Abu Bakr died in 634. His successor, Umar, was determined to continue the Caliphate
Empire's expansion deeper into Syria. Though previous campaigns led by Khalid were successful,
he was replaced by Abu Ubaidah. Having secured southern Palestine, Muslim forces now advanced
up the trade route, where Tiberias and Baalbek fell without much struggle, and conquered
Emesa early in 636. From thereon, the Muslims continued their conquest across the Levant.
[19]

[20]

Byzantine counterattack[edit]
Having seized Emesa, the Muslims were just a march away from Aleppo, a Byzantine stronghold,
and Antioch, where Heraclius resided. Seriously alarmed by the series of setbacks, Heraclius
prepared for a counterattack to reacquire the lost regions.
In 635 Yazdegerd III, the Emperor
of Persia, sought an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor. Heraclius married off his daughter
(according to traditions, his grand daughter) Manyanh to Yazdegerd III, to cement the alliance. While
Heraclius prepared for a major offensive in the Levant, Yazdegerd was to mount a simultaneous
counterattack in Iraq, in what was meant to be a well-coordinated effort. When Heraclius launched
his offensive in May 636, Yazdegerd could not coordinate with the maneuverprobably owing to the
exhausted condition of his governmentand what would have been a decisive plan missed the
mark.
[21][22]

[23]

Umar won a decisive victory against Heraclius at Yarmouk, and used great strategy
to engage
and entrap Yazdegerd.
Three months later Yazdegerd lost his imperial army at the Battle of
Qadisiyah in November 636, ending Sassanid control west of Persia.
[citation needed]

[citation needed]

Muslim and Byzantine Troop Movements before the battle of Yarmouk. Modern countries indicated.

Byzantine preparations began in late 635 and by May 636 Heraclius had a large force concentrated
at Antioch in Northern Syria. The assembled army consisted of contingents of
Byzantines, Slavs, Franks, Georgians, Armenians and Christian Arabs. This force was organized
into five armies, the joint leader of which was Theodore Trithourios the Sakellarios. Vahan,
an Armenian and the former garrison commander of Emesa, was made the overall field
commander, and had under his command a purely Armenian army. Buccinator (Qanateer),
a Slavic prince, commanded the Slavs and Jabalah ibn al-Aiham, king of the Ghassanid Arabs,
commanded an exclusively Christian Arab force. The remaining contingents, all European, were
placed under Gregory and Dairjan.
Heraclius himself supervised the operation from Antioch.
Byzantine sources mention Niketas, son of the Persian general Shahrbaraz, among the
commanders, but it is not certain which army he commanded.
[24]

[25]

[26]

[27]

[28][29]

[30]

At that time, the Rashidun army was split into four groups: one under Amr in Palestine, one
under Shurahbil in Jordan, one under Yazid in the Damascus-Caesarea region and the last one
under Abu Ubaidah along with Khalid at Emesa. As the Muslim forces were geographically divided,
Heraclius sought to exploit this situation and planned to attack. He did not wish to engage in a
single pitched battle but rather to employ central position and fight the enemy in detail by
concentrating large forces against each of the Muslim corps before they could consolidate their
troops. By forcing the Muslims to retreat, or by destroying Muslim forces separately, he would fulfill
his strategy of recapturing lost territory. Reinforcements were sent to Caesarea under Heraclius'
son Constantine III probably to tie down Yazid's forces which were besieging the town. The
Byzantine imperial army moved out from Antioch and Northern Syria sometime in the middle of June
636.
[28]

The Byzantine imperial army was to operate under the following plan:

Jabalah's lightly armed Christian Arabs would march to Emesa from Aleppo via Hama and
hold the main Muslim army at Emesa.

Dairjan would make a flanking movement moving between the coast and Aleppo's road
and approach Emesa from the west, striking at the Muslims' left flank while they were being held
frontally by Jabalah.

Gregory would strike the Muslims' right flank, approaching Emesa from the northeast
via Mesopotamia.

Qanateer would march along the coastal route and occupy Beirut, from where he was to
attack weakly defended Damascus from the west to cut off the main Muslim army at Emesa.

Vahan's corps would act as a reserve and would approach Emesa via Hama.

[31]

Muslim strategy[edit]
The Muslims discovered Heraclius' preparations at Shaizar through Roman prisoners. Alert to the
possibility of being caught with separated forces that could be destroyed, Khalid called for a council
of war. There he advised Abu Ubaidah to pull the troops back from Palestine and from Northern and
Central Syria, and then to concentrate the entire Rashidun army in one place.
Abu Ubaidah
ordered the concentration of troops in the vast plain near Jabiya, as control of the area made cavalry
charges possible and facilitated the arrival of reinforcements from Umar so that a strong, united
force could be fielded against the Byzantine armies. The position also benefited from close
proximity to the Rashidun stronghold of Najd, in case of retreat. Instructions were also issued to
return the jizya (tribute) to the people who had paid it. However, once concentrated at Jabiya, the
Muslims were subject to raids from pro-Byzantine Ghassanid forces. Encamping in the region was
also precarious as a strong Byzantine force was garrisoned in Caeseara and could attack the
Muslim rear while they were held in front by the Byzantine army. On Khalid's advice the Muslim
forces retreated to Daraah (or Dara) and Dayr Ayyub, covering the gap between the Yarmouk
Gorges and the Harra lava plains, and established a line of camps in the eastern part of the plain of
Yarmouk. This was a strong defensive position and these maneuvers pitted the Muslims and
Byzantines into a decisive battle, one which the latter had tried to avoid. During these maneuvers,
there were no engagements save for a minor skirmish between Khalid's elite light cavalry and the
Byzantine advance guard.
[32][33]

[34]

[35]

[32]

[36]

[37]

Battlefield[edit]

Map detailing the location of the area where the battle took place.

The battlefield lies in the western plane of Syrian Hauran, just south-east of the Golan Heights, an
upland region currently on the frontier between Israel, Jordan and Syria, east of the Sea of Galilee.
The battle was fought on the plain north of Yarmouk River, which was enclosed on its western edges
by a deep ravine known as Wadi-ur-Ruqqad. This ravine joins the Yarmouk River, a tributary of
the Jordan River, on its south. The stream had very steep banks, ranging from 30 m (98 ft)200 m

(660 ft) in height. On the north is the Jabiya road and to the east are the Azra hills, although these
hills were outside the actual field of battle. Strategically there was only one prominence in the
battlefield: a 100 m (330 ft) elevation known as Tel al Jumm'a, and for the Muslim troops
concentrated there, the hill gave a good view of the plain of Yarmouk. The ravine on the west of the
battlefield was accessible at a few places in 636 AD, and had one main crossing: a Roman bridge
(Jisr-ur-Ruqqad) near 'Ain Dhakar
Logistically, the Yarmouk plain had enough water supplies and
pastures to sustain both armies. The plain was excellent for cavalry maneuvers.
[38][39]

[40][41]

Troop deployment[edit]
Most early accounts place the size of the Muslim forces between 24,000 and 40,000 and the number
of Byzantine forces between 100,000 and 400,000. Modern estimates for the sizes of the respective
armies vary: the vast majority of estimates for the Byzantine army are between 80,000 and 150,000,
while other estimates are as low as 15,000 to 20,000.
Estimates for the Rashidun army are
between 25,000 and 40,000. Original accounts are mostly from Arab sources, generally agreeing
that the Byzantine army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizeable margin. The
only early Byzantine source is Theophanes, who wrote a century later. Accounts of the battle vary,
some stating it lasted a day, others more than a day.
[42][43]

m[]

Rashidun army[edit]
During a council of war, the command of the Muslim army was transferred to Khalid by Abu
Ubaidah, Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. After taking command, Khalid reorganized the
army into 36 infantry regiments and four cavalry regiments, with his cavalry elite, the mobile guard,
held in reserve. The army was organized in the Tabi'a formation, a tight, defensive infantry formation.
The army was lined up on a front of 12 kilometres (7.5 mi), facing west, with its left flank lying
south on the Yarmouk River a mile before the ravines of Wadi al Allan began. The army's right flank
was on the Jabiya road in the north across the heights ofTel al Jumm'a, with substantial gaps
between the divisions so that their frontage would match that of the Byzantine battle line at 13
kilometres (8.1 mi). The center of the army was under the command of Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
(left center) and Shurahbil bin Hasana (right center). The left wing was under the command of Yazid
and the right wing was under Amr ibn al-A'as. Center, left and right wings were given cavalry
regiments, to be used as a reserve for counter-attack in case they were pushed back by the
Byzantines. Behind the center stood the mobile guard under the personal command of Khalid. If and
when Khalid was too occupied in leading the general army, Dharar ibn al-Azwar would command the
mobile guard. Over the course of the battle, Khalid would repeatedly make critical and decisive use
of this mounted reserve. Khalid sent out several scouts to keep the Byzantines under observation.
In late July 636, Vahan sent Jabalah with his lightly armored Christian Arab forces to reconnoiterin-force, but they were repulsed by the mobile guard. After this skirmish, no engagement occurred
for a month.
i[]

[44]

[45]

[46]

[44]

[44]

[47]

[48]

Weaponry[edit]

Helmets used included gilded helmets similar to the silver helmets of the Sassanid empire. Mail was
commonly used to protect the face, neck and cheeks either as an aventail from the helmet or as a
mail coif. Heavy leather sandals as well as Roman-type sandal boots were also typical of the early
Muslim soldiers. Armor included hardened leather scale or lamellar armor and mail armor. Infantry
soldiers were more heavily armored than horsemen. Large wooden or wickerwork shields were
used. Long-shafted spears were used, with infantry spears being 2.5 m (8.2 ft) long and cavalry
spears being up to 5.5 m (18 ft) long. Short infantry swords like the Roman gladius and Sassanid
long swords were used; long swords were usually carried by horsemen. Swords were hung
in baldrics. Bows were about 2 metres (6.6 ft) long when unbraced, similar in size to the famous
English longbow. The maximum useful range of the traditional Arabian bow was about 150 m
(490 ft). Early Muslim archers, while being infantry archers without the mobility of horseback archer
regiments, proved to be very effective in defending against light and unarmored cavalry attacks.
[49]

[50]

Byzantine army[edit]
A few days after the Muslims encamped at the Yarmouk plain, the Byzantine army, preceded by the
lightly armed Ghassanids of Jabalah, moved forward and established strongly fortified camps just
north of the Wadi-ur-Ruqqad. The right flank of the Byzantine army was at the south end of the
plains, near the Yarmouk River and about a mile before the ravines of Wadi al Allan began. The left
flank of the Byzantines was at the north, a short distance before the Hills of Jabiya began, and was
relatively exposed. Vahan deployed the Imperial Army facing east, with a front about 13 kilometres
(8.1 mi) long, as he was trying to cover the whole area between the Yarmouk gorge in the south
and the Roman road to Egypt in the north, and substantial gaps had been left between the Byzantine
divisions. The right wing was commanded by Gregory and the left by Qanateer. The center was
formed by the army of Dairjan and the Armenian army of Vahan, both under the overall command of
Dairjan. The Roman regular heavy cavalry, the cataphract, was distributed equally among the four
armies, each army deploying its infantry at the forefront and its cavalry as a reserve in the rear.
Vahan deployed Jabalah's Christian Arabs, mounted on horses and camels, as a skirmishingforce,
screening the main army until its arrival. Early Muslim sources mention that the army of Gregory
had used chains to link together its foot-soldiers, who had all taken an oath of death. The chains
were in 10-man lengths and were used as a proof of unshakeable courage on the part of the men,
who thus displayed their willingness to die where they stood and never retreat. The chains also
acted as an insurance against a breakthrough by enemy cavalry. However, modern historians
suggest that the Byzantines adopted the Graeco-Roman testudo military formation, in which soldiers
would stand shoulder-to-shoulder with shields held high and an arrangement of 10 to 20 men would
be completely shielded on all sides from missile fire, each soldier providing cover for an adjoining
companion.
[51]j[]

[38]

[52]

[38]

Weaponry[edit]

The Byzantine cavalry was armed with a long sword, known as the spathion. They would also have
had a light wooden lance, known as a kontarion and a bow (toxarion) with forty arrows in a quiver,
hung from a saddle or from the belt. Heavy infantry, known as skoutatoi, had a short sword and a
short spear. The lightly armed Byzantine troops and the archers carried a small shield, a bow hung
from the shoulder across the back and a quiver of arrows. Cavalry armor consisted of a hauberk with
a mail coif and a helmet with a pendant, i.e. a throat-guard lined with fabric and having a fringe and
cheek piece. Infantry was similarly equipped with a hauberk, a helmet and leg armor.
Light lamellar and scale armor was also used.
[53]

[54]

Tensions in the Byzantine army[edit]


Khalid's strategy of withdrawing from the occupied areas and concentrating all of his troops for a
decisive battle forced the Byzantines to concentrate their five armies in response. The Byzantines
had for centuries avoided engaging in large-scale decisive battles, and the concentration of their
forces created logistical strains for which the empire was ill-prepared.
Damascus was the closest
logistical base, but Mansur, leader of Damascus, could not fully supply the massive Byzantine army
that was gathered at the Yarmouk plain. Several clashes were reported with local citizens over
supply requisition, as summer was at an end and there was a decline of pasturage. Greek court
sources accused Vahan of treason for his disobedience to Heraclius' command not to engage in
large-scale battle with Arabs. Given the massing of the Muslim armies at Yarmouk, however, Vahan
had little choice but to respond in kind. Relations between the various Byzantine commanders were
also fraught with tension. There was a struggle for power between Trithurios and Vahan, Jarajis, and
Qanateer (Buccinator). Jabalah, the Christian Arab leader, was largely ignored, to the detriment of
the Byzantines given his knowledge of the local terrain. An atmosphere of mistrust thus existed
between the Greeks, Armenians, and Arabs. Longstanding ecclesiastical feuds between the
Monophysite and Chalcedonian factions, while of negligible direct impact, certainly inflamed
[36][55]

[56]

underlying tensions. The effect of these feuds was decreased coordination and planning, one of the
reasons for the catastrophic Byzantine defeat.
[57]

Battle[edit]
For a good understanding of the description of the battle, it is useful to be acquainted with the
divisions of opposing forces. The battle lines of the Muslims and the Byzantines were divided into
four sections: the left wing, the left center, the right center and the right wing. Note that the
descriptions of the Muslim and the Byzantine battle lines are exactly each other's opposite, i.e.: so
the Muslim right wing faced the Byzantine left wing (see image ).
n[]

Troop deployment.
Muslim army
Byzantine army

Vahan was instructed by Heraclius not to engage in battle until all avenues of diplomacy had been
explored. This was probably because Yazdegerd III's forces were not yet ready for the offensive
in Iraq. Accordingly, Vahan sent Gregory and then Jabalah to negotiate, though their efforts proved
futile. Before the battle, on Vahan's invitation, Khalid came to negotiate peace, to a similar end.
These negotiations delayed the battles for a month. On the other hand, Caliph Umar, whose forces
at Qadisiyah were threatened with confronting the Sassanid armies, ordered Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas to
enter into negotiations with the Persians and send emissaries to Yazdegerd III and his
commander Rostam Farrokhzd, apparently inviting them to Islam. This was most probably the
delaying tactic employed by Umar on the Persian front. Meanwhile he sent reinforcements of
6,000 troops, mostly from Yemen, to Khalid. This force included 1,000 Sahaba (companions of
Muhammad), among whom were 100 veterans of the Battle of Badr, the first battle in Islamic history,
and included citizens of the highest rank, such as Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Abu Sufyan, and his
wife Hind bint Utbah.
[58]

[38]

[59]

[38]

[60]

Umar, apparently wanting to defeat the Byzantines first, employed the best Muslim troops against
them. The continuing stream of Muslim reinforcements worried the Byzantines, who fearing that the
Muslims with such reinforcements would grow powerful, decided that they had no choice but to
attack. The reinforcements that were sent to the Muslims at Yarmouk arrived in small bands, giving
the impression of a continuous stream of reinforcements, in order to demoralize the Byzantines and
compel them to attack. The same tactic would be repeated again during the Battle of Qadisiyah.
[61]

Day 1[edit]

[47]

Day 1, limited attacks by the Byzantine army

The battle began on 15 August 636. At dawn both armies lined up for battle less than a mile apart.
It is recorded in Muslim chronicles that before the battle started, George, a unit commander in the
Byzantine right center, rode up to the Muslim line and converted to Islam; he would die the same day
fighting on the Muslim side. The battle began as the Byzantine army sent its champions to duel
with the Muslim mubarizun. The mubarizun were specially trained swordsmen and lancers, with the
objective to slay as many enemy commanders as possible to damage their morale. At midday, after
losing a number of commanders in the duels, Vahan ordered a limited attack with a third of his
infantry forces to test the strength and strategy of the Muslim army and, using their overwhelming
numerical and weaponry superiority, achieve a breakthrough wherever the Muslim battle line was
weak. However the Byzantine assault lacked determination; many soldiers of the Imperial Army were
unable to press the attack against the Muslim veterans. The fighting was generally moderate,
although in some places it was especially intense. Vahan did not reinforce his forward infantry twothirds of which was kept in reserve with one-third deployed to engage the Muslims, and at sunset
both armies broke contact and returned to their respective camps.
[62]

[63]

[64]

[63]

Day 2[edit]

Day 2, Phase 1.

Day 2, Phase 2.

Day 2, Phase 3.

Phase 1: On 16 August 636, Vahan decided in a council of war to launch his attack just before dawn,
to catch the Muslim force unprepared as they conducted their morning prayers. He planned to
engage his two central armies with the Muslim centre in an effort to stall them while the main thrusts
would be against the wings of the Muslim army, which would then either be driven away from the
battlefield or pushed towards the centre.
To observe the battlefield, Vahan had a large pavilion
built behind his right wing with an Armenian bodyguard force. He ordered the army to prepare for the
surprise attack. Unbeknownst to the Byzantines, Khalid had prepared for such a contingency by
placed a strong outpost line in front during the night to counter surprises, which gave the Muslims
time to prepare for battle. At the center, the Byzantines did not press hard, intending to pin down the
Muslim centre corps in their position and preventing them from aiding the Muslim army in other
areas. Thus the center remained stable. But on the wings the situation was different. Qanateer,
commanding the Byzantine left flank which consisted of mainly Slavs, attacked in force, and the
Muslim infantry on the right flank had to retreat. Amr, the Muslim right wing commander ordered his
cavalry regiment to counterattack, which neutralized the Byzantine advance and stabilized the battle
line on the right for some time, but the Byzantine numerical superiority caused them to retreat
towards the Muslim base camp.
[63][65]

[66]

Phase 2: Khalid, aware of the situation at the wings, ordered the cavalry of the right wing to attack
the northern flank of the Byzantine left wing while he with his mobile guard attacked the southern
flank of the Byzantine left wing, while the Muslim right wing infantry attacked from the front. The
three-pronged attack forced the Byzantine left wing to abandon the Muslim positions they had
gained on, and Amr regained his lost ground and started reorganizing his corps for another round.
The situation on the Muslim left wing which Yazid commanded was considerably more serious.
Whilst the Muslim right wing enjoyed assistance from the mobile guard, the left wing did not and the
numerical advantage the Byzantines enjoyed caused the Muslim positions to be overrun, with
soldiers retreating towards base camps. Here the Byzantines had broken through the corps.
[66]

[60]

The testudo formation that Gregory's army had adopted moved slowly but also had a good defense.
Yazid used his cavalry regiment to counterattack but was repulsed. Despite stiff resistance, the
warriors of Yazid on the left flank finally fell back to their camps and for a moment Vahan's plan
appeared to be succeeding. The centre of the Muslim army was pinned down and its flanks had
been pushed back. However, neither flank had broken, though their morale was severely damaged.
The retreating Muslim army was met by the ferocious Arab women in the camps. Led by Hind,
the Muslim women dismantled their tents and armed with tent poles charged at their husbands and
fellow men singing an improvised song from the Battle of Uhud that then had been directed against
the Muslims.
[67]

[60]

O you who run from a constant woman


Who has both beauty and virtue;
And leave her to the infidel,
The hated and evil infidel,
To possess, disgrace and ruin.

[66]

This boiled the blood of the retreating Muslims so much that they returned to the battlefield.

[68]

Phase 3: After managing to stabilize the position on the right flank, Khalid ordered the mobile guard
cavalry to provide relief to the battered left flank. Khalid detached one regiment under Dharar ibn alAzwar and ordered him to attack the front of the army of Dairjan (left center) in order to create a
diversion and threaten the withdrawal of the Byzantine right wing from its advanced position. With
the rest of the cavalry reserve he attacked Gregory's flank. Here again, under simultaneous attacks
from the front and flanks, the Byzantines fell back, but more slowly because they had to maintain
their formation. At sunset the central armies broke contact and withdrew to their original positions
and both fronts were restored along the lines occupied in the morning. The death of Dairjan and the
failure of Vahan's battle plan left the larger Imperial army relatively demoralized, whereas Khalid's
successful counterattacks emboldened his troops despite their being smaller in number.
[69]

[70]

Day 3[edit]

Day 3, Phase 1.

Day 3, Phase 2.

On 17 August 636, Vahan pondered over his failures and mistakes of the previous day, where he
launched attacks against respective Muslim flanks, but after initial success, his men were pushed
back. What bothered him the most was the loss of one of his commanders. The imperial Byzantine
army decided on a less ambitious plan, Vahan now aimed to break the Muslim army at specific
points. He decided to press upon the relatively exposed right flank, where his mounted troops could
maneuver more freely as compared to the rugged terrain at the Muslims' left flank. And it was
decided to charge at the junction between the Muslim right center and its right wing held by
Qanateer's Slavs, to break the two apart and to fight them separately.
Phase 1: The battle resumed with Byzantine attacks on the Muslim right flank and right center.
After holding off the initial attacks by the Byzantines, the Muslim right wing fell back, followed by
the right center. They were again said to have been met by their own womenfolk who abused and
shamed them. The corps, however, managed to reorganize some distance from the camp and held
their ground preparing for a counterattack.
[71]

[66]

Phase 2: Knowing that the Byzantine army was focusing on the Muslim right, Khalid ibn al-Walid
launched an attack with his mobile guard, along with the Muslim right flank cavalry. Khalid ibn alWalid struck at the right flank of the Byzantines left center, and the cavalry reserve of the Muslims
right center struck at the Byzantines left center at its left flank. Meanwhile he ordered the Muslims'
right wing cavalry to strike at the left flank of the Byzantines left wing. The combat soon developed
into a bloodbath. Many fell on both sides. Khalid's timely flanking attacks again saved the day for
Muslims and by dusk the Byzantines had been pushed back to the positions they had at the start of
the battle.
[66]

Day 4[edit]
18 August 636, the fourth day, was to prove decisive.

Day 4, Phase 1.

Day 4, Phase 2.

Phase 1: Vahan decided to persist with the previous day's war plan as he had been successful in
inflicting damage on the Muslim right. Qanateer led two armies of Slavs against the Muslim right
wing and right centre with some assistance from the Armenians and Christian Arabs led by Jabalah.
The Muslim right wing and right center again fell back. Khalid entered the fray yet again with this
mobile guard. He feared a general attack on a broad front which he wouldn't be able to repulse and
as a precaution ordered Abu Ubaidah and Yazid on the left centre and the left wings respectively to
attack the Byzantine armies at the respective fronts. The attack would result in stalling the Byzantine
front and prevent a general advance of the Imperial army.
[72]

[73]

Phase 2: Khalid divided his mobile guard into two divisions and attacked the flanks of the Byzantine
left center, while the infantry of the Muslim right center attacked from front. Under this threepronged flanking manoeuvre, the Byzantines fell back. Meanwhile the Muslim right wing renewed its
offense with its infantry attacking from the front and the cavalry reserve attacking the northern flank
of the Byzantine left wing. As the Byzantine left center retreated under three-pronged attacks of
Khalid, the Byzantine left wing, having been exposed at its southern flank, also fell back.
[72]

While Khalid and his mobile guard were dealing with the Armenian front throughout the afternoon,
the situation on the other end was worsening. Byzantine horse-archers had taken to the field and
subjected Abu Ubaidah and Yazid's troops to intense archery preventing them from penetrating their
Byzantine lines. Many Muslim soldiers lost their sight to Byzantine arrows on that day, which
thereafter became known as the "Day of Lost Eyes". The veteran Abu Sufyan is also believed to
have lost an eye that day. The Muslim armies fell back except for one regiment led by Ikrimah bin
Abi Jahal, which was on the left of Abu Ubaidah's corps. Ikrimah covered the retreat of the Muslims
with his four hundred cavalry by attacking the Byzantine front, while the other armies reorganized
themselves to counterattack and regain their lost positions. All of Ikrimah's men were either seriously
injured or dead that day. Ikrimah, a childhood friend of Khalid's was mortally wounded and died later
in the evening.
[74]

[75]

[75]

[74]

Day 5[edit]

Deployment of troops on the fifth day. Khalid gathered all his cavalry for a decisive flanking charge.

During the four day offense of Vahan, his troops had failed to achieve any breakthrough and had
suffered heavy casualties, especially during the mobile guard's flanking counterattacks. Early on 19
August 636, the fifth day of the battle, Vahan sent an emissary to the Muslim camp for a truce for the
next few days so that fresh negotiations could be held. He supposedly wanted time to reorganize his
demoralized troops. But Khalid deemed victory to be in reach and he declined the offer. Up till now,
the Muslim army had adopted a largely defensive strategy, but knowing that the Byzantines were
apparently no longer eager for battle, Khalid now decided to take the offensive and reorganized his
troops accordingly. All the cavalry regiments were grouped together into one powerful mounted force
with the mobile guard acting as its core. The total strength of this cavalry group was now about
8,000 mounted warriors, an effective mounted corps for an offensive attack the next day. The rest of
the day passed uneventfully. Khalid planned to trap Byzantine troops, cutting off their every route of
escape. There were three natural barriers, the three gorges in the battlefield with their steep
ravines, Wadi-ur-Ruqqad at west, Wadi al Yarmouk in south and Wadi al Allah in east. The northern
route was to be blocked by Muslim cavalry. There were however, some passages across the 200
metres (660 ft) deep ravines of Wadi-ur-Raqqad in west, strategically the most important one was at
Ayn al Dhakar, a bridge. Khalid sent Dharar with 500 cavalry at night to secure that bridge. Dharar
moved around the northern flank of Byzantines and captured the bridge. This maneuver was to
prove decisive the next day.
[76]

[77]

[78]

Day 6[edit]

Day 6, Phase 1.

Day 6, Phase 2.

Day 6, Phase 3.

Day 6, The last phase.

On 20 August 636, the final day of the battle, Khalid put into action a simple but bold plan of attack.
With his massed cavalry force he intended to drive the Byzantine cavalry entirely off the battlefield
so that the infantry, which formed the bulk of the imperial army, would be left without cavalry support
and thus would be exposed when attacked from the flanks and rear. At the same time he planned to
push a determined attack to turn the left flank of the Byzantine army and drive them towards the
ravine to the west.
[79]

[78]

Phase 1: Khalid ordered a general attack on the Byzantine front and galloped his cavalry around the
left wing of the Byzantines. Part of his cavalry engaged the Byzantine left wing cavalry while the rest
of it attacked the rear of the Byzantine left wing infantry. Meanwhile the Muslim right wing pressed
against it from the front. Under this two-pronged attack, the Byzantine left wing fell back and
collapsed and fell back to the Byzantine left center, greatly disordering it. The remaining Muslim
cavalry then attacked the Byzantine left wing cavalry at the rear while they were held frontally by the
other half of the Muslim cavalry, routing them off the battlefield to the north. The Muslim right wing
infantry now attacked the Byzantine left center at its left flank while the Muslim right center attacked
from front.
[76]

Phase 2: Vahan, noticing the huge cavalry maneuver of the Muslims, ordered his cavalry to group
together, but was not quick enough; before Vahan could organize his disparate heavy cavalry
squadrons, Khalid had wheeled his cavalry back to attack the concentrating Byzantine cavalry
squadrons, falling upon them from the front and the flank while they were still moving into formation.
The disorganized and disoriented Byzantine heavy cavalry was soon routed and dispersed to the
north, leaving the infantry to its fate.
[80]

Phase 3: With the Byzantine cavalry completely routed, Khalid turned to the Byzantine left center
which already held the two-pronged attack of the Muslim infantry. The Byzantine left center was
attacked at its rear by Khalid's cavalry and was finally broken.
[80]

The last phase: With the retreat of the Byzantine left center, a general Byzantine retreat started.
Khalid took his cavalry north to block the northern route of escape. The Byzantines retreated west
towards Wadi-ur-Ruqqad where there was a bridge at Ayn al Dhakar for safe crossing across the
deep gorges of the ravines of Wadi-ur-Ruqqad. Dharar had already captured the bridge as part of
Khalid's plan the night before. A unit of 500 mounted troops had been sent to block this passageway.
In fact, this was the route by which Khalid wanted the Byzantines to retreat all along. The Byzantines
were surrounded from all sides now. Some fell into the deep ravines off the steep slopes, others
tried to escape in the waters, only to be smashed on the rocks below and again others were killed in
their flight. Nevertheless a large number of the soldiers managed to escape the slaughter. Jonah,
the Greek informant of the Rashidun army during the Conquest of Damascus died in this battle. The
Muslims took no prisoners in this battle, although they may have captured some during the
subsequent pursuit. Theodore Trithurios died on the battlefield, while Niketas managed to escape
and reach Emesa. Jabalah ibn al-Ayham also managed to escape and later, for a short time, came
to terms with the Muslims, but soon defected to the Byzantine court again.
[74]

[76]k[]

[81]

[82]

[83]

Aftermath[edit]
Immediately after this operation was over, Khalid and his mobile guard moved north to pursue the
retreating Byzantine soldiers; he found them near Damascus and attacked. In the ensuing fight the
commander-in-chief of the imperial army, the Armenian prince Vahan, who had escaped the fate of
most of his men at Yarmouk, was killed. Khalid then entered Damascus where he was said to have
been welcomed by the local residents, thus recapturing the city.
[84]

[33][85]

When news of the disaster reached the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius at Antioch, he was
devastated and enraged. He blamed his wrongdoings for the loss, primarily referring to his
incestuous marriage to his niece Martina. He would have tried to reconquer the province if he had
had the resources, but now he had neither the men nor the money to defend the province any
more. Instead he retreated to the cathedral of Antioch, where he observed a solemn service
of intercession. He summoned a meeting of his advisers at the cathedral and scrutinized the
situation. He was told almost unanimously, and accepted the fact, that the defeat was God's decision
and a result of the sins of the people of the land, including him. Heraclius took to the sea on a ship
to Constantinople in the night. It is said that as his ship set sail, he bade a last farewell to Syria,
saying:
[86]

[87]

[86]

[86]

[88]

Farewell, a long farewell to Syria, my fair province. Thou art an infidel's (enemy's) now. Peace be
with you, O Syria what a beautiful land you will be for the enemy.
l[][86]

[88]

Heraclius abandoned Syria with the holy relic of the True Cross which was, along with other relics
held at Jerusalem, secretly boarded on ship by Parthia of Jerusalem, just to protect it from the
invading Arabs. It is said that the emperor had a fear of water. and a pontoon bridge was made for
Heraclius to cross theBosphorus to Constantinople. After abandoning Syria, the Emperor began to
concentrate on his remaining forces for the defence of Anatolia and Egypt instead.Byzantine
Armenia fell to the Muslims in 63839, after which Heraclius created a buffer zone in central Anatolia
by ordering all the forts east of Tarsus to be evacuated. In 639642 Muslims invaded and captured
Byzantine Egypt, led by Amr ibn al-A'as who had commanded the right flank of the Rashidun army
at Yarmouk.
[86]

[89]

[90]

[91]

Evaluation[edit]
The Battle of Yarmouk can be seen as an example in military history where an inferior force
manages to overcome a superior force by superior generalship.
The Imperial Byzantine commanders allowed their enemy to have the battlefield of his choosing.
Even then they were at no substantial tactical disadvantage. Khalid knew all along that he was up
against a force superior in numbers and, until the last day of the battle, he conducted an essentially
[51]

defensive campaign suited to his relatively limited resources. When he decided to take the offensive
and attack on the final day of battle, he did so with a degree of imagination, foresight and courage
that none of the Byzantine commanders managed to display. Although he commanded a numerically
inferior force and needed all the men he could muster, he nevertheless had the confidence and
foresight to dispatch a cavalry regiment the night before his assault to seal off a critical path of the
retreat he anticipated for the enemy army.
[78]

Because of his leadership at Yarmouk, Khalid ibn al-Walid is considered one of the finest generals in
history and his use of mounted warriors throughout the battle showed just how well he understood
the potential strengths and weaknesses of his mounted troops. His mobile guard moved quickly from
one point to another, always changing the course of events wherever they appeared, and then just
as quickly galloping away to change the course of events elsewhere on the field.
[9]

[92]

Vahan and his Byzantine commanders did not manage to deal with this mounted force and use the
sizable advantage of their army effectively. Their own Byzantine cavalry never played a significant
role in the battle and were held in static reserve for most of the six days. They never pushed their
attacks and even when they obtained what could have been a decisive breakthrough on the fourth
day, they were unable to exploit it. There appeared to be a decided lack of resolve among the
Imperial commanders, though this may have been caused by difficulties commanding the army
because of internal conflict. Moreover, many of the Arab auxiliaries were mere levies, while the
Muslim Arab army consisted for a much larger part of veteran troops.
[93]

[61]

[94]

The original strategy of Heraclius, to destroy the Muslim troops in Syria, needed a rapid and quick
deployment, but the commanders on the ground never displayed these qualities. Ironically, on the
field at Yarmouk, Khalid carried out on a small tactical scale what Heraclius had planned on a grand
strategic scale: by rapidly deploying and manoeuvering his forces, Khalid was able to temporarily
concentrate sufficient forces at specific locations on the field to defeat the larger Byzantine army in
detail. Vahan was never able to make his numerical superiority count, perhaps because of the
unfavorable terrain that prevented large-scale deployment. However, at no point did Vahan attempt
to concentrate a superior force to achieve a critical breakthrough. Although he was on the offensive
5 days out of the six, his battle line remained remarkably static. This all stands in stark contrast to
the very successful offensive plan that Khalid carried out on the final day, when he reorganised
virtually all his cavalry and committed them to a grand manoeuvre that won the battle. George F.
Nafziger, in his book Islam at war, describes the battle as:
[95]

[92]

Although Yarmouk is little known today, it is one of the most decisive battles in human history...... Had

References[edit]
1.

Jump up^ Kennedy 2006, p. 45

2.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, pp. 6465

3.

Jump up^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana
Sulayman al-Kindi Page 352-353 [1]

4.

Jump up^ HADRAT 'UMAR FAROOQ By PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN Published by ASHFAQ MIRZA,
MANAGING DIRECTOR, Islamic Publications Ltd 13-E, Shah Alam Market, Lahore, Pakistan Published by SYED
AFZAL-UL-HAQ QUDDUSI, Quddusi Printers, Nasir Park, Bilal Gunj, Lahore, Pakistan

5.

^ Jump up to:a b Akram 2004, p. 425

6.

Jump up^ Britannica (2007): "More than 50,000 byzantine soldiers died"

7.

^ Jump up to:a b Walton 2003, p. 30

8.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 6

9.

^ Jump up to:a b Nicolle 1994, p. 19

10.

Jump up^ Haldon 1997, p. 41

11.

Jump up^ GreatrexLieu 2002, pp. 189190

12.

Jump up^ GreatrexLieu 2002, p. 196

13.

Jump up^ GreatrexLieu 2002, pp. 217227

14.

Jump up^ Haldon 1997, p. 46

15.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, pp. 1214

16.

Jump up^ Luttwak 2009, p. 199

17.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 87

18.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 246

19.

Jump up^ Runciman 1987, p. 15

20.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 298

21.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 60

22.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 112

23.

Jump up^ Akram 2009, p. 133

24.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 402

25.

Jump up^ Al-Waqidi 8th century, p. 100

26.

Jump up^ (Armenian) Bartikyan, Hrach. (Vahan).Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. vol. xi.
Yerevan:Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1985, p. 243.

27.

Jump up^ Kennedy 2007, p. 82

28.

^ Jump up to:a b Akram 2004, p. 409

29.

Jump up^ Al-Waqidi 8th century, p. 106

30.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 16

31.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 399

32.

^ Jump up to:a b Nicolle 1994, p. 61

33.

^ Jump up to:a b Kaegi 1995, p. 67

34.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 401

35.

Jump up^ al-Baladhuri 9th century, p. 143

36.

^ Jump up to:a b Kaegi 1995, p. 134

37.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 407

38.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e Nicolle 1994, p. 64

39.

Jump up^ Schumacher 1889, pp. 7779

40.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 122

41.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 63

42.

Jump up^ Kaegi 2003, p. 242

43.

Jump up^ John Haldon (2013)

44.

^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolle 1994, p. 66

45.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 34

46.

Jump up^ Walton 2003, p. 29

47.

^ Jump up to:a b Akram 2004, p. 411

48.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 413

49.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 39

50.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 36

51.

^ Jump up to:a b Kaegi 1995, p. 124

52.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 65

53.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 29

54.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 30

55.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 39

56.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, pp. 132133

57.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 121

58.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 130

59.

Jump up^ Akram 2009, p. 132

60.

^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolle 1994, p. 70

61.

^ Jump up to:a b Kaegi 1995, p. 129

62.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 92

63.

^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolle 1994, p. 68

64.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 415

65.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 417

66.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e Nicolle 1994, p. 71

67.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 418

68.

Jump up^ Regan 2003, p. 164

69.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, pp. 41819

70.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 419

71.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 420

72.

^ Jump up to:a b Nicolle 1994, p. 72

73.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 421

74.

^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolle 1994, p. 75

75.

^ Jump up to:a b Al-Waqidi 8th century, p. 148

76.

^ Jump up to:a b c Nicolle 1994, p. 76

77.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 422

78.

^ Jump up to:a b c Akram 2004, p. 423

79.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 114

80.

^ Jump up to:a b Akram 2004, p. 424

81.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 138

82.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 128

83.

Jump up^ Nicolle 1994, p. 80

84.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 273

85.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 426

86.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e Runciman 1987, p. 17

87.

Jump up^ Runciman 1987, p. 96

88.

^ Jump up to:a b Regan 2003, p. 167

89.

Jump up^ Regan 2003, p. 169

90.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, pp. 14849

91.

Jump up^ Kaegi 2003, p. 327

92.

^ Jump up to:a b Nicolle 1994, pp. 8789

93.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 137

94.

Jump up^ Akram 2004, p. 408

95.

Jump up^ Kaegi 1995, p. 143

Notes[edit]
^ a: Modern estimates for Roman army:
Donner (1981): 100,000.
Britannica (2007): "More than 50,000 byzantine soldiers died".
Nicolle (1994): 100,000.
Akram (1970): 150,000.
Kaegi (1995): 15,00020,000
Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium: 80,000.
^ b: Roman source for Roman army:
Theophanes (p. 337338): 80,000 Roman troops (Kennedy, 2006, p. 145) and 60,000
allied Ghassanid troops (Gibbon, Vol. 5, p. 325).
^ c: Early Muslim sources for Roman army:
Baladhuri (p. 140): 200,000.
Tabari (Vol. 2, p. 598): 200,000.
Ibn Ishaq (Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 75): 100,000 against 24,000 Muslims.
^ d: Modern estimates for Muslim army:
Kaegi (1995): 15,000-20,000 maximum.
Nicolle (1994): 25,000 maximum.
Akram: 40,000 maximum.
Treadgold (1997): 24,000

Image-1. Concepts used in the description of the battle lines.

^ e: Primary sources for Muslim army:


Ibn Ishaq (Vol. 3, p. 74): 24,000.
Baladhuri: 24,000.
Tabari (Vol. 2, p. 592): 40,000.

^ f: Primary sources for Roman casualties:


Tabari (Vol. 2, p. 596): 120,000 killed.
Ibn Ishaq (Vol. 3, p. 75): 70,000 killed.
Baladhuri (p. 141): 70,000 killed.
^ g: His name is mentioned in Islamic sources as Jaban, Vahan Benaas and Mahan. Vahan is most
likely to be his name as it is of Armenian origin
^ i: During the reign of Abu Bakr, Khalid ibn Walid remained the Commander-in-Chief of the army in
Syria but at Umar's accession as Caliph he dismissed him from command. Abu Ubaidah ibn alJarrah became the new commander in chief. (See Dismissal of Khalid).
^ j: Some Byzantine sources also mention a fortified encampment at Yaqusah, 18 kilometres (11 mi)
from the battlefield. E.g., A. I. Akram suggests that the Byzantine camps were north of Wadi-urRuqqad, while David Nicolle agrees with early Armenian sources which positioned camps at
Yaqusah (See: Nicolle p. 61 and Akram 2004 p. 410).
^ k: Akram misinterprets the bridge at 'Ayn Dhakar for a ford while Nicolle explains the exact
geography (See: Nicolle p. 64 and Akram p. 410)
^ m: David Nicolle suggests at least four to one. (See Nicolle p. 64)
^ n: Concepts used in the description of the battle lines of the Muslims and the Byzantines. See
image-1.

Bibliography[edit]
Primary sources[edit]

Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya (9th century), Kitab Futuh al-Buldan Check date values in: |
date= (help)

Al-Waqidi, Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Umar (8th century), Fatuh al Sham (Conquest of
Syria) Check date values in: |date= (help)

Chronicle of Fredegar, 658

Dionysius Telmaharensis (774), Chronicle of Pseudo-Dionysius of Tell-Mahre

Ibn Ishaq (750), Sirah Rasul Allah

Ibn Khaldun (1377), Muqaddimah

The Maronite Chronicles, 664

Pseudo-Methodius (691), Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (915), History of the Prophets and Kings

Theophanes the Confessor (810815), Chronographia

Thomas the Presbyter (7th century), Chronicle Check date values in: |date= (help)

Fragment on the Arab Conquests, 636

Palmer, Andrew; Brock, Sebastian P; Hoyland, Robert (819), "West-Syrian Chronicle of


819", West-Syrian Chronicles, ISBN 9780853232384

Secondary sources[edit]

Akram, A.I (2009), Muslim conquest of Persia, third edition, Maktabah Publications, ISBN 09548665-3-3

Akram, A.I (2004), The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed His Life and Campaigns, third
edition, ISBN 0-19-597714-9

Conrad, Lawrence I. (1988), "Seven and the Tasb: On the Implications of Numerical
Symbolism for the Study of Medieval Islamic History", Journal of the Economic and Social
History of the Orient (Brill Publishers) 31 (1): 4273, JSTOR 3631765

Donner, Fred McGraw (1981), The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University
Press, ISBN 0-691-05327-8

GreatrexLieu; Lieu, Samuel N. C. (2002), The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian
Wars (Part II, 363630 AD), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-14687-9

Gil, Moshe; Broido, Ethel (1997), A History of Palestine: 6341099, Cambridge University
Press, ISBN 0-521-59984-9

Haldon, John (2001), The Byzantine Wars, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-1795-9

Haldon, John (1997), Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture,
Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-31917-X

Hoyland, Robert G. (1997), Seeing Islam as Others Saw It, Darwin Press, ISBN 0-87850125-8, OCLC 36884186

Jandora, John W. (1986), "Developments in Islamic Warfare: The Early Conquests", Studia
Islamica (Maisonneuve & Larose) (64): 101113, JSTOR 1596048

Kaegi, Walter Emil (2003), Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium, Cambridge University


Press, ISBN 0-521-81459-6

Kaegi, Walter Emil (1995), Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests, Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 0-521-48455-3

Kennedy, Hugh N. (2006), The Byzantine And Early Islamic Near East, Ashgate
Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5909-7

Kennedy, Hugh (2007), The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the
World We Live In, Weidenfeld & Nicolson publishers: Great Britain,ISBN 0-297-84657-4

Luttwak, Edward N (2009), The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire, Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0-674-03519-4

Nicolle, David (1994), Yarmuk 636 A.D.: The Muslim Conquest of Syria, Osprey
Publishing, ISBN 1-85532-414-8

Palmer, Andrew (1993), The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles, Liverpool
University Press, ISBN 0-85323-238-5

Regan, Geoffery (2003), First Crusader: Byzantium's Holy Wars (1 ed.), Palgrave Macmillan:
New York, ISBN 1-4039-6151-4

Runciman, Steven (1987), A History of the Crusades: The First Crusade (second
ed.), Penguin Books: London, ISBN 978-0-521-34770-9

Schumacher, Gottlieb; Laurence Oliphant, Guy Le Strange (1889), Across the Jordan; being
an exploration and survey of part of Hauran and Jaulan, London, Watt

Treadgold, Warren (1997), A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University
Press, ISBN 0-8047-2630-2

Walton, Mark W (2003), Islam at war, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-98101-0

Wood David 2007 Jews, Rats, and the Battle of Yarmk, in The late Roman Army in the Near
East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest edited by Ariel S. Lewin, Pietrina Pellegrini,
Archaeopress : Oxford, ISBN 978-1-4073-0161-7

External links[edit]

Yarmouk in Sword of Allah at GrandeStrategy by A.I. Akram

Battle of Yarmuk animated battle map by Jonathan Webb

Battle of Yarmuk, 636

Battle of Siffin
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Battle of Siffin

Part of First Fitna

Date
Location
Result

July 26 to July 28, 657 AD


Siffin, Syria
Inconclusive
2nd Major Muslim Civil War

Belligerents

Rashidun Caliphate

Bani Umayya

Commanders and leaders

Ali ibn Abi-Taleb

Muawiyah I

Hassan ibn Ali

Marwan I

Malik al-Ashtar

Amr ibn al-As

Abd-Allah ibn Abbas

Walid ibn Uqba

Ammar ibn Yasir

Shimr ibn Dhi 'l-Jawshan

Khuzaima ibn Thabit


Hashim ibn Utbah

[show]

Civil wars of
the early Caliphates
[show]

First
Islamic
Civil War

The Battle of Siffin (Arabic: ;MayJuly 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim
civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali
ibn Abi Talib andMuawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Ar-Raqqah, Syria.
Contents
[hide]

1 Background

2 Start of hostilities

3 The main engagement

4 Arbitration

5 References

Background[edit]
Main article: Siege of Uthman
The Islamic State expanded very quickly under Muhammad and the first three caliphs. Local
populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, marginalized as religious minorities and taxed
heavily to finance the ByzantineSassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from

the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. As new areas joined the
Islamic State, they also benefited from free trade while trading with other areas in the Islamic State;
so as to encourage commerce, Muslims taxed wealth instead of trade. The Muslims paid Zakat on
their wealth to the poor. Since the Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic
prophet Muhammad, the Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws in the Islamic
State and had their own judges.
Therefore they only paid for policing for the protection of their
property. To assist in the quick expansion of the state, the Byzantine and the Persian tax collection
systems were maintained and the people paid a poll tax lower than the one imposed under the
Byzantines and the Persians. Before Prophet Muhammad united the Arabs, the Arabs had been
divided and the Byzantines and the Sassanid had their own client tribes that they used to pay to fight
on their behalf.
[1][2]

[3]

[4][5][6]

In 639, Muawiyah I was appointed the Governor of Syria by Umar after his elder brother Yazid ibn
Abi Sufyan(Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah (the Governor
before him) and 25,000 other people. To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during
the Arab-Byzantine Wars, in 649 Muawiyah set up a navy, manned by Monophysitise
Christians, Copts and Jacobite Syrian Christians sailors and Muslim troops. This resulted in the
defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean.
500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and Emperor Constans II was almost killed.
Under the instructions of the caliph Uthman ibn al-Affan, Muawiyah then prepared for the siege of
Constantinople.
[7][8][9][10]

[11]

The Rashidun Caliphate during the Battle of Siffin.

The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower
and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival. The Sassanid
Dynasty in Persia had already collapsed.
Following the RomanPersian Wars and the ByzantineSassanid Wars, deep-rooted differences
between Iraq, formerly under the Persian Sassanid Empire, and Syria, formerly under
the Byzantine Empire, also existed. Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic state to
be in their area. Previously, the second caliph Umar was very firm on the governors and his spies
kept an eye on them. If he felt that a governor or a commander was becoming attracted to wealth or
did not meet the required administrative standards, he had him removed from his position.
[12]

[13]

Early Muslim armies stayed in encampments away from cities because Umar feared that they might
become attracted to wealth and luxury.
Some cities also had agreements with the Muslims,
such as during the Siege of Jerusalem in 637 CE.
[13][14][15][16]

As Uthman ibn al-Affan grew older, Marwan I, a relative of Muawiyah I, slipped into the vacuum and
became his secretary, slowly assuming more control and relaxing some of these
restrictions. Marwan I had previously been excluded from positions of responsibility. Muhammad ibn
Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr and the adopted son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad bin Abi
Hudhaifa, the adopted son of Uthman, had no senior positions.

Start of hostilities[edit]
After the Battle of the Camel, Ali returned from Basra to Kufa in Rajab of 36 A.H. (January 657). The
Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa so as to bring revenues

into their area and oppose Syria. They convinced Ali to come to Kufa and establish the capital in
Kufa. Ali listened to them and moved the capital to Kufa. Ali ibn Abi Talib tried to settle matters
peacefully by sending an envoy to Syria. He chose Jarir, who was the chief of Banu Bajila and
governor of Hamdan. In Syria, incitement to commotion continued unabated. Uthman's shirt,
besmeared with his blood and the chopped-off fingers of his wife, Naila, were exhibited from the
pulpit. In this manner, Muawiya raised the entire country of Syria against Ali. Ultimately, both parties
converged on Siffin where the armies pitched their camps in 37/657. Even at this stage, Ali sent
three men, viz. Bashir bin Amr bin Mahz Ansari, Saeed bin Qais Hamdani, and Shis bin Rabiee
Tamini to Muawiya to induce him to settle for union, accord and coming together. According
to Tabari, Muawiya replied that, "Go away from here, only the sword will decide between us." Ali's
inability to punish the murderers of Uthman and Muawiyahs refusal to pledge allegiance eventually
led to Ali moved his army north to confront Muawiyah. Ali gathered his forces, and, after at first
planning to invade Syria from the North, he attacked directly, marching through the Mesopotamian
desert. Arriving at Riqqa, on the banks of the Euphrates, the Syrian vanguard was sighted, but it
withdrew without engagement. The people of Riqqa were hostile to Ali, and his army had great
difficulty crossing the river. Eventually, Malik al-Ashtar threatened the townspeople with death, which
forced their co-operation. So, finally, the army managed to cross the river, by means of a bridge of
boats. Ali's army then marched along the right bank of the Euphrates, until they came across the
Syrian outpost of Sur al-Rum, where there was a brief skirmish, but Ali's advance was not slowed.
So in Dhu al-Hijjah 36 (May 657), the army of Ali ibn Abi Talib came into sight of Muawiyah's main
forces, which were encamped on the river plain at Siffin.
[17]

[18]

[citation needed]

The main engagement[edit]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to
reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time
being spent in negotiations. Neither side wanted to fight. Then on 11th Safar 37 AH, the Iraqis under
Ashtar's command, the Qurra, in Ali's army, who had their own camp started the fighting in earnest
which lasted three days.
[19]

Historian Yaqubi wrote that Ali had 80,000 men, including 70 Companions who participated in
the Battle of Badr, 70 Companions who took oath at Hudaibia, and 400
prominent Ansars and Muhajirun; while Muawiya had 120,000 Syrians.
[20]

William Muir wrote that, "Both armies drawn out in entire array, fought till the shades of evening fell,
neither having got the better. The following morning, the combat was renewed with great vigour. Ali
posed himself in the centre with the flower of his troops from Medina, and the wings were formed,
one of the warriors from Basra, the other of those from Kufa. Muawiya had a pavilion pitched on the
field; and there, surrounded by five lines of his sworn body-guards, watched the day. Amr with a
great weight of horse, bore down upon the Kufa wing which gave away; and Ali was exposed to
imminent peril, both from thick showers of arrows and from close encounter ... Ali's general Ashtar, at
the head of 300 Hafiz-e-Qur'an(those who had memorized the Koran) led forward the other wing,
which fell with fury on Muawiya's body-guards. Four of its five ranks were cut to pieces, and
Muawiya, bethinking himself of flight, had already called for his horse, when a martial couplet flashed
in his mind, and he held his ground."
[21]

English historian Edward Gibbon wrote: "The Caliph Ali displayed a superior character of valor and
humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to wait the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying
brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. The ranks of
the Syrians were broken by the charge of the hero, who was mounted on a piebald horse, and
wielded with irresistible force his ponderous and two edged sword." Of the estimated casualties, Ali's
forces lost 25,000, while Muawiyah's forces lost 45,000. Appalled by the carnage, Ali sent a

message to Muawiya and challenged him to single combat, saying that whoever won should be the
Caliph. In Gibbon's words, "Ali generously proposed to save the blood of the Muslims by a single
combat; but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death."
[22][23]

Gibbon wrote of the estimated casualties that Ali's forces lost 25,000, while Muawiyah's forces lost
45,000.
[24]

The earliest account of the battle is found in Ibn Hisham's book (833) where he quotes Ibn Muzahim
died 212 AH and Abu Mikhnaf died 170 AH. It says that after three days of fighting the loss of life
was terrible. Suddenly one of the Syrians, Ibn Lahiya, reportedly out of dread of the fitna and unable
to bear the spectacle rode forward with a copy of the Quran on the ears of his horse to call for
judgement by the book of Allah, and the other Syrians followed suit. Allegedly, those on both sides
took up the cry, eager to avoid killing their follow Muslims except for the conspirators. The majority of
Ali's followers supported arbitration. Nasr b Muzahim, in one of the earliest source states that al-Ash
ath ibn Qays, one of Ali's key supporters and a Kufan, then stood up and said:"O company of
Muslims! You have seen what happened in the day which has passed. In it some of the Arabs have
been annihilated. By Allah, I have reached the age which Allah willed that I reach. but I have never
ever seen a day like this. Let the present convey to the absent! If we fight tomorrow, it will be the
annihilation of the Arabs and the loss of what is sacred. I do not make this statement out of fear of
death, but I am an aged man who fears for the women and children tomorrow if we are annihilated.
O Allah, I have looked to my people and the people of my deen and not empowered anyone. There
is no success except by Allah. On Him I rely and to Him I return. Opinion can be both right and
wrong. When Allah decides a matter, He carries it out whether His servants like it or not. I say this
and I ask Allah's forgiveness for me and you." Then, Nasr b Muzahim says people looked at
Muawiya who said "He is right, by the Lord. If we meet tomorrow the Byzantines will attack our
women and children and the people of Persia will attack the women and children of Iraq. Those with
forebearance and intelligence see this. Tie the copies of the Quran to the ends of the spears." So the
fighting stopped.
[25]

[25]

Arbitration[edit]
It was decided that the Syrians and the residents of Kufa, in Iraq, should nominate an arbitrator,
each to decide between Ali and Muawiya. The Syrians choice fell on Amr bin al-A'as who was the
rational soul and spokesman of Muawiya. 'Amr ibn al-'As was one of the generals involved in
expelling the Romans from Syria and also expelled the Romans from Egypt. A few years earlier
according to Islamic tradition, 'Amr ibn al-'As with 9,000 men in Palestine had found himself
confronting Heraclius' 100,000 army until Khalid crossed the Syrian desert from Iraq to assist him.
He was a highly skilled negotiator and had previously been used in negotiations with the Heraclius
the Roman Emperor. Ali wanted Malik Ashtar or Abdullah bin Abbas to be appointed as an
arbitrator for the people of Kufa, Iraq, but the Qurra strongly demurred, alleging that men like these
two were, indeed, responsible for the war and, therefore, ineligible for that office of trust. They
nominated Abu Musa al-Ashari as their arbitrator. (During the time of Uthman, they had appointed
Abu Musa al-Ashari as the Governor of Kufa and removed Uthams governor before they started
fighting Uthman) Ali found it expedient to agree to this choice in order to ward off bloody dissensions
in his army. According to "Asadul Ghaba", Ali had, therefore, taken care to personally explain to the
arbitrators, "You are arbiters on condition that you decide according to the Book of God, and if you
are not so inclined you should not deem yourselves to be arbiters."
[26]

[26]

[27]

[28]

The Iraqis under Ali and the Syrians under Muawiyah were not split over their faith but over when to
bring the people who killed Uthman to justice. Ali also wanted to bring them to justice but the dispute
was over the timing.
[29]

According to early Shia sources Ali later wrote:

[29]

"The thing began in this way: We and the Syrians were facing each other while we had common faith
in one Allah, in the same Prophet (s) and on the same principles and canons of religion. So far as

faith in Allah and the Holy Prophet (s) was concerned we never wanted them (the Syrians) to believe
in anything over and above or other than what they were believing in and they did not want us to
change our faith. Both of us were united on these principles. The point of contention between us was
the question of the murder of Uthman. It had created the split. They wanted to lay the murder at my
door while I am actually innocent of it.
I advised them that this problem cannot be solved by excitement. Let the excitement subside, let us
cool down; let us do away with sedition and revolt; let the country settle down into a peaceful
atmosphere and when once a stable regime is formed and the right authority is accepted, then let
this question be dealt with on the principles of equity and justice because only then the authority will
have power enough to find the criminals and to bring them to justice. They refused to accept my
advice and said that they wanted to decide the issue on the point of the sword.
When they thus rejected my proposal of peace and kept on sabre rattling threats, then naturally the
battle, which was furious and bloody, started. When they saw defeat facing them across the
battlefield, when many of them were killed, and many more wounded, then they went down on their
knees and proposed the same thing, which I had proposed before the bloodshed had begun.
I accepted their proposal so that their desire might be fulfilled, my intentions of accepting the
principles of truth and justice and acting according to these principles might become clear and they
might have no cause to complain against me.
Now whoever adheres firmly to the promises made will be the one whose salvation will be saved by
Allah and one who will try to go back upon the promises made, will fall deeper and deeper into
heresy, error and loss. His eyes will be closed to realities and truth in this world and he will be
punished in the next world."
[30]

Ibn Taymiyyah (1263 to 1328) said: "Muawiyah did not call himself to be a khaleefah and was not
given the oath of allegiance to it when he fought Ali. He fought not because he considered himself to
be the khaleef or deserving of the khilaafah. This they all agreed upon and he himself would affirm
this to whomever asked him. He and his companions did not consider it permissible that they initiate
the fight against Ali and his companions. But Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and his companions
believed that Muawiyah and his companions must pledge allegiance and show obedience to Ali, due
to his authority such that there be only one khaleefah for the Muslims. Considering them defecting
from this obligation he decided that Muawiyah and his companions should be fought until they
fulfilled it. All this so that obedience and unity occur. Muawiyah and his companions did not see that
it was obligatory upon them and if they were fought against they would consider themselves
oppressed because Uthman was killed oppressively as was agreed by all the Muslims at the time
and his killers were in Ali's camp, he having authority over them."
[31]

Encyclopedia of Islam says "According to the non Muslim view the Syrians were winning"
way, neither the Syrians nor the Iraqis wanted to fight and the battle was stopped.

[32]

Either

When the arbitrators assembled at Daumet-ul-Jandal, which lay midway between Kufa and Syria
and had for that reason been selected as the place for the announcement of the decision, a series of
daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand. When the time arrived for
taking a decision about the caliphate, Amr bin al-A'as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari into
entertaining the opinion that they should deprive both Ali and Muawiya of the caliphate, and give to
the Muslims the right to elect the caliph. Abu Musa al-Ashari also decided to act accordingly. As the
time for announcing the verdict approached, the people belonging to both parties assembled. Amr
bin al-A'as requested Abu Musa to take the lead in announcing the decision he favoured. Abu Musa
al-Ashari agreed to open the proceedings, and said, "We have devised a solution after a good deal
of thought and it may put an end to all contention and separatist tendencies. It is this. Both of us
remove Ali as well as Muawiya from the caliphate. The Muslims are given the right to elect a caliph
as they think best."
[33]

Ali refused to accept the verdict of him stepping down and for an election to be held and found
himself technically in breach of his pledge to abide by the arbitration.
This put Ali in a weak
position even amongst his own supporters. The most vociferous opponents of Ali in his camp were
the very same people who had forced Ali to appoint their arbitrator, the Qurra who then became
known as the Kharijites. Feeling that Ali could no longer look after their interests Also fearing that
if there was peace, they could be arrested for the murder of Uthman they broke away from Ali's
force, rallying under the slogan, "arbitration belongs to God alone." The Qurra then became known
as the Kharijites ("those who leave"). The Kharijites then started killing other people.
[34][35][36]

[34]

[33]

[37]

[33]

After the battle of Saffin the Qurra realised that Ali could not safeguard their interests and therefore
split off and formed their own Party called the Kharijites and later developed into an anarchist
movement and plagued successive governments even Harun the Abbasid ruler died fighting the
Kharijites.
[38]

[39]

They also started killing Ali's supporters. They considered anyone who was not part of their group as
an unbeliever.
[40]

In the best selling book, Shadow of the sword, The Battle for Global Empire and the End of the
Ancient World, Tom Holland writes "The Kharijites argued a true believer would have trusted his
fate not to diplomacy but to ongoing warfare and God will decide." Even though they them selves
had put forward their representative and become a party of them selves, so that the negotiations
could go in their favor and satisfy their own political and economic interests. Tom Holland says that
"they then condemned Ali as an unbeliever, as the man who had strayed from the Strait Path. The
fact that he was Muhammad's nephew only confirmed them in their militancy of their egalitarianism;
that the true aristocracy was one of piety and not blood. Even a Companion of the Prophet, if he did
not pray until he developed marks on his forehead. If he did not look pale and haggard from regular
fasting, if he did not live like a lion by day and a monk by night, ranked in the opinion of the Kharijites
as no better than an apostate." They then developed even more twisted views. Tom Holland writes
"Other Kharijites, so it was reported, might go out and with their swords into the markets while
people would stand around not realizing what was happening; they would shout "no judgment except
God!" and plunge their blades into whom ever they could reach and go on killing until they them
selves were killed.
[41]

[42]

In 659 Ali's forces finally moved against the Kharijites and they finally met in the Battle of Nahrawan.
Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. Tom Holland
writes "Ali won a victory over them as crushing as it was to prove pyrrhic: for all he had done, in
effect was to fertilise the soil of Iraq with the blood of their martyrs. Three years later, and there came
the inevitable blowback: a Kharijite assassin.".
[43]

[42]

The Kharijites caused so much trouble that in both the early Sunni and the early Shia books Ali
said:"With regard to me, two categories of people will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much
and the love takes him away from rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes
him away from rightfulness. The best man with regard to me is he who is on the middle course. So
be with him and be with the great majority of Muslims because Allahs hand of protection is on
keeping unity. You should beware of division because the one isolated from the group is a prey to
Satan just as the one isolated from the flock of sheep is a prey to the wolf. Beware! Whoever calls to
this course [of sectarianism], kill him, even though he may be under this headband of mine."(Nahjul
Balagha, Sermon 126)
Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. On the 19th of Ramadan, while Praying in the Great
Mosque of Kufa, Ali was attacked by the Khawarij Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by
ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.
[44]

Muawiyah's army also moved into other areas, which Ali's governors couldn't prevent and people
didn't support him to fight with them. Muawiyah overpowered Egypt, Yemen and other areas. Ali
was later killed by a Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam while he was praying in the mosque of
Kufa.
[45]

[46]

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York: Fred de Fau and Co. Publishers (1906).http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1436/0214-09_Bk.pdf Pgs. 116-117.

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York: Fred de Fau and Co. Publishers (1906).http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1436/0214-09_Bk.pdf Pg. 116.
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Al-gharat (Plunders) which has written by Abi Mikhnaf is a detailed report about these raids.

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Jump up^ Tabatabae (1979), page 1

Battle of Khaybar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Khaybar (disambiguation).


Battle of Khaybar

Part of Campaigns of Muhammad

Ali slays Marhab


Date
Location
Result

629
Khaybar
Muslim victory

Belligerents

Muslim army

Jews of Khaybar oasis

Commanders and leaders


al-Harith ibn Abu Zaynab[1]

Muhammad

Marhab ibn Abu Zaynab[1]


Ali ibn Abi Talib

Strength
1,600

Khaybar 10,000[2]
Banu Ghatafan
4,000[2]

Casualties and losses


Less than 20 killed[3]

93 killed

50 wounded
[show]

List of battles of Muhammad

The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis
ofKhaybar, located 150 kilometers (93 mi) from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian
peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Muslim sources, the Muslims attacked Jews
who had barricaded themselves in a fort.
[4]

On the reasons for the attack, Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in
Khaybar of theBanu Nadir, who were inciting hostilities among with neighboring Arab tribes against
the Islamic community inMedina. Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri, while giving full credence to
Watt's theory, claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer
upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future
campaigns.
[5][6]

The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that
they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for
several more years until they were expelled by caliph Umar. The imposition of tribute upon the
conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of
tribute known as jizya from non-Muslims under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to
non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community.
In return, non-Muslim citizens
were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to
[5][7][8]

Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and
the zakat, which is obligatory upon Muslim citizens.
Contents
[hide]

1 Background
o

1.1 Khaybar in the 7th century

1.2 Banu Nadir

1.3 Treaty of Hudaybiyya

1.4 Political situation

1.5 Failure of Banu Ghatafan

2 Course of the Battle


2.1 Fall of al-Qamus fort

3 Aftermath

4 The battle in classic Islamic literature

5 Islamic primary sources

6 See also

7 References

8 Bibliography

Background[edit]
Khaybar in the 7th century[edit]
Main article: Jewish community of Khaybar
In the 7th century, Khaybar was inhabited by Jews. The inhabitants had stored in a redoubt at
Khaybar a siege-engine, swords, lances, shields and other weaponry. In the past some scholars
attempted to explain the presence of the weapons, suggesting that they were used for settling
quarrels among the families of the community. Vaglieri suggests that it is more logical to assume that
the weapons were stored in a dept for future sale. Similarly the Jews kept 20 bales of cloth and 500
cloaks for sale, and other luxury goods. These commercial activities as a cause of hostility, Vaglieri
argues, are similar to the economic causes behind persecutions in many other countries throughout
history.
[5]

The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, and al-Katiba, probably separated by
natural divisions, such as the desert, lava drifts, and swamps. Each of these regions contained
several fortresses or redoubts including homes, storehouses and stables. Each fortress was
occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated fields and palm-groves. In order to
improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks.
[5]

Banu Nadir[edit]
See also: Banu Nadir
After they were sent into exile in 625 from Medina by Muslim forces, the Banu Nadir had settled in
Khaybar. In 627, the Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab together with his son joined the Meccans and
Bedouins besieging Medina during the Battle of the Trench. In addition, the Nadir paid Arabian
tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing Banu Ghatafan with half of their harvest, Banu Nadir
secured 2,000 men and 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Muhammad,
and similarly
persuaded the Bani Asad. They attempted to get the Banu Sulaym attack the Muslims, but the tribe
gave them only 700 men, since some of its leaders were sympathetic towards Islam. The Bani Amir
refused to join them all together, as they had a pact with Muhammad. Once the battle started,
Huyayy ibn Akhtab persuaded the Banu Qurayza to go against their covenant with Muhammad and
turn against him during the battle. After the defeat of the confederates in the battle, and Qurayza's
subsequent surrender, Huyayy (who was at that time in the Qurayza strongholds of Medina) was
killed alongside the men of the Qurayza. After Huyayy's death, Abu al-Rafi ibn Abi al-Huqayq took
charge of the Banu Nadir at Khaybar. Al-Huqayq soon approached neighboring tribes to raise an
army against Muhammad.
After learning this, the Muslims, aided by an Arab with a Jewish dialect,
assassinated him.
[9]

[10][11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15][16]

[17]

Al-Huqayq was succeeded by Usayr ibn Zarim. It has been recorded by one source that Usayr also
approached the Ghatafan and rumors spread that he intended to attack the "capital of Muhammad".
The latter sent Abdullah bin Rawaha with a number of his companions, among whom were Abdullah
bin Unays, an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews. When they came to Usayr, they told
him that if he would come to Muhammad, Muhammad would give him an appointment and honour
him. They kept on at him until he went with them with a number of Jews. Abdullah bin Unays
mounted him on his beast until he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar. Usayr suddenly
changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived Usayr's bad intention as the latter was
preparing to draw his sword. So Abdullah rushed at him and struck him with his sword cutting off his
leg. Usayr hit Abdullah with a stick of shauhat wood which he had in his hand and wounded his
head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one
man who escaped on his feet. Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteered and got
permission to kill Banu Nadir's Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq at a previous night mission in Khaybar.
[18]

[19]

Many scholars have considered the above machinations of the Nadir as a reason for the battle.
According to Montgomery Watt, their intriguing and use of their wealth to incite tribes against
Muhammad left him no choice but to attack. Vaglieri concurs that one reason for attack was that
the Jews of Khaybar were responsible for the Confederates that attacked Muslims during the Battle
of the Trench. Shibli Numani also sees Khaybar's actions during the Battle of the Trench, and draws
particular attention to Banu Nadir's leader Huyayy ibn Akhtab, who had gone to the Banu
Qurayza during the battle to instigate them to attack Muhammad.
[20]

[5]

[15]

Treaty of Hudaybiyya[edit]
See also: Treaty of Hudaybiyya
In 628, when the Muslims attempted to perform the Umrah (lesser pilgrimage), after much
negotiations, the Muslims entered a peace treaty with the Quraysh, ending the Muslim-Quraysh
wars. The treaty also gave Muhammad the assurance of not being attacked in the rear by the
Meccans during the expedition.
[21]

[5]

Political situation[edit]
As war with Muhammad seemed imminent, the Jews of Khaybar entered into an alliance with the
Jews of Fadak oasis. They also successfully persuaded the Bedouin Ghatafan tribe to join their side
in the war in exchange for half their produce. However, in comparison to the power of the North,
Muhammad's army did not seem to pose enough of a threat for the Khaybar to sufficiently prepare
themselves for the upcoming battle. Along with the knowledge that Muhammad's army was small,

and in need of resources, the lack of central authority at Khaybar prevented any unified defensive
preparations, and quarrels between different families left the Jews disorganized. The Banu Fazara,
related to the Ghatafan, also offered their assistance to Khaybar, after their unsuccessful
negotiations with the Muslims.
[5]

[22]

Failure of Banu Ghatafan[edit]


During the battle, the Muslims were able to prevent Khaybar's Ghatafan allies (consisting of 4,000
men) from providing them with reinforcements. One reason given is that the Muslims were able to
buy off the Bedouin allies of the Jews. Watt, however, also suggests that rumors of a Muslim attack
on Ghatafan strongholds might also have played a role.
According to Tabari, Muhammad's first
stop in his conquest for Khaybar was in the valley of al-Raji, which was directly between the
Ghatafan people and the Khaybar. In hearing the news of the Muslim army's position, the Ghatafan
organized and rode out to honor their alliance with the Khaybar. After a day of travel, the Ghatafan
thought they heard their enemy behind them and turned around in order to protect their families and
possessions, thus opening the path for Muhammad's army. Another story says that a mysterious
voice warned the Ghatafan of danger and convinced them to return to their homes.
[23][24]

[25]

[26]

Course of the Battle[edit]


The Muslims set out for Khaybar in May 628, Muharram 7 AH. According to different sources, the
strength of Muslims army varied from 1,400 to 1,800 men and between 100 and 200 horses. Some
Muslim women (including Umm Salama) also joined the army, in order to take care of the wounded.
Compared to the Khaybarian fighting strength of 10,000, the Muslim contingent was small, but this
gave Muslims advantages. It allowed Muslims to swiftly and quietly march to Khaybar (in only three
days ), catching the city by surprise. It also made Khaybar overconfident in themselves. As a
result, the Jews failed to mount a centrally organized defense, leaving each family to defend its own
fortified redoubt. This underestimation of the Muslims allowed Muhammad to conquer each
fortress one by one with relative ease, claiming food, weapons, and land as he went. One Muslim
reported:"We met the workers of Khaybar coming out in the morning with their spades and baskets.
When they saw the apostle and the army they cried, 'Muhammad with his force,' and turned tail and
fled. The apostle said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaybar is destroyed. When we arrive in a people's square it is a
bad morning for those who have been warned.'"
[27]

[28]

[29]

[30]

[5][23]

[31]

[32]

The Jews, after a rather bloody skirmish in front of one of the fortresses, avoided combat in the open
country. Most of the fighting consisted of shooting arrows at a great distance. On at least one
occasion the Muslims were able to storm the fortresses. The besieged Jews managed to organize,
under the cover of darkness, the transfer of people and treasures from one fortress to another as
needed to make their resistance more effective.
[5]

Neither the Jews nor the Muslims were prepared for an extended siege, and both suffered from a
lack of provisions. The Jews, initially overconfident in their strength, failed to prepare even enough
water supplies for a short siege. Early in the campaign, the Muslims' hunger caused them to
slaughter and cook several asses which they had taken during their conquest. Muhammad, who had
determined that the eating of horse, mule, and ass meat was forbidden, made the exception that one
can eat forbidden foods so long as scarcity leaves no other option.
[33]

[26]

Fall of al-Qamus fort[edit]


After the forts at an-Natat and those at ash-Shiqq were captured, there remained the last and the
heavily guarded fortress called al-Qamus, the siege of which lasted between thirteen and nineteen
days.
[31]

Several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed. The first attempt
was made by Abu Bakr who took the banner and fought, but was unable to succeed. Umar, then
charged ahead and fought more vigorously than Abu Bakr, but still failed. That night Muhammad
[34]

proclaimed, "By God, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves God and His
Messenger, whom God and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him." That morning,
the Quraysh were wondering who should have the honor to carry the banner, but Muhammad called
out for Ali ibn Abi alib. All this time, Ali, son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was ill and could not
participate in the failed attempts. Ali came to Muhammad, who cured him of his ophthalmia, an
inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. Ali, with new vigor, set out to meet
the enemy, bearing the banner of Muhammad. When Ali reached the Citadel of Qamus, he was met
at the gate by Marhab, a Jewish chieftain who was well experienced in battle. Marhab called out:
"Khaybar knows well that I am Marhab, whose weapon is sharp, a warrior tested. Sometimes I thrust
with spear; sometimes I strike with sword, when lions advance in burning rage".
[35]

[36]

[37]

The two soldiers struck at each other, and after the second blow, Ali cleaved through Marhab's
helmet, splitting his skull and landing his sword in his opponent's teeth. After his victory in single
combat, the battle commenced, allowing Ali to move closer to taking the citadel. During the battle, Ali
lost his shield. In need of a substitute, he picked up a door from the wall and used it to defend
himself. When the time came to breach the fortress, he threw the door down as a bridge to allow his
army to pass into the citadel and conquer the final threshold. The door was said to be so heavy that
it took eight men to replace it on its hinges. "The Apostle revived their (his followers) faith by the
example of Ali, on whom he bestowed the surname of the Lion of God" (Asadullah).
[38]

[26]

[39]

The Jews speedily met with Muhammad to discuss the terms of surrender. The people of al-Wat
and al-Sullim surrendered to the Muslims on the condition that they be "treated leniently" and the
Muslims refrain from shedding their blood. Muhammad agreed to these conditions and did not take
any of the property of these two forts.
[34]

[40]

Aftermath[edit]
Muhammad met with Ibn Abi al-Huqaiq, al-Katibah and al-Watih to discuss the terms of surrender.
As part of the agreement, the Jews of Khaybar were to evacuate the area, and surrender their
wealth. The Muslims would cease warfare and not hurt any of the Jews. After the agreement, some
Jews approached Muhammad with a request to continue to cultivate their orchards and remain in the
oasis. In return, they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. According to Ibn Hisham's
version of the pact with Khaybar, it was concluded on the condition that the Muslims "may expel you
[Jews of Khaybar] if and when we wish to expel you." Norman Stillman believes that this is probably
a later interpolation intended to justify the expulsion of Jews in 642. The agreement with the Jews
of Khaybar served as an important precedent for Islamic Law in determining the status of dhimmis,
(non-Muslims under Muslim rule).
[41]

[41]

[40]

[5][7][8]

After hearing about this battle, the people of Fadak, allied with Khaybar during the battle, sent
Muhayyisa b. Masd to Muhammad. Fadak offered to be "treated leniently" in return for surrender. A
treaty similar to that of Khaybar was drawn with Fadak as well.
[40]

Among the captives was Safiyya bint Huyayy, daughter of the killed Banu Nadir chief Huyayy ibn
Akhtab and widow of Kenana ibn al-Rabi, the treasurer of Banu Nadir. The companions informed
Muhammad of Safiyya's good family status, and requested him to accept her as his wife so as to
preserve her prestige and status. Muhammad acceded to the request, and freed and married her.
Thus, Safiyya became one of the Mother of the Believers.
[42]

Kenana ibn al-Rabi, when asked about the treasure they brought with them at the time of leaving
Medina, denied having any such treasure. He was told that in case the treasure could be found
hidden, he would face death-penalty for his false promise. Kenana agreed to this. A Jew told
Muhammad that he had seen Al-Rabi near a certain ruin every morning. When the ruin was
excavated, it was found to contain some of the treasure. Kenana was executed as a result.
Shibli Nomanirejects this account, and argues that Kenana was killed because he had earlier
murdered Mahmoud ibn Maslamah, brother of Muhammad ibn Maslamah. Nomani's conclusion is in
[43][44]

[42]

[45]

contradiction to Waqidi's account, in which it was Marhab who killed Mahmoud in the course of the
battle, only to be killed himself a few days later.
[46]

According to several Muslim traditions, a Jewish woman, Zeynab bint Al-Harith, attempted to poison
Muhammad to avenge her slain relatives. She poisoned a piece of lamb that she cooked for
Muhammad and his companions, putting the most poison into Muhammad's favorite part, the
shoulder. This assassination attempt failed because Muhammad recognised that the lamb was
poisoned and spat it out, but one companion ate the meat and died.
[47][48]

The victory in Khaybar greatly raised the status of Muhammad among his followers and local
Bedouin tribes, who, seeing his power, swore allegiance to Muhammad and converted to Islam. The
captured booty and weapons strengthened his army, and he captured Mecca just 18 months after
Khaybar.
[5][23]

The battle in classic Islamic literature[edit]


According to mainstream Sunni opinion, the battle is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, in which
Muhammad is reported to have said "Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man with whose leadership
Allah will grant (the Muslim) victory." Afterwards, he gave the flag to Ali. According to a Shia
tradition, Muhammad called for Ali, who killed a Jewish chieftain with a sword-stroke, which split in
two the helmet, the head and the body of the victim. Having lost his shield, Ali is said to have lifted
both of the doors of the fortress from its hinges, climbed into the moat and held them up to make a
bridge whereby the attackers gained access to the redoubt. The door was so heavy that forty men
were required to put it back in place. This story is the basis for the Shi'ites viewing Ali as the
prototype of heroes.
[49]

[5][50]

On one occasion, Muslim soldiers, without Muhammad's opinion and permission, killed and cooked
a score of donkeys, which had escaped from a farm. The incident led Muhammad to forbid to
Muslims the meat of horses, mules, and donkeys, unless consumption was forced by necessity. The
Jews surrendered when, after a month and a half of the siege, all but two fortresses were captured
by the Muslims.
[5]

Islamic primary sources[edit]


Muslim scholars suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a divine promise implied in the Quran
verse below:

"Allh has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this."

[51][52]

The event is mentioned in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Muslim scholar Saifur Rahman al
Mubarakpuri mentions that the hadith below regarding Amir's accidental suicide is related to Khaibar:
It has been reported on the authority of Salama b. Akwa' who said: On the day of the Battle of
Khaibar my brother fought a fierce fight by the side of the Messenger of Allah. His sword rebounded
and killed him. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah talked about his death and doubted
(whether it was martyrdom). (They said): (He is) a man killed by his own weapon, and expressed
doubt about his affair. Salama said: When the Messenger of Allah returned from Khaibar, I said:
Messenger of Allah, permit me that I may recite to you some rajaz verses. The Messenger of Allah
permitted him. 'Umar b. Khattab said: I know what you will recite. I recited:
By God, if God had guided us not,

We would hive neither been guided aright nor practised charity,


Nor offered prayers.
The Messenger of Allah said: What you have said is true, 'I (continued):
And descend on us peace and tranquillity
And keep us steadfast if we encounter (with our enemies)
And the polytheists have rebelled against us.
When I finished my rajaz, the Messenger of Allah said: Who composed these verses? I said: They
were composed by my brother. The Messenger of Allah said: May God show mercy to him! I said: By
God, some people are reluctant to invoke God's mercy on him (because) they say he is a man who
died by his own sword. (Hearing this) the Messenger of Allah said: He died as God's devotee and
warrior. Ibn Shihab has said: I asked one of the sons of Salama (b. Akwa') about (the death of 'Amir).
He related to me a similar tradition except that he said: When I said some people were reluctant
invoke God's blessings on him, the Messenger of Allah said: They lied. ('Amir) died as God's
devotee and warrior (in the cause of Allah). For him there is a double reward, and he pointed out this
by putting his two fingers together. Sahih Muslim, 19:4450
[51][52]

Allah's Apostle offered the Fajr prayer when it was still dark, then he rode and said, 'Allah Akbar!
Khaibar is ruined. When we approach near to a nation, the most unfortunate is the morning of those
who have been warned." The people came out into the streets saying, "Muhammad and his army."
Allah's Apostle vanquished them by force and their warriors were killed; the children and women
were taken as captives. Safiya was taken by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to Allah's Apostle
go who married her and her Mahr was her manumission. Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:14:68

See also[edit]

Jihad in Hadith

Muhammad as a warrior

Jihad

Rules of war in Islam

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b http://www.islamstory.com/2-1--

2.

^ Jump up to:a b Lings (1983), p. 264

3.

Jump up^ Lings (1983), p. 255-6

4.

Jump up^ "Ali". Encyclopdia Britannica Online.

5.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar",Encyclopaedia of Islam

6.

Jump up^ Stillman 19

7.

^ Jump up to:a b Stillman 1819

8.

^ Jump up to:a b Lewis 10

9.

Jump up^ Stillman 14, 16-17

10.

Jump up^ Watt, Muhammad at Medina, p. 34-37.

11.

Jump up^ Nomani, Sirat al-Nabi, p. 368-370.

12.

Jump up^ al-Halabi, Sirat-i-Halbiyyah (Vol. II, part 12), p. 19.

13.

Jump up^ Lings, Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources, p. 215-6.

14.

Jump up^ Peterson, Muhammad: the prophet of God, p. 127.

15.

^ Jump up to:a b Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 156

16.

Jump up^ Urwa, Fath al-Bari, Vol. VII, pg. 363

17.

Jump up^ Stillman 17

18.

Jump up^ Zurqani, Ala al-Mawahib, Vol. II, p.196, Egypt

19.

Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume, p. 665-666

20.

Jump up^ Watt 189

21.

Jump up^ Lings (1987), p. 249

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Jump up^ Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 159

23.

^ Jump up to:a b c Stillman 18

24.

Jump up^ Watt (1956), pg. 93

25.

Jump up^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New
York. p. 116.

26.

^ Jump up to:a b c P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs,
Editors. "Khaybar".Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Retrieved April 18, 2012.

27.

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28.

Jump up^ Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 162

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Jump up^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. Ch. "The Campaign of Khaybar and Missions to Kings". The Life of
Muhammad. Shorouk International, 1983.
Jump up^ Lings (1983), pg. 263
^ Jump up to:a b al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New
York. p. 117.

32.

Jump up^ Spencer, Robert (14 August 2006). "'Khaybar, Khaybar, O Jews.'". Human Events 62 (27): p1212.

33.

Jump up^ Watt (1956), pg. 219

34.

^ Jump up to:a b Watt (1956), pg. 218

35.

Jump up^ "Sahih Bukhari". Retrieved 24 May 2013.

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Jump up^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New
York. pp. 119121.

37.

Jump up^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New
York. p. 120.

38.

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York. p. 121.

39.
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^ Jump up to:a b c Ibn Hisham. Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (The Life of Muhammad). English translation in Guillame
(1955), pp. 145146

41.

^ Jump up to:a b Watt 1956), pg. 218

42.

^ Jump up to:a b Haykal (2008), p. 400

43.

Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq, Guillaume, p. 515.

44.

Jump up^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A.
(2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 330-331. Oxford & New York: Routledge.

45.

Jump up^ Nomani (1979), vol. II.

46.

Jump up^ Waqidi/Faizer pp. 317, 323-324, 344.

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52.

^ Jump up to:a b The Sealed Nectar, by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, pg 433

Battle of Hunayn
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Hunayn (disambiguation).


[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (December 2013)
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficientinline citations. (Dec

This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca.


Battle of Hunayn
Date
Location
Result

630 (8 AH)
Hunain, near al-Ta'if in south-westernArabia
Decisive Muslim victory

Belligerents

Muslims,

Hawazin,

Quraysh

Thaqif,
Qais
Nasr,
Jusham,
Sad bin Bakr,
Bani Hilal,
Bani 'Amr bin Amir,
Bani 'Awf bin Amir

Commanders and leaders

Muhammad,

Malik ibn Awf al-Nasri

Ali

Strength

12,000

20,000

Casualties and losses

Unknown

70 killed[1]

6,000 prisoners taken[2]


24,000 camels captured as
booty.[2]

[show]

List of battles of Muhammad


[show]

Campaigns of
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Part of a series on

Muhammad

Life[show]

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Related[show]

Islam portal

The Battle of Hunayn was fought between Muhammad and his followers against
the Bedouin tribe of Hawazinand its subsection the Thaqif in 630 in a valley on one of the roads
leading from Mecca to al-Ta'if. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims, who
captured enormous spoils. The Battle of Hunayn is one of only two battles mentioned in
the Qur'an by name, in Sura Tawba.
[3]

Contents
[hide]

1 Preparations
o

1.1 Background

1.2 Equipment Of The Muslims

1.3 Spy

2 Course of the battle

3 Aftermath

4 Islamic Primary sources

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

Preparations[edit]
Background[edit]

The conquest of Mecca astounded both the Arabs and other tribes. The Hawazins had been
long-standing enemies of Meccans. They were located north-east of Mecca and their territory sat
beside the trade route to Hira in Iraq. The Hawazins were allied with the Thaqifs of Ta'if which
was located south-east of Mecca and whose trade routes ran through Hawazin territory. The
alliance had engage in several wars probably concerning trade routes between Ta'if and Mecca.
Given this history they saw Muhammad as another powerful Quraish leader who had come to
lead his people. They thought among themselves that a war with Muslims was imminent and that
the once persecuted minority of Muslims had gained an upper hand against their non-Muslim
Arab enemies. Some tribes favoured fighting him and the Muslims. Ahead of these were the
tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif. According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman
Mubarakpuri "They thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender to such a victory".
So, they met Malik bin Awf An-Nasri and made up their minds to proceed fighting against the
Muslims. Malik persuaded other tribes to fight and gathered them before him. The confederation
of tribes consistiing of Nasr, Jusham, Sad bin Bakr, Bani Hilal, Bani 'Amr bin Amir and Bani 'Awf
bin Amir gathered at Autas along with the Thaqif and Hawazin.
[4][5][6][7]

On that day Muhammad had twelve thousand armed soldiers under his standard. Out of them
ten thousand were those, who had accompanied him from Medina and had taken part in the
conquest of Mecca, and the other two thousand were from amongst Quraysh, who had
embraced Islam recently.
The command of this group rested with Abu Sufyan.
In those days such an army was hardly found anywhere and this numerical strength of theirs
became the cause of their initial defeat. It was because, contrary to the past, they prided
themselves on the large number of their soldiers and ignored the military tactics and principles of
war.
When Abu Bakr's eyes fell on the large number of men he said: "We shan't at all be defeated,
because our soldiers far outnumber those of the enemy
[8]

Equipment Of The Muslims[edit]


Muhammad was aware of the strength and the obstinacy of the enemy. Before leaving Mecca,
therefore, he called Safwan bin Umayyah and borrowed one hundred coats of mail from him and
guaranteed its return. He personally put on two coats of mail, put a helmet on his head, mounted
a white mule, which had been presented to him, and moved on behind the army of Islam in the
rear guard. Meanwhile, the tribe of Bani Salim arrived in the passage of Hunayn under the
command of Khalid ibn al-Walid before the day had yet fully dawned.
[9]

Spy[edit]
The Hawazin and their allies, the Thaqif, began mobilizing their forces when they learnt from
their spies that Muhammad and his army had departed from Medina to begin an assault on
Mecca. The confederates apparently hoped to attack the Muslim army while it besieged Mecca.
Muhammad, however, uncovered their intentions through his own spies in the camp of the
Hawazin, and marched against the Hawazin just two weeks
after the conquest of Mecca with
a force of 12,000 men. Only four weeks had elapsed since quitting Medina.
[1][10][11]

[3]

[12]

Course of the battle[edit]


On Wednesday night, the tenth of Shawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. Malik bin Awf,
who had previously entered the valley by night, gave orders to his army to hide inside the valley
and lurk for the Muslims on roads, entrances, and narrow hiding places. His orders to his men
were to hurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them and then to make one-man
attacks against them.

When Muslims started camping, arrows began showering intensely at them. Their enemys
battalions started a fierce attack against the Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and utter
confusion.
It is reported that only a few soldiers stayed behind and fought, including Ali bin Abu Talib, the
standard bearer, Abbas bin Abdullah, Abu Fadl Al-Abbas, Usamah, and Abi Sufyan bin Hirith

[13][14]

"Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allah. I am Muhammad, the son of Abdullah." Then
Muhammad said "O, Allah, send down Your Help!", later Muslims returned to the Battlefield.
Muhammad, then Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces while saying: "May
your faces be shameful." Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat in utter
confusion, according to the Muslim scholar Safi-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri
[1][15]

After the enemy was defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone were killed, and the Muslims
captured all their riding camels, weapons and cattle.
The Quran verse 9:25 was also revealed in this event according to Muslim scholars:

Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! your gre
But Allah did pour His calm on the Messenger and on the Believers, and sent down forces whi

[Quran 9:25]

[1][15]

Some of the enemies fled, and Muhammad chased after them. Similar battalions chased after
other enemies, Rabia bin Rafi caught up with Duraid bin As-Simmah who was an old man and
killed him. Durayd was an important asset of the pagan forces due to his great number of
experiences in battle and knowledge of terrain and war tactics . This is mentioned by the
Muslim jurist Tabari as follows:
[16]

[15]

The Messenger of God's cavalry followed those who went to Nakhlah, but not those who took
effect. Thereupon Durayd said, "What a poor weapon your mother has armed you with! Take t

[Tabari, The Last Years of the Prophet, Pg 16][17]

Aftermath[edit]
Because Malik ibn Awf al-Nasri had brought the families and flocks of the Hawazin along, the
Muslims were able to capture huge spoils. 6,000 prisoners were taken prisoners and 24,000
camels were captured. Some Bedouins fled, and split into two groups. One group went back,
resulting in the Battle of Autas, while the larger group found refuge at al-Ta'if, where
Muhammad besieged them.
William Montgomery Watt remarks that Muhammad took on the
role as the hero of Meccans by facing their Bedouin arch-enemies, the Hawazins and the
Thaqifs of the city of al-Ta'if. This played a major role in integrating the Meccans into
theumma while at the same time setting the stage for Arab tribes to join the Islamic movement.
[2]

[1][15][3]

[18]

Islamic Primary sources[edit]


The event is mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection Sahih Bukhari as follows:

We set out in the company of Allah's Apostle on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we fa
an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils." I (again) got up and said, "Who will b
garden at Bani Salima, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Is

Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:370

The event is also in Imam Maliks Al-Muwatta as follows:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said that he ha
without the permission of the Imam. Only the Imam can make ijtihad. I have not heard that the

See also[edit]

Muhammad as a warrior

References[edit]
1.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e The Sealed Nectar. Retrieved 17 December 2014.

2.

^ Jump up to:a b c The Life of Mahomet and History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira. Retrieved 17 December 2014.

3.

^ Jump up to:a b c Lammens, H. and Abd al-Hafez Kamal. "Hunayn". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth,
E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Edition. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 15733912.

4.

Jump up^ https://books.google.com/books?


id=xJL6gxPUV4EC&pg=PA259&dq=battle+of+hunayn&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Msv6VMmLBY2jugTb94CAAg&ved=0CCI
Q6AEwAQ

5.

Jump up^ The sealed nectar, By S.R. Al-Mubarakpuri, Pg356

6.

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id=XijHtLgO6gMC&pg=PA305&lpg=PA737&dq=banu+salim+hunayn&output=html_text

7.

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8.

Jump up^ Sha'rani, Ahmad Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad. "alkitab.com-Source for Arabic Books: Tabaqat al-Kubra Sha'rani - : History - Islamic - Sufi Studies: By Sha'rani, Ahmad Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad".
Retrieved 17 December 2014.

9.

Jump up^ [1]

10. Jump up^ "Reconnoitering the Enemys Weapons", Witness-Pioneer.com


11. Jump up^ Revelation and Empire
12. Jump up^ Muhammad: Victory

13. Jump up^ Akramulla Syed. "The battle of Hunayn, Battle at Hunain, Military History of Islam, Khalid bin Al-Waleed".
Retrieved 17 December 2014.
14. Jump up^ ln Mughazi, vol. III, page 602
15. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Battle of Hunayn, Witness-Pioneer.com
16. Jump up^ Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 262
17. Jump up^ Tabari, Al (25 September 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma'il Qurban Husayn),
State University of New York Press, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-88706-691-7
18. Jump up^ https://books.google.com/books?
id=EOZZCcXbc5QC&pg=PA418&dq=battle+of+hunayn&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UNH6VMvBFoOpuQSg44DwBA&ved=0C
DUQ6AEwBTgK

Battle of Uhud
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Uhud

Part of the MuslimQuraish Wars


Date
Location
Result

March 19, 625 AD (3 Shawwal, 3 AH)


Valley by Mount Uhud
Failure of siege; Meccans retreated

Belligerents

Muslims of Medina

Quraish of Mecca

Commanders and leaders

Muhammad

Abu Sufyan

Umar ibn al-Khattab

Khalid ibn al-Walid

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib

'Amr ibn al-'As

Musab ibn Umayr

Strength

700 infantry; 50 archers, 4

3,000 infantry; 3,000 camels,

cavalry

200 cavalry

Casualties and losses

70-75 killed

Light

[show]

List of battles of Muhammad

The Battle of Uhud (Arabic: azwat Uh ud) was fought on Saturday, March 19, 625
(3 Shawwal 3 AH in the Islamic calendar) at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now
northwestern Arabia. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by
the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from
which many of the Muslims had previously emigrated. The Battle of Uhud was the second military
encounter between the Meccans and the Muslims, preceded by the Battle of Badr in 624, where a
small Muslim army had defeated a larger Meccan army.
[1]

Marching out from Mecca towards Medina on March 11, 625 AD, the Meccans desired to avenge
their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad and his followers. The Muslims readied for war
soon afterwards and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud.
Whilst outnumbered, the Muslims gained the early initiative and forced the Meccan lines back, thus
leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected. When the battle looked to be only one step away
from a decisive Muslim victory, a serious mistake was committed by a part of the Muslim army, which
altered the outcome of the battle. A breach of Muhammad's orders by the Muslim archers, who left
their assigned posts to despoil the Meccan camp, allowed a surprise attack from the
Meccan cavalry, led by Meccan war veteran Khalid ibn al-Walid, which brought chaos to the Muslim
ranks. Many Muslims were killed, and even Muhammad himself was badly injured. The Muslims had
to withdraw up the slopes of Uhud. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims further, but marched
back to Mecca declaring victory.
For the Muslims, the battle was a significant setback: although they had been close to routing the
Meccans a second time, their breach of Muhammad's orders in favor of collecting Meccan spoils
reaped severe consequences. The two armies would meet again in 627 AD at the Battle of the
Trench.
[2]

Contents
[hide]

1 Background
1.1 Reason for battle

2 Meccan force sets out

3 Encounter at Uhud

4 Aftermath
o

4.1 Muslim reaction

4.2 Further conflict

5 Islamic primary sources


o

5.1 Quran

5.2 Hadith

5.3 Biographical literature

6 Battle of Uhud in warfare

7 Modern references

8 See also

9 Notes

10 References

11 External links

Background[edit]
Muhammad had preached the religion of Islam in Mecca from 613 to 622. He had attracted a small
community of followers, but also drew staunch opposition from the rest of the Quraysh, the tribe that
ruled Mecca and to which he belonged. The Muslims fled Mecca in 622 after years of persecution
and established themselves at Medina (formerly known as Yathrib; Medina means City). The
Quraysh had seized the properties and families of Muslims in Mecca and dispatched caravans
toDamascus which the Muslims intercepted and raided. The Meccans sent out a small army to
punish the Muslims and stop their raiding. At the Battle of Badr in 624, a small Muslim force defeated
the much larger Meccan army.
[3]

Many Muslims considered this unexpected victory a proof that they had been favored by God and
believed they were assured such victories in the future. A number of the leading tribesmen of
Quraysh had been killed at Badr and so leadership passed to Abu Sufyan. He forbade the mourning
of the losses at Badr, for he was eager to exact revenge upon Muhammad, vowing to conduct a
retaliatory raid on the city of Medina. Several months later, Abu Sufyan accompanied a party of 200
[4]

men to the city, obtaining temporary residence with the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir and
learning more of the current situation in Medina. He and his party then left Medina, burning down two
houses and laying waste to some fields in fulfillment of his vow. Further skirmishes between the
Meccans and the Muslims would occur thereafter.
[5]

Reason for battle[edit]


The reason for the battle was to get back at the Muslims for the battle of badar

[6]

Meccan force sets out[edit]

Ravine of Mount Uhud (bifurcated mount just seen below in line of tower structure) where Muhammed was taken for rest after injury

The following year on March 11, 625, with Abu Sufyan at the helm, the Meccansanxious to avenge
their defeat at Badrraised another force numbering 3,000 and set out for the Muslim base in
Medina. Rather than attacking Medina itself, which was populated by numerous strongholds that
would have required long sieges to overcome, they camped on the pastures north of the city, hoping
that the Muslims would come out to meet them. According to the early Muslim historian Ibn Ishaq,
a number of Meccan women are said to have accompanied Abu Sufyan's army to provide vocal
support, includingHind bint Utbah, his wife.
[7][8]

[9]

A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers late on Thursday March
21. The next morning, a Muslim conference of war convened, and there was dispute over how best
to repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to
fight within Medina and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds. Younger Muslims argued
that the Meccans were destroying their crops, and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy
Muslim prestige. Muhammad eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter, and readied the Muslim
force for battle.

Encounter at Uhud[edit]

Map of the battle, showing the Muslim and Meccan lines respectively.

A group of approximately 1,000 Muslim men set out on late Friday from Medina and managed to
circle around the Meccan forces. Early the next morning, they took a position on the lower slopes of
the hill of Uhud. Shortly before the battle commenced, 'Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (the chief of
the Khazraj tribe) and his followers withdrew their support for Muhammad and returned to Medina,
with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to march out from Medina to meet the
Meccans. Ibn Ubayy and his followers would later receive censure in the Qur'an for this act.
[10]

What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of Allah, in order that He might
test the believers,And the Hypocrites also. These were told: "Come, fight in the way of Allah, or (at least) drive (The
foe from your city)." They said: "Had we known how to fight, we should certainly have followed you."
They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts
but Allah hath full knowledge of all they conceal.
(They are) the ones that say, (of their brethren slain), while they themselves sit (at ease): "If only
they had listened to us they would not have been slain." Say: "Avert death from your own selves, if
ye speak the truth."
Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayat 166-168

[11]

The Muslim force, now numbering around 700, was stationed on the slopes of Uhud, facing Medina
with the rear being protected by the towering mount itself. Before the battle, Muhammad had
assigned 50 archers on a nearby rocky hill at the West side of the Muslim camp. This was a strategic
decision in order to shield the vulnerable flanks of the outnumbered Muslim army; the archers on the
hill were to protect the left flank, while the right flank was to be protected by the Mount of Uhud
situated on the east side of the Muslim camp. Protecting the flanks of the Muslim army meant that
the Meccan army would not be able to turn around the Muslim camp, and thus the Muslim army
wouldn't be surrounded or encircled by the Meccan cavalry, keeping in mind that the Meccan cavalry
outnumbered the Muslim cavalry with a 50:1 ratio.
Muhammad ordered the Muslim archers to never under any circumstances leave their positions on
the hill unless ordered to do so by him only, he made this order very clear by uttering these words to
the archers, "If you saw us prevail and start to take spoils, do not come to assist us. And if you saw
us get vanquished and birds eat from our heads, do not come to assist us."
[12]

The Meccan army positioned itself facing the Muslim lines, with the main body led by Abu Sufyan,
and the left and right flanks commanded by Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahland Khalid ibn al-Walid
respectively. 'Amr ibn al-'As was named the commander of cavalry and his task was to coordinate
attack between the cavalry wings.
[13][14]

The Meccans attacked with their initial charge led by the Medinan exile Abu Amir. Thwarted by a
shower of stones from the Muslims, Abu Amir and his men were forced to retire and tend to the
camps behind the Meccan lines. The Meccan standard-bearer, Talhah ibn Abi Talhah al-Abdari,
advanced and challenged the enemy to a duel. Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), the young cousin of
Muhammad, rushed forth and struck Talhah down in a single blow. Talhah's brother, `Uthman, ran
forward to pick up the fallen banner the Meccan women willing him on with songs and the loud
beating of timbrels. Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib emerged from the Muslim ranks, bringing him to a
similar fate as Talhah. It was their family that was responsible for the Meccan army's standardbearing, and thus one by one, Talhah's brothers and sons went to retrieve the Meccan banner and
fight unsuccessfully, until they all eventually perished.
[15]

Following the duels, general engagement between the two armies commenced. Meccan confidence
quickly began to dissolve as the Muslims swept through their ranks. The Meccan army was pushed
back, and repeated attempts by its cavalry to overrun the left Muslim flank were negated by the
Muslim archers. Enjoying the best of these early encounters, the Muslims pierced through the
Meccan lines, with victory appearing certain. However, it was the detachment of the Muslim archers,
disobeying Muhammad's strict orders to remain stationary, that would shift the outcome of the battle,
as they ran downhill to join in the advance and despoil the Meccan camp, leaving the flank
vulnerable.
[16]

[7][14]

Grave of Hamza, Mount Uhud, Medina

At this critical juncture, the Meccan cavalry led by Khalid ibn al-Walid exploited this move and
attacked the remaining minority of Muslim archers who refused to disobey Muhammad's orders and
were still positioned on the hill. From there, the Meccans were then able to target and overrun the
Muslim flank and rear. Confusion ensued, and numerous Muslims were killed. Most notably was
Hamza, who had been thrown down in a surprise attack by the javelin of the Ethiopian slave of
Hind, Wahshi ibn Harb. While the Meccan riposte strengthened, rumors circulated that Muhammad
too had perished. It emerged, however, that Muhammad had only been woundeddue to missiles of
stone which resulted in a gash on his forehead and lip. It is recorded that Ali ibn Abi Talib alone
remained, fending off the assaults of Khalid's cavalrymen. According to Ibn Atheer, "The Prophet
became the object of the attack of various units of the army of Quraish from all sides. Ali attacked, in
compliance with Muhammad's orders, every unit that made an attack upon him and dispersed them
or killed some of them, and this thing took place a number of times in Uhud."
[7][14]

[17]

Muslim archers positioned on a hill during the Battle of Uhud, as depicted in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film The Message

After fierce hand-to-hand combat, most of the Muslims managed to withdraw and regroup higher up
on the slopes of Uhud. A small faction was cut off and tried to make its way back to Medina, though
many of these were killed. The Meccans' chief offensive arm, its cavalry, was unable to ascend the
slopes of Uhud in pursuit of the Muslims, and so the fighting ceased. Hind and her companions are
said to have mutilated the Muslim corpses, cutting off their ears and noses and making the relics into
anklets. Hind is reported to have cut open the corpse of Hamza, taking out his liver which she then
attempted to eat. Abu Sufyan, after some brief verbal exchanges with Muhammad's
companion, Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), decided to return to Mecca without pressing his
advantage.
[18]

[19]

[7][14]

The battle is generally believed by scholars to be a defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred
greater losses than the Meccans. Chase F. Robinson, writing in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, states
the notion that "the Muslims suffered a disheartening defeat is clear enough." Other scholars such
as William Montgomery Watt disagree, noting that while the Muslims did not win, the Meccans had
failed to achieve their strategic aim of destroying Muhammad and his followers; and that the
Meccans' untimely withdrawal indicated weakness on their part. The battle is also noted for the
emergence of the military leadership and tactical military genius of Khalid ibn al-Walid, who would
later become the most famous of all Arab generals during the Islamic expansion era, in conquering
the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine held Syria.
[7]

[20]

[21]

Aftermath[edit]
Muhammad and the Muslims buried the dead on the battlefield, returning home that evening. The
Meccans retired for the evening at a place called Hamra al-Asad, a few miles away from Medina.
The next morning, Muhammad sent out a small force to harry the Meccan army on their way home.
According to Watt, this was because Muhammad realized that a show of force was required to speed
the Meccans away from Medinan territory. The Meccans, not wanting to be perceived as being
chased away, remained nearby for a few days before leaving.
[22]

Muslim reaction[edit]
For the Muslims, the battle held a religious dimension as well as a military one. They had expected
another victory like at Badr, which was considered a sign of God's favor upon them. At Uhud,
however, they had barely held off the invaders and had lost a great many men. A verse of the Qur'an
revealed soon after the battle cited the Muslims' disobedience and desire for loot as the cause for
this setback:
[2][23]

Allah did indeed fulfil His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your
enemy,-until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed it after He brought you
in sight (of the booty) which ye covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some
that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave
you: For Allah is full of grace to those who believe.
Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayah 152

[24]

According to the Qur'an, then, the misfortunes at Uhud largely the result of the rear guard
abandoning their position in order to seek booty were partly a punishment and partly a test for

steadfastness. Firestone observes that such verses provided inspiration and hope to the Muslims,
sacralizing future battles that they would experience. He adds that rather than demoralizing the
Muslims, the battle seemed to reinforce the solidarity between them.
[23]

[25]

Further conflict[edit]
Abu Sufyan, whose position as leader was no longer undisputed, set about forging alliances with
surrounding nomadic tribes in order to build up strength for another advance on Medina. The
success of the Meccans' rousing of tribes against Muhammad reaped disastrous consequences for
him and the Muslims with two main losses: one was where a Muslim party had been invited by a
chieftain of the Ma'unah tribe, who were then killed as they approached by the tribe of Sulaym; while
the other was when the Muslims had sent out instructors to a tribe which stated it wanted to convert
to Islam the instructors had been led into an ambush by the guides of the would-be Muslim tribe,
and were subsequently killed. Soon thereafter, Muhammad became convinced that the Jewish
tribe Banu Nadir harbored enmity towards him and were plotting to kill him. The Banu Nadir were
expelled from Medina after a fifteen-day siege, with some relocating to the oasis of Khaybarand
others to Syria. Abu Sufyan, along with the allied confederate tribes, would attack Medina in the
Battle of the Trench, two years after the events at Uhud (in 627).
[26]

[27]

[2]

Islamic primary sources[edit]


Quran[edit]
The event is mentioned in the Quran verse
Mubarakpuri, as well as
,
.
[28]

[Quran 3:122]

[Quran 8:36]

according to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman

[Quran 3:167] [29]

The Muslim Mufassir Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir is as follows:

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Az-Zuhri, Muhammad bin Yahya bin Hibban, `Asim bin `Umar bi
bin Ishaq said, "This Ayah was revealed about them, according to Ibn `Abbas,

(Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth...) until,

(they who are the losers. ) Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hakam bin `Uyaynah, Qatadah, As-Suddi an
hate it. He will give aid to His religion, make His Word dominant, and His religion will prevail above

Hadith[edit]
Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri mentions that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith
collection Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:276 mentions:
[31]

The Prophet appointed 'Abdullah bin Jubair as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were
(i.e. the enemy) and collect our share from the war booty." But when they went to them, they were for

It is also mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:30:108 that Quran verse


event:

[Quran 4:88]

was revealed about this

When the Prophet went out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of his companions (hypocrites) returned (ho

The event is also mention in Sahih Muslim, 4:2050

Biographical literature[edit]
This event is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad. Most of the information available
about the events is derived from the siramaghazi traditions (biographical narratives and
documentation of military campaigns) of the early centuries of Islam. The general sequence of the
events gained consensus early on, as demonstrated in the text of Ibn Ishaq, an early biographer of
Muhammad. Accounts of the battle are derived mainly from descendants of the participants. Much of
the basic narrative and chronology, according to Robinson, is reasonably authentic, although some
of the more elaborate details such as the exact scale of the Muslim defeat may be doubtful or
difficult to ascertain.
[30]

[7]

Battle of Uhud in warfare[edit]


Though strategically indecisive, the conduct of the battle was sufficient proof of the military
awareness of the Arabs even before their campaigns in Persia and Syria. The basic assumption that
Arabs were generally raiders and learned warfare from the Persians and Syrians is proved wrong
here. Abu Sufyan made full use of his cavalry by deploying them as two mobile wings. The infantry
based centre provided the base upon which the cavalry would operate. He intended to pull the
celebrated "Double Envelopment" maneuver. He deployed his forces in the same manner as a
Persian or Byzantine general would have done.
Muhammad on the other hand showed his ability as a general by choosing the battlefield of Uhud.
He decided according to the will of Muslims to fight in open country but he was aware of the superior
mobility of the Meccans. He knew an encounter in open country would expose the infantry wings to
envelopment, so to neutralize the Meccan mobility factor, he decided to hold high ground with Mount
Uhud in their rear, which provided security from any attack from the rear. Moreover as the front was
of approximately of 800 to 900 yd (730 to 820 m) and on one flank he rested Mount Einein and on
other flank were the defiles of Mount Uhud so in military language he refused both wings to the
Meccan cavalry. The only approach from which they could be taken from the rear was protected by
the deployment of archers. This battle is a specimen of how an infantry based entity should fight
against a cavalry dominated arm. The comparison of this battle with the Battle of Guadalete fought
by Tariq ibn Ziyad against the Visigothic Kingdom is indeed striking.
[32]

Modern references[edit]
The battle of Uhud is the second of the two main battles featured in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film
centering on the life of Muhammad, Mohammad, Messenger of God. The other battle featured is the
battle of Badr. The battle of Uhud is also depicted in the 2004 animated film, Muhammad: The Last
Prophet, directed byRichard Rich, and in the 2012 TV series Farouk Omar. The cave in Mount
Uhud where Muhammad rested temporarily during the battle has also received recent media
attention in the light of proposals by some Islamic scholars for it to be destroyed.
[33]

[34]

[35]

See also[edit]

Battle of Badr

Abu Dujana

Umm Hakim

Hammanah bint Jahsh

Nusaybah bint Ka'ab

List of Sahaba

List of battles of Muhammad

Umm Ayman (Barakah) the woman who was present at the Battle of Uhud

Notes[edit]
1.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. 136

2.

^ Jump up to:a b c Cambridge History of Islam 1A (1977) pp. 47-48

3.

Jump up^ Peters (1994) pp. 211214

4.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. 142143

5.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. 132135

6.

Jump up^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 181. (online)

7.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f "Uhud", Encyclopedia of Islam Online

8.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. 135

9.

Jump up^ Guillaume 813

10.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. 137

11.

Jump up^ Quran 3:166168

12.

Jump up^ Review: The lesson of Uhud defeat (in Arabic)

13.

Jump up^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 258

14.

^ Jump up to:a b c d Watt (1974) pp. 138139

15.

Jump up^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 259

16.

Jump up^ Muir; Weir (1912) p. 260

17.

Jump up^ Reasons for the battle of Uhud

18.

Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380388, cited in Peters (1994) p. 218

19.

Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq records this exchange as follows:


When (the Quraysh leader) Abu Sufyan wanted to leave, he went to the top of the mountain and shouted loudly, saying,
"You have done a fine work. Victory in war goes by turns: today is in exchange for the day of Badr. Show your superiority,
Hubal", that is, vindicate your religion. The Messenger told Umar to go up and answer him and say, "God is most high
and most glorious. We are not equal: our dead are in paradise, yours are in hell." At this answer Abu Sufyan said to
Umar, "Come up here to me." The Messenger told him to go and see what Abu Sufyan was up to. When he came Abu
Sufyan said, "I adjure you by God, Umar, have we killed Muhammad?""By God, you have not, he is listening to what you
are saying right now", Umar replied. Abu Sufyan said, "I regard you as more truthful and reliable than Ibn Qami'a",
referring to the latter's claim that he had killed Muhammad.

cf. Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380388, cited in Peters (1994) p. 219


20.

Jump up^ See:

Cambridge History of Islam 1A (1977) pp. 4748

Firestone (1999) p.132

21.

Jump up^ See:

Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 150;

Nafziger; Walton (2000) pp. 16-18;

Watt (1974) p. 200

22.

Jump up^ See:

Watt (1981) p. 432;

An early Muslim historian, al-Waqidi, records 'Amr ibn al-'As (a Meccan commander) as saying:
When we renewed the attack against them, we smote a certain number of them, and they scattered in every
direction, but later a party of them rallied. Quraysh then took counsel together and said, The victory is ours, let us
depart. For we had heard that Ibn Ubayy had retired with a third of the force, and some of the Awsand
the Khazraj had stayed away from the battle, and we were not sure that they would not attack us. Moreover we had
a number of wounded, and all our horses had been wounded by the arrows. So they set off. We had not reached arRawha until a number of them came against us and we continued on our way.

cited in Peters (1994) p. 219.


23.

^ Jump up to:a b Watt(1974) p. 144

24.

Jump up^ Quran 3:152

25.

Jump up^ Firestone (1999) p. 132

26.

Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. 147148

27.

Jump up^ Nadir, Banu-l. Encyclopedia of Islam Online

28.

Jump up^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 292.

29.

Jump up^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 299-300.

30.

^ Jump up to:a b Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 9 (Part 9): Al-A'Raf 88 to Al-Anfal 40, p.
226, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861795750. (online)

31.

Jump up^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 296 (footnote 2).

32.

Jump up^ Akram, Agha Ibrahim (2004), Khalid bin al-Waleed - His Life and Campaigns, Oxford University
Press: Pakistan, ISBN 0-19-597714-9

33.

Jump up^ Review: The Message. Mark Campbell, 24 April 2004.

34.

Jump up^ "Muhammad The Last Prophet": A Movie Below Expectations. Islamonline.net.

35.

Jump up^ Call to destroy Uhud cave rejected. 23 January 2006, ArabNews . Retrieved 2007-06-07.

References[edit]
Books and journals

Andrae, Tor; Menzel, Theophil (1960). Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. New York: Harper Torchbook. OCLC 871364.

Firestone, Rueven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512580-0.

Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1A. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-291364.

I. Ishaq and A. Guillaume (October 2002). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press, USA; New Impression
edition. ISBN 0-19-636033-1.

Muir, William; Weir, T. H. (1912). The Life of Mohammad. Edinburgh: John Grant. OCLC 5754953.

Nafziger, George F.; Walton, Mark W. (2003). Islam at War: a history. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98101-0.

Peters, F.E (1994). Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.

Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19881078-4.
Watt, W. Montgomery (1981). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press; New edition. ISBN 0-19-577307-1.

Encyclopedias

Robinson, C. F. "Uhud". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia
of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.

Vacca, V. "Nadir, Banu-l". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P.
Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.

Battle of Badr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Badr

Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars

Scene from Siyer-i Nebi Hamza and Ali leading the Muslim
armies at Badr.
Date
Location
Result

13 March 624 CE/17 Ramadan, 2 AH


At the wells of Badr, 70 mi (110 km) southwest
of Medina
Decisive Muslim victory

Belligerents

Muslims of Medina

Quraish of Mecca

Commanders and leaders

Muhammad

Abu Jahl

Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib

Utba ibn Rabi'ah

Ali ibn Abi Talib

Umayyah ibn Khalaf


Hind al-Hunnud

Strength

313 infantry and cavalry: 2

950 infantry and cavalry: 100

horses and 70 camels

horses and 170 camels

Casualties and losses

14 killed

70 killed

[show]

List of battles of Muhammad

The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ) , fought on Saturday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in
the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key
battle in the early days ofIslam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents

among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive
victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of
Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. Most contemporary
knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts,
both hadiths andbiographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle.
[1]

[2]

Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623
and early 624. Badr, however, was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces.
Advancing to a strongdefensive position, Muhammad's well-disciplined force broke the Meccan lines,
killing several important Quraishi leaders including the Muslims' chief antagonist Abu Jahl. For the
early Muslims the battle was the first sign that they might eventually defeat their enemies among the
Meccans. Mecca at that time was one of the richest and most powerful cities in Arabia, fielding an
army three times larger than that of the Muslims. The Muslim victory also signaled to the other
tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia and strengthened Muhammad's position as leader of
the often fractious community in Medina.
[3]

[4]

[5]

Contents
[hide]

1 Background

2 Battle
o

2.1 The march to Badr

2.2 The Muslim plan

2.3 The Meccan plan

2.4 The day of battle

3 Aftermath
o

3.1 Implications
4 Islamic primary sources

4.1 Badr in the Quran

4.2 Hadith literature

4.3 Biographical literature

5 Executions
o

5.1 Quran verse about the beheading of al-Nadir ibn al harith

6 In modern culture

7 See also

8 Footnotes

9 References
o

9.1 Books and articles

9.2 Online references


10 External links

Background[edit]
Muhammad was born in Mecca around 570 CE into the Quraish tribe. In 622, to escape persecution
of Muslims by the Meccans, Muhammad and many of his followers migrated from Mecca to the
neighboring city of Medina. This migration is called the Hijra.
[6]

Following the Hijra, tensions between Mecca and Medina escalated and hostilities broke out in 623
when the Muslims began a series of raids on Quraishi caravans in order to put economic pressure
on Mecca, since its chiefs were plotting and gaining allies against Medina. Since Medina was
located just off Mecca's main trade route, the Muslims were in an ideal position to do this. Even
though many Muslims were Quraish themselves, they believed that they were entitled to such raids
because the Meccans had expelled them from their property, homes and tribes, a serious offense in
hospitality-oriented Arabia. The Meccans obviously took a different view. Their caravans had always
been under protection since many tribes saw them as the "Custodians" or "Keepers" of "The House
of God" and they saw the Muslim raids as banditry at best, as well as a potential threat to their
livelihood and prestige.
[7]

[8]

[9]

In late 623 and early 624, the Muslim ghazawt grew increasingly brazen and commonplace. In
September 623, Muhammad himself led a force of 200 in an unsuccessful raid against a large
caravan. Shortly thereafter, the Meccans launched their own "raid" against Medina, although its
purpose was just to steal some livestock which belonged to the Muslims. In January 624, the
Muslims ambushed a Meccan caravan near Nakhlah, only forty kilometers outside of Mecca, killing
one of the guards and formally inaugurating a blood feud with the Meccans. Worse, from a Meccan
standpoint, the raid occurred in the month of Rajab, a trucemonth sacred to the Meccans in which
fighting was prohibited and a clear affront to their pagan traditions.
[10]

[11]

[9]

Battle[edit]

A map of the Badr campaign

The march to Badr[edit]


Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Hamza, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin
Al-'Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. The Muslims also brought seventy camels
and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. However,
many early Muslim sources indicate that no serious fighting was expected, and the future
Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Muhammad.
Salman the Persian also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.
[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishm, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayah ibn
Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial
interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge Ibn al-Hadrami, the guard killed at Nakhlah; finally,
a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the
Muslims. Amr ibn Hishm is described as shaming at least one noble, Umayah ibn Khalaf, into
joining the expedition.
[16]

[17]

By this time Muhammad's companions were approaching the wells where he planned to either
waylay the caravan, or to fight the Meccan army at Badr, along the Syrian trade route where the
caravan would be expected to stop or the Meccan army to come for its protection. However, several
Muslim scouts were discovered by scouts from the caravan and Abu Sufyan made a hasty turn
towards Yanbu.
[18]

[19]

The Muslim plan[edit]

Behold! Allah Promised you one of the two


(enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye
wished that the one unarmed should be yours,
but Allah Willed to justify the Truth according
to His Words and to cut off the roots of the
Unbelievers;

Quran: Al-Anfal 8:7

Behold! Allah Promised Me that He would


definitely help me. I'm taking an oath by
Allah's Excellent Name, Here will be the
grave of Abu Jahl, and here will lay Utba ibn
Rabiah (Prophet mentioned 14 different
unbeliever leaders' names and signed they
graves before the battle).

Muhammad - Sahih Muslim

When the word reached the Muslim army about the departure of the Meccan army, Muhammad
immediately called a council of war, since there was still time to retreat and because many of the
fighters there were recent converts (called Ansar or "Helpers" to distinguish them from the Quraishi
Muslims), who had only pledged to defend Medina. Under the terms of the Constitution of Medina,
they would have been within their rights to refuse to fight and leave the army. However, according to
tradition, they pledged to fight as well, with Sa'd ibn Ubadah declaring, "If you [Muhammad] order us
to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so." However, the Muslims still hoped to avoid a
pitched battle and continued to march towards Badr.
[20]

By 11 March both armies were about a day's march from Badr. Several Muslim warriors (including,
according to some sources, Ali) who had ridden ahead of the main column captured two Meccan
water carriers at the Badr wells. Expecting them to say they were with the caravan, the Muslims
were horrified to hear them say they were with the main Quraishi army. Some traditions also say
that, upon hearing the names of all the Quraishi nobles accompanying the army, Muhammad
exclaimed "Mecca hath thrown unto you the best morsels of her liver." The next day Muhammad
ordered a forced march to Badr and arrived before the Meccans.
[20]

[21]

The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal". The
western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal. When the Muslim army
arrived from the east, Muhammad initially chose to form his army at the first well he encountered.
Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, however, asked him if this choice was divine instruction or Muhammad's own
opinion. When Muhammad responded in the latter, Hubab suggested that the Muslims occupy the
well closest to the Quraishi army, and block off the other ones. Muhammad accepted this decision
and moved right away.

The Meccan plan[edit]

[The] Arabs will hear how we marched forth


and of our mighty gathering, and they will
stand in awe of us forever.

Abu Jahl

By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca
until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: although many Arab armies brought
their women and children along on campaigns both to motivate and care for the men, the Meccan
army did not. Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many allies they had
scattered throughout the Hijaz. Both facts suggest the Quraish lacked the time to prepare for a
proper campaign in their haste to protect the caravan. Besides it is believed since they knew they
had outnumbered the Muslims by three to one, they expected an easy victory.
[22]

When the Quraishi reached Juhfah, just south of Badr, they received a message from Abu Sufyan
telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca. At
this point, according to Karen Armstrong, a power struggle broke out in the Meccan army. Abu Jahl
wanted to continue, but several of the clans present, including Banu Zuhrah and Banu Adi, promptly
went home. Armstrong suggests they may have been concerned about the power that Abu Jahl
would gain from crushing the Muslims. The Banu Hashim tribe wanted to leave, but was threatened
by Abu Jahl to stay. Despite these losses, Abu Jahl was still determined to fight, boasting "We will
not go back until we have been to Badr." During this period, Abu Sufyan and several other men from
the caravan joined the main army.
[23]

[24]

[25]

The day of battle[edit]


Further information: List of participants at the Battle of Badr
At midnight on 13 March, the Quraish broke camp and marched into the valley of Badr. It had rained
the previous day and they struggled to move their horses and camels up the hill of 'Aqanqal. After
they descended from 'Aqanqal, the Meccans set up another camp inside the valley. While they
rested, they sent out a scout,Umayr ibn Wahb to reconnoitre the Muslim lines. Umayr reported that
Muhammad's army was small, and that there were no other Muslim reinforcements which might join
the battle. However, he also predicted extremely heavy Quraishi casualties in the event of an attack
(One hadith refers to him seeing "the camels of [Medina] laden with certain death"). This further
demoralized the Quraish, as Arab battles were traditionally low-casualty affairs, and set off another
round of bickering among the Quraishi leadership. However, according to Arab traditions Amr ibn
Hishm quashed the remaining dissent by appealing to the Quraishi's sense of honor and
demanding that they fulfill their blood vengeance.
[26]

[27]

[28]

The death of Abu Jahl, and the casting of the Meccan dead into dry wells

The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the
Ansar emerged from the Muslim ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans, who were nervous
about starting any unnecessary feuds and only wanted to fight the Quraishi Muslims. So Hamza
approached forward and called on Ubayda and Ali to join him. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan
champions in a three-on-three melee. Hamza killed his opponent Utba ibn Rabi'ah; Ali killed his
opponent Walid ibn Utba; Ubayda was wounded by his opponent Shaybah ibn Rabi'ah, but
eventually killed him. So this was a victorious traditional 3 on 3 combat for the Muslims.
Now both armies began striking arrows at each other. A few Muslims and an unknown number of
Quraish warriors were killed. Before the real attack began, Muhammad had given orders for the
Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraish with melee weapons
when they advanced. Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the
Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!"
The Muslim army yelled "Y mans r amit!" "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!" and
rushed the Quraishi lines. The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly
broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon. The
Quran describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels
descending from Heaven at Badr to terrify the Quraish.
Muslim sources take this account literally,
and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played
in the battle.
[29]

[30]

[31]

[32]

[30]

[31][33]

Aftermath[edit]
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Implications[edit]
The Battle of Badr was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course
of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century. The first was Muhammad, who was
transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr
forced the other Arabs to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige
and the political role of the [Quraish]." Shortly thereafter he expelled the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the
Jewish tribes at Medina that had been threatening his political position, and who had assaulted a
Muslim woman which led to their expulsion for breaking the peace treaty. At the same time Abd-Allah
ibn Ubayy, Muhammad's chief opponent in Medina, found his own position seriously weakened.
Henceforth, he would only be able to mount limited challenges to Muhammad.
[34]

The other major beneficiary of the Battle of Badr was Abu Sufyan. The death of Amr ibn Hashim, as
well as many other Quraishi nobles gave Abu Sufyan the opportunity, almost by default, to become
chief of the Quraish. As a result, when Muhammad marched into Mecca six years later, it was Abu
Sufyan who helped negotiate its peaceful surrender. Abu Sufyan subsequently became a high[35]

ranking official in the Muslim Empire, and his son Muawiya would later go on to found the Umayyad
Caliphate.
In later days having fought at Badr became so significant that Ibn Ishaq included a complete nameby-name roster of the Muslim army in his biography of Muhammad. In many hadiths, veterans who
fought at Badr are identified as such as a formality, and they may have even received a stipend in
later years. The death of the last of the Badr veterans occurred during the First Islamic civil war.
[36]

[37]

As Paul K. Davis sums up, "Mohammed's victory confirmed his authority as leader of Islam; by
impressing local tribes that joined him, the expansion of Islam began."
[38]

Islamic primary sources[edit]

The angelic host is sent to assist the Muslims

Badr in the Quran[edit]


The Battle of Badr is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Quran. It is even mentioned by
name as part of a comparison with the Battle of Uhud.
Quran: Al Imran 3:123125
. "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little
force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it
not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?
"Yea, if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste,
your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught."
(Yusuf Ali)

According to Abdullah Yusuf Ali, the term "gratitude" may be a reference to discipline. At Badr, the
Muslim forces had allegedly maintained firm discipline, whereas at Uhud they broke ranks to pursue
the Meccans, allowing Meccan cavalry to flank and rout their army. The idea of Badr as a furqan, an
Islamic miracle, is mentioned again in the same surah.
Quran: Al Imran 3:13
. "There has already been for you a Sign in the two armies that met (in
combat): One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own
eyes Twice their number. But Allah doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning
for such as have eyes to see."
(Yusuf Ali)

Badr is also the subject of Sura 8: Al-Anfal, which details military conduct and operations. "Al-Anfal"
means "the spoils" and is a reference to the post-battle discussion in the Muslim army over how to
divide up the plunder from the Quraishi army. Though the Sura does not name Badr, it describes the
battle, and several of the verses are commonly thought to have been from or shortly after the battle.

Hadith literature[edit]
This battle is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari and Sunan Abu Dawud.
Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that Uthman did not join the battle:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: 'Uthman did not join the Badr battle because he was married to one of the daught
Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:359

It also mentions the war booty that each fighter who participated in the battle received in Sahih alBukhari, 5:59:357. Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369 also mentions how Abu Jahl was killed:

Narrated 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf: While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr,
swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah'S Apostle to inform him of that. Allah's Apostle
Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369

It is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2716

Biographical literature[edit]
The incident is also mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad.

Executions[edit]

[39]

A painting from Siyer-i Nebi, Ali beheading Nadr ibn al-Harith in the presence of Muhammad and hiscompanions.

After the battle Muhammad decided to return to Medina. While Muhammad was returning to Medina,
he reportedly received a revelation regarding the distribution of war booty. This was the Quran
verse
[Quran 8:41] [40]

According to the Muslim Mufassir Ibn Kathir, who wrote in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir, that Muhammad
said the following about this verse:
This is also a part of the war booty you earned. Verily, I have no share in it, except my own share, the
grief [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, on Quran 8:41] [41]

According to Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, two captives Nadr bin Harith
and Uqbah ibn Ab Muayt were executed by Ali. Mubarakpuri says that this incident is also
mentioned in the Sunan Abu Dawud no 2686 and Anwal Ma'bud 3/12
[42]

Quran verse about the beheading of al-Nadir ibn al harith [edit]


Ibn Kathir also mentions this incident in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir and states the Quran
verse
was revealed about al-Nadir ibn al Harith. Ibn Kathir's commentary on
and
as follows:
[Quran 8:31]

[Quran 8:31]

[Quran 8:5]

is

An-Nadr visited Persia and learned the stories of some Persian kings, such as Rustum and Isphandiya
(. ..tales of the ancients)[43] [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, on Quran 8:31]

In modern culture[edit]
"Badr" has become popular among Muslim armies and paramilitary organizations. "Operation Badr"
was used to describe Egypt's offensive in the 1973 Yom Kippur War as well as Pakistan's actions in
the 1999 Kargil War. Iranian offensive operations against Iraq in the late 1980s were also named
after Badr. During the 2011 Libyan civil war, the rebel leadership stated that they selected the date
of the assault on Tripoli to be the 20th of Ramadan, marking the anniversary of the Battle of Badr.
[44]

[45]

The Battle of Badr was featured in the 1976 film The Message, the 2004 animated
movie Muhammad: The Last Prophet, and the 2012 TV series Farouk Omar.

See also[edit]

Islamic military jurisprudence

Military career of Muhammad

Pre-Islamic Arabia

List of expeditions of Muhammad

Footnotes[edit]
1.

Jump up^ Quraish refers to the tribe in control of Mecca. The plural and adjective are Quraishi. The terms
"Quraishi" and "Meccan" are used interchangeably between the Hijra in 622 and the Muslim Conquest of Mecca in 630.

2.

Jump up^ The development of exegesis in early Islam: the authenticity of Muslim ... By Herbert Berg.

3.

Jump up^ The Sealed Nectar, Page 274

4.

Jump up^ Noor Muhammad, Farkhanda. "Islamiat".Fifth Revised Edition,2008,p.61

5.

Jump up^ Dr. Iftikhar ul Haq and Maulvi Jahangir."O' Level Islamiyat [Endorsed by CIE]", Bookland
Publishers,2008,p.74

6.

Jump up^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
p. 10. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.

7.

Jump up^ Quran: Sura 22:3940. "To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight),and also
in sura 2:190 prmession of jihad is given by Allah because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their
aid; those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is
Allah.. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down
monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure.
Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His
Will)."

8.

Jump up^ Dr.Iftikhar ul Haq and Maulvi Jahangir."O'Level Islamiyat[Endorsed by CIE],Bookland


Publishers,p.63

9.

^ Jump up to:a b Hodgson, pp.174175.

10.

Jump up^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) at the Wayback Machine

11.

Jump up^ Though the Muslims would claim it had started when they were expelled.

12.
13.

14.
15.

16.

Jump up^ Lings, pp. 138139


Jump up^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16
August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Jump up^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 53, Number 359". Usc.edu. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Jump up^ "Witness-pioneer.org". Witness-pioneer.org. 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5
February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
Jump up^ Martin Lings, p. 139140.

17.

Jump up^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 286". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16
August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.

18.

Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq says that Abu Sufyan himself rode ahead to reconnoiter the area and discovered the
Muslim scouts via the dates left in their camels' droppings

19.
20.

Jump up^ Martin Lings, p. 140


^ Jump up to:a b "Sahih Muslim: Book 19, Number 4394". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 August
2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.

21.

Jump up^ Martin Lings, p. 142

22.

Jump up^ Lings, p. 154.

23.

Jump up^ Lings, p. 142.

24.

Jump up^ Armstrong, p. 174

25.

Jump up^ Lings, pp. 142143.

26.

Jump up^ Lings, pp. 143144.

27.

Jump up^ Armstrong, pp. 174175.

28.

Jump up^ Lings, pp. 144146.

29.

Jump up^ "Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2658". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 10 October
2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.

30.

^ Jump up to:a b Armstrong, p. 176.

31.

^ Jump up to:a b Lings, p. 148.

32.

Jump up^ "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!"

33.

Jump up^ Quran: Al-i-Imran 3:123125 (Yusuf Ali). "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little
force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you
that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, if ye remain firm, and act aright,
even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a
terrific onslaught."

34.

Jump up^ Hodgson, pp. 176178.

35.

Jump up^ Including the elderly Abu Lahab, who was not at Badr but died within days of the army's return.

36.

37.

Jump up^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 357". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16
August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Jump up^ Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 358.

38.

Jump up^ Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles
and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 9596.

39.

Jump up^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume(translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of
Ish q's Srat rasl Allh. Oxford University Press. p. 304.

40.

Jump up^ Husayn Haykal, Muhammad (2008). The Life of Muhammad. Selangor: Islamic Book Trust.
p. 250.ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7.

41.

Jump up^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 10 (Part 10): Al-Anfal 41 to At-Tauba 92 2nd
Edition, p.20, ISBN 1-86179-700-1, MSA Publication Limited, 2009

42.

Jump up^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129

43.

Jump up^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 3) 2nd
Edition, p. 412, ISBN 1861797699, MSA Publication Limited, 2009. (online)

44.

Jump up^ Wright, Robin (1989). In the name of God: The Khomeini decade. New York: Simon and Schuster.
p. 133. ISBN 9780671672355.

45.

Jump up^ Laub, Karin (21 August 2011). "Libyan Rebels Say They Are Closing In on Tripoli". Associated
Press(via The Atlanta Journal-Constitution). Retrieved 21 August 2011.

References[edit]
Books and articles[edit]

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1987). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation & Commentary. Tahrike Tarsile
Qur'an; Reissue edition. ISBN 0-940368-32-3.

Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhmmad: Biography of the Prophet. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06250886-5.

Crone, Patricia (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Blackwell.

Hodgson, Marshall (1974). The Venture of Islam: The Classical Age of Islam. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-34683-8.

Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions
International. ISBN 0-89281-170-6.

Mubarakpuri, Safi-ul-Rahmn (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar.


Darussalam. ISBN 9960-899-55-1.

Nicolle, David (1993). Armies of the Muslim Conquest. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532279-X.

Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet. United States of America: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-530880-8.

Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press.

Online references[edit]

"Translation of Malik's Muwatta.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from


the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.

"Translation of Sahih Muslim.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the
original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.

"Translation of Sahih al-Bukhari.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from


the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved September 2010.

"Partial Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim


Texts. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved September 2010.

Islamic military jurisprudence


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Rules of war in Islam)

Part of a series on

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Islamic military jurisprudence refers to what has been accepted in Sharia (Islamic law)
and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) by Ulama (Islamic scholars) as the correct Islamic manner which is
expected to be obeyed by Muslimsin times of war.
Contents
[hide]

1 Development of rulings

2 Ethics of warfare

3 Criteria for soldiering

4 Legitimacy of war
o

4.1 Defensive conflict

4.2 Offensive conflict

5 International conflict
o

5.1 Declaration of war

5.2 Conduct of armed forces

5.2.1 Civilian areas

5.3 Negotiations

5.4 Ceasefire

5.5 Prisoners of War

6 Internal conflict

7 See also

8 Notes

9 References

10 Further reading

11 External links

Development of rulings[edit]
See also: Jihad, List of battles of Muhammad and Muhammad as a diplomat
The first military rulings were formulated during the first century after Muhammad established an
Islamic state in Medina. These rulings evolved in accordance with the interpretations of
the Qur'an (the Muslim Holy scriptures) and Hadith (the recorded traditions of Muhammad). The key
themes in these rulings were the justnessof war, and the injunction to jihad. The rulings do not
cover feuds and armed conflicts in general.
[1]

Jihad (Arabic for "struggle") was given a military dimension after the oppressive practices of
the Meccan Quraish against Muslims. It was interpreted as the struggle in God's cause to be
conducted by the Muslim community. Injunctions relating to jihad have been characterized as
individual as well as collective duties of theMuslim community. Hence, the nature of attack is
important in the interpretationif the Muslim community as a whole is attacked jihad becomes
incumbent on all Muslims. Jihad is differentiated further in respect to the requirements within Muslimgoverned lands (Dar al-Islam) and non-Muslim lands (Dar al-Harb).
[1]

According to Shaheen Sardar Ali and Javaid Rehman, both professors of law, the Islamic military
jurisprudence are in line with rules of modern international law. They point to the dual commitment
of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states (representing most of the Muslim world)
to Islamic law and the United Nations Charter, as evidence of compatibility of both legal systems.
[2]

Ethics of warfare[edit]
See also: Islamic ethics
The basic principle in fighting in the Qur'an is that other communities should be treated as one's
own. Fighting is justified for legitimate self-defense, to aid other Muslims and after a violation in the
terms of a treaty, but should be stopped if these circumstances cease to exist.
The principle of
forgiveness is reiterated in between the assertions of the right to self-defense.
[3][4][5][6]

[3]

During his life, Muhammad gave various injunctions to his forces and adopted practices toward the
conduct of war. The most important of these were summarized by Muhammad's companion and
first Caliph, Abu Bakr, in the form of ten rules for the Muslim army:
[7]

O people! I charge you with ten rules; learn them well!

Stop, O people, that I may give you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield. Do not commit treac

According to Tabari, the ten bits of "advice" that Abu Bakr gave was during the Expedition of Usama
bin Zayd. Imam Shaffi (founder of the Shaffi school of thought) reportedly did not consider the
tradition, about the 10 rules of Abu Bakr as authentic. Abu Yusuf also countered the tradition about
the instructions of Abu Bakr with hadith which claimed Abu Bakr ordered his commanders to lay
waste to every village where he did not hear the call to prayer. During the Battle of Siffin, the
Caliph Ali stated that Islam does not permit Muslims to stop the supply of water to their enemy. In
addition to the Rashidun Caliphs, hadiths attributed to Muhammad himself suggest that he stated the
following regarding the Muslim conquest of Egypt that eventually took place after his death:
[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

You are going to enter Egypt a land where qirat (money unit) is used. Be extremely good to them as t

These principles were upheld by 'Amr ibn al-'As during his conquest of Egypt. A Christian
contemporary in the 7th century, John of Niki, stated the following regarding the conquest
of Alexandria by 'Amr:

On the twentieth of Maskaram, Theodore and all his troops and officers set out and proceeded to the i
subjugation of Egypt by the Moslem. And 'Amr became stronger every day in every field of his activi

The principles established by the early Caliphs were also honoured during the Crusades, as
exemplified by Sultans such as Saladin and Al-Kamil. For example, after Al-Kamil defeated
the Franks during the Crusades, Oliverus Scholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war, commenting
on how Al-Kamil supplied the defeated Frankish army with food:
[14]

Who could doubt that such goodness, friendship and charity come from God? Men whose parents, son

The early Islamic treatises on international law from the 9th century onwards covered the application
of Islamic ethics, Islamic economic jurisprudence and Islamic military jurisprudence to international
law, and were concerned with a number of modern international law topics, including the law of
treaties; the treatment ofdiplomats, hostages, refugees and prisoners of war; the right of
asylum; conduct on the battlefield; protection of women, children and noncombatant civilians;contracts across the lines of battle; the use of poisonous weapons; and
devastation of enemy territory.
[16]

[14]

Criteria for soldiering[edit]


Muslim jurists agree that Muslim armed forces must consist of debt-free adults who possess a sound
mind and body. In addition, the combatants must not beconscripted, but rather enlist of their free will,
and with the permission of their family.
[17]

Traditionally, "adults" have been defined as post-pubescent individuals above the age of 15.

Legitimacy of war[edit]

See also: Defensive jihad and Offensive jihad


Muslims have struggled to differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate wars. Fighting in selfdefense is not only legitimate but considered obligatory upon Muslims, according to the Qur'an. The
Qur'an, however, says that should the enemy's hostile behavior cease, then the reason for engaging
the enemy also lapses.
[18]

Some scholars argue that war may only be legitimate if Muslims have at least half the power of the
enemy (and thus capable of winning it). Other Islamic scholarsconsider this command only for a
particular time.
[19]

Defensive conflict[edit]
The Hanafi school of thought holds that war can only be launched against a state that had resorted
to armed conflict against the Muslims. War, according to the Hanafis, can't simply be made on the
account of a nation's religion. Sheikh Abdullah Azzam considers the defense by Muslims of their
territory as one of the foremost obligations after faith. Abdulaziz Sachedina argues that the original
jihad according to his version of Shi'ism was permission to fight back against those who broke their
pledges. Thus the Qur'an justified defensive jihad by allowing Muslims to fight back against hostile
and dangerous forces.
[18]

[20]

[21]

Offensive conflict[edit]
[show]

List of battles of Muhammad

Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (d. 820), founder of the Shafi'i school of thought, was the first to
permit offensive jihad. He limited this warfare against pagan Arabs only, not permitting it against nonArab non-Muslims.
[18]

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi believes that after Muhammad and his companions, there is no concept in
Islam obliging Muslims to wage war for propagation or implementation of Islam. The only valid basis
for military jihad is to end oppression when all other measures have failed. Islam only allows jihad to
be conducted by a government.
[22][23][24]

According to Abdulaziz Sachedina, offensive jihad raises questions about whether jihad is justifiable
on moral grounds. He states that the Qur'an requires Muslims to establish just public order,
increasing the influence of Islam, allowing public Islamic worship, through offensive measures. To
this end, the Qur'anic verses revealed required Muslims to wage jihad against unbelievers who
persecuted them. This has been complicated by the early Muslim wars of expansion, which he
argues were although considered jihad by Sunni scholars, but under close scrutiny can be
determined to be political. Moreover, the offensive jihad points more to the complex relationship with
the "People of the book".
[21]

International conflict[edit]
International conflicts are armed strifes conducted by one state against another, and are
distinguished from civil wars or armed strife within a state. Some classical Islamic scholars, like
the Shafi'i, classified territories into broad categories: dar al-islam ("abode of Islam"), dar alharb ("abode of war), dar al-ahd ("abode of treaty"), and dar al-sulh ("abode of reconciliation"). Such
[25]

categorizations of states, according to Asma Afsaruddin, are not mentioned in the Qur'an and Islamic
tradition.
[18]

Declaration of war[edit]
The Qur'an commands Muslims to make a proper declaration of war prior to the commencement of
military operations. Thus, surprise attacks are illegal under the Islamic jurisprudence. The Qur'an
had similarly commanded Muhammad to give his enemies, who had violated the Treaty of
Hudaybiyyah, a time period of four months to reconsider their position and negotiate. This rule,
however, is not binding if the adversary has already started the war. Forcible prevention of religious
practice is considered an act of war.
[26]

[27]

[28]

Conduct of armed forces[edit]


During battle the Qur'an commands Muslims to fight against the enemy. However, there are
exceptions to such combat. Torturing the enemy, and burning the combatants alive is strictly
prohibited. The mutilation of dead bodies is also prohibited. The Qur'an also discourages Muslim
combatants from displaying pomp and unnecessary boasting when setting out for battle.
[29]

[30]

[31]

According to professor Sayyid Dmd, no explicit injunctions against use of chemical or biological
warfare were developed by medieval Islamic jurists as these threats were not existent then.
However, Khalil al-Maliki's Book on jihad states that combatants are forbidden to employ weapons
that cause unnecessary injury to the enemy, except under dire circumstances. The book, as an
example, forbids the use of poisonous spears, since it inflicts unnecessary pain.
[32]

Civilian areas[edit]

According to all Muslim scholars it is not permissible to kill women or children unless they are
fighting against the Muslims. According to the Hanafi, Hanbali , Maliki , and Shafi'i schools it is not
permissible to kill old men, monks, peasants, employees and traders (this meaning male noncombatants).
Harming civilian areas and pillaging residential areas is also forbidden, as is the destruction of
trees, crops, livestock and farmlands.
The Muslim forces may not loot travelers, as doing so is
contrary to the spirit of jihad. Nor do they have the right to use the local facilities of the native
people without their consent. If such a consent is obtained, the Muslim army is still under the
obligation to compensate the people financially for the use of such facilities. However, Islamic law
allows the confiscation of military equipment and supplies captured from the camps and military
headquarters of the combatant armies.
[33]

[29][34]

[35]

[33][36]

Negotiations[edit]
Commentators of the Qur'an agree that Muslims should always be willing and ready to negotiate
peace with the other party without any hesitation. According toMaududi, Islam does not permit
Muslims to reject peace and continue bloodshed.
[37]

Islamic jurisprudence calls for third party interventions as another means of ending conflicts. Such
interventions are to establish mediation between the two parties to achieve a just resolution of the
dispute.
[38]

Ceasefire[edit]
In the context of seventh century Arabia, the Qur'an ordained Muslims must restrain themselves
from fighting in the months when fighting was prohibited by Arabpagans. The Qur'an also required
the respect of this cease-fire, prohibiting its violation.
[27]

If, however, non-Muslims commit acts of aggression, Muslims are free to retaliate, though in a
manner that is equal to the original transgression. The "sword verse", which has attracted attention,
is directed against a particular group who violate the terms of peace and commit aggression (but
[39]

excepts those who observe the treaty). Crone states that this verse seems to be based on the same
above-mentioned rules. Here also it is stressed that one must stop when they do. Ibn Kathir states
that the verse implies a hasty mission of besieging and gathering intelligence about the enemy,
resulting in either death or repentance by the enemy. It is read as a continuation of previous
verses, it would be concerned with the same oath-breaking of "polytheists".
[3][5]

[40]

[3]

Prisoners of War[edit]
Main article: Prisoners of war in Islam
See also: Islamic views on slavery
Men, women, and children may all be taken as prisoners of war under traditional interpretations of
Islamic law. Generally, a prisoner of war could be, at the discretion of the military leader, freed,
ransomed, exchanged for Muslim prisoners,
or kept as slaves. In earlier times, the ransom
sometimes took an educational dimension, where a literate prisoner of war could secure his or her
freedom by teaching ten Muslims to read and write. Some Muslim scholars hold that a prisoner
may not be ransomed for gold or silver, but may be exchanged for Muslim prisoners.
[41][42]

[43]

[44]

Women and children prisoners of war cannot be killed under any circumstances, regardless of their
religious convictions, but they may be freed or ransomed. Women who are neither freed nor
ransomed by their people were to be kept in bondage and referred to as malakah,dispute however
exist among scholars on its interpretation. Islamic law does not put an exact limit on the number that
can be kept in bondage.
[45]

Internal conflict[edit]
Internal conflicts include "civil wars", launched against rebels, and "wars for welfare" launched
against bandits.
[25]

During their first civil war, Muslims fought at the Battle of Bassorah. In this engagement, Ali (the
caliph), set the precedent for war against other Muslims, which most later Muslims have accepted.
According to Ali's rules, wounded or captured enemies should not be killed, those throwing away
their arms should not be fought, and those fleeing from the battleground should not be pursued. Only
captured weapons and animals (horses and camels which have been used in the war) are to be
considered war booty. No war prisoners, women or children are to be enslaved and the property of
the slain enemies are to go their legal Muslim heirs.
[46]

Different views regarding armed rebellion have prevailed in the Muslim world at different times.
During the first three centuries of Muslim history, jurists held that a political rebel may not be
executed nor his/her property confiscated.
[47]

Classical jurists, however, laid down severe penalties for rebels who use "stealth attacks" and
"spread terror". In this category, Muslim jurists included abductions, poisoning of water wells, arson,
attacks against wayfarers and travellers, assaults under the cover of night and rape. The punishment
for such crimes were severe, including death, regardless of the political convictions and religion of
the perpetrator. Further, rebels who committed acts of terrorism were granted no quarter.
[47]

See also[edit]

Islam and war

Geneva Conventions

Hague conventions

Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC)

Itmaam-i-hujjat

Laws of war

Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad

Notes[edit]
1.
2.

3.

^ Jump up to:a b Aboul-Enein and Zuhur (2004), p. 3-4


Jump up^ Ali, Shaheen Sardar; Rehman, Javaid. (Winter, 2005) "The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International
Law". Journal of Conflict & Security Law. 10 (3) pp. 32143.
^ Jump up to:a b c d Patricia Crone, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, War article, p.456. Brill Publishers

4.

Jump up^ Micheline R. Ishay, The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization
Era, University of California Press, p.45

5.

^ Jump up to:a b Sohail H. Hashmi, David Miller, Boundaries and Justice: diverse ethical perspectives, Princeton
University Press, p.197

6.

Jump up^ Douglas M. Johnston, Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik, Oxford University Press, p.48

7.

^ Jump up to:a b Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf and Zuhur, Sherifa, Islamic Rulings on Warfare, p. 22, Strategic Studies
Institute, US Army War College, Diane Publishing Co., Darby PA, ISBN 1-4289-1039-5

8.

Jump up^ Tabari, Al (1993). The conquest of Arabia. State University of New York Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-07914-1071-4

9.

Jump up^ Tasseron, Ella Landau. "Non-combatants in Muslim Legal Thought" (PDF).Hudson Institute. p. 6.
Retrieved 3 July 2011. Regarding monks, two contradictory opinions are attributed to Shfi. On one occasion, he
accepts the tradition attributed to Ab Bakr prohibiting the killing of monks. Their lives are forfeit only if they actively fight
against Muslims; but if they assist the enemy in other ways, they are to be punished but not executed. Elsewhere in the
same book, Shfi states that all infidel men without exception must convert to Islam or be killed; all men of the
protected religions (ahl al-kitb) must pay jizya or be killed. He emphasizes that this rule applies to monks as well and
denies the authenticity of the tradition attributed to Ab Bakr, which he himself had accepted on another occasion.
Alternatively, he explains that even if the tradition from Ab Bakr is authentic, this does not mean that monks may not be
killed. Ab Bakrs intention, according to Shfi, was that monasteries be left aside temporarily in order to concentrate
on more important military targets first. Shfi thus concludes that monks are not included in the lists of noncombatants, and they most definitely may be fought and killed. An archive of the page is available here

10.

Jump up^ Joseph Schacht (1959). Origins of Muhammadan jurisprudence. Clarendon Press.
p. 145. ISBN 978-1-59740-474-7. Abu Bakr instructed one of his commanders to lay waste every village where he did not
hear the call to prayer.

11.

Jump up^ Encyclopaedia of Islam (2005), p.204

12.

Jump up^ El Daly, Okasha (2004). Egyptology: The Missing Millennium : Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic
Writings. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 1-84472-063-2.

13.

Jump up^ John of Niki (7th century). "CXX.72-CXXI.3". Chronicle. Retrieved 2010-03-31.Check date values
in: |date= (help)

14.

^ Jump up to:a b Judge Weeramantry, Christopher G. (1997). Justice Without Frontiers. Brill Publishers.
p. 136. ISBN 90-411-0241-8.

15.

Jump up^ Judge Weeramantry, Christopher G. (1997). Justice Without Frontiers. Brill Publishers. pp. 136
7. ISBN 90-411-0241-8.

16.

Jump up^ Kelsay, J. (March 2003). "Al-Shaybani and the Islamic Law of War". Journal of Military
Ethics (Routledge) 2 (1): 6375. doi:10.1080/15027570310000027.

17.

Jump up^ Aboul-Enein and Zuhur, p. 12-13

18.

^ Jump up to:a b c d Afsaruddin, Asma (2007). Views of Jihad Throughout History. Religion Compass 1 (1), 165
169.

19.

Jump up^ Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Tafhim al-Qur'an.[1]

20.

Jump up^ Azzam, Abdullah. "DEFENCE OF THE MUSLIM LANDS".

21.

^ Jump up to:a b Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1988). The Just Ruler In Shi'ite Islam. Oxford University Press US.
p. 106. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.

22.

Jump up^ Sahih Bukhari, 2957, A Muslim ruler is the shield [of his people]. An armed struggle can only be
carried out under him and people should seek his shelter [in war].

23.

Jump up^ Ghamidi, Mizan.

24.

Jump up^ Misplaced Directives, Renaissance, Al-Mawrid Institute, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2002.[2]

25.

^ Jump up to:a b Dmd (2003), p.261

26.

Jump up^ Maududi (1967), p. 177, vol. 2

27.

^ Jump up to:a b Maududi (1998), p. 36

28.

Jump up^ Mohammad, Noor (1985). "The Doctrine of Jihad: An Introduction". Journal of Law and Religion (St.
Paul: Journal of Law and Religion, Inc.) 3 (2): 387.doi:10.2307/1051182.

29.

^ Jump up to:a b Ali ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol.3, p.227

30.

Jump up^ Ghamid (2001), referring to Sahih Bukhari 3016, and Sahih Bukhari 2613

31.

Jump up^ Ghamidi (2001), referring to Quran 8:47

32.

Jump up^ Dmd(2003), p. 266

33.

^ Jump up to:a b Maududi (1998), p. 35

34.

Jump up^ Ali (1991), p. 79, quoting Quran 2:190

35.

Jump up^ Ghamidi (2006), refers to Sahih Bukhari 2629

36.

Jump up^ Ghamidi (2001), refers to a hadith "plundered [food] is not better than dead meat [forbidden in
Islam]" Sahih Bukhari 2705

37.

Jump up^ Maududi (1967), p. 151-4, vol.2

38.

Jump up^ Abu-Nimer(2000-2001), p. 246.

39.

Jump up^ Ali (1991), p. 81

40.

Jump up^ This is the Ayah of the Sword by Ibn Kathir

41.

Jump up^ Tafsir of the Qur'an by Ibn Kathir [3]

42.

Jump up^ Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam

43.

Jump up^ Ibrahim Syed, Education of Muslims in Kentucky Prisons. Louisville: Islamic Research Foundation
International

44.

Jump up^ 'Abu Yusuf Ya'qub Le Livre de l'impot foncier,' translated from Arabic and annotated by Edmond
Fagnan, Paris, Paul Geuthner, 1991, pages 301-302. Abu Yusuf (d. 798 CE)

45.

Jump up^ Patricia Crone (2004), pp. 371-72

46.

Jump up^ Madelung (1997), p.179

47.

^ Jump up to:a b Abou El Fadl, Khaled. [Commentary: Terrorism Is at Odds With Islamic Tradition]. Muslim
Lawyers

References[edit]

Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf; Zuhur, Sherifa, "Islamic Rulings on Warfare", Strategic Studies


Institute, US Army War College, Diane Publishing Co., Darby PA, ISBN 1-4289-1039-5

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed (20002001). "A Framework for Nonviolence and Peacebuilding in


Islam". Journal of Law and Religion 15 (1/2). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing
Complex.

Dmd, Sayyid Mustafa Muhaqqiq et al. (2003). Islamic views on Human Rights. Tehran:
Center for Cultural-International Studies.

Crone, Patricia (2004). God's Rule: Government and Islam. New York: Columbia University
Press.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, Mizan (2001). The Islamic Law of Jihad, Dar ulIshraq. OCLC 52901690

Nicola Melis, Trattato sulla guerra. Il Kitb al-ihd di Molla Hsrev, Aipsa, Cagliari 2002.

Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.

Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala (1967). The Meaning of the Quran. Lahore: Islamic publications.

Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala (1998). Human Rights in Islam. Islamabad: Da'wah Academy.

M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed, ed. (2005). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anmol
Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 81-261-2339-7.

Islam Question and Answer, "[4]", Ruling on having intercourse with a slave woman when
one has a wife

Islam Question and Answer, "[5]", Husband forcing his wife to have intercourse

Further reading[edit]

Khadduri, Majid (1955). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 158477-695-1.

Hashmi, ed., Sohail H. (2002). Islamic Political Ethics: Civil Society, Pluralism, and Conflict.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11310-6.

Malik, S. K. (1986). The Quranic Concept of War (PDF). Himalayan Books. ISBN 81-7002020-4.

Swarup, Ram (1982). Understanding Islam through Hadis. Voice of Dharma. ISBN 0-68249948-X.

Trifkovic, Serge (2006). Defeating Jihad. Regina Orthodox Press, USA. ISBN 1-928653-26X.

Phillips, Melanie (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within.
Encounter books. ISBN 1-59403-144-4.

External links[edit]
Wikiquote has quotations
related to: Islamic military
jurisprudence

Islamic Texts on the rules of war

The Qur'an and War: Observations on Islamic Just War

Defending The Transgressed By Censuring The Reckless Against The Killing Of Civilians

Islam Q&A: Treatment of prisoners-of-war in Islam

Islamtoday.net: Islamic Law and Prisoners of War

Directives of Islam Regarding Jihad

The Rules of War According to Islam - hWeb.org.uk

Does the Quran Really Sanction Violence Against 'Unbelievers'? by Shaikh Kabir
Helminski, The Huffington Post
Jihad and the Islamic Law of War

Jihad in Hadith
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on

Hadith

Sunni1[show]

Shi'ah[show]

Ibadi[show]

Mu'tazila[show]

Related topics[hide]

Biographical evaluation

Criticism

History

Jihad

Studies

Terminology

Types (categories)

- Books also revered by Ahmadis

Category
Islam portal

This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this article by
adding secondary or tertiary sources. (January 2010)

Hadith are narrations originating from the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith are regarded by thetraditional schools of jurisprudence as important tools for understanding
the Qur'an and in matters of jurisprudence. Jihadis an Islamic term which is a religious duty
of Muslims. As in other matters of Islam, there are many Hadith explaining the concept of Jihad.

Sahih al-Bukhari[edit]
Sahih al-Bukhari is one of the six canonical Hadith collections of Sunni Islam. Sunni Muslims regard
it as being the most authentic of the six, and is considered to be the most authentic book after Quran. Sahih al-Bukhari contains a chapter "Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad)".
[1]

[2]

According to a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari, participating in Jihad is the third best deed for man, after
offering prayers at their stated times and being dutiful to one's parents whereas another Hadith in
the same collection has Jihad as the second best deed, after belief in Allah and Muhammad. In
another Hadith in Bukhari, it is said that there is no migration after the Conquest of Mecca, but Jihad
and good intention remain; and if one is called by the Muslim ruler for fighting, one should go forth
immediately. Jihad for women is different from that of men. In 4:42:42, Muhammad is reported to
have said that the best Jihad for women is Hajj. Another Hadith (4:52:44) says that no deed equals
Jihad in reward, and that the Mujahid is rewarded even for the footsteps of his horse while it
wanders about.
[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

See also[edit]

Sahih al-Bukhari

Muhammad

Historicity of Muhammad

References[edit]
1.

Jump up^ Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, pg. 160-9 Dar al-Maaarif edition

2.

Jump up^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 52: Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)

3.

Jump up^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:41

4.

Jump up^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:2:25

5.

Jump up^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:42

6.

Jump up^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:42:43

7.

Jump up^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:44

Francis Edward Peters


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from F.E. Peters)

Francis Edward Peters (born June 23, 1927, New York City), who generally publishes as F.E.
Peters, is Professor Emeritus of History, Religion and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New
York University (NYU).
[1]

Peters was born in New York City and graduated from Regis High School in Manhattan in 1945. He
entered the Jesuits that summer and spent four years at their novitiate at St. Andrew on Hudson in
Hyde Park, N.Y. He then studied at St. Louis University for three years, earning his B.A. in 1950 and
his M.A. in Latin and Greek in 1952, as well as a licentiate in philosophy awarded by a Pontifical
Institute in Rome. He taught for two years from 1952 to 1954 at Canisius High School in Buffalo,
N.Y., and was released from his Jesuit vows in 1954. He earned a degree in Russian language
studies from Fordham University in 1956 and complete his Ph.D. in Islamic Studies at Princeton
University in 1961. He taught at NYU from 1961 to 2008. Trained in both Islamic studies and in
classical Greek and Roman studies, he considers himself a scholar of religion, particularly the
comparative study of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
[2]

At NYU he has served as chairperson of both the Classics and the Middle Eastern Studies
departments. He has been a visiting professor at a number of other institutions, including several in
the Middle East as well as the General Theological Seminary in New York City.
He has participated in curating exhibitions at the College of the Holy Cross, The British Library, and
the New York Public Library.
[3]

Contents
[hide]

1 Selected works

2 See also

3 References

4 External links

Selected works[edit]
Author

Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon, New York University Press (1967)

Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam, New York University Press (1968)

Aristoteles Arabus. The Oriental Translations and Commentaries of the Aristotelian Corpus,
E. J. Brill, Leiden (1968)

Harvest of Hellenism: A History of the Near East from Alexander the Great to the Triumph of
Christianity, Simon and Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-20658-3(1971)

Allah's Commonwealth: A History of Islam in the Near East, 6001100 A.D., Simon and
Schuster, New York, ISBN 0-671-21564-7 (1973)

Jerusalem: Holy City/Holy Places, New York University, Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near
Eastern Studies, New York (1983)

Jerusalem: The Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Visitors, Pilgrims, and Prophets from
the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691-07300-7 (1985)

Distant Shrine: The Islamic Centuries in Jerusalem, AMS Press, New York, ISBN 0-40461629-1 (1993)

Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places, Princeton University Press, ISBN
0-691-02120-1 (1994)

Jerusalem and Mecca: The Typology of the Holy City in the Near East, New York University
Press, ISBN 0-8147-6598-X (1986)

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: The Classical Texts and Their Interpretation, Princeton
University Press

Volume I: From Covenant to Community, ISBN 0-691-02044-2 (1990)

Volume II: The Word and the Law and the People of God, ISBN 0-691-02054X (1990)

Volume III: The Works of the Spirit, ISBN 0-691-02055-8 (1990)

"The Quest of the Historical Muhammad", in International Journal of Middle East Studies,
Vol. 23, No. 3. (August 1991), pp. 291-315

Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-79141875-8 (1994)

Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-69103267-X (1994)

The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton
University Press

Volume I: The Peoples of God, ISBN 0-691-11460-9 (1994)

Volume II: The Words and Will of God, ISBN 0-691-11461-7 (1994)

Judaism, Christianity and Islam: the Monotheists, Recorded Books, Prince Frederick,
MD, ISBN 1-4025-3900-2 (2003)
Islam, A Guide for Jews and Christians, (2003)

Jerusalem: The Contested City, Recorded Books, Prince Frederick, MD, ISBN 1-4025-39096 (2003)

Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, with a foreword by John L. Esposito,


Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-07267-1 (2004)

The Voice, the Word, The Books. The Sacred Scriptures of the Jews, Christians and
Muslims, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-13112-0 (2007)

Jesus and Muhammad. Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives, Oxford University Press, New
York, ISBN 978-0-19-974746-7 (2010)
Autobiography

Ours, The Making and Unmaking of a Jesuit, Penguin Books, New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-14006317-X (1982)
Editor

Arabs and Arabia on the Eve of Islam, Aldershot, Brookfield, Vt., ISBN 0-86078-702-8 (1999)

Reader on Classical Islam, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-03394-3 (1994)

See also[edit]

Islamic scholars

Jack Miles

References[edit]
1.

Jump up^ Directory, Foreign Area Fellows, 1952-1972 (Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 1973), p. 141.

2.

Jump up^ Peters, F.E. (1981). Ours: The Making and Unmaking of a Jesuit. NY: Richard Marek Publishers.
pp. 15, 29, 1613, 190, 192, 211, 214. ISBN 0-399-90113-2.

3.

Jump up^ "Pilgrimage and Faith: Buddhism, Christianity and Islam". Cantor Art Gallery. College of the Holy
Cross. Retrieved December 2, 2014.