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Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.

Instinct is a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Drive reduction theoryis the idea that a physiological need (such as for food or water) creates
an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need.
The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis (literally staying the same) the
maintenance of a steady internal state. An example of homeostasis, is the bodys temperatureregulation system, which operates through feedback loops: if our bodys temperature cools, our
blood vessels constrict to conserve warmth, and we feel driven to put on more clothes or seek a
warmer environment. Meanwhile, our bodys internal system is working vigorously to maintain
for us the same healthy body temperature.
Drive reduction theoryis the idea that a physiological need creates an urge or a drive that
creates a tense need state, which motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Homeostasis is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state. It is the regulation
of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
Incentive is a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates or urges behavior.
Driven by curiosity Young monkeys and children are fascinated by the unfamiliar. Their drive to
explore maintains an optimum level of arousal and is one of several motives that do not fill any
immediate physiological need.
Yerkes-Dodson law is the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point,
beyond which performance decreases.
Hierarchy of needs Maslows pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological
needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs
become active. It is
1) Physiological needs. 2) Higher-level safety needs. 3) Psychological needs.
Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or
well-learned tasks.
(1) How might this phenomenon affect runners?
(2) How might this phenomenon affect anxious test-takers facing a difficult exam?
(3) How might the performance of anxious students be affected by relaxation training?
(1) Runners tend to excel when aroused by competition. (2) High anxiety in test-takers may
disrupt their performance. 3) Teaching anxious students how to relax before an exam can enable
them to perform better (Hembree, 1988).
How do instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, and arousal theory contribute to our
understanding of motivated behavior?
Instincts and evolutionary psychology help explain the genetic basis for our unlearned, speciestypical behaviors. From drive-reduction theory, we know that our physiological needs (such
arousal as hunger) creates an aroused state that drives us to reduce the need (for example, by
eating).
After hours of driving alone in an unfamiliar city, you finally see a diner. Although it looks
deserted and a little creepy, you stop because you are really hungry. How would Maslows
hierarchy of needs explain your behavior?
According to Maslow, our drive to meet the physiological needs of hunger and thirst take priority
over safety needs, prompting us to take risks at times in order to eat.
Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy
for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Set point the point at which your weight thermostat is supposedly set. When your body falls
below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the
lost weight.

Basal metabolic rate the bodys resting rate of energy expenditure.


Hunger occurs in response to ___ low___ (low/high) blood glucose and __high___ (low/high) levels
of ghrelin.
After an eight-hour hike without food, your long-awaited favorite dish is placed in front of you,
and your mouth waters in anticipation. Why?
You have learned to respond to the sight and aroma that signal the food about to enter your
mouth. Both physiological cues (low blood sugar) and psychological cues (anticipation of the
tasty meal), heighten your experienced hunger.
Why can two people of the same height, age, and activity level maintain the same weight,
even if one of them eats much less than the other does?
Individuals have very different set points and genetically influenced metabolism levels, causing
them to burn calories differently.
The primary male sex hormone is __ testosterone __. The primary female sex hormones are the
__ estrogens ___.
Social networking tends to ___ strengthen ____ (strengthen/weaken) your relationships with
people you already know, ___ increase ___ (increase/decrease) your self-disclosure, and
___ reveal ___ (reveal/hide) your true personality.
Achievement is motivation a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas;
for control; and for attaining a high standard.
Grit in psychology, is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.
What have researchers found an even better predictor of school performance than intelligence
test scores?
Self-discipline

Ch. 6
Clairvoyance: a type of ESP that involves perceiving remote events.
Wavelength: the distance from the peak of one light wave to the peak of the next.
Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from short blips of cosmic rays to the lone pulses of radio
transmission.
Vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
Comes from the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear.
Monocular cues: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye
alone.
Interposition: a monocular depth cue where if one object partially blocks our view of another, we
perceive it as closer.
Cochlear implant: a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the
auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
Iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and
controls the size of the pupil opening.
Visual cliff: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Conduction hearing loss: hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that
conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Difference threshold: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50
percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (jnd).
Feature detectors: nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such
as shape, angle, or movement.

Perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Relative height: a monocular depth cue where we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as
farther away.
Precognition: a type of ESP that involves perceiving future events.
Rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight
vision, when cones don't respond.
Perceptual adaptation: in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted
visual field:
gate-control theory: the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks
pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain
signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information
coming from the brain.
Top-down processing: information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when
we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the
retina.
Intensity: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or
loudness, as determined by wave's amplitude.
Stroboscopic movement: a phenomenon where the brain perceives continuous movement in a
rapid series of slightly varying images.
Opponent-process theory: the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue,
white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited
by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
Telepathy: a type of ESP involving mind-to mind-communication; sending thoughts to another or
perceiving another's thoughts.
Weber's law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli mist differ by a constant
minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).
Figure-ground: Young- Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory.
Linear perspective: a monocular depth cue where parallel lines (such as railroad tracks) converge
in the distance.
Hue: the dimension of one color that is determined by wavelength of light; what we know as the
color names blue, green, and so forth.
Psychokinesis: "mind over matter;" the ability to move objects with your mind.
Bottom-up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the
brain's integration of sensory information.
Kinesthesis: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
Frequency theory: in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory
nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
Sensory adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Binocular cues: depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes.
Cones: retinal receptors cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that
function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to color
sensations.
Pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus
layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.

Retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the retinas in
the two eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between the
two images, the closer the object.
Optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Fovea: the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike
the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
Accommodation: the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects
on the retina.
Signal detection theory: a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint
stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute
threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation,
and level of fatigue.
Audition: The sense or act of hearing.
Inner ear: the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and
vestibular sacs.
Middle ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones
(hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval
window.
Cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger
nerve impulses.
Place theory: in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the
cochlea's membrane in stimulated.
Frequency theory: in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory
nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
Sensorineural hearing loss: hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to
the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
Sensory adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Sensory interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of
food influences its taste.
Closure: our tendency to fill gaps to create a complete, whole object while perceiving objects.
Gestalt: an organized whole. This approach in psychology emphasizes our tendency to integrate
whole pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Pitch: a tone's experienced highness of lowness; depends on frequency.
Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's
perceptions, memory, or response.
Grouping: the perpetual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Blind Spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no
receptor cells are located there.
Human factors psychology: a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines
interact and how machines and physical environments and be made safe and easy to use.
Parapsychology: the study of paranormal, including ESP and psychokinesis.
Sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and
represent stimulus energies from our environment.

Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to


recognize meaningful objects and events
Perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, sizes,
lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Psychophysics: the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as
their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Subliminal: below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Extrasensory perception (ESP): the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from
sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
Phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and
off in quick succession.
Relative size: a monocular depth cue where if we assume two objects are similar in size, most
people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away.
Transduction: conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of
stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can
interpret.
Color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing
illumination alters the wavelengths reflected back by the object.
Parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's
natural mode of information processing for many functions including vision. Contrasts with the
step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and conscious problem solving
Absolute threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent
of the time.
Frequency: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given second (for
example, per second).

Ch. 11
Ventromedial hypothalamus: depresses hunger when activated.
Set Point: the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the
body falls below this weight, an increase in huger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to
restore the lost weight.
Lateral hypothalamus: brings on hunger when activated.
Binge-eating disorder: significant binge-eating, episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt,
but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive energy that mark bulimia nervosa.
Bulimia nervosa: an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of highcalorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Anorexia nervosa: an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and
becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Drive-reduction theory: the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a
drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Basal metabolic rate: the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
Halo errors: occurs when one's overall evaluation of an employee biases rating of specific workrelated behaviors.

Testosterone: the most important of the male sex hormones. Both male and females have it, but
the additional testosterone in makes stimulates the growth of the make sex organs in the fetus
and the development of the make sex characteristics during puberty.
Estrogens: sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than males
and contributing to sex- characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak
during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
Sexual orientation: an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex
(homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
Sexual response cycle: According to Johnson & Masters, the four stages of sexual responding are:
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Sexual disorders: a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Refractory period: a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another
orgasm.
Instinct: a complex behavior pattern that is rigidly pattered throughout a species and unlearned.
Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Incentive: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of needs: Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological
needs that must first be satisfied before higher- level safety needs and then psychological needs.
Personnel psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment,
selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Structured interviews: interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all
applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
360-degree feedback: a system where performance feedback comes from all organizational
levels e.g. You rate yourself and also be rated by you manager, other colleagues, and customers.
Glucose: the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy
for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people,
or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
Task leadership: goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses
attention on goals.
Homeostasis: a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any
aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
Organizational psychology: a subfield of I/0 psychology that examines organizational influences
on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
Industrial/organization (I/) psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods to
optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Flow: a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self
and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
Social Leadership: group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers
support.
Personnel psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employment recruitment,
selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.

Ch. 12

Two-factor theory: the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be
physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
Polygraph: a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the
physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and
breathing changes)
Emotion: a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive
behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
Catharsis hypothesis: emotional release. In psychology it posits that "releasing" aggressive
energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Adaptation level phenomenon: our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, lights, of income)
relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
Facial feedback: the phenomenon where in the absence of competing emotions, making a facial
expression can lead to feeling the corresponding emotion.
Subjective well-being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with
measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate
people's quality of life.
Cannon-Bard theory: the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1)
physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Relative deprivation: the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one
compares to oneself.
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
James-Lange theory: the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our
physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.

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