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THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE

MEDICINE
CONCEPT OF DAMPNESS
E. F. BLOCK IV
June 2007
Updated February 2011
Updated June 2015

INTRODUCTION
The subject of etiology is study of the origins of disease, the causative
factors, in the body. Pathogenesis is the study of the actual processes
within the body whereby disease occurs, develops and changes. One of
the most central concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is that
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of the intimate connection between the body of man and the


environment within which man lives, works and plays. The physiology of
the cells, tissues, zang-fu organs and meridian system of the body is in
dynamic internal equilibrium and constantly adjusts to the vagaries of
the external environment. If the body is not able to cope with changes in
the environment, if the body is not able to adjust to changing external
conditions, internal equilibrium will be lost and disease will be the result.
Thus, according to the constitution of any particular individual, the
presence of disease is due to a lack of adaptability by the physiology of
the individual to the conditions of the environment.(1)
The above paragraph assumes that one is healthy, eating nourishing
foodstuffs, drinking clean water and getting the proper amount of
exercise. In addition to being able to alter the physiology of the body to
changing environmental conditions, a healthy body needs nutritious
foodstuffs and clean water in order to maintain the integrity of the body.
Our ancestors did not have or use herbicides and pesticides that are of
manmade origin. All of their food was what we call today as "organic".
Also, while they may have needed to drink fermented beverages in order
to ingest liquids that were not contaminated with pathogenic
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microorganisms, these beverages were not contaminated with injurious


manmade organic compounds that seem to be ubiquitous in today's
drinking water. The reason that the condition of Dampness seems to be
rampant in industrialized societies is due in part to the burden of unnatural substances in our food and water that needs to be eliminated
from our bodies after ingestion/consumption. Dampness is a condition
that is partly hormonally based. The body reaction to chronic stress is to
produce more cortisol which can then result in the accumulation of fat
tissue. Another source of weight gain is the eating of much of the
manufactured foodstuffs in a developed country. The use of white flour,
refined sugar, hydrogenated oils and soybean products in the
manufacture of foodstuffs is a quite serious problematical health issue in
itself. Also, the ingestion of xenoestrogens
(https://womeninbalance.org/2012/10/26/xenoestrogens-what-are-theyhow-to-avoid-them/) that are found in our foodstuffs severly complicates
the problem. Xenoestrogens are a sub-category of endocrine disruptor
compounds that specifically have estrogen-like effects in the body.
These compounds are found in multiple aspects of contemporary life.
Please read the above link to discover these sources and how to avoid
them. See the link on osteoarthritis for more information.
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TCM etiology lists many factors that are the cause of disease. These
include the six exogenous factors, the seven emotions, the lack of
physical exercise, an improper diet, traumatic injury, bites of insects and
animals, stagnant blood and phlegm fluid. The causative factors will
affect the body in a specific manner or ways. These aberrations are the
signs and symptoms that are used in order to analyze clinical
manifestations. The clinical manifestations provide the basis for the
etiology of disease produced by each causative factor.
There is a saying in TCM - "The earth element creates dampness and
the metal element stores it." In CM, The organs associated with the earth
element are the Stomach and Spleen. The organs associated with the
metal element are the Lungs and Large Intestine. When dampness is
created by impaired digestion, caused by chronic improper nutrition, it
likes to end up in the Lungs and Large Intestine. When dampness
moves into the Lungs, the usual symptom is phlegm coming up while
coughing (especially after eating something that is inherently difficult to
digest such as a milk shake, other cold dairy products, or greasy foods).
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lined stools, loose stools, sticky stools that are difficult to clean up after,
or diarrhea with undigested bits of food in it. Even intestinal rumblings
are due to dampness in the intestines. These are all forms of internal
dampness. Internal dampness is directly due to the impaired
transformative and transportive function of the Spleen system that then
results in some form of pathogenesis within the body, zang-fu organs
and meridians.
In Chinese Medicine, dampness is considered to be the cause of many
illnesses such as high cholesterol, cancer, metabolic disorders, chronic
fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, allergies and environmental illness.
DISCUSSION
For the sake of this discussion, only the symptoms of the aberrations of
water metabolism will be considered. There are two general categories of
Dampness: external and internal. Internal dampness is most common
and will easily combine with Heat or Cold to cause Damp-Heat or DampCold. Dampness can be thought of as the condition of "high humidity"
inside the body. Symptoms can include a feeling of heaviness, swelling
(edema) or water retention, distended abdomen, any type of phlegm
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discharge, nodular masses (lymph nodes), loose bowels and turbidity of


fluids. Individuals with a Dampness condition often have sluggish energy
and easily gain weight. The pulse is commonly described as slippery;
the tongue is often puffy with teeth mark indentations on the sides, very
moist looking and with a greasy looking tongue coating.
Exposure to damp weather, wearing wet clothes and a humid
environment can cause External Dampness to invade. External
dampness is a condition of prolonged high humidity that usually occurs
in late summer. When exterior Dampness invades the body it tends to do
so from the lower extremities first. Damp then works its way up the legs
and settles into the lower jiao (lower abdomen) and then from there it
spreads throughout the body. Patients often complain of dizziness, a
heavy sensation in the head (as if wrapped in a towel), heaviness of the
body and soreness, pain and heaviness of the joints. In both cases,
external and internal, there may be turbid discharges from the body
(such as suppurating sores, weeping eczema, profuse purulent
leukorrhea with a foul odor, dark & turbid urine and stools containing
mucus and perhaps even blood).(2) Summer heat with dampness
causes dizziness, heaviness in the head, a stifling sensation in the
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chest, nausea, poor appetite, loose stools, general lassitude, fever,


restlessness and thirst.
A collection of dampness and heat may lead to such problems as
inflammation, allergies (especially food allergies), high blood sugar,
weight gain, and urinary tract infections. Symptoms can include
heaviness, a sensation of fullness in the chest, a smelly and sluggish
bowel, abdominal pain, leukorrhea, eczema, and deep yellow colored
urine. The pulse is often slippery and fast; the tongue is commonly red
with a yellow, thick greasy coating; the nails are often red; the hands are
often puffy and red with a mottled appearance with swollen, red cuticles.
Especially in women, the ankles and feet may also be swollen.
Classicaly, Dampness describes a condition of viscosity and stagnation.
Patients usually have a thick, greasy looking, sticky tongue coating and
perhaps a viscous stool that is difficult to void and/or in some manner an
obstructed urination. Diseases due to Dampness tend to be prolonged
and intractable. Damp is a yin pathogen that impairs yang and easily
causes qi stagnation. Signs and symptoms include a sensation of
fullness in the chest, epigastric distention, difficult & scanty urination
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and hesitant & viscous stools. Pathogenic Damp impairs Spleen yang
that leads to distention and fullness in the epigastrium and abdomen,
poor appetite, loose stools and generalized edema. All conditions of
Dampness will yield to treatment only after an appropriate long term
concerted and persevering regimen.
What is the difference between Damp, Phlegm Fluids and Water? All
three of these concepts refer to the products of the disturbance of water
metabolism in the human body, which after being produced will cause
further pathologic changes, and thus also are regarded as pathogenic
factors in TCM. They are often used interchangeably, but they really
have some differences and should, therefore, be used differently.
Dampness is both a physiological and a pathologic concept in TCM. As a
TCM physiological concept it refers to the water received by the Stomach
and digested and absorbed by the Spleen, so it is also sometimes called
Water Damp. The Stomach likes dampness but the Spleen abhors
dampness. As a TCM pathologic concept, it refers to the retained water
caused by disturbances of the Spleen, so it is mainly used in the case of
water retention due to diseases of the Spleen system. Phlegm fluid
retention is a general term for all congealed water metabolism in the
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human body. This is mainly an indication of retained water that is not


directly related to altered Spleen function. For example, we may ascribe
the cause of diarrhea to the downward flow of excess dampness from
the Stomach/Spleen (Middle Jiao or upper abdomen), or the cause of
edema to the outward flow of dampness as a result of a disturbance in
the Spleen system. But we usually say the causative factor of scrofula
(nodules as thickened, rubbery feeling lymph nodes) is the accumulation
of Phlegm Fluids, because this is a disease mainly secondary to
stagnation of Liver Qi (which further disturbs water metabolism) instead
of being secondary to Spleen disorders. As for Water, it is mainly used to
describe the fluid that accumulates in a cavity of the body, such as
pleural effusion, ascites or edema that is easily rectified with the return of
normal Spleen functionality.
Phlegm also affects the brain. One of the major causes of brain phlegm
is the consumption of all kinds of dairy products. The condition of brain
phlegm is commonly known as brain fog. It is the opinion of the author
that brain phlegm leads to the conditions known as Alzheimer's disease
and Prion disease. It is also the opinion of the author that no-one after
the age of 4 years should eat any dairy products except for very well
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aged cheeses and naturally fermented kefir & yogurt.


Worry, pensiveness and mental overwork often negatively affect the
transporting and transforming function of the Spleen and contribute to
deranged water metabolism as internal dampness. Organs of the body
other than the Spleen also contribute to the action of water metabolism.
The lungs (Upper Jiao or chest cavity) produce arginine-vasopressin that
acts on the kidney nephron to alter water balance in the body. Grief and
melancholy stifle Lung qi that disrupts the production of argininevasopressin. The mineral corticoids of the adrenal glands (part of the
TCM Kidneys in the Lower Jiao) also regulate water balance in the body
via the kidney nephron. The liver (Lower Jiao) produces angiotensinogen
that assists in water balance via the angiotensin-renin-aldosterone
system. The kidney (Lower Jiao) produces rennin that assists in the
regulation of water balance in the above-mentioned system.
Disharmonies between the organ systems of the Lungs, Kidneys and
Liver with the Spleen system all cause some form of disrupted water
metabolism. The degree of aberration, the length of time of disruption
and the systems involved determine the symptoms and progression of
pathogenesis within the body. According to TCM, the San Jiao meridian
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is the pathway for the movement of all fluids within the body.(3) Thus
any obstruction in the channels and meridians will ultimately affect water
metabolism adversely in some manner. The role of diet in contracting
internal Dampness and that of food therapy in combating internal
Dampness is well known. Foods that impair digestion, yield food
stagnation and in general interfere with the Spleen in some manner
contributing to the development of internal Dampness due to the
impairment of water metabolism within the body. When one overeats, a
condition of food stagnation ensues and the digestive system will not
function properly. This gives rise to such clinical manifestations as foul
belching, sour regurgitation, distention, bloating, pain in the epigastrium
& abdomen, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhea. Overindulgence in
cold or raw foods can easily impair Spleen yang and leads to the
development of interior damp-cold.(4) The resulting symptoms are
diarrhea and abdominal pain. Likewise, the overindulgence of alcoholic
beverages or greasy, sweet and spicy foods may lead to damp-heat,
phlegm and stagnation of qi & blood. Symptoms resulting are the
sensation of fullness or stifling fullness in the chest with profuse sputum,
dizziness and vertigo, bleeding hemorrhoids and yang type sores (red,
weepy, itchy).
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DIAGNOSIS OF DAMPNESS CONDITIONS


An excellent, clear and concise description of the diagnosis of Damp
conditions may be found in the text by G. Maciocia.(12)
External Dampness Condition Categories are:
1. Simple invasion of Dampness in the Zang-Fu
a. Urinary Bladder - difficulty and pain on urination, scanty but
frequent urination, cloudy urine, a feeling of heaviness in the
lower abdomen, tongue with a thick & sticky coating on the root,
pulse slippery. If associated with Heat - a burning on urination,
dark urine, thirst with no desire to drink, yellow tongue coating,
slightly rapid pulse
b. Stomach - acute onset of vomiting, watery diarrhea without
smell, epigastric pain, a feeling of stuffiness in the epigastrium,
cold limbs, no appetite, a thick sticky & white tongue coating, a
slippery or soggy pulse
c. Intestines - acute onset of watery diarrhea without smell,
abdominal pain, a feeling of heaviness, thick sticky & white
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tongue coating, slippery pulse


d. Uterus - acute onset of painful periods, excessive vaginal
discharge, thick sticky & white tongue coating, slippery pulse
e. Gall Bladder - acute onset of hypochondrial pain, a feeling of
heaviness, a bitter taste in the mouth, a sticky yellow coating on
one the side of the tongue, slippery pulse
2. Invasion of acute, external dampness in the channels/meridians
manifesting as pain, swelling and heaviness of the joints
3. Invasion of external Damp-Heat at the defensive (wei) qi level
manifesting with fever: external Damp-Heat, external Summer-Heat
with Dampness
Internal Dampness Condition Categories are:
1. Chronic
a. Internal dampness in the Zang-Fu
(1. Stomach & Spleen - epigastric pain and fullness, poor
digestion, a feeling of fullness, a sticky taste in the mouth
and a poor appetite
(2. Urinary Bladder - difficult and painful urination and cloudy
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urination
(3. Intestines - loose stools with mucus, abdominal pain and
fullness
(4. Uterus - infertility or excessive vaginal discharge
(5. Gall Bladder - hypochondrial pain & fullness
(6. Liver - hypochondrial fullness, distension and pain,
jaundice
(7. Kidneys - cloudy urine, difficult urination
b. Dampness in the channels/meridians manifesting as pain,
swelling and heaviness of the joints
c. Dampness in the skin manifesting mainly as eczema, puffiness
and oozing lesions
2. Acute - Damp-Heat at the qi level with fever that is worse in the
afternoon, body that is hot to the touch, aversion to cold, swollen
glands, headache, a feeling of heaviness, a feeling of oppression in
the epigastrium, a sticky taste in the mouth and thirst with no desire
to drink, sticky white tongue coating and soggy pulse
Treatments - Acupuncture
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Points:
1. St36 - strengthens the Spleen and disperses Damp-Heat and WindDamp in the whole body
2. St40 - resolves Damp and Phlegm in the whole body
3. St44 - cools Heat in the Stomach and removes obstruction from the
Intestines - for conditions of Damp-Heat diarrhea and dysentery
4. LI4 - dispels Damp-Heat from the Stomach and Intestines
5. LI11 - cools Heat and alleviates Dampness; for Damp-Heat dysentery
or skin conditions (e.g. eczema)
6. Sp3 - best with Dampness in the channels
7. Sp9 - disperses Dampness but is used more for Damp-Heat than
Damp-Cold, more for Damp-Heat diarrhea, dysentery, vaginal
discharge or urinary disorders
8. Ren9- resolves Dampness in the middle jiao
9. Ren12 - regulates Stomach Qi and disperses Dampness in the
middle jiao
10. UB20 - used more for Damp-Cold to reinforce Spleen yang
11. Pc6 - pacifies the Stomach and resolves Dampness in the middle jiao
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Treatments - Herbal Formulae


The Formulas and Strategies text (13) lists formulae the treat conditions
of Dampness that are categorized into 5 sections.
1. Formulae that Promote Urination and Leach out Dampness
a. wu ling san (5 Ingredient Powder with Poria) - exterior
pathogenic influences that disrupt the functions of the Urinary
Bladder
b. zhu ling tang (Polyporus decoction) - injury from Cold entering
the Yangming or Shaoyin where it transforms into Heat
c. wu pi san (5 Peel Powder) - skin edema due to invasion of
wind disrupting the function of the Lungs to move qi downwards
d. fang ji huang qi tang (Stephania & Astragalus Decoction) Wind-Dampness or Wind edema due to invasion of Wind &
Damp
2. Formulae that Transform Damp Turbidity
a. ping wei san (Calm the Stomach Powder) - Damp-Cold
stagnating in the Spleen and Stomach
b. huo xiang zheng qi san (Agastache Powder to Rectify Qi) externally contracted Wind-Cold causing qi stagnation
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3. Formulae that Clear Damp-Heat


a. san ren tang (3 Nut Decoction) - early-stage damp warmfebrile disease or summerheat warm-febrile disease where
Dampness predominates and the pathogenic influences are
lodged in the wei and qi levels
b. gan lu xiao du dan (Sweet Dew Special Pill to Eliminate Toxin)
- early-stage of a damp warm-febrile disease or seasonal
epidemic disorder
c. lian po yin (Coptis and Magnolia Bark) - sudden turmoil
disorder due to an aggregation of Damp-Heat in the body
d. yin chen hao tang (Artemisia Yinchenhao Decoction) - yangtype or "fresh tangerine" color jaundice due to Dampness and
Heat interior accumulation
e. zhong man fen xiao wan (Separate and Reduce Fullness in
the Middle Pill) - drum-like abdominal distention due to Heat
f. ba zheng san (8 Herb Powder for Rectification) - hot or bloody
painful urinary dysfunction due to clumping of Damp-Heat in the
lower jiao
g. shao yao tang (Peony Decoction) - Damp-Heat lodged in the
Intestines causing Qi and Blood stagnation
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h. er miao san (2 Marvel Powder) - Damp-Heat in the lower jiao


4. Formulae that Warm and Transform Water and Dampness
a. zhen wu tang (True Warrior Decoction) - Kidney yang
deficiency or Kidney and Spleen yang deficiency with retention of
pathogenic water
b. shi pi yin (Bolster the Spleen decoction) - yin type edema due
to Spleen and Kidney yang deficiency
c. bei xie fen qing yin (Dioscorea Hypoglauca Decoction to
Separate the Clear) - cloudy painful urinary dysfunction due to
Cold from deficiency in the lower jiao
d. ji ming san (Powder to take at Cock's Crow) - "damp" leg qi
caused by Damp-Cold obstructing the smooth flow of Qi and
Blood in the legs
5. Formulae that Dispel Wind-Dampness
a. qiang huo sheng shi tang (Notopterygium Decoction to
Overcome Dampness) - Wind-Dampness in the superficial
aspects of the body
b. juan bi tang (Remove Painful Obstruction Decoction) - joint
pain due to local obstruction by Wind-Cold-Damp
c. gui zhi shao yao zhi mu tang (Cinnamon Twig, Peony and
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Anemarrhena Decoction) - recurrent Wind-Cold-Damp localized


painful obstruction causing Heat
d. xaun bi tang (Disband Painful Obstruction Decoction) - painful
obstruction due to containment of Damp-Heat in the channels
e. du huo ji sheng tang (Angelica Pubescens and Sangjisheng
Decoction) - painful obstruction with Liver and Kidney deficiency
Treatments - Food Therapy
Many of the foods that one finds in the typical grocery store have
been manufactured such that they are inimical to your health,
one estimate being at least 85%. Any food that causes any kind
of adverse affect on the Spleen system (in TCM) will eventually
result in Dampness in the organs and meridians, depending
upon the particular genetic constitution of the patient.
One may find the result of decades of dampness in the body by
searching the skin and finding the following lesions: white or dark
colored patchy and rough raised splotches around the eyes due
to cholesterol deposits, skin tags due to toxic damp-heat in the
skin and seborrheic keratoses due to chronic damp-heat in the
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skin.
The author has found that the daily drinking of a decoction (tea)
made from dried flowers (seed pods) of the Roselle (Hibiscus
sabdariffa) and Ju Hua (Chrysanthemum flower) is very effective
in drying up these type of lesions. One must make the tea very
concentrated for it to be effective. Results may not become
visible for as long as a year and longer due to the number of
years the condition has been building. If the tea is too weak,
there is no affect. If the tea is too strong it may cause
constipation. Each person will need to determine their effective
dose for themselves through trial and error.
If your intention is also to loose weight, brew your favorite Oolong
tea (or other tea type) with the Roselle. Sweeten your tea
sparingly with Maple syrup, raw sugar, honey or Agave syrup.
Make the tea as bitter as you can stand in order to get the
polyphenols that are beneficial
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphenol_antioxidant).
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Studies have shown that drinking Hibiscus tea can effectively


lower high blood pressure and reduce high cholesterol levels in
many individuals! Read an article about it in the February 1, 2009
issue of Internal Medicine News. Hibiscus and Hibiscus Mint tea
are caffeine free. Hibiscus tea is also rich in Vitamin C; has a
unique, delicious taste; has a smooth, pleasant fragrance; has a
distinctive, vibrant, natural color (fushia to purple); is great served
hot or cold; has long been known in the deep South of the USA
to act as a natural body refrigerant. This is particularly useful
during the time of summer heat.
CONCLUSIONS
In dealing with the many problems of Dampness, the organs
involved in the metabolism of water need particular attention. The
Lungs, the Spleen and the Kidneys are all intimately involved in
various ways with the issue of water metabolism in the body.
Dampness and its combinations with Wind, Cold and Heat cause
some form of obstruction of Qi and Blood or blockage of the
channels in some manner, if not directly impairing the function of
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the Lungs, the Spleen and the Kidneys. Treatment of Damp and
its combinations involves removing the obstructions and
dissipating the pathological products as well as returning the
normal functionality of the Zang-Fu organs. Both the use of
acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine is very effective for
resolving the pathological conditions of Dampness. Treatment is
as always dependent upon the skill of the practitioner in
determining the diagnosis from the signs and symptoms of the
patient. Choice in use of points and herbal formulae and their
modifications comes with observation, experience and practice.
The patient needs to be aware that there is no quick fix for the
treatment of Dampness conditions. Depending upon how many
years the condition has been developing and been evident, it
may take a few years to correct. All will be to no avail if the
patient does not make serious lifestyle changes to the better.
Perseverance furthers!
REFERENCES
1. Cheng, X. N., Chief Editor, 1987, "Chinese Acupuncture and
Moxibustion", Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, pg 254
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2. Ibid, pgs 256-257


3. Akopyan, A., 2003, "Dampness and the Circle of Wellness",
http://www.acupuncture.com/newsletters/m_dec03/main2.htm
4. Ibid, pg 260
5. Bensky, D., Gamble, A., 1993, "Chinese Herbal Medicine
Materia Medica, Revised Edition", Eastland Press, Seattle, pg
134
6. Ibid, pg 386
7. Ibid, pg 145
8. Ibid, pg 390
9. Treharne, A., "Food Therapy for Diarrhoea",
http://www.rchm.co.uk/articles/food_therapy.html
10. Chia. M., 2006, "Guidelines for Eating", http://www.universaltao.com/article/guidelines.html
11. Dharmananda, S., 1997, "The Use of Aromatic Agents for
Regulating Qi, Vitalizing Blood and Relieving Pain",
http://www.itmonline.org/arts/aromatic.htm
12. Maciocia, G., 2004, "Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine: A
Comprehensive Guide", Churchill Livingstone, pgs 948-950
13. Bensky, D., Barolet, R., 1990, "Chinese Herbal Medicine:
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Formulas and Strategies", Eastland Press, Seattle, pgs 173212

Oriental Medicine Section

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