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477

The Influences of the Wheel Profiles on the Wheel Wear and


Vibrational Characteristics of the Passenger Cars Running on
the Seoul-Pusan Conventional Line
Bu-Byoung KANG and Chan-Woo LEE
Wheels of the railway vehicle play the important role for driving train through wheelrail interaction. Especially wheel profile is one of the most important design factors to rule
the running stability and safety of train. Accordingly maintenance of wheel like wheel profile control is also very important for securing safety and stability of train operation. This
study presents the wheel wear measurement results of Saemaeul running on the conventional
line. The train set included three dierent cars which have dierent shape of wheel profile
including KNR profile currently used in Saemaeul. Train set was operated on Seoul-Pusan
line with fixed train set formation for commercial service. Wheel wear measurements were
performed periodically. We can find the influence of wheel profile on the wheel wear of the
train running on the conventional line through the measurement results.

Key Words: Wheel Profile, Flange Wear, Arctype Profile, Carbody Vibration

1.

Introduction

KTX, which is planned to get introduced and operated in Korea, consists of 20 cars for 1 set. The technical
requirements of these high speed trains are being proved
through design, manufacture and performance test based
on the contract basis. But there is a little dierence in
operation-environment and railroad-conditions for a high
speed train between Korea and France.
Currently, KTX is designed to operate in existing railroads as well as new high speed railroads. For that, wheels
for a high speed train for both of new high speed railroads
& old existing railroads and examination for the interface
problems, which can be occurred with old existing railroads, are needed(1), (2) . Especially for KTX, train-rail interface examination in new high speed railroads is almost
completed in O-Song and Chun-An rail. Service routes of
KTX consists of new high speed railroads and old existing railroads, but suitability test of the train-rail interface
cannot be conducted in current conditions on the existing
railroads although it is important and necessary.
Therefore, for the preliminary inspection of train

Received 9th January, 2004 (No. 04-5008)


Rolling Stock Research Department, Korea Railroad
Research Institute, #385, Woulam-Dong, Viwang-city,
Kyonggi-Do 437757, Korea. E-mail: bbkang@krri.re.kr,
cwlee@krri.re.kr

JSME International Journal

safety while operating KTX in the existing railroads, the


eect on operation by wheel wear profile of a train which
has an identical suspension is studied by examining the
wear properties of Saemaeul Ho train wheel with appliance of KTX train wheel profile, Heumann (1/20) wheel
profile and KNR (1/40) wheel profile.
2.

On-Line Test

2. 1 Test method and procedure


The vehicle, used in the test, is Saemaeul passenger train, operated in Kyeongbu Line between Busan and
Seoul, with attachment of ASEA truck. Car No.430,
No.552 and No.639 of Saemaeul Train are used in the test.
Three dierent shapes of wheels are attached to 8 wheels
of each vehicle to observe wheel wear property.
KTX wheel (NF F01-112, 1/40), Saemaeul Ho wheel
(KNR 1/40) and new model of Mugunghwa Ho wheel
(1/20 modified heumann) are applied to No.430, No.552
and No.639 as wheel profile by each testing-car. Original
profile of each wheel is compared and shown in Fig. 1. For
a testing period, wheel wear status is tracked down and investigated on travel up to more than 100 000 km that is the
standard distance covered for inspection after profiling of
each wheel(3) . During testing period, wheel profile & wear
amount is periodically measured by Miniprof system.
2. 2 The type of test car
ASEA truck for Saemaeul passengertrain is shown in
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Table 1 Initial profile dimension (unit: mm)

Fig. 1 Comparison of the initial wheel profiles

Fig. 4 Criteria of Sd (flange thickness), qR (flange gradient),


Sh (flange height)

Fig. 2 ASEA bogie

Fig. 3 Wheel number arrangement

Figs. 2 and 3 shows wheel arrangement and wheel number.


Figure 2 shows ASEA truck description that is used
in the test. ASEA truck like figure has shebron rubber
spring as primary suspension and coil spring as secondary
suspension. Generally, it is known that there is less wear
amount for applying shebron rubber spring on primary
suspension than coil spring(4), (5) .
3.

Results and Discussion

3. 1 Wear rate
The measurement is for thickness (Sd), gradient (qR)
and height (Sh) of wheel flange, which is used as a criterion of inspection. Figure 4 shows a standard parameter, used for inspection of wheel wear amount and Table 1
shows an initial profile dimension of three dierent profiles used in the test.
Figures 5 7 and Table 2 shows wear rate per unit
distance of all 8 dierent wheels after running test with
trains that have three dierent wheel profiles one another.
Figure 5 shows that KNR 1/40 wheel has the most
wear rate for thickness of wheel flange, then KTX 1/40
wheel, and 1/20 h wheel was even getting thicker instead
by having minus () value. For 1/20 h wheel, thickness
and gradient of wheel flange even get increased due to
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the lowered base surface by wear of tread surface when


getting the wheel profile through measurement following
the criteria of Fig. 4. In other words, wear rate around
tread surface area is bigger than around wheel flange area.
From wear rate for the height of wheel flange in Fig. 6,
1/20 h wheel has a little higher wear rate and there is almost no dierence of wear rate between KTX 1/40 wheel
and KNR 1/40 wheel can be shown. Figure 7 show that
wear rate of gradient of wheel flange has a similar phase
to that of thickness of wheel flange and KNR 1/40 wheel
has the biggest and 1/20 h wheel has even increased gradient of wheel flange instead by having minus () value.
Figure 8 show the average of wear rate for each 8
wheels with three dierent testing vehicles. Compared to
KTX 1/40 wheel, KNR 1/40 wheel has 3.4 times higher
wear rate in thickness of wheel flange and 3.3 times higher
wear rate in gradient of wheel flange. For wear rate in
height of wheel flange, KTX 1/40 wheel and KNR 1/40
wheel have similar rates, and 1/20 h wheel has 2.2 times
higher rate.
The wheel number (No.) shown in Figs. 5 7 and Table 2 is gotten by arrangement criteria in Fig. 3. Although
there is a change in wear rate by location of vehicles, an
apparent dierence in wear rate by wheel profile besides
height of wheel flange can be shown.
3. 2 Transition of the wear rates
Figures 9 11 show the change of wheel profile as
wear for each wheel profile proceeds, and Table 3 show
average wear amount and wear transition of thickness
(Sd), height (Sh) and gradient (qR) of wheel flange in
dierent traveling distances covered. From Table 3, that
change of wear rate for thickness (Sd) and gradient (qR)
of wheel flange tends to decrease for KNR 1/40 wheel as
wear proceeds is shown. Also, it tends to increase little
for KTX 1/40 wheel, but it changes by only small amount
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Table 2 Wear rate of each wheel

Fig. 5 Flange thickness wear rate

Fig. 8 Average of wear rate


Fig. 6 Flange height wear rate

Fig. 9 Evolution of wheel profile (1/20Heumann) until running


distance 105.478 km

Fig. 7 Flange gradient wear rate


Fig. 10 Evolution of wheel profile (KTX 1/40) until running
distance 82.073 km

compared to KNR 1/40 wheel.


In Fig. 12, for worn wheel profile by each wheel profile after traveling about 90 000 km, that KTX 1/40 wheel
and KNR 1/40 wheel have similar wheel flange profiles
as wear proceeds is shown. This is assumed by the reason that wheels get adapted to the similar wear profile by
wheel and rail interaction as wear proceeds. However, for
1/20 h wheel, there is almost no change in wheel flange
profile and that large tread wear from bottom area of wheel
JSME International Journal

Fig. 11 Evolution of wheel profile (KNR 1/40) until running


distance 105.478 km
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Table 3 Transition of the wear rate during the running

Fig. 14 Vertical acceleration (Ockchun Kimchun)

Fig. 12 The comparison of worn profiles after running about


90.000 km

Fig. 13 Locations of accelerometers

flange to the center of tread area occurs is shown.


Consequently, for KNR 1/40 wheel, it has a extreme
change in wheel profile depending on the traveling distance, especially around wheel flange area, and there is
a little profile change in bottom area of wheel flange for
KTX 1/40 wheel and there is no change in wheel flange
area with a little wear in tread surface area for 1/20 h
wheel. For 1/20 h wheel, as wear proceeds, there is possibility that adversely aects operation-safety in a high
speed running due to the increase of equivalent conicity
of worn wheels, comparing to KTX 1/40 wheel and KNR
1/40 wheel. So we should examine the running performance of worn profiles.
Wheel profile relates to operation-safety and stability of a train(6) . As wear proceeds, equivalent conicity
of wheel tread surface increases, and the increased conicity causes unstable operation of a train in a certain speed.
Therefore, suspension feature must be considered in design phase for operation-safety of a train. But, there is
diculty in designing suspension because it is hard to
guarantee operation-safety in a high speed traveling when,
especially, equivalent conicity of wheel tread surface increases due to a extreme change in wheel profile by wear
caused in traveling. So, research for eect on operationsafety of a train by a change in wheel profile and research
for designing suspension to maintain safety within a mercantile operation speed range need to be proceeded.
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Fig. 15 Lateral acceleration (Ockchun Kimchun)

3. 3 Vibration characteristics
To investigate the influence of wheel profile on vibrational characteristics, running test was conducted at
the initial stage of the wear test. The locations of measurement in the train with 16 cars for 1 set were shown
in Fig. 13. Acceleration was measured in the car 10, 12
and 13. Carbody vertical acceleration was filtered with
30 Hz low pass filter and transferred to RMS to compare
the magnitude by dB. Carbody lateral acceleration was
filtered with 2 Hz filter for low frequency characteristics.
Figures 14 and 15 shows vertical and lateral acceleration measured on the line between Ockchun and Kimchun. Table 4 shows accelerations measured on the SeoulBusan line on the three dierent sections Suwon-Chunan,
Ockchun-Kimchun, and Dongdaegu-Samrangjin.
Table 4 shows that lateral vibration is higher in the
case of KTX 1/40 wheel, and KNR 1/40 wheel and 1/20 h
wheel have similar value, vertical vibration is higher in the
case of KNR 1/40 wheel, and KTX 1/40 wheel and 1/20 h
wheel have similar value.
As a result, 1/20 h wheel profile shows better vibrational performance than other profiles. It seems that the
conicity of 1/20 h wheel is acceptable to the Saemaeul
passenger train in the operating speed range lower than
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Table 4

Measured vibration level

occurrence.
2. For KNR 1/40 wheel, enormous profile change occurs due to wheel flange area wear, but identical wear pattern is detected to that of KTX 1/40 wheel after traveling
a certain distance.
3. For 1/20 h wheel, larger wear rate is found on tread
surface area than wheel flange area. 1/20 h wheel profile
shows better vibrational performance than other profiles.
In the future, we should examine the safety and stability of train with worn 1/20 h profile for the more reliable
evaluation of 1/20 h wheel applicability in the future.
References
(1)

140 km/h. The vibrational characteristics of the train with


worn 1/20 h profile will be examined right before the reprofiling work.

(2)

4. Conclusion
(3)

Running test is conducted on the Saemaeul passenger train in Kyeong-Bu Line between Seoul and Busan
by attaching KTX wheel (NF F01-112, 1/40), KNR 1/40
wheel and 1/20 heumann wheel on it; as results, eect of
wheel profile on wheel wear and carbody vibration can be
analyzed under the identical test-environment to the line
conditions of the existing railroads and the suspension of
trains. Below results are obtained from the test.
1. KNR 1/40 wheel has the largest wear of wheel
flange thickness and flange gradient, KTX 1/40 wheel is
the next and 1/20 h wheel has mere wear of wheel flange

JSME International Journal

(4)

(5)

(6)

Kang, B., Lee, H. and Wang, Y., Study on Wheel Wear


Characteristics of High Speed Train Running on the
Conventional Line, Proceedings of Korean Society for
Railway Autumn Conference, (2000), pp.120125.
Lee, H. and Kang, B., Study about Prediction of
Wheel/Rail Wear & Maintenance Standards, KRRI Report, (1999), pp.2456.
Huh, H., Lee, C. and Kim, H., Analysis on Wheel
Flange Wear Property of Passenger Trains, Proceedings of Korean Society for Railway Autumn Conference, (2002), pp.115118.
Huh, H. and Lee, C., Research on Operational Enhancement of NT21 Truck, KRRI Report, (1998),
pp.4043.
Huh, H., Lee, C. and Kang, B., Development on Optimized Management System of Wheel Tread Surface,
KRRI Report, (2002), pp.133136.
Aea Technology, Introduction to Railway Vehicle Dynamics Ch9 Wheel and Rail Profiles, Vampire Seminar, (2002).

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