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C ijkl a k

C2
n jC ijkl n l a k
n jC jikl n l a k

a i

C 2 a i

C 2 a i

Il suffit dobserver lcriture intrinsque de cette quation pour exhiber le tenseur acoustique
toffel), du second ordre . Et on se rend compte que la direction de vibration des particules
conque : cest un vecteur propre de .

n .C.
n .
a = C 2
a

Que peut-t-on faire!?

Pratique des mesures


ultrasonores
Marc Franois
Laboratoire FAST, Univ. Paris XI, Orsay
marc.francois@u-psud.fr
Polycopis en pdf :
http://www.fast.u-psud.fr/~francois/

Propagation influence par

Soit, pour bien voir les choses :

C:

.
a

mesure de C

Le son (20-20k) Hz

Voix, haut-parleurs,
machines

Les ultrasons
(20k-1M-500M) Hz

Pizolectricit

Les chocs

Impacteur

Les explosions
Les sismes (1-10 Hz)

Explosifs
Naturels!!

} C(n)

Rflexion et rfraction sur

Commenons par montrer que est un tenseur symtrique. Commenons par inverser l
les interfaces!:
et l :

contrle non destructif


jk
sonar
chographie

=
=

n iC ijkl n l
n lC ljki n i

Ensuite on exploite les grandes et petites symtries de C :

jk

a
C 2

2.5 Consquences de cette quation

jk

Comment crer des


ondes lastiques!?

n .C.
n

n lC kilj n i

kj

n iC ikjl n l

12

Pizo-lectricit

Principe

Tourmaline

Signes

Quartz

1817, Abb R. J. Hay


1880, P. et J. Curie

Wikipedia

PZT
(titano-zirconate de plomb)
Cramiques pizolectriques optimales
Conversion tension - dformation

Des pastilles en PZT


1"

quations en 1D

Using equations (28, 29) in (30) comes:

ld2

ue =

+ 2lsE T
(31)
D dplacement
lectrique
d E

u
dformation d u
(32)
e
L
contrainte
Mechanical
piezoelectrical properties of interest (for the axial disc u
e champand
lectrique
motion
mode)
of
the
used PZT (PI Ceramics type PIC255) are presented
e=
e complaisance
(1/E) the two last members of (31) as, for a l
tables (2).
They allow to neglect
typically high modulus for wood of 10 GPa and retained lengths (L=55mm,
l=4mm), D
their value
are +
respectively
(5.5, 0.17, -0.04)1012 . This lead to the
= d
T e
approximation (32) that
shows
that
the imposed tension ue is proportional
= strain
sE .+ de
to the specimens
l
Table 2: PIC255 properties

Haut parleur daigus (tweeter)

Capteur de pression

Platine pizo
(prcision 0,1 nm)

20.7

sE
33
12
10

m2 N1

T33
1750 0 = 15.5 109 Fm1

d33
400 1012 CN1

With previous values and ue = 220 V, the stress and strain state in the
specimen is = 16 kPa and = 1.6106 , a weak value is compatible with

Fonctionnement
en rcepteur u

Fonctionnement en
metteur u

D=0 (haute impdance)


D

= d + T e

= sE + de

e=

ld

= d + T e

= sE + de

d
e = sE + ue
l

PIC 255 : 25 V/Mpa (pour l=1mm)

e=

ue
l

dformation
lectrique

dformation
mcanique

PIC 255 : dformation lec. de 4.10-7/volt (pour l=1mm)

La chane de mesures
transd.
transd.
matriau
emett.
rcept.

Les composants

gn. de
signal 5V

5E-5

4E-5

3E-5

2E-5

intensit (U.Arbitraires)
0E+0

oscilloscope

temps (s)

ampli HT
n.100V
voie 1 ou synchro
voie 2

deux signaux quasi-tranverses


signal quasilongitudinal

1E-5

ur

ue
l

(conditionneur)

le signal et la rponse du
capteur

Un transducteur

certificat fourni par le constructeur


rponse un dirac
lectrique (100V)

bande passante

cramique PZT
Panametrics

Panametrics V153 1-0,5 : FC 1 MHz- BP 0,5 Mhz -6 dB

Les types de mesures


A

C
eprouvette

ettC
evuorpe

Technical Notes
Eqn. 12

a.Dual Element Transducers


Dual element transducers utilize separate transmitting and receiving
elements, mounted on delay lines that are usually cut at an angle
(see diagram on page 6). This configuration improves near surface
resolution by eliminating main bang recovery problems. In addition,
the crossed beam design provides a pseudo focus that makes duals
more sensitive to echoes from irregular reflectors such as corrosion
and pitting.

SinU i/ci = SinU rl/crl = SinU rs/crs src/sr UniS = lrc/lr UniS = ic/i UniS
Ui
U rl
U rs
ci
crl4
crs

= Incident Angle of the Wedge


egdeW eht fo elgnA tnedicnI
= Angle of the
evaRefracted
W lanidutigLongitudinal
noL detcarfeWave
R eht fo elgnA
= Angle of the Refracted
evaW raeShear
hS detWave
carfeR eht fo elgnA
B lairetMaterial
B
= Velocity of the Incident
aM tnedicnI eht fo yticoleV
(Longitudinal)
)lanidutignoL(
= Material Sound Velocity yticoleV dnuoS lairetaM
(Longitudinal)
)lanidutignoL(
= Velocity of the )rTest
aehSMaterial
( lairetaM
(Shear)
tseT eht fo yticoleV

contact direct

=
=
=
=

iU
lr U
sr U
ic

lrc

srecudsnarT tnemelE lauD .a


gniviecer dna gnittimsnart etarapes ezilitu srecudsnart tnemele lauD
elA
gna na ta tuc yllausu era taht senil yaB
led no detnuom ,stnemele
ecafrus raen sevorpmi noitarugifnoc sihT .)6 egap no margaid ees(
,noitidda nI .smelborp yrevocer gnab niam gnitanimile yb noituloser
4
slaud sekam taht sucof oduesp a sedivorp ngised maeb dessorc eht
noisorroc sa hcus srotcelfer ralugerri morf seohce ot evitisnes erom
.gnittip dna

incidence normale

Fig. 13

Fig. 15

denifed ylprahs a si ngised tnemele laud eht fo ecneuqesnoc enO


3
elgna foor eht ni esaerced a ,lareneg nI .evruc edutilpma ecnatsid
regnol a ni tluser lliw ezis tnemele recudsnart eht ni esaercni na ro
ni nwohs sa ,egnar lufesu ni esaercni na dna ecnatsid lacof-oduesp
.)3C
1( erugiF
A
B
1

eprouvette

40

04

30

03

TECHNICAL NOTES

20

D7075

5707D

02

10

D7078

8707D

01

D7077

7707D

3.5

4.5

contact direct

b.Angle Beam Transducers

nott
elbissop

Angle beam transducers use the principles of refraction and mode


conversion to produce refracted shear or longitudinal waves in the test
material as shown in Figure (14).
inurb

.SBO

A5

5. 4

5.3

5. 2

incidence oblique

01 CX
EREITAM

:rap nisseD
sionarF
20/11/62 :eL

5.1

)SEHCNI( ECNATSID

Angle beam transducers are typically used


swto
alflocate
ezis roand/or
/dna etsize
acolflaws
ot desu yllacipyt era srecudsnart maeb elgnA
which are oriented non-parallel to the testem
surface.
os era gFollowing
niwolloF .are
ecasome
frus tset eht ot lellarap-non detneiro era hcihw
4Mand
HU
ORCEused to ndetermine
6oitac4ol ehthe
of the common terms
formulas
t e4
nlocation
imr6
eted ot deECROU
su salumroHM4
f dna smret nommoc eht fo
of a flaw.
.walf a fo tton
52-4M CH siV
6 3
3 6
Vis HC M4-25
Fig. 16
61 .giF possible

nott
elbissop

B1

5.0

immersion
0

6 6

4 HM4
ECROU

6 6

3 M4-253
Vis HC

2 2

VIS ChC M4-20

zHk 72 EBUT

1 1

1 1

TUBE 27 kHz

XC 10

edom dna noitcarfer fo selpicnirp e0h2


t -e4
suMsrC
ech2
uC
dsnSaIrV
t mae2
b elg2nA
tset eht ni sevaw lanidutignol ro raehs detcarfer ecudorp ot noisrevnoc
01 CX
UhT
.)41z( H
erk
ug7
iF2n1iEnB
wo
s sa l1
airet1
am
bruni inurb

DESIGNATION

MATIERE

OBS. .SBO

.BN
REP. .PER
NB.

30/40/52 ud noiA4
sivR

Rvision
4A du 25/04/03

EREITAM

Dessin par:
Franois

:rap nisseD
sionarF

Le: 26/11/02

20/11/62 :eL

tton
possible

2 M4-20
VIS ChC
TUBE127 kHz

41.B
.gN
iF
NOITAREP.
NGISED NB.
.PER
DESIGNATION

SERUEchelle
SEM ED EMONTAGE
GATNOM DEelMESURES
lehcE
SEUQITSA
LEOCC
SIV
1:1
1:1
VISCOELASTIQUES
2

4MH U4ORCE

2 2

NOITANGISED

52-4M C
3 H siV

srecudsn3arT maeB elgnA .b

02-4M ChC SIV

SERUSEM ED EGATEchelle
NOM ellMONTAGE
ehcE
DE MESURES
SEUQITSALEO1:1
CSIV
VISCOELASTIQUES
1:1

07
06

CC

sin() = 1, 2

09
08

05

2.5

et1tevuorpe

)%( EDUTILPMA

AMPLITUDE (%)

001

50

DISTANCE (INCHES)

Fig. 14

.GED 0 zHM 0.5 5707D


.GED 5.3 zHM 0.5 7707D
.GED 6.2 zHM 0.5 8707D

60

SETON LACINHCET

C
2

1.5

3
C

LEETS NO EDUTILPMA ECNATSID RAENIL

D7075 5.0 MHz 0 DEG.


D7077 5.0 MHz 3.5 DEG.
D7078 5.0 MHz 2.6 DEG.

70

31 .giF

51 .giF

LINEAR DISTANCE AMPLITUDE ON STEEL

80

0.5

immersion

src

Figure (15) shows the relationship between thednincident


a elgna angle
tnedicand
ni eht neewteb pihsnoitaler eht swohs )51( erugiF
the relative amplitudes of the refracted or mode converted
detrevnoc edom ro detcarfer eht fo sedutilpma evitaler eht
longitudinal, shear, and surface waves that can be dproduced
ecudorp eb nac taht sevaw ecafrus dna ,raehs ,lanidutignol
from a plastic wedge into steel.
.leets otni egdew citsalp a morf

et1tevuorpe

SELPICNIRP CIFICEPS RECUDSNART .4

21 .nqE

One consequence of the dual element design is a sharply defined


distance amplitude curve. In general, a decrease in the roof angle
or an increase in the transducer element size will result in a longer
pseudo-focal distance and an increase in useful range, as shown in
Figure (13).

90

setoN lacinhceT

4.TRANSDUCER SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES

100

1
eprouvette

Le faisceau

ud noisivdu
R25/04/03 4A
A4 30/40/52Rvision

XC 10

bruni

MATIERE

OBS.

Dessin par:
Franois
Le: 26/11/02

grosse pastille :
faisceau collimat - cher
pastilles convexes

l=

d2 2
4

Quelle frquence ?
soit d taille dun dfaut
<<d : il se comporte en miroir : CND
>>d : londe voit un milieu homogne
quivalent : mesures de module

Le contrle non
destructif (CND)

d : londe peut tre absorbe (principe de


la digue)

Mesureur dpaisseur

Dtecteurs de dfaut
Un dfaut se comporte en
miroir pour lultrason.

Il rduit le temps de vol.


mesure du temps
de vol

clrit donne
Docs. Sofranel

http://www.sofranel.com/

l=
d2 2
l=
4

d
Avec prcautions
l=
A-scan

(1)

sin() = 1, 2

(2)

i(t)

A-scan

Pb. surface
incline

i(t)
x
t1
x
=
t2

VL =
VT

sin() = 1, 2

Pb.
ouverture
du faisceau

x
t1
x
=
t2

VL =
VT

D
(1)

sin() = 1, 2

balayage en x : B-scan

C-Scan
balayage en x

A-scan

i(t)

(2)
(3)

(2)
(3)
(3)
t

(4)
(4)

(5)
(6)

En abscisse
(5) on a une conversion directe en distance : x=Ct

(7)

Un exemple de B-scan

(7)
(8)

(8)
(9)
(9)

profondeur

(1)

(6)

3VL2 4VT2
E=

2
2
VL2 VT2
3V

4V
L
T
E = VT2
2
2
VL VT
VL2 2VT2
=
2 (VL2 VT2 )
VL2 2VT2
=
2 (VL2 VT2 )
A-scan
i(x, t)
B-scan
en niveaux de gris
t
i(x, t)
VT2

d
4

y Ct

(10)

i(x, t)

(11)
flaw : dfaut

ombre

B-scan

VT = V 2 2V 2
T
= t2 L 2
2 (VL VT2 )

3VL2 i(x,
4Vt)T2
2
VL2yVCt
T

Lchographie
E = mdicale
VT2

B-scanC-Scan

2 r()
VL2
2V
T
t()
=
2 (VL2 VT2 ) C

i(x, t) i(x, t)
y Ct
t()

r()
C 1

C-Scan
i(x, t)

VL2 D2VT2
=
2 (V 2 VT2 )
i(t) L

(5)
(8)
A-scan
(6)
B-scan
(9)
(7)
(10)

i(x, t)
x
VL =y Ct
t1
x
VT t()
= r()
t2 C

Balayage x-y le C-scan

(8)

(11)

C-Scan
y
(9) (12)
(10)

E = VT2

i (x, y)
3VL2 4VT2
VL2 VT2

max

VL2 2VT2
(11) En chaque point (A-scan) on retient
=lintensit
max.
1
2 (VL2 VT2 )
Si faiblesse : absorption, moins dintensit.
B-scan
(12)
i(x, t)
y Ct

Exemples de C-scans
1

D-scans

t()

r()
C

C-Scan
imax (x, y)
D-Scan
brasure sur cuivre

tmin (x, y)
1

composite dlamin

En chaque point (A-scan) on retient le temps de vol


Si fissure : temps de vol (mini) court

Incidences obliques

C-scan (max i)

sabot

D-scan (t min)

Ultrasonic testing of composite castings


Authors J. Pohl, D. Wiedemann, K.-O. Prietzel

Ondes de surface

longitudinales (P)

conversion de modes

dpend de langle

Applications

transverses (S)
de surface

de Rayleigh
http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en

contrle de soudures

de Love

Dtection de dfauts
perpendiculaires la surface

Sonar
Autres mthodes
acoustiques

cholocation

ds 1915
couches

thermiques :
variations de
clrit

Microscopie acoustique

dans la nature
table XY et sonde

transd. focalis

cartographie sous-marine
Grains dun acier

Dfauts cachs

Mesure de C
anisotrope
par identification des surfaces de lenteur!:
application : composites

Au laboratoire
(aujourdhui)

Bain liquide thermostat

x2

x1

2.3 Publications

QL
QT

!L

"

Gnration de
signal impulsionnel
et acquisition
t

M. F RANOIS ET G. R OYER C ARFAGNI, 2005. Mechanical Modelling and Computational Issues in Civil
Engineering, tome 23 de Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, chapitre Material Damage Description via Structured Deformations, pages 235253. diteurs : Michel Frmond et Franco
Maceri. Springer. DOI 10.10073-540-32399-6_11

Transducteur
longitudinal

Eprouvette
e

translation

!T

Chapitre douvrage

Revues internationales comit de lecture


S. L E C ONTE , S. VAIDELICH ET M. F RANOIS, 2007. A wood viscoelasticity measurement technique and
applications to musical instruments : first results. J. Violin Soc. Am. : VSA Papers, 21(1) :17.
M. F RANOIS, Mai 2008. A new yield criterion for the concrete materials. Comptes rendus - Mcanique,
336(5) :417421.
M. F RANOIS, 2007. Behavior of cracked materials. Key Engineering Materials, 349 :589592.

Mesure de C
anisotrope

A. O UGLOVA , Y. B ERTHAUD, F. F OCT, M. F RANOIS , F. R AGUENEAU ET I. P ETRE -L AZAR, june 2008. The
influence of corrosion on bond properties between concrete and reinforcement in concrete structures.
Materials and Structures (RILEM), 41 :969980

2.3 Publications
Chapitre douvrage

A. O UGLOVA , Y. B ERTHAUD, M. F RANOIS ET F. F OCT, 2006. Mechanical properties of an iron oxide formed by corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion Science, 48 :39884000.

M. F RANOIS ET G. R OYER C ARFAGNI, 2005. Mechanical Modelling and Computational Issues in Civil
Engineering, tome 23 de Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, chapitre Material Damage Description via Structured Deformations, pages 235253. diteurs : Michel Frmond et Franco
Maceri. Springer. DOI 10.10073-540-32399-6_11

M. F
G. R
C
Structured deformation of damaged continua with cohesivepar
propagation
dans, 2005.
diffrentes
directions de lespace :
frictional sliding rough fractures. Eur. J. of Mech. A/Solids, 24 :644660.
identification
de C par problme inverse
M. F
, 2001. A plasticity model with yield surface distortion for non proportional loading. Int. J.
Plast., 17(5) :703718.
application : roches, bois

par mesure du dphasage contrainte-dformation


Revues internationales : comit
lecture
Application
boisdede
lutherie, polymres ?

ARFAGNI

RANOIS

S. L E C ONTE , S. VAIDELICH ET M. F RANOIS, 2007. A wood viscoelasticity measurement technique and


applications to musical instruments : first results. J. Violin Soc. Am. : VSA Papers, 21(1) :17.

M. F RANOIS , G. G EYMONAT ET Y. B ERTHAUD, 1998. Determination of the symmetries of an experimentally determined stiffness tensor ; application to acoustic measurements. Int. J. Solids and Structures,
35 :3132.

M. F RANOIS, Mai 2008. A new yield criterion for the concrete materials. Comptes rendus - Mcanique,
336(5) :417421.

Angle de perte dun pica rticul

M. F RANOIS, 2007. Behavior of cracked materials. Key Engineering Materials, 349 :589592.
Loss angle ()

Tenseur dlasticit du
marbre de Carrare

M. F RANOIS , Y. B ERTHAUD ET G. G EYMONAT, 1996. Une nouvelle analyse des symtries dun matriau
lastique anisotrope. exemple dutilisation partir de mesures ultrasonores. C.R. Mcanique, 322 :8794.

Revues nationales comit de lecture

86 29 31
1
2
29 66
23 of1
1
A. O UGLOVA , M. F RANOIS , Y. B ERTHAUD, S. C AR ET F. F OCT, 2006. Mechanical
properties
an iron

32 IV,
23136 :99107.
67
1
1
oxide formed by corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Journal de Physique

1 1 1
21 3

bois
M. F RANOIS, 2000. Vers une mesure non destructive de la qualit des
2 de 1lutherie.
1 Revue
3 des
25
composites et des matriaux avancs, 10 :261279.
2 4 2 0 3

2
4
2
0
3
23

Loss angle discrepancy ()

OYER

1.0

A. O UGLOVA , Y. B ERTHAUD, F. F OCT, M. F RANOIS , F. R AGUENEAU ET I. P ETRE -L AZAR, june 2008. The
0.8
influence of corrosion on bond properties between concrete and reinforcement in concrete structures.
Materials and Structures (RILEM), 41 :969980
0.6
A

eprouvette

0.4

A. O UGLOVA , Y. B ERTHAUD, M. F RANOIS ET F. F OCT, 2006. Mechanical properties of an iron oxide for0.2
med by corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion Science, 48 :39884000.
transducteur

RANOIS ET

Identification de la
viscolasticit

0.0

M. F RANOIS ET G. R OYER C ARFAGNI, 2005. Structured deformation of damaged continua with cohesive!0.2
frictional sliding rough fractures. Eur. J. of Mech. A/Solids, 24 :644660.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Frequency (kHz)

M. F RANOIS, 2001. A plasticity model with yield surface distortion for non proportional loading. Int. J.
Plast., 17(5) :703718.
M. F RANOIS , G. G EYMONAT ET Y. B ERTHAUD, 1998. Determination of the symmetries of an experimentally determined stiffness tensor ; application to acoustic measurements. Int. J. Solids and Structures,
35 :3132.

Pese directe
Mesure de la masse
volumique
=

m
V

P = gV
P1 = gV 0 gV
Pycnomtre
P1
0
=
P

P = gV
P P = gV gV
1
0
= 0
P P1P
0
1
=
P

P
gV
= 0
P P1

gV 0 gV
P1
0
=
P

P
= 0
P P1

si la gomtrie est
simple

V=xyz

au
microgramme

balance de prcision
calcul derreur

au
milligramme

mesure par immersion


Balance de Mohr Pycnomtre
Si gomtrie complique
Pese P
Pycnomtre
Pese immerge P
P =
Attention si porosit P1 =

Bibliographie
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

(14)
(15)
(16)

(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

(17)

Dieulesaint et Royer Ondes lastiques dans les solides, Masson


1974

Krautkramer Ultrasonic testing of materials, Springer 1977

http://www.piceramic.com/ (pastilles PZT)

http://measure.feld.cvut.cz/groups/edu/diag.sys/Zadani/
Ultrazvuk1/PAN-NDTechNote.pdf
http://www.sofranel.com/ (revendeur France)
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/panametrics-ndt-ultrasonic/
(transducteurs Panametrics)