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EXPERIMENT REPORT

TURBOMACHINERY

RAGAMADHURI NALLAM

1 CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER (FIXED SPEED AND


VARIABLE SPEED)

EXPERIMENT REPORT
OBJECTIVE:
To study the flow through centrifugal blower Forward, Backward curved impeller blades
with blower being operated at fixed and variable speed condition.

THEORY:
Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process requirements. Fans
generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers,
or other components in a fan system. The fan rotor receives energy from a rotating shaft
and transmits it to the air.
Blowers are used in furnaces, cupolas, mine and air-conditioning plants etc. There can be
three different types of impellers namely Radial Curved Vane, Forward Curved Vane, and
Backward Curved Vane. Blowers are used to discharge higher volume of air at low
pressure.
Starting Procedure FOR VARIABLE SPEED:
1. Clean the apparatus and make it free from dust.
2. Fill manometer fluid in manometer Tube i.e. water.
3. Fix the impeller on blower as desired (Radial, Backward or Forward Curve).
4. Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now
switch ON the main power supply.
5. Switch ON the blower.
6. Fix the RPM of motor with the help of DC drive and read the RPM of motor with
the help of RPM indicator provided on the panel.
7. Control the flow of air with the help of control valve V1 provided in discharge
pipe.
8. Measure pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of
manometer.
9. Record the time for 10-20 pulses of energy meter by stop watch.
10.
Repeat the experiment for different flow rates by operating control valve
V1.
11.
Repeat the experiment for different RPM.
12.
Repeat the experiment for different impellers.
Starting Procedure FOR FIXED SPEED WITH VARIABLE IMPELLERS (FORWARD
AND BACKWARD):
Clean the apparatus and make it free from dust.
1. Fill manometer fluid in manometer Tube i.e. water.

2. Fix the impeller on blower as desired (Radial, Backward or Forward Curve).


Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now switch
ON the main power supply.
4. Switch ON the blower.
5. Control the flow of air with help of control valve V1 provided in the discharge pipe.
6. Measure pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of
manometer.
7. Record the time for 10-20 pulses of energy meter by stop watch.
8. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates by operating control valve V1.
9. Repeat the experiment for different impellers.

23.

Nomenclature:

CALCULATIONS:

OBSERVATION AND CALULATION TABLE FOR FIXED SPEED


EXPERIMENT WITH FORWARD AND BACKWARD BLADES

OBSERVATION AND CALULATION TABLE FOR VARIABLE SPEED


EXPERIMENT WITH FORWARD AND BACKWARD BLADE

FORWARD BLADES

RPM

nb
n0
q
1200
16.75
13.4 0.0531
41

7
VARIABLE SPEED
BLOWER

FIXED SPEED BLOWER

BACKWARD BLADE

1400

15.52

12.41

1600

17.65

14.12

1800

20.02

16.21

2000

23.57

18.85

2200

24.45

19.56

2600

28.018
68
31.18

22.414
94
24.901

2900

RPM
1200
1400

VARIABLE SPEED
BLOWER

1600
1800
2000
2200

FIXED SPEED BLOWER

2900

nb
n0
q
10.108 8.0869 0.0442
7
58
16
12.089 9.6715 0.0510
39
16
56
15.877 12.702 0.0607
8
24
68
19.853 15.882 0.0675
09
47
4
18.776 15.020 0.0706
23
98
83
21.158 16.927 0.0820
97
17
61
42.831 34.264 0.1680
22
98
45

nb

fixed blades error


(%)
forward

no

error of blower
effiiency

AT 2900 RPM
from experiment
from
interpolation( USING
VARIABLE SPEED
DATA)

backward

0.0642
44
0.0691
3
0.0793
69
0.0896
51
0.0977
64
0.1169
83
0.0977
64

from interpolation
from experiment

31.18

24.901

29.812

22.058

43.01

27.202

42.831
22

34.264
98

4.387428

0.415671

The third table shows the activity which is done to show that the two set of blades which we have in lab
forward blade mounted on variable speed machine and fixed speed machine are geometrically similar
and there is no disparity in the geometry

GRAPHS

RPM Vs BLOWER EFFICIENCY


3000
2500

f(x) = 564.41 exp( 0.05 x )

2000
RPM

FORWARD BLADES
FORWARD CURVE FIT
BACKWARD BLADES
BACKWARD CURVE FIT

f(x) = 1194.92 ln(x) - 1594.72

1500
1000
500
0
5

10

15

20

BLOWER EFFICIENCY

25

30

RPM VS Overall efficiency


3000
2600

2500
2000
RPM

BACKWARDS BLADES
FORWARD BLADES

1500
1000
500
0
10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

overall efficiency

discharge vs overall efficiency


0.14
0.12
f(x) = 0 x^1.16

0.1

FORWARD BLADES
forward blade fit
BACKWARD BLADE
backward blade fit

0.08
Discharge

f(x) = 0x^2 + 0x + 0.03


0.06
0.04
0.02
0
6

10

12

14

16

overall efficiency

18

20

22

24

1
0

Conclusions:
Forward blades are used when there is a requirement of higher
discharge and backward blades for lower discharge
Blade efficiency of forward blades is always greater than
backward blades which shows better energy transfer
Forward blades run at a higher RPM for the same given power
input

AXIAL FAN (FIXED SPEED AND VARIABLE SPEED)


EXPERIMENT REPORT
OBJECTIVE:
To study the flow through axial fan being operated at fixed and variable speed condition.

THEORY:
Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process requirements. Fans
generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers,
or other components in a fan system. The fan rotor receives energy from a rotating shaft
and transmits it to the air.
An axial fan is a type of a compressor that increases the pressure of the air flowing
through it. The blades of the axial flow fans force air to move parallel to the shaft about
which the blades rotate. In other words, the flow is axially in and axially out, linearly,
hence their name. The design priorities in an axial fan revolve around the design of
the propeller that creates the pressure difference and hence the suction force that retains

the flow across the fan. The main components that need to be studied in the designing of
the propeller include the number of blades and the design of each blade. Their
applications include propellers in aircraft, helicopters, hovercrafts, ships and hydrofoils.
They are also used in wind tunnels and cooling towers. If the propeller is
exercising propulsion, then efficiency is the only parameter of interest and other
parameters like power required and flow rate are considered of no interest. In case the
propeller is used as a fan, the parameters of interest includes power, flow
rate, pressure rise and efficiency

1
1

Starting Procedure FOR VARIABLE SPEED:


1. Clean the apparatus and make it free from dust.
2. Fill manometer fluid in manometer Tube i.e. water.
3. Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now
switch ON the main power supply.
4. Switch ON the blower.
5. Fix the RPM of motor with the help of DC drive and read the RPM of motor with
the help of RPM indicator provided on the panel.
6. Control the flow of air with the help of control valve V1 provided in discharge
pipe.
7. Measure pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of
manometer.
8. Record the time for 10-20 pulses of energy meter by stop watch.
9. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates by operating control valve V 1.
10.
Repeat the experiment for different RPM.

STARTING PROCEDURE FOR FIXED SPEED


Clean the apparatus and make it free from dust.
1. Fill manometer fluid in manometer Tube i.e. water.
2. Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now switch
ON the main power supply.
3. Switch ON the blower.
4. Control the flow of air with help of control valve V1 provided in the discharge pipe.
5. Measure pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of
manometer.
6. Record the time for 10-20 pulses of energy meter by stop watch.
7. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates by operating control valve V1.

1
OBSERVATION
AND CALULATION TABLE FOR FIXED SPEED
EXPERIMENT
2

Graphs

AXIAL FAN

RPM
1200
1400

VARIABLE SPEED AXIAL


FAN

1600
1800

nb
n0
q
13.839 11.071 0.3389
79
84
35
15.725 12.580 0.3660
24
19
91
14.009 11.207 0.4151
87
9
09
18.75 15.00 0.5359
655
524
03

2000

1
FIXED SPEED AXIAL FAN
3

2200

13.94
245
24.673
52

11.15
396
19.738
82

0.3913
68
0.6490
11

RPM Vs fan EFFICIENCY


2500
2000
1500
axial flow fan

RPM
1000
500
0
13

14

15

16

17

FAN EFFICIENCY

18

19

20

1
4

axial flow fan


2500
2000
axial flow fan

1500
1000
500
0
10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

15.5

discharge vs overall efficiency


0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
Discharge

axial flow fan

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
10

12

14

16

18

20

22

overall efficiency

Conclusions:
Axial fan had aero foil shape which has efficiency somewhere in between the forward
and backward curved blades
Comparison is shown in the next graphs

1
5

RPM Vs BLOWER/FAN
EFFICIENCY
3000
2500
FORWARD BLADE BLOWER
"
AXIAL FLOW FAN

2000
RPM

1500
1000
500
0
5

10

15

20

25

30

BLOWER EFFICIENCY

3000

2500

2000
BACKWARDS BLADES
FORWARD BLADES
AXIAL FAN

1500

1000

500

0
10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24