Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Technical Data

8.

Bearing Internal Clearance and Preload

8.1

Bearing internal clearance

8.2

Bearing internal clearance (initial clearance) is the amount of


internal clearance a bearing has before being installed on a
shaft or in a housing.
As shown in Fig. 8.1, when either the inner ring or the outer
ring is fixed and the other ring is free to move, displacement
can take place in either an axial or radial direction. This amount
of displacement (radially or axially) is termed the internal
clearance and, depending on the direction, is called the radial
internal clearance or the axial internal clearance.
When the internal clearance of a bearing is measured, a slight
measurement load is applied to the raceway so the internal
clearance may be measured accurately. However, at this time,
a slight amount of elastic deformation of the bearing occurs
under the measurement load, and the clearance measurement
value (measured clearance) is slightly larger than the true
clearance. This discrepancy between the true bearing
clearance and the increased amount due to the elastic
deformation must be compensated for. These compensation
values are given in Table 8.1. For roller bearings the amount of
elastic deformation can be ignored.

Internal clearance selection

The internal clearance of a bearing under operating conditions


(effective clearance) is usually smaller than the same bearings
initial clearance before being installed and operated. This is
due to several factors including bearing fit, the difference in
temperature between the inner and outer rings, etc. As a
bearings operating clearance has an effect on bearing life,
heat generation, vibration, noise, etc.; care must be taken in
selecting the most suitable operating clearance.
Effective internal clearance:
The initial clearance differential between the initial clearance
and the operating (effective) clearance (the amount of
clearance reduction caused by interference fits, or clearance
variation due to the temperature difference between the inner
and outer rings) can be calculated by the following formula:

eff = o ( f + t )LLLLLLLLLL(8.1)
where,
eff : Effective internal clearance mm
o : Bearing internal clearance mm
f : Reduced amount of clearance due to
interference mm
t : Reduced amount of clearance due to
temperature differential of inner and outer
rings mm

The internal clearance values for each bearing class are shown
in Tables 8.3 through 8.10.
2

Reduced clearance due to interference:


When bearings are installed with interference fits on shafts
and in housings, the inner ring will expand and the outer ring
will contract; thus reducing the bearings internal clearance.
The amount of expansion or contraction varies depending on
the shape of the bearing, the shape of the shaft or housing,
dimensions of the respective parts, and the type of materials
used. The differential can range from approximately 70% to
90% of the effective interference.

Radial
clearance =

f = (0.70 ~ 0.90) deff LLLLLLLL(8.2)

Axial clearance = 1+2


Fig. 8.1 Internal clearance

where,

Table 8.1 Adjustment of radial internal clearance based


on measured load
Unit m
Nominal Bore
Diameter
(mm)

over

incl.

10
18
50

18
50
200

Measuring
Load

Radial Clearance
Increase

Reduced internal clearance due to inner/outer ring temperature


difference:

(N)
24.5
49
147

f : Reduced amount of clearance due to


interference mm
deff : Effective interference mm

C2

Normal

C3

C4

C5

3~4
4~5
6~8

4
5
8

4
6
9

4
6
9

4
6
9

A-64

During operation, normally the outer ring will be from 5 to 10


cooler than the inner ring or rotating parts. However, if the
cooling effect of the housing is large, the shaft is connected to
a heat source, or a heated substance is conducted through
the hollow shaft; the temperature difference between the two

rings can be even greater. The amount of internal clearance is


thus further reduced by the differential expansion of the two
rings.

t = T Do LLLLLLLLLLL(8.3)
where,

t : Amount of reduced clearance due to heat


differential mm
: Bearing steel linear expansion coefficient
12.510-6/C
T : Inner/outer ring temperature differential C
Do : Outer ring raceway diameter mm
Outer ring raceway diameter, Do, values can be approximated
by using formula (8.4) or (8.5).

Table 8.2 Examples of applications where bearing


clearances other than normal clearances are used
Applications

With heavy or
shock load,
clearance is great.

Railway vehicle
axles

C3

Vibration screens

C3

With direction
indeterminate load,
both inner and outer
rings are tight-fitted.

Railway vehicle
traction motors
Tractors and final
speed regulators

For roller bearings (except self-aligning),

Do = 0.25( d + 3.0 D)LLLLLLLLL(8.5)


where,

8.3
Bearing internal clearance selection
standards

C4
C3, C4

Rolling mill table


rollers

C3

Clearance fit for both


inner and outer rings.

Rolling mill roll


necks

C2

To reduce noise
and vibration
when rotating.

Micromotors

C2

To reduce shaft
runout, clearance
is adjusted.

Main spindles of
lathes (Double-row
cylindrical roller
bearings)

C9NA, C0NA

d : Bearing bore diameter mm


D : Bearing outside diameter mm

C4

Paper making
machines and driers

Shaft or inner ring


is heated.

For ball bearings and self-aligning roller bearings,

Do = 0.20( d + 4.0 D)LLLLLLLLL(8.4)

Selected
clearance

Operating conditions

Theoretically, to maximize life, the optimum operating internal


clearance for any bearing would be a slight negative clearance
after the bearing had reached normal operating temperature.
Unfortunately, under actual operating conditions, maintaining
such optimum tolerances is often difficult at best. Due to various
fluctuating operating conditions this slight negative clearance
can quickly become a further negative, greatly lowering the
life of the bearing and causing excessive heat to be generated.
Therefore, an initial internal clearance which will result in a
slightly greater than negative internal operating clearance
should be selected.
Under normal operating conditions (e.g. normal load, fit, speed,
temperature, etc.), a standard internal clearance will give a
very satisfactory operating clearance.
Table 8.2 lists non-standard clearance recommendations for
various applications and operating conditions.

A-65

Technical Data

Table 8.3

diameter
over

2.5
6
10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
710
800
900
1000
1120
Table 8.5

C2

d mm
incl.
2.5
6
10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
800
900
1000
1120
1250

min

over

10
18
30
50
80
100
120
150
180
Note:

Normal
max

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
10
10
20
20
20
20
20

6
7
7
9
10
11
11
11
15
15
18
20
23
23
25
30
35
40
45
55
60
70
80
90
100
110
140
160
170
180
190

min

C3

max

4
2
2
3
5
5
6
6
8
10
12
15
18
18
20
25
25
30
35
40
45
55
60
70
80
90
120
140
150
160
170

11
13
13
18
20
20
20
23
28
30
36
41
48
53
61
71
85
95
105
115
125
145
170
190
210
230
290
320
350
380
410

min
10
8
8
11
13
13
15
18
23
25
30
36
41
46
53
63
75
85
90
100
110
130
150
170
190
210
270
300
330
360
390

C4
max

20
23
23
25
28
28
33
36
43
51
58
66
81
91
102
117
140
160
170
190
210
240
270
300
330
360
450
500
550
600
650

min

C5
max

14
18
20
23
28
30
38
46
53
61
71
81
91
107
125
145
155
175
195
225
250
280
310
340
430
480
530
580
630

29
33
36
41
46
51
61
71
84
97
114
130
147
163
195
225
245
270
300
340
380
420
470
520
630
700
770
850
920

min

20
25
28
30
40
45
55
65
75
90
105
120
135
150
175
205
225
245
275
315
350
390
440
490
600
670
740
820
890

C1

d mm
incl.

min

10
18
30
50
80
100
120
150
180
200

C2

Normal

C3

max

min

max

min

max

min

8
8
10
10
11
13
15
16
18
20

6
6
6
8
11
13
15
16
18
20

12
12
12
14
17
22
30
33
35
40

8
8
10
14
17
22
30
35
35
40

15
15
20
25
32
40
50
35
60
65

15
15
20
25
32
40
50
55
60
65

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

The clearance group in the table is applied only to contact angles in the table below.
Contact angle symbol

Nominal contact angle

C
A1)
B

15
30
40

Applicable clearance group


C1, C2
C2, Normal, C3
Normal, C3, C4

1) Usually not to be indicated

A-66

max

37
45
48
53
64
73
90
105
120
140
160
180
200
230
265
300
340
370
410
460
510
570
630
690
840
940
1040
1150
1260
Unit m

Radial internal clearance of double row and duplex angular contact ball bearings

Nominal bore
diameter

Unit m

Radial internal clearance of deep groove ball bearings

Nominal bore

C4
max
22
24
32
40
50
60
75
80
90
100

min
22
30
40
55
75
95
110
130
150
180

max
30
40
55
75
95
120
140
170
200
240

Table 8.6 Radial internal clearance of cylindrical roller bearings, needle roller bearings
Table 8.6 (1) Cylindrical Bore Interchangeable Radial Clearance ISO Cylindrical Roller Bearings ONLY
Nominal bore
diameter
over
0
10
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250

C2

d mm
incl.
10
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250
1400

min

Normal
max

0
0
0
5
5
10
10
15
15
15
20
25
35
45
45
55
55
65
100
110
110
120
140
145
150
180
200
220
230
270

25
25
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
70
75
90
105
110
125
130
145
190
210
220
240
260
285
310
350
390
430
470
530

min
20
20
20
25
30
40
40
50
50
60
70
75
90
105
110
125
130
145
190
210
220
240
260
285
310
350
390
430
470
530

C3

max

min

45
45
45
50
60
70
75
85
90
105
120
125
145
165
175
195
205
225
280
310
330
360
380
425
470
520
580
640
710
790

35
35
35
45
50
60
65
75
85
100
115
120
140
160
170
190
200
225
280
310
330
360
380
425
470
520
580
640
710
790

Unit m

C4
max

60
60
60
70
80
90
100
110
125
145
165
170
195
220
235
260
275
305
370
410
440
480
500
565
630
690
770
850
950
1050

min
50
50
50
60
70
80
90
105
125
145
165
170
195
220
235
260
275
305
370
410
440
480
500
565
630
690
770
850
950
1050

C5
max

75
75
75
85
100
110
125
140
165
190
215
220
250
280
300
330
350
385
460
510
550
600
620
705
790
860
960
1060
1190
1310

min

max

65
70
80
95
110
130
155
180
200
225
250
275
305
330
370
410
455
510
565
625

90
95
105
125
140
165
190
220
245
275
300
330
365
395
440
485
535
600
665
735

Unit m

Table 8.6 (2) Tapered Bore Interchangeable Radial Clearance


Nominal bore
diameter
over
0
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450

C2

d mm
incl.
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500

Normal

min

max

15
20
20
25
30
35
40
50
55
60
75
85
95
105
115
130
145
165
185
205

40
45
45
55
60
70
75
90
100
110
125
140
155
170
185
205
225
225
285
315

C3

min

max

min

30
35
40
45
50
60
70
90
100
110
125
140
155
170
185
205
225
255
285
315

55
60
65
75
80
95
105
130
145
160
175
195
215
235
255
280
305
345
385
425

40
45
55
60
70
85
95
115
130
145
160
180
200
220
240
265
290
330
370
410

A-67

C4
max
65
70
80
90
100
120
130
155
175
195
210
235
260
285
310
340
370
420
470
520

C5

min

max

50
55
70
75
90
110
120
140
160
180
195
220
245
270
295
325
355
405
455
505

75
80
95
105
120
145
155
180
205
230
245
275
305
335
365
400
435
495
555
615

min

max

Technical Data

Table 8.7

Radial internal clearance of cylindrical roller bearings, needle roller bearings (Non-interchangeable)
Bearing with cylindrical bore

Nominal bore
diameter

d mm

over

10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450

incl.
10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500

C1NA

NA1)

C2NA

C3NA

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
15
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
45
50

10
10
10
10
12
15
15
20
25
25
30
35
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
75
85
95

10
10
10
10
12
15
15
20
25
25
30
35
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
75
85
95

20
20
20
25
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
65
75
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
170
190

20
20
20
25
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
65
75
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
170
190

30
30
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
165
180
200
225
255
285

35
35
35
40
45
50
55
70
80
95
105
115
125
140
155
170
185
205
225
255
285
315

C4NA

max
45
45
45
50
55
65
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
200
215
240
265
295
330
370
410

C5NA

min

max

min

max

45
45
45
50
55
65
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
200
215
240
265
295
330
370
410

55
55
55
60
70
80
90
110
125
145
160
180
200
220
240
265
295
325
360
405
455
505

65
65
70
80
95
110
130
155
180
200
225
250
275
305
330
370
410
455
510
565
625

75
75
80
95
110
130
150
180
205
230
260
285
315
350
380
420
470
520
585
650
720

1) For bearings with normal clearance, only NA is added to bearing numbers. Ex. NU310NA, NN03020KNAP5

Table 8.4

Radial internal clearance of self-aligning ball bearings


Bearing with cylindrical bore

Nominal bore
diameter
over
2.5
6
10
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140

d mm
incl.
6
10
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160

C2

Normal

C3

min

max

min

max

min

1
2
2
3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
10
15

8
9
10
12
14
16
18
19
21
24
27
31
38
44

5
6
6
8
10
11
13
14
16
18
22
25
30
35

15
17
19
21
23
24
29
31
36
40
48
56
68
80

10
12
13
15
17
19
23
25
30
35
42
50
60
70

A-68

C4
max

20
25
26
28
30
35
40
44
50
60
70
83
100
120

min
15
19
21
23
25
29
34
37
45
54
64
75
90
110

C5
max
25
33
35
37
39
46
53
57
69
83
96
114
135
161

min
21
27
30
32
34
40
46
50
62
76
89
105
125
150

max
33
42
48
50
52
58
66
71
88
108
124
145
175
210

Table 8.7

(Cont.) Radial internal clearance of cylindrical roller bearings, needle roller bearings (Non-interchangeable)
Unit m
Bearing with tapered bore
C0NA2)

C9NA
min
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
15
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
45
50

C1NA2)

Nominal bore

C2NA

max

min

max

min

max

min

5
10
10
10
12
15
15
20
25
25
30
35
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
75
85
95

7
7
7
10
10
10
10
15
20
20
25
30
30
30
35
40
40
45
45
50
60
70

17
17
17
20
20
20
20
30
35
35
40
45
45
50
55
65
65
75
75
90
100
115

10
10
10
10
12
15
15
20
25
25
30
35
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
75
85
95

20
20
20
25
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
65
75
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
170
190

20
20
20
25
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
65
75
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
170
190

NA1)

max
30
30
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
135
150
165
180
200
225
255
285

min
35
35
35
40
45
50
55
70
80
95
105
115
125
140
155
170
185
205
225
255
285
315

C3NA
max

45
45
45
50
55
65
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
200
215
240
265
295
330
370
410

min

max

45
45
45
50
55
65
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
200
215
240
265
295
330
370
410

55
55
55
60
70
80
90
110
125
145
160
180
200
220
240
265
295
325
360
405
455
505

diameter

d mm

over

incl.

10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450

10
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
220
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500

2) C9NA, C0NA and C1NA are applied only to precision bearings of class 5 and higher.

Unit m
Bearing with tapered bore
C2
min

7
9
12
14
18
23
29
35
40
45

Normal
max

min

17
20
24
27
32
39
47
56
68
74

13
15
19
22
27
35
42
50
60
65

max

26
28
35
39
47
57
68
81
98
110

Nominal bore

C3
min

20
23
29
33
41
50
62
75
90
100

C4
max

33
39
46
52
61
75
90
108
130
150

min

28
33
40
45
56
69
84
100
120
140

A-69

diameter

C5
max

42
50
59
65
80
98
116
139
165
191

min

37
44
52
58
73
91
109
130
155
180

max

55
62
72
79
99
123
144
170
205
240

d mm

over

incl.

2.5
6
10
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140

6
10
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160

Technical Data

Table 8.8

Axial internal clearance of metric double row and duplex tapered roller bearings
(Except series 329X, 322C, 323C)
Contact angle 27 (e0.76)

Nominal bore
diameter

d mm

C2

Normal

C3

C4

over

incl.

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400

24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
500

25
25
25
20
20
20
45
45
45
60
80
100
120
160
180
200
220
260
300

75
75
95
85
85
110
150
175
175
200
220
260
300
360
400
440
480
560
600

75
75
95
85
110
130
150
175
175
200
240
260
300
360
400
440
500
560
620

125
125
165
150
175
220
260
305
305
340
380
420
480
560
620
680
760
860
920

125
145
165
175
195
240
280
350
390
400
440
500
560
620
700
780
860
980
1100

170
195
235
240
260
325
390
480
520
540
580
660
740
820
920
1020
1120
1280
1400

170
195
210
240
280
325
390
455
500
520
600
660
720
820
920
1020
1120
1280
1440

220
245
280
305
350
410
500
585
630
660
740
820
900
1020
1140
1260
1380
1580
1740

Note: Radial internal clearance is approximately obtained from:

e
r =
a
1.5

A-70

where

r =radial internal clearance, m


a =axial internal clearance, m
e =constant, see bearing tables

Table 8.8

(Cont.) Axial internal clearance of metric double row and duplex tapered roller bearings
(Except series 329X, 322C,Unit
323C)
m
Contact angle >27 (e>0.76)
C2

Normal

Nominal bore

C3

min

max

min

max

min

max

10
10
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
30

30
30
40
40
40
50
70
70
70
100

30
30
40
40
50
60
70
70
70
100

50
50
70
70
80
100
120
120
120
160

50
60
70
80
90
110
130
150
160
180

70
80
100
110
120
150
180
200
210
240

Table 8.10 Radial internal clearance of bearings for electric


motor
Unit m
Nominal bore
diameter

d mm
over
103)
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180

incl.
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200

Radial internal clearance CM1)


Deep groove
ball bearings
min
4
5
5
9
9
12
12
18
18
24
24

Cylindrical2)
roller bearings

max

min

11
12
12
17
17
22
22
30
30
38
38

15
15
20
25
30
35
35
40
50
60
65

diameter

C4

max

30
30
35
40
45
55
60
65
80
90
100

1) Suffix CM is added to bearing numbers.


2) Non-interchangeable clearance.
3) This diameter is included in the group.

A-71

min
70
80
90
110
130
150
180
210
210
240

max
90
100
120
140
160
190
230
260
260
300

d mm

over

incl.

18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400

24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
500

Technical Data

Table 8.9

Radial internal clearance of spherical roller bearings


Bearing with cylindrical bore

Nominal bore
diameter
over
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250

d mm

C2

Normal

C3

incl.

min

max

min

max

min

18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250
1400

10
10
15
15
20
20
30
35
40
50
60
65
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
140
150
170
190
210
230
260
290
320
350

20
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
75
95
110
120
130
140
150
170
190
200
220
240
260
280
310
350
390
430
480
530
580
640

20
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
75
95
110
120
130
140
150
170
190
200
220
240
260
280
310
350
390
430
480
530
280
640

35
35
40
45
55
65
80
100
120
145
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
310
340
370
410
440
480
530
580
650
710
780
860
950

35
35
40
45
55
65
80
100
120
145
170
180
200
220
240
260
280
310
340
370
410
440
480
530
580
650
710
780
860
950

A-72

C4

C5

max

min

max

min

max

45
45
55
60
75
90
110
135
160
190
220
240
260
290
320
350
370
410
450
500
550
600
650
700
770
860
930
1020
1120
1240

45
45
55
60
75
90
110
135
160
190
220
240
260
290
320
350
370
410
450
500
550
600
650
700
770
860
930
1020
1120
1240

60
60
75
80
100
120
145
180
210
240
280
310
340
380
420
460
500
550
600
660
720
780
850
920
1010
1120
1220
1330
1460
1620

60
60
75
80
100
120
145
180
210
240
280
310
340
380
420
460
500
550
600
660
720
780
850
920
1010
1120
1220
1330
1460
1620

75
75
95
100
125
150
180
225
260
300
350
390
430
470
520
570
630
690
750
820
900
1000
1100
1190
1300
1440
1570
1720
1870
2080

Table 8.9

Unit m

(Cont.) Radial internal clearance of spherical roller bearings


Bearing with tapered bore

C2

Normal

Nominal bore

C3

C4

min

max

min

max

min

max

15
20
25
30
40
50
55
65
80
90
100
110
120
140
150
170
190
210
230
260
290
320
350
390
440
490
530
570
620

25
30
35
45
55
70
80
100
120
130
140
160
180
200
220
240
270
300
330
370
410
460
510
570
640
710
770
830
910

25
30
35
45
55
70
80
100
120
130
140
160
180
200
220
240
270
300
330
370
410
460
510
570
640
710
770
830
910

35
40
50
60
75
95
110
135
160
180
200
220
250
270
300
330
360
400
440
490
540
600
670
750
840
930
1030
1120
1230

35
40
50
60
75
95
110
135
160
180
200
220
250
270
300
330
360
400
440
490
540
600
670
750
840
930
1030
1120
1230

45
55
65
80
95
120
140
170
200
230
260
290
320
350
390
430
470
520
570
630
680
760
850
960
1070
1190
1300
1420
1560

C5

min

max

min

max

45
55
65
80
95
120
140
170
200
230
260
290
320
350
390
430
470
520
570
630
680
760
850
960
1070
1190
1300
1420
1560

60
75
85
100
120
150
180
220
260
300
340
370
410
450
490
540
590
650
720
790
870
980
1090
1220
1370
1520
1670
1830
2000

60
75
85
100
120
150
180
220
260
300
340
370
410
450
490
540
590
650
720
790
870
980
1090
1220
1370
1520
1670
1830
2000

75
95
105
130
160
200
230
280
330
380
430
470
520
570
620
680
740
820
910
1000
1100
1230
1360
1500
1690
1860
2050
2250
2470

A-73

diameter

d mm

over
14
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250

incl.
18
24
30
40
50
65
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250
1400

Technical Data

8.4

Preload

Normally, bearings are used with a slight internal clearance


under operating conditions. However, in some applications,
bearings are given an initial load; this means that the bearings
internal clearance is negative before operation. This is called
preload and is commonly applied to angular ball bearings
and tapered roller bearings.
8.4.1

Purpose of preload

Giving preload to a bearing results in the rolling element and


raceway surfaces being under constant elastic compressive
forces at their contact points. This has the effect of making the
bearing extremely rigid so that even when load is applied to
the bearing, radial or axial shaft displacement does not occur.
Thus, the natural frequency of the shaft is increased, which is
suitable for high speeds.
Preload is also used to prevent or suppress shaft runout,
vibration, and noise; improve running accuracy and locating
accuracy; reduce smearing, and regulate rolling element
rotation. Also, for thrust ball and roller bearings mounted on
horizontal shafts, preloading keeps the rolling elements in
proper alignment.
The most common method of preloading is to apply an axial
load to two duplex bearings so that the inner and outer rings
are displaced axially in relation to each other. This preloading
method is divided into fixed position preload and constant
pressure preload.
Bearing II

8.4.2
Preloading methods and amounts
The basic pattern, purpose and characteristics of bearing
preloads are shown in Table 8.11. The definite position preload
is effective for positioning the two bearings and also for
increasing the rigidity. Due to the use of a spring for the constant
pressure preload, the preload force can be kept constant, even
when the distance between the two bearings fluctuates under
the influence of operating heat and load.
Also, the standard preload for the paired angular contact ball
bearings is shown in Table 8.12. Light and normal preload is
applied to prevent general vibration, and medium and heavy
preload is applied especially when rigidity is required.
8.4.3

Preload and rigidity

The increased rigidity effect preloading has on bearings is


shown in Fig. 8.5. When the offset inner rings of the two paired
angular contact ball bearings are pressed together, each inner
ring is displaced axially by the amount o and is thus given a
preload, Fo, in the direction shown. Under this condition, when
external axial load Fa is applied, bearing I will have an increased
displacement by the amount a and bearing IIs displacement
will decrease. At this time the loads applied to bearing I and II
are Fi and Fii, respectively.
Under the condition of no preload, bearing I will be displaced
by the amount b when axial load Fa is applied. Since the
amount of displacement, a, is less than b, it indicates a higher
rigidity for a.

Bearing I

Fa
Fo

Fo

o
Outer ring

Steel ball

Inner ring

(1) Under free from


preload

Bearing II

o o

Bearing I

(2) Under preloading Fo

Fa
a

(3) Under preloading


and applied load

Axial load

Fa

a Inner ring
displacement

FII

FI
Fo

Fa
FII

FI = FII + Fa
I
o

Fig. 8.5 Fixed position preload versus axial displacement

A-74

II
o

Axial
displacement

Table 8.11 Preloading methods and characteristics


Method

Basic pattern

Applicable
bearings

Object

Characteristics

Applications

Fixed position preload

Precision
Maintaining
angular contact accuracy of
ball bearings
rotating shaft,
preventing
vibration
increasing
rigidity

Preload is accomplished by
a predetermined offset of the
rings or by using spacers. For
the standard preload see Table
8.12

Tapered roller Increasing


bearings, thrust bearing rigidity
ball bearings
angular contact
ball bearings

Preload is accomplished by
Lathes, milling
adjusting a threaded screw.
machines,
The amount of preload is set by differential
measuring the starting torque or gears of
axial displacement.
automotives,
Relationship between the
printing
starting torque M and preload T machines,
is approximately given by the wheel axles
following formulas: for duplex
angular contact ball bearings:

M=

dp T
330 ~ 430

Grinding
machines,
lathes, milling
machines,
measuring
instruments

N mm1)

for duplex tapered roller


bearings:

M=

Constant pressure preload

d p 0.8 T
54 ~ 107

N mm1)

Angular contact
ball bearings,
deep groove
ball bearings,
precision
tapered roller
bearings

Maintaining
accuracy and
preventing
vibration and
noise with a
constant
amount of
preload without
being affected
by loads or
temperature

Preloading is accomplished by Internal


using coil or belleville springs. grinding
Recommended preloads are as machines,
follows:
electric motors,
for deep groove ball bearings: high speed
(4 to 8) d N
shafts in small
for angular contact ball
machines,
bearings:
tension reels
see Table 8.12

Tapered roller
bearings with
steep angle,
spherical roller
thrust bearings,
thrust ball
bearings

Preventing
smearing on
raceway of
non-loaded
side under
axial loads

Preload is accomplished by
Rolling mills,
using coil or belleville springs. extruding
Recommended preloads are as machines
follows:
for thrust ball bearings:

T = 0.42(n Coa ) 10 13 N 2)
1.9

T = 0.00083 Coa N 2)
whichever is greater for
spherical roller thrust bearings:

T = 0.025 Coa 0.8 N 2)


Note: In the above formulas,

dp=pitch diameter of bearing, mm


dp=(Bore+Outside dia)/2

d=bearing bore, mm
n=number of revolutions, r/min

T=preload, N

Coa=basic static axial load rating, N

The starting torque M however, is greatly influenced by lubricants and a period of run-in time.

A-75

Technical Data

Table 8.12 Standard preloads for angular contact ball bearings


Nominal bore
diameter

Bearing series

mm

78C

Heavy

Light

Normal

200
300
500
600
800
1000
1000
1500
1500
1500
2000
2500
3000
3000
3000
4000
4000
6000

20
20
30
50
50
100
100
150
150
150
200
200
200
300
300
500
500
500
600
600

30
30
80
150
150
200
300
400
400
400
600
600
600
800
800
1000
1000
1000
1500
1500

100
100
150
300
300
500
700
1000
1000
1000
1500
1500
1500
2000
2000
2500
2500
2500
3500
3500

150
200
300
600
700
1000
1500
2000
2000
2000
2500
2500
2500
4000
4000
6000
6000
6000
7000
7000

20
20
50
80
100
150
200
300
300
300
400
400
400
500
500
700
700
700
800
800

50
50
100
200
300
400
500
700
700
700
1000
1000
1000
1500
1500
2000
2000
2000
2500
2500

Heavy

Medium

100
200
250
300
400
500
500
700
700
700
900
1000
1500
1500
1500
2000
2000
3000

Medium

Normal

20
50
30
80
40 100
50 120
80 200
100 250
100 250
120 300
120 300
120 300
150 400
200 500
250 700
250 700
250 700
300 900
300 900
500 1300

Light

150
150
200
400
400
600
600
600
600
1000
1000
1300
1500
1500
2000
2000
2500
2500

72C, BNT2

Heavy

80
80
100
200
200
300
300
300
300
500
500
600
800
800
1000
1000
1300
1300

70C, BNT0, HSBOC

Medium

30
30
50
100
100
150
150
150
150
200
200
300
400
400
500
500
600
600

Normal

10
10
20
30
30
50
50
50
50
80
80
100
150
150
150
150
200
200

Light

Heavy

12
18
32
40
50
65
80
90
95
100
105
110
120
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

Medium

12
18
32
40
50
65
80
90
95
100
105
110
120
140
150
160
170
180
190

Normal

incl.

79C, HSB9C

Light

over

Units: (N)

100 200
150 300
300 500
500 800
600 1000
800 1500
1000 2000
1500 3000
2000 4000
2000 4000
2500 5000
2500 5000
2500 5000
3000 6000
3000 6000
4500 8000
4500 8000
4500 8000
5000 10000
5000 10000

Note: Symbols /GL, /GN, /GM and GH are suffixes on NTN bearing part numbers indicating Light, Normal, Medium and Heavy
preloads, respectively.

A-76