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School Of Distance Education


Name - Sagar Shivkumar Swami


Reg No. - 214-08-32-12307-2161


Course Name - PGPIDM


Course No - IDM 21


Course Title Project Management System and Techniques.

Question: A New International cricket facility is to be constructed outside a mega city over a
piece of land. Facility to include:
1. Capacity of Spectators: 80,000
2. day/Night play facility
3. TV Camera platform in six directions
4. Safety of players from spectators
5. Pavilion for VIPs to sit: 300 seat
6. Parking (adequate space for all above)
Time available is 16 months including monsoon. Cost of construction need to be
recovered in 5 years. Average cost of Ticket is 100/-. Approximate 4 matches per year.
Submit the Project Report:
1. Identification of Project
2. Stages in development of Project
3. Work break down structure to undertake the project
4. Milestone and CPM chart for corporate control
5. Cost of project.


Solution:Project Identification:The primary thing about the any project is its necessity as well as its feasibility. Now
the necessity of the project like a cricket stadium is created by the people of the city as well
as a mega city demands a cricket stadium in its vicinity. The feasibility demands a deep
thought like for a location of stadium i.e.
(a) Where can the plant be located?
(b) What is the present and future projected cost of resources?
(c) The sources for Financing of the project?
(d) Are there enough raw materials as well as skilled and productive labour available
in the area or can be created?
(e) Are there adequate electricity and communication facilities available?
(f) What political or institutional factors may cease or impede the development and
operation of the facility?
(g) What will be the sociological, economic and environmental impact of entire
project on community, like mushrooming of good hotels and restaurant in the
vicinity of the stadium?
In short, what do all these factors taken as a whole mean for the technical and
economic feasibility of the project?
The project can be defined as, Organization and performance of resources such as
men, machinery, money, material, space, and technology into logical sequence of activities.
So, when we deal with the project, we are primarily dealing with resources like time, money,
equipment, technology, space usage, material and last but not least people. We have to
organize these resources and platform activities in their logical sequence to complete the
project. So one thing must be clear in ones mind that whether it is to construct a small house
or to construct a cricket stadium costing several crores of rupees or any other multi crore
project of construction of Dam etc. the general pattern remains same.


Projects are usually a part of an overall strategic programme. A programme at the micro level
comprises one or more projects. A programme is managed in a co-coordinated way to
achieve its overall objectives through the implementation of its projects.
Project Report:Project report is a basis for communicating what has been planned for the project. In this
project I have assumed the site in Punjab as there is no other such type of facility is available
yet. Following are some important points for the report;

Feasibility of the project is to the calculations

Internal money of the state would remain within the limits.

City itself is an attractive place.

Project Development Process:From conceptualization to implementation the stages in the development of

construction projects fall into broadly consistent patterns but in timing and degree of
emphasis each project takes on its own a unique character.
Most projects start with a need to have a new facility long before designers start preparing
designs and drawings of the projects and certainly before field construction work can
commence. Considerable thought goes into broad scale planning. Elements of this phase
(a) Conceptual analysis
(b) Technical and feasibility studies
(c) Environmental impact reports
Engineering and design
Architects and design engineers primarily handle these phases. Increasingly, however, the
client operation and utilization of Knowledge and field constructors experience are more
strongly injected at this stage through direct participation and stringent review procedures.
There are two phase of engineering and design:


(i) Preliminary engineering and design

(a) Architectural concepts, like form of the stadium, capacity of the stadium, functions
fully filled state of the all art facilities etc.
(b) Evaluation of alternatives in regard to the ecological process, size and capacity.
(c) Economic feasibility studies: For instance of a high rise building, the owner
specifies the area he would like to utilize. So, Architect will make preliminary planning
of floor of the building required, taking into consideration all the prevailing laws of the
area. He will also go through requirement of general functional areas such as parking and
service areas and also overall design approach. Similar is the case of cricket stadium,
here architect will make preliminary planning for general site lay out , form of the
stadium keeping in mind the sitting facility , day- night facility with proper camera
platform , proper entrances and exits for the manual as well as vehicular traffic with
adequate parking facilities etc.
(ii) Detailed engineering and design
The process involves successively breaking down, of the project in to the parts that is the
different type engineering requirements such as structural design, HVAC, Electrical
plumbing & other services for analysing and designing the structure in to its elements so
that it complies with all the recognized standards of safety and performance. This is most
important for a project like stadium where people are very large in number and secondly
due to the structure of the stadium which should be column free and light weight as well
as sound in aesthetic sense. So, a set of drawing and specifications are prepared for use
by the constructors covering civil, electrical, mechanical, interior drawings etc. as the
case may be.
Procurement involves two types of activities. One is to contract and subcontract to several
parties for different types of work activities. These contractors and subcontracts make
arrangements or supply of all men, materials and machines required to complete the part of
the work allotted to them. The other is to take responsibility to procure all resources to
complete the project.


It is the process whereby the Designers plans and specifications are converted into physical
structures and facilities. It involves the organization and co-ordination of all the resources
time, money, material, technology, people, equipment etc. The target will be to complete the
project on schedule and within stipulated costs complying all the standards of quality and
performance specified by the designers, as in this case the total time allotted is 16 months
including monsoon period.
Most structures and facilities of any significance involve commissioning phase . During
construction large amount of testing is done, so as to be sure that all components function
will individually and together as a total system. Electrical and mechanical systems are tested,
adjusted, corrected as required to bring them to a level to perform at an optimum output, like
in this case of stadium having a day/night facility all the electrical systems are tested
repeatedly and it should match the international standards.
This is the phase where we need maximum attention and here we lack which is the main
cause for the failure of the project. For instance PCA stadium, Mohali that is a state of the art
cricket stadium but there is no regular maintenance, but whenever there is a much of
international standards a huge amount of money is expended for its renovation like 85lakh
rupees were spend for the test match between India and England, so whenever the project is
handed over to the owner either to operate or utilize where he takes services of all production
engineers, maintenance engineers, service people and people of different trades as required to
have a smooth functioning of the project over its lifetime.
Project Planning & Control:The construction planning process is stimulated through a study of project documents.
These documents include- but are not limited to the available technical and commercial
studies and investigations design and drawings, estimate of quantities, construction method
statements, project planning data, contract documents, site conditions, working regulations,
market survey, local resources, project environment and the clients organization. The


planning process takes in to the account the strength and weakness of the organization as well
as the anticipated opportunities and risks.
Project Planning:(i) Planning is the creative and demanding mental activity of working out what has to be
done, how , by when, by whom and with what doing the job in the mind . plans are not
just pieces of paper . Plans represent the result of careful though, comprehensive discussions,
decisions and actions, and commitments made between people and contractual parties.
(ii) Planning techniques form the planners toolbox. They assist in the analysis of the plan,
organizing the information, and have a crucial effect on the way in which the plan is
communicated to others. Taken together, these to elements of planning produce the plan a
strategy and tactics for the execution of the project. In terms of activities, time quantities,
resources and perhaps costs and values, now the point is how and by whom this planning and
planning techniques use to convert all these theories of planning and planning techniques in
to a practical shape. Planners cannot plan without managers. It is the managers task to plan:
that is to decide on strategies and tactics, to break down the work to be done into tasks and
sub-tasks and to assign the responsibility for completing these tasks to individuals or
organization. So in short, planners and implementers should go side by side for any project
and act as a team.
Project Control:(i) Deviation: Deviations occur due to following reasons
While doing original planning and scheduling activity duration might have been over
estimated or under estimated.
1. Some activities are delayed due to reasons beyond control like change in foundation
condition, bad weather, monsoon as in this case, non-availability of certain resources, labour
strike, break down of equipment etc. So covering these risks the total time allotted to
complete the cricket stadium is 16 months.
2. Natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, epidemic etc., festivals etc.
3. Addition deletion or major modification in the work by client.


4. Introduction of new material, equipment or construction techniques. It is necessary to

review the actual progress against the predetermined targets. By assessing the reasons of
deviations and decide whether a new network is necessary for the remaining work. If not,
what is the effect of this deviation on the remaining portion or what remedial actions are
possible to retain the target date of completion unchanged.
Updating Network
It consists of review of the planning and scheduling at regular intervals. But for that updating,
the information required will be, period at which review is taken either in terms of days or
weeks. List of activities completed and partially completed with the period required to
complete the balance of the activity etc. Now after getting the required updating should be
done at regular intervals, which depends upon magnitude of work, rate of progress etc. At
short intervals as the scope of absorbing delays is limited as the period advances, for small
projects. At certain stages such as foundation level, plinth level, sub structure and super
structure etc. Whenever new techniques or equipment are available , when work has stopped
for a long period for some reasons the updating of a project also helps in rescheduling of the
activities which are delayed or lagging behind so that the project can be completed within the
stipulated time.
Calendaring the Network
While preparing the network we consider the working days while on work sits there will be
holidays such as weekly of day, festivals etc. these holidays have therefore to be incorporated
in calendaring the network.
Cost control
Project control must be linked up with the cost. The objectives of the cost control are the
method must give the program of expenditure so that requirements of fund can be assessed.
At the time of review we should have a clear picture of , actual expenditure incurred vis--vis
program expenditure, actual expenditure vis- a vis the expected returns. In case deviations,
what are the reasons and what will be the estimated cost of remaining portion of the work .
Improper Cost estimation & Controlling can bring a project to a stand still , if the project is
under budgeted the project will be stopped mid way , similarly proper planning is to be done
stage wise requirement of the funds for the various stages of the project & the sources for the

Project Work Breakdown Structure:Project work breakdown is the division of the project into the small Identifiable activities or
events with some milestones also. These activities are also called as levels, which can be
classified very well. For instance the activities of the cricket stadium are:
Pre-Construction Phase
- Selection of land
- Preliminary design
- Final design & preparation of working drawings
- Selection of the vendors for the execution of the work & supply of equipments & materials
Construction Phase
- Demarcation of the field area.
- Construction of foundation for the stands and other sitting areas.
- Construction of boundary walls.
- Construction of steps with proper risers.
- Construction of roof.
- Provisions of services application of wall, floor and ceiling finish.
- Completion of electrical and mechanical works.
- External works: drainage etc.
- Parking facility etc.
- Structure for Lights.
- Road work.
Commissioning & Handing Over
- Testing & commissioning of the Electrical Equipments.
- Testing & commissioning of the HVAC system.
- Testing & Commissioning of the other services such as Fire Fighting, security system, fire
detection system etc.
- Final Handing over of the facility to the client.


Work Breakdown Structure:The project is divided into activities and events. In the preparation of the network for the
project, the arrows indicate the activities and events are identifiable instantaneous stages they
are represented as Nodes in a network. So, arrows of the network are joined in accordance
with the interdependence of the activities, which they represent. In small and simple work
this interrelationship is obvious but in a large project it is necessary to establish it
systematically. The Work Breakdown Break Methodology involves the breaking down of the
project into Major activities involved & further these activities are broken into further smaller
activities & so on. The interrelationship of the dependent activities is worked out & a
sequence of the execution of the activities involved is prepared, this interrelationship is
represented in the graphical from & is called as network. This project can be broken down
into activities as Civil work, Electrical work, Plumbing work etc., further the Civil work can
be further broken down into Foundation work, Superstructure work, Road work etc., similarly
the foundation work can be broken down into layout, excavation, PCC, RCC etc. & further
these works can be fragmented as RCC work will involve the following activities
- Preparation of form work.
- Cutting, bending, laying& binding of steel.
- Pouring of concrete.
- Curing.
- Removing of shuttering



Civil Work

Electrical Work

Plumbing Work



Road Work





Steel Work




Work Breakdown Structure

Assessing Duration:Once the Work Breakdown structure is formed, all the activities are assigned time
duration and logically interrelationship of activities is formed as the following activity can
start how many days after the preceding activity.
How to evaluate the total time taken to complete the project? In construction work, estimates
of activity duration cannot be anything other than approximation. In repetitive construction
where the activities and trades follow in sequence, any delayed in the planned completion of
an activity will result in the following trades waiting unproductively for its completion.
Therefore it is prudent to make some provision for late completion by planning a short delay
or buffer between each activity. For example in this case of cricket stadium , the monsoon
period can delayed the project to complete according to its actual planned completion so
thats why covering the risks there is a provision for late completion by planning a short
delay or buffer between each activity. So, 16 months of time to complete the stadium covers
the short delay (either natural or due to human failure) as well as a little buffer between each

Now what is this buffer stands for? The estimate of buffer time is related to the project
managers assessment of the reliability of the estimate of activity duration ; where the
reliability is poor , large buffer must be used . Taking the case of foundation of a simple
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Activity; Foundation ---------------time taken 5 days

Buffer time ---------------time 2 days
Total time taken = 7 days.
So, project manager assess the total time for foundation as 7 days (not 5 days) including the
delay period or buffer time.
Costing activity:The discussion above considered only the direct cost of activity (or project). Actually activity
(project) cost consists of direct and indirect costs. These comprise of the following
(a) Direct cost:
(i) Cost of material
(ii) Wages paid to labour
(iii) Expenditure on tools and equipment used on the activity.
(b) Indirect cost:
(i) Supervision charges
(ii) Administrative charges
(iii) Interest and capital
(iv) Revenue due to early completion of work and loss due to delay.
Indirect costs is worked out per day of the project execution or it is allocated on the basis of
certain stages of work packages e.g. foundation, sill level, lintel level in the case of building
or foundations substructure super structure, approaches etc.
Indirect cost increases as duration increase and direct cost goes on decreasing as duration
increases. Now in this case of cricket stadium given data,

Capacity of spectators 80,000


Capacity of V.I.P stands 300


Time available 16 months (including monsoons)


Cost of construction to be recovered in 5 year


Average cost of ticket is Rs.100

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Approximate matches in a year is 4

So, total cost of the project:
Total earning of tickets for a single match if pack to full capacity =80,000 X 100
(Excluding any other earning received from sponsors or telecast right) =
80, 00,000/Total earning in a year having 4 matches per year
=80, 00, 000 X 4 =3, 20, 00,000/-

Now as given earlier that the cost of construction to be recovered in 5 years,

So, total cost of the stadium =3, 20, 00,000 X 5 =16, 00, 00,000/So, a total cost of construction of stadium is nearly 16crores and total time taken to complete
is in 16 month duration.
After the preliminary planning of the project the detailed estimates of the cost is prepared for
the project which involves the land costs, project construction cost, fee for the consultants,
indirect cost such as supervision cost, administration cost etc.
CPM/Network Analysis:Network elements:Network is defined as the pictorial representation of the activities of a given project in
the form of arrows, which form an essential element of network. Arrow represents an
activity, task of operation of the work since activity consumes resources. Arrow has a
directional sense, which can be represented by an arrow head it is used to indicate the general
direction of flow of work. It is conventional to show arrows directing from left to right. Tail
of arrow indicates the start of the activity and its had indicates the completion of the activity.
Beginning of completion of an activity marks a phase or stage of work. This is represented by
a suitable geometrical figure like circle, triangle and rectangle. This is known as event.
Events naturally do not consume any resource by itself. There is another type of activities,
which do not require any resources and which are basically imaging activities called dummy
activities, these activities only show the interdependency of the activities but doesnt
consume any resource.

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Development of network:
Network can be developed in two ways,

Preceding and following activities:

Some activities cannot be started unless certain activities are completed. For e.g.
excavation of foundation must be completed before foundation concrete is poured.
These types of activities are known as sequential activities


Concurrent activities:
A few activities can be carried out concurrently. For e.g. excavation for foundation
of four walls of a room can be started simultaneously. Let us take the case of
erecting steel framework (for lightning) on cement concrete foundation in a cricket
ground; the following operations are identified in the network:

Clearing and levelling the site.

Giving lineout.

Procuring material for concrete.

Procuring steel for foundation.



Formwork foundation steel -1

Formwork foundation steel -2





Erection & painting of steel work

Clearing & levelling site

Preparation of ground& pitch

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These are the general activities for the development of Master Control Network (MCN),
however we can divide each activity in to sub activity to develop a sub- network .e.g.
concreting can be divided as conc. In foundation, in boundary wall, in superstructure etc. the
activities of excavation, formwork, concreting and backfilling are divided in to two parts to
make these activities concurrent to further reduce the time of completion and thus cost.
The logic table is as shown below:





Site clearing &

Procurement of
Excavation for












Foundation work






















Construction of
boundary walls
Construction of
super structure
Construction of

AC, plumbing)

Foundation for light

Fabrication of

structure for lights

for d/n facility

Construction of drains

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Construction of

Construction of


parking area
Finishing works in







M/S railing works


Painting work



Structure of welded

wire mesh around

the Ground for






S, C


safety of players
Preparation of

Ground and pitch

Installation of


Commissioning of

Handing over

Analysis Procedure:The project can be analysed in a no. of ways, through precedence network and PERT/CPM
networks. Precedence network is the way of representing the project through the activity-onnode approach. In precedence network, an activity is shown on the node, which is represented
by a box. The precedence diagram is shown as a straight line, called connectors, if an activity
A is followed by another activity B, it is known as Sequential activity and it will be
represented in CPM/PERT network as in the figure given below. However if the some
activity A is followed by another activity B, then it will be represented in precedence diagram

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Precedence network is easier to understand than arrow networks to draw as well as to

understand. It is also easier to explain to a non-technical person who does not have much
knowledge about a network. Now time analysis in both the networks (precedence and
PERT/CPM) is done on the same lines. Every event is associated with two timings,
Earliest occurrence (ET) and Latest occurrence (LT) Similarly each activity is associated with
four times:
Earliest start time (EST) = the earliest time by which an activity can start.
Latest start time (LST) = the latest time by which an activity must start.
Earliest finish time (EFT) = the earliest time by which an activity can be finished.
Latest finished time (LFT) = the earliest time by which an activity must be finished.
So far the networks were discussed with respect to only time and it is assumed that
resources required for carrying out various activities are as and when needed. But such a
situation is rarely possible and even if possible is neither desirable nor it will be economical.
So, the aim should be to use the resources in the optimum manner and at uniform rate as is
possible. But at times there are constraints on availability of some resources such as some
equipment or some special type of labour. So, activities have to be planned and schedule in
such a way as to satisfy these constraints without extending the project duration: however if
the constraints are of critical nature even project duration has to be altered to satisfy them. In
the end let us give a look at step by step procedure for large network,

Prepare project network.


Calculate event timings, activity timings & Floats


Prepare a bar chart to suitable scale. List the activities in a proper scale.
(a) The activities should be listed in increasing tail event number
(b) If there are more activities with the same tail event number they should be so
arranged that head event numbers in increasing numbers


(First schedule all activities at EST and work out resource requirements. If the
distribution is not satisfactory find out sum of the squares.


Reschedule the activities. Start with the last activity. It should be shifted towards
LST stage by stage


Next activity is then taken up and same procedure is followed till we finish all the

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While scheduling activity from whose head event more than one activity is
emanating, care is necessary. The latter are rescheduled; hence the preceding
activity must be over by the earliest time worked out by rescheduling. Of
subsequent activities.

CPM Network:Essentially it was a problem concerned with obtaining trade-off between completion
time of work and the cost. The method known as critical path method is therefore based on
the assumption that the time required by various activities is known. It is deterministic in
nature and is not concerned with uncertainties. CPM is more suitable in construction situation
where some experience in handling similar activities in the past is available.
Once a commitment to CPM is made the implementation should be thoroughly
planned in advance, with frank and open discussions and involvement if success is required.
It must be understood that no amount of good office planning will cover up lack of
production and efficiency in the field. Critical Path Method is capable of serving on the basis
of an integrated company-worldwide management, ranging from pre bid feasibility studies
though estimating, planning, cost accounting, progress control and financial control.
Critical Path Method is the path of events having longest duration i.e. A-B-D-E-I-NO-V-W-X having duration 482 days=16 months, which is required completion time. This
means that any delay in completion of any activity in critical path is not having Float.

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