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Система моделирования движ ения ж идкости и газа

Flow V ision
Version 3.09.05

Tutorial: Examples of typical tasks

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FlowVision Help 1

Contents
1 Introduction 10
2 Notation 11
3 Detailed description of a simpliest
model 13
3.1 Laminar flow in a tube
.......................................................................................................... 14
3.1.1 Computational
...................................................................................................................
domain 14
3.1.2 Creating a project
................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.3 Defining a physical
...................................................................................................................
model 19
3.1.3.1 Substance
.................................................................................................................................................. 20
3.1.3.2 Phase
.................................................................................................................................................. 21
3.1.3.3 Model
.................................................................................................................................................. 23
3.1.4 Defining boundary
...................................................................................................................
conditions 23
3.1.5 Defining initial
...................................................................................................................
conditions 26
3.1.6 Generation of...................................................................................................................
initial computational grid 27
3.1.7 Adaptation of...................................................................................................................
computational grid 29
3.1.8 Defining control
...................................................................................................................
parameters of computation 30
3.1.9 Stopping conditions
................................................................................................................... 31
3.1.10 Starting the...................................................................................................................
computation 34
3.1.11 Visualization
................................................................................................................... 36
3.1.11.1 Charachteristics (pressure variation)
.................................................................................................................................................. 37
3.1.11.2 Plot along line (pressure distribution)
.................................................................................................................................................. 40
3.1.11.3 Vectors (velocity distribution)
.................................................................................................................................................. 43
3.1.11.4 Color contours (distribution of velocity's modulus)
.................................................................................................................................................. 45

4 Physical processes 47
4.1 Motion of fluid
.......................................................................................................... 48
4.1.1 Laminar flow...................................................................................................................
around circular cylimder 48
4.1.1.1 Computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 50
4.1.1.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 51
4.1.1.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 52
4.1.1.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 54
4.1.1.5 Adaptation of calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 59
4.1.1.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 62
4.1.1.7 Stopping conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 62
4.1.1.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 62
4.1.1.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Force variation 63
4.1.1.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 63
4.1.1.8.3
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 64
4.1.2 Time-varying
...................................................................................................................
flow in a tube 65
4.1.2.1 Computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 66
4.1.2.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 66

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FlowVision Help 2
4.1.2.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 67
4.1.2.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 75
4.1.2.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 75
4.1.2.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 76
4.1.2.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 76
4.1.3 Flow in clearance
...................................................................................................................
- use of the Gap model 77
4.1.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 77
4.1.3.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 78
4.1.3.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 79
4.1.3.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 80
4.1.3.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 80
4.1.3.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Distribution of gap cells 81
4.1.3.5.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 81
4.1.4 Flow of crude
...................................................................................................................
oil in a petroleum reservoir 82
4.1.4.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 83
4.1.4.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 85
4.1.4.3 Modifiers
.................................................................................................................................................. 86
4.1.4.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 90
4.1.4.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 90
4.1.4.6 Stopping conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 91
4.1.4.7 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 91
4.1.4.7.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 91
4.1.4.7.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account 93
4.1.5 Trans-sonic...................................................................................................................
flow in Laval nozzle 93
4.1.5.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 94
4.1.5.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 95
4.1.5.3 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 96
4.1.5.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 97
4.1.5.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 97
4.1.5.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 98
4.1.5.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Mach Number distribution 98
4.1.5.6.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 99
4.1.6 Supersonic...................................................................................................................
flow past wedge 100
4.1.6.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 101
4.1.6.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 101
4.1.6.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 103
4.1.6.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 103
4.1.6.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 105
4.1.6.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 105
4.1.6.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 106
4.1.7 Hypersonic...................................................................................................................
flow around sphere 107
4.1.7.1 Computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 107
4.1.7.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 108
4.1.7.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 109
4.1.7.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 110
4.1.7.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 113
4.1.7.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 114
4.1.7.7 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 115
4.1.7.7.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Mach Number distribution 115
4.1.7.7.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 116

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FlowVision Help 3
4.2 Heat thansfer
.......................................................................................................... 117
4.2.1 Heat thanser
...................................................................................................................
in a solid body 117
4.2.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 117
4.2.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 118
4.2.1.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 119
4.2.1.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 119
4.2.1.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 119
4.2.1.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 120
4.2.2 Forced convection
................................................................................................................... 121
4.2.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 121
4.2.2.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 122
4.2.2.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 124
4.2.2.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 124
4.2.2.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 124
4.2.2.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 125
4.2.3 Natural convection
................................................................................................................... 125
4.2.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 127
4.2.3.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 128
4.2.3.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 130
4.2.3.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 131
4.2.3.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 131
4.2.3.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 132
4.2.3.5.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 134
4.3 Turbulence
.......................................................................................................... 136
4.3.1 Turbulent flow
...................................................................................................................
in a pipe 136
4.3.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 137
4.3.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 138
4.3.1.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 139
4.3.1.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 140
4.3.1.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 140
4.3.1.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure variation on inlet 140
4.3.1.5.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Turbulent viscosity distribution 141
4.3.1.5.3
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 142
4.3.1.5.4
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 143
4.3.2 Turbulent flow
...................................................................................................................
over plate 144
4.3.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 145
4.3.2.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 147
4.3.2.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 149
4.3.2.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 150
4.3.2.5 Preliminary computation
.................................................................................................................................................. 151
4.3.2.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 151
4.3.2.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Y+ distribution 152
4.3.2.6.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Viscous friction distribution 153
4.3.3 Turbulent flow
...................................................................................................................
around a backward facing step 154
4.3.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 155
4.3.3.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 155
4.3.3.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 157
4.3.3.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 157
4.3.3.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 157
4.3.3.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 158
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FlowVision Help 4
4.3.4 Turbulent flow
...................................................................................................................
around a box 158
4.3.4.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 159
4.3.4.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 160
4.3.4.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 162
4.3.4.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 164
4.3.4.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 166
4.3.4.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 166
4.3.4.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Y+ distribution 166
4.3.4.6.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 167
4.3.5 Subsonic flow
...................................................................................................................
around an airfoil 168
4.3.5.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 170
4.3.5.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 170
4.3.5.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 172
4.3.5.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 173
4.3.5.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 174
4.3.5.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 174
4.3.5.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Mach Number distribution 174
4.3.5.6.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 175
4.4 Mass transfer
.......................................................................................................... 177
4.4.1 Mixing of non-reacting
...................................................................................................................
substances 178
4.4.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 178
4.4.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 180
4.4.1.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 182
4.4.1.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 182
4.4.1.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 183
4.4.1.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Concentration distribution 183
4.4.2 Radioactive
...................................................................................................................
decay 184
4.4.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 184
4.4.2.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 186
4.4.2.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 187
4.4.2.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 187
4.4.2.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 187
4.4.2.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Isotope concentration distribution 187
4.4.2.5.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 188
4.4.3 Combustion
................................................................................................................... 189
4.4.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 190
4.4.3.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 192
4.4.3.3 Ignition
.................................................................................................................................................. 194
4.4.3.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 195
4.4.3.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 196
4.4.3.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 197
4.4.3.7 Preliminary calculations
.................................................................................................................................................. 197
4.4.3.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 198
4.4.3.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Oxidant excess factor's distribution 199
4.4.3.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 200
4.5 Free surface
.......................................................................................................... 201
4.5.1 Broken dam
................................................................................................................... 201
4.5.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 202
4.5.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 203
4.5.1.3 Specifying water column
.................................................................................................................................................. 205
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FlowVision Help 5
4.5.1.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 207
4.5.1.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 208
4.5.1.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 208
4.5.1.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Water distribution 209
4.5.2 Free jet ................................................................................................................... 209
4.5.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 210
4.5.2.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 211
4.5.2.3 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 212
4.5.2.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 213
4.5.2.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 213
4.5.2.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 213
4.5.2.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Water distribution 214
4.5.3 Sweepout of
...................................................................................................................
oil with water 214
4.5.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 215
4.5.3.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 217
4.5.3.3 Initial conditions defining volumes of liquids
.................................................................................................................................................. 219
4.5.3.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 220
4.5.3.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 220
4.5.3.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 221
4.5.3.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Water distribution 221
4.6 Dispersed media
.......................................................................................................... 222
4.6.1 Droplet evaporation
...................................................................................................................
in air 222
4.6.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 222
4.6.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 227
4.6.1.3 Modifiers
.................................................................................................................................................. 228
4.6.1.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 229
4.6.1.5 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 229
4.6.1.6 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 229
4.6.1.6.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Moisture vapor distribution 230
4.6.1.6.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 231
4.7 Radiation
.......................................................................................................... 232
4.7.1 Radiative transfer
...................................................................................................................
in turbid medium 232
4.7.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 232
4.7.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 233
4.7.1.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 234
4.7.1.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 234
4.7.1.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 235
4.7.1.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 235
4.8 Electrodynamics
.......................................................................................................... 236
4.8.1 Mutual interaction
...................................................................................................................
of two isolators 236
4.8.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 237
4.8.1.2 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 238
4.8.1.3 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 240
4.8.1.4 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 240
4.8.1.5 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 241
4.8.1.5.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Electrical intensity's distribution in a plane 241
4.8.1.5.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Electrical intensity's distribution along a line 242

5 Advanced modules 244

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FlowVision Help 6
5.1 Conjugate problems
.......................................................................................................... 245
5.1.1 Conjugate ...................................................................................................................
heat exchange 245
5.1.1.1 A project based on a single detail
.................................................................................................................................................. 246
5.1.1.1.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Computational domain 246
5.1.1.1.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Physical model 246
5.1.1.1.3
...........................................................................................................................................
Boundary conditions 248
5.1.1.1.4
...........................................................................................................................................
Binding subregions 251
5.1.1.1.5
...........................................................................................................................................
Initial grid 254
5.1.1.1.6
...........................................................................................................................................
Adaptation of the calculation grid 254
5.1.1.1.7
...........................................................................................................................................
Parameters of calculation 255
5.1.1.1.8
...........................................................................................................................................
Visualization 255
5.1.1.1.8.1
......................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 255
5.1.1.2 A project based on a several details
.................................................................................................................................................. 256
5.1.1.2.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Computational domain 256
5.1.1.2.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Physical model 258
5.1.1.2.3
...........................................................................................................................................
Boundary conditions 260
5.1.1.2.4
...........................................................................................................................................
Binding subregions 262
5.1.1.2.5
...........................................................................................................................................
Initial grid 265
5.1.1.2.6
...........................................................................................................................................
Adaptation of the calculation grid 265
5.1.1.2.7
...........................................................................................................................................
Parameters of calculation 266
5.1.1.2.8
...........................................................................................................................................
Visualization 266
5.1.1.2.8.1
......................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 266
5.1.2 Conjugate ...................................................................................................................
radiation heat transfer 267
5.1.2.1 Computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 268
5.1.2.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 268
5.1.2.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 271
5.1.2.4 Binding subregions
.................................................................................................................................................. 273
5.1.2.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 274
5.1.2.6 Adaptation
.................................................................................................................................................. 274
5.1.2.7 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 275
5.1.2.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 275
5.1.2.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 276
5.1.2.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Temperature distribution 277
5.2 Rotation
.......................................................................................................... 279
5.2.1 Rotor ................................................................................................................... 279
5.2.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 280
5.2.1.2 Rotation
.................................................................................................................................................. 281
5.2.1.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 283
5.2.1.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 285
5.2.1.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 286
5.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 286
5.2.1.7 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 286
5.2.1.7.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure variation 286
5.2.1.7.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 287
5.2.2 Sector of a...................................................................................................................
rotor 289
5.2.2.1 Making geometry of computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 290
5.2.2.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 290
5.2.2.3 Rotation
.................................................................................................................................................. 291
5.2.2.4 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 292
5.2.2.5 Binding subregions
.................................................................................................................................................. 294
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FlowVision Help 7
5.2.2.6 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 296
5.2.2.7 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 297
5.2.2.8 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 297
5.2.2.9 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 297
5.2.2.9.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure variation 298
5.2.2.9.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 298
5.2.3 Rotor+Stator
................................................................................................................... 300
5.2.3.1 Making geometry of computational domain
.................................................................................................................................................. 300
5.2.3.2 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 305
5.2.3.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 306
5.2.3.4 Binding subregions
.................................................................................................................................................. 309
5.2.3.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 309
5.2.3.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 310
5.2.3.7 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 311
5.2.3.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 311
5.2.3.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure variation 311
5.2.3.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 312
5.2.4 Rotating tank
................................................................................................................... 314
5.2.4.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 315
5.2.4.2 Rotation
.................................................................................................................................................. 316
5.2.4.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 317
5.2.4.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 318
5.2.4.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 319
5.2.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 319
5.2.4.7 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 320
5.2.4.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 320
5.2.4.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Surface of the liquid 321
5.3 Moving bodies
.......................................................................................................... 322
5.3.1 Transonic flow
...................................................................................................................
around an airfoil 322
5.3.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 323
5.3.1.2 Moving body
.................................................................................................................................................. 324
5.3.1.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 327
5.3.1.4 Making a two-dimensional grid based on an adapted
calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 328
5.3.1.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 329
5.3.1.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 330
5.3.1.7 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 331
5.3.1.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 332
5.3.1.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Mach number distribution 332
5.3.1.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Cp distribution 333
5.3.1.8.2.1
......................................................................................................................................
Create Cp 333
5.3.1.8.2.2
......................................................................................................................................
Create Plot along curve 335
5.3.2 Ball falling ...................................................................................................................
in viscous fluid 337
5.3.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 338
5.3.2.2 Moving body
.................................................................................................................................................. 339
5.3.2.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 340
5.3.2.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 341
5.3.2.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 341
5.3.2.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 342
5.3.2.7 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 342

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FlowVision Help 8
5.3.2.7.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Ball velocity in time 342
5.3.3 Floating box
................................................................................................................... 343
5.3.3.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 344
5.3.3.2 Moving body
.................................................................................................................................................. 345
5.3.3.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 347
5.3.3.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 348
5.3.3.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 348
5.3.3.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 350
5.3.3.7 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 350
5.3.3.7.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Water surface 350
5.3.4 Floating boat
................................................................................................................... 351
5.3.4.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 351
5.3.4.2 Moving body
.................................................................................................................................................. 352
5.3.4.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 355
5.3.4.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 357
5.3.4.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 358
5.3.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 359
5.3.4.7 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 360
5.3.4.8 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 360
5.3.4.8.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Water surface 361
5.3.4.8.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Pressure distribution 362
5.3.5 Rotary compressor
................................................................................................................... 363
5.3.5.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 364
5.3.5.2 Moving bodies
.................................................................................................................................................. 364
5.3.5.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 366
5.3.5.4 Initial conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 367
5.3.5.5 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 368
5.3.5.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 369
5.3.5.7 History
.................................................................................................................................................. 369
5.3.5.8 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 369
5.3.5.9 Visualization
.................................................................................................................................................. 370
5.3.5.9.1
...........................................................................................................................................
Distribution of gap cells 371
5.3.5.9.2
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity distribution 372
5.3.5.9.3
...........................................................................................................................................
Velocity variation 373

6 Coupling with other software 374


6.1 Deformable valve in channel
.......................................................................................................... 375
6.1.1 Preparing the
...................................................................................................................
project in Abaqus 375
6.1.1.1 Model
.................................................................................................................................................. 376
6.1.1.2 Direct coupling surface
.................................................................................................................................................. 377
6.1.1.3 INP file modification
.................................................................................................................................................. 377
6.1.1.4 Create a geometry for FlowVision
.................................................................................................................................................. 378
6.1.2 Preparing the
...................................................................................................................
project in FlowVision 378
6.1.2.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 378
6.1.2.2 Moving body
.................................................................................................................................................. 379
6.1.2.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 380
6.1.2.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 381
6.1.2.5 Adaptation
.................................................................................................................................................. 382
6.1.2.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 382
6.1.2.7 Modification of the project (FVPROJ) file
.................................................................................................................................................. 382

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FlowVision Help 9
6.1.3 Preparing the
...................................................................................................................
project in MPManager 382
6.1.3.1 Connection with Solver-Agent
.................................................................................................................................................. 383
6.1.3.2 Select FlowVision project
.................................................................................................................................................. 383
6.1.3.3 General parameters
.................................................................................................................................................. 383
6.1.3.4 Select Abaqus project
.................................................................................................................................................. 384
6.1.3.5 Launch simulation
.................................................................................................................................................. 384
6.1.4 Visualization
................................................................................................................... 384
6.1.4.1 Velocity distribution
.................................................................................................................................................. 385
6.1.4.2 Pressure distribution
.................................................................................................................................................. 386
6.2 Optimization of orientation of an airfoil
.......................................................................................................... 388
6.2.1 Preparing project
...................................................................................................................
in FlowVision 388
6.2.1.1 Physical model
.................................................................................................................................................. 389
6.2.1.2 Moving bodies
.................................................................................................................................................. 389
6.2.1.3 Boundary conditions
.................................................................................................................................................. 390
6.2.1.4 Initial grid
.................................................................................................................................................. 392
6.2.1.5 Adaptation
.................................................................................................................................................. 393
6.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation
.................................................................................................................................................. 393
6.2.1.7 Optimization parameters
.................................................................................................................................................. 393
6.2.1.8 Optimization criteria
.................................................................................................................................................. 394
6.2.2 Setting up ...................................................................................................................
connection to IOSO 395
6.2.3 Preparing the
...................................................................................................................
project in IOSO 396
6.2.3.1 Optimization parameters
.................................................................................................................................................. 396
6.2.3.2 Optimization criteria
.................................................................................................................................................. 397
6.2.3.3 Setting up parallel computations
.................................................................................................................................................. 398
6.2.3.4 Running the optimization
.................................................................................................................................................. 400
6.2.3.5 Viewung results
.................................................................................................................................................. 401

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FlowVision Help 10

1 Introduction
This manual describes how to solve typical flow problems with software FlowVision.

The structure of the manual is as follows:


1. The first chapter describes in detail the main steps in creating and specifying a FlowVision project,
performing calculations, and analyzing results. Laminar flow in a tube is selected as an example.
2. The second chapter demonstrates how to work with the basic physical processes.
3. The third chapter demonstrates how to work with the additional modules and tools.

It is recommended to start with reading the first chapter and the corresponding sections of the User's Guide.

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FlowVision Help 11

2 Notation
Notation Quantity Name in FlowVision Dimension
Sonic speed m s-1
a
Initial or entrance flow turbulization Pulsation
b
CFL Courant number CFL
Cp Specific heat capacity m2 s-2 K-1
Diameter of a tube m
D
A scalar variable
f
k Turbulent energy TurbEnergy m2 s-2
Length of a tube m
L
Initial or entrance turbulence length scale Turbulent length scale, m
l m
The Mach number MachNumber
M U/a
Mass of a body kg
m
Relative static pressure Pressure N m-2
p
Molecular Prandtl number
Pr
Turbulent Prandtl number Prandtl
Prt
Reynolds number
UD
Re

Turbulent Schmidt number Schmidt


Sct
Temperature Temperature K
T
Characteristic velocity m s-1
U
Friction velocity m s-1
u
Entrance flow velocity m s-1
Vinl
Initial flow velocity m s-1
Vini
y Distance to the nearest wall DistanceToWall m

u y Dimensionless distance to the nearest wall Y_plus


y
Dissipation rate of turbulent energy TurbDissipation m2 s-3
Molecular heat conductivity kg m s-3 K-1

Molecular dynamic viscosity kg m-1s-1

Turbulent dynamic viscosity TurbViscosity kg m-1s-1


t
Molecular kinematic viscosity m2 s-1
/

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FlowVision Help 12

Notation Quantity Name in FlowVision Dimension


Turbulent kinematic viscosity m2 s-1
t t /
Density Density kg m-3

Viscous stress at a wall ShearStress N m-2


2
u
Time step s

Specific dissipation rate of turbulent energy TurbDissipation s-1


ε
ω *
βk

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FlowVision Help 13

3 Detailed description of a simpliest model


This chapter describes in detail all the steps in specifying a FlowVision project, performing calculations, and
analyzing results. The control settings are defined in Preprocessor, the analysis tools are presented in
Postprocessor.
It is recommended to work with this example at first.

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FlowVision Help 14

3.1 Laminar flow in a tube


This exercise teaches you how to create a project, start computations, and analyze results.

A laminar flow of a viscous fluid in a cylindrical tube is considered.

Laminar flow is characterized by the Reynolds number Re, when it is lower then 103.

Dimensions:
Length of the tube L =2 [m]
Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]
Inflow parameters
Velocity on the inlet: Vinl = 0.001 [ms-1]

Substance properties:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 0.001 0.1 1000


Re 10 2
μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube.wrl

Project: Lam_tube

3.1.1 Computational domain

The geometrical model of the computational domain is created in one of CAD systems and imported into
FlowVision.

The geometric model of the computational domain must satisfy the following requirements:
1. volumes that form the geometric model must be closed
2. volumes are nested in one another and do not intersect

The geometric model is transferred to FlowVision using one by one of the following standard formats:

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FlowVision Help 15
1. surface mesh: VRML, STL, MESH (internal format)
2. volume mesh, based on which in FlowVision a corresponding surface mesh is built: ANSYS, NASTRAN,
ABAQUS

Fully prepared and painted the geometry of the computational domain is stored in the file Tube.wrl.

3.1.2 Creating a project

Loading geometrical model in FlowVision is performed from menu command File > Create, which opens a
dialog where you select the appropriate file. In this exercise select the file Tube.wrl.

After the geometry is loaded, enter the project name and the project location in the corresponding fields of the
Saving the project window and click OK.

After that the corresponding file folder of the project will be created and in the View window of Pre-
Postprocessor a geometric model will appear, and in the Project window appropriate Subregions will appear.

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FlowVision Help 16

The program loads the geometry of the surface as a set of triangles. After loading the geometry, the triangles
are automatically merged into geometric group.
In order to show Groups in the project tree, specify using the menu command File > Preferences:
Display
Show all groups = Yes

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FlowVision Help 17

List of Group is displayed in a tree in the Preprocessor in folder Region > Subregions > Subregion#0 >
Geometry > Region - Surface #0.

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FlowVision Help 18

The number and boundaries of the groups depend on the geometry format and settings of Pre-Postprocessor.
If geometry format supports color information (eg WRL), then the triangles of the same color will be merged into
a single group. If the format does not support color information (eg, STL), then the triangles are arranged in
groups according to the magnitude of the Grouping angle. If the angle between the triangles is less than the
Grouping angle, they are combined into one group. This angle is specified by the parameter File >
Preferences > Geometry import > Grouping angle.

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FlowVision Help 19

3.1.3 Defining a physical model

To specify a physical model, it is necessary to define:


Substance
Phase
Model

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FlowVision Help 20
3.1.3.1 Substance
In this example, a water flow is simulated, so we have to define one substance - water.
In order to specify a new substance, perform the following steps:
In the Preprocessor tab in the context menu of the Substances folder, select Create.

This will create the Substance #0 folder with appropriate parameters.


In the Properties window of Substance #0 in the Aggregative state field select Liquid

In the folder Substance #0 in the list of the physical properties of the substance you have to specify:

Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]
Specific heat

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FlowVision Help 21

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

We do not need the remaining parameters, so you can leave them with the default value 0.

Note:
The aggregative state determines the list of physical properties, sound speed formula and equation of state.

3.1.3.2 Phase
To define the Phase, do the following:
In the context menu of a folder Phases select Create continuous.

In Phase #0 in the folder Substances load a previously created substance:


o In the context menu of the Substances folder select Add/Remove
o Select Substance #0 from the list and add it to the phase:

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FlowVision Help 22

In the folder Physical processes in the Properties window select the simulated processes. In this task the
following physical processes are required:
Motion Newtonian fluid

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FlowVision Help 23
3.1.3.3 Model

In order to specify the Model select Create in the context menu of the Models folder.

This will create the Model #0 folder and its subfolders Phases and Phase interaction. In this exercise we
need only one phase. In order to add it to the Model you need in the context menu select Add/Remove and
select Phase #0 from the list.

3.1.4 Defining boundary conditions

Before setting the boundary conditions, it is necessary to specify the model for computational subdomain.
Specify in the properties window of Subregion #0 the following parameters:

Model = Model #0

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FlowVision Help 24

Boundary conditions are specified for every calculated variable.

In general, the procedure for setting the boundary conditions includes the following steps:
1. Creation boundary conditions
2. Assigning the boundary conditions
3. Setting parameters of the boundary conditions

The initial geometry for this problem was painted during its creation and stored in the WRL format, which
supports color information. Therefore, when loading the geometry, the program automatically created and
specify the boundary conditions on the surfaces of different colors. By default, all the boundary conditions are
of type Wall.

Changing the properties of boundary conditions is done in the Properties windows of elements of the folder
Boundary conditions in the Preprocessor tab of the project tree: Subregions > SubRegion #N > Boundary
conditions > B. Cond. #N.

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FlowVision Help 25

Specify the following parameters in the Properties windows of the boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2
Name = Outlet
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0

Boundary 3
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables

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FlowVision Help 26

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Specify the numerical value of the Mass velocity:

Velocity (Phase #0)


Mass velocity =1 [kg m-2 s-1]

3.1.5 Defining initial conditions

Initial conditions are intended to define the values of the variables (Init. data) at the initial time in a certain part
of the computational domain (in/on some Object). Specifying Initial conditions in most cases does not affect
the final result of the calculations, but allows faster convergence of the solution and prevents some
disturbances occurring in the process of computation.

The process of creating Initial conditions consists of three stages:


specifying Initial data
specifying an Object in/on which the Initial data would be applied
assigning a correspondence between the Object and the Initial data

Initial condition #0 are always presented in the computational domain, they are the default correspondence
between Initial data #0 and Computational space. Values of all variables in the Initial data #0 are equal to
0. Therefore, in order to specify the initial conditions corresponding to the undisturbed flow in the whole space,
it is enough to specify Init. data #0 (in the Model #0) with some velocity along the Z axis.

In the folder Models > Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0 in the element Velocity(Phase #0) define the
initial velocity along the axis Z:
Value
Z 0.001
.

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FlowVision Help 27

3.1.6 Generation of initial computational grid

The next necessary step is defining of the computational grid.

Computational grid used in FlowVision is:


1. rectangular
2. adaptive local refined 1)
2)
3. with a subgrid resolution of the geometry

Specifying the computational grid in FlowVision is divided into specifying of the Initial grid (the entry level
grid) and the grid adaptation (on a surface and/or in a volume).

In this example, we need to specify a uniform computational grid 20x20x50. To do this, in the project tree in
the Preprocessor tab specify the properties of the Initial grid:
nX = 20
nY = 20
nZ = 50

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FlowVision Help 28

After you have specified the initial grid, it is displayed in the View window:

Notes:
1)
The adaptation enables resolution of small geometry details of the computational domain and high gradients
of the computed values.
2)
geometry resolution allows approximation of curvilinear boundaries on a rectangular grid.

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FlowVision Help 29
3.1.7 Adaptation of computational grid

Adaptation is splitting or merging of cells of the computational grid up to the specified level in a volume or on a
surface. Splitting up n-th level includes halving the initial grid cells in each direction n times. Merging to the n-th
level involves merging the cells previously split to a level m (where m>n), to the level n.

Adaptation can be specified on the surface of some Boundary condition,as well as on a surface or in a
volume of some Object.

In this exercise, you must specify an adaptation on the boundary condition Wall. To do this, specify properties
of the boundary condition Wall:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

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FlowVision Help 30

Note:
In order to see the computational grid with adaptation, create a layer Computational grid on the
Computational space. The layer will be displayed after the calculation is done.

3.1.8 Defining control parameters of computation

The final step in the preparation of the project is definition of Simulation controls (parameters that control the
computation).
These settings include: time step, the selection of the scheme for approximation of the equations in space and
in time, the frequency of autosave, etc.
These parameters are specified in the Solver tab of the project tree.
It is assumed that for most problems (except of specially specified) the user does not need to change the
standard Advanced settings. The only thing that you need to specify is the Time step. In FlowVision There
are two ways of specifying the time step: In seconds and Via CFL number (CFL number is the Courant-
Friedrichs-Levy number). In our exercise you can specify the time step in seconds as the constant time step
chosen by the user. In this exercise the characteristic dimension is length of the tube L. The transit time is the
time required for a hypothetical particle moving with the mean flow velocity V, to pass the characteristic
dimension :

L 2
τ own 0.1* 0.1* 200c
V 0.001

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FlowVision Help 31

3.1.9 Stopping conditions

Stop the computation can be done in two ways:

1. Manually using the button


2. Specifying some Stopping conditions
Stopping conditions are specified prior to the computation in the Solver tab. You can define stop by:
1. At a certain moment of time.
2. After a certain number of iterations.

3. By values of residuals of calculated variables.


4. By values of residuals of user variables.
Residual values characterize the rate of change of the appropriate variables over time. The smaller are the
residuals, the less is the change of the target variables.
User values are integral user-defined variables and variables that are calculated on Characteristics, created in
Preprocessor.
In order to create a Stopping condition on a User value, you have to:
Create Global user variable or Characteristics
Create a Stop criterion on the created User value
Element Characteristics provides access to information about integral values of variables in the volume or on
the surface of an Object. Let's use the element Characteristics in order to view the evolution of average
pressure on inlet and automatically stop the computation when the average pressure value stops changing.
In order to specify the Characteristics, the first you need is to create an Object for visualization based on the
boundary condition Inlet. To do this, in the Preprocessor in the context menu of the boundary conditions Inlet
select the command Create supergroup > In Preprocessor.

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FlowVision Help 32

Then in the folder Objects in the context menu of the Supergroup folder select the command Create
characteristics,and then, in the Create new characteristics block clickOK.

By default, on the Characteristics no variable is specified and Characteristics do not contain the main body of
data. In order to fill the Characteristics with information, specify the appropriate variable in the Properties
window of Characteristics #0:

Characteristics #0 (Supergroup on "Inlet")

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FlowVision Help 33

Variable
Variable Pressure

In order to specify the stopping conditions:


in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values,selectCreate.

in the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 specify:

Level = 0.00001
Object = Characteristics #0
Variable = <f surf.>
The value of <f surf.> is equal to the average value of the Variable selected in the Characteristics at the
surface or in the volume of the Object, on which the Characteristics was created. In this exercise <f surf.> is
the average pressure on the surface of the Supergroup, which was created in the boundary condition Inlet.
Level is the threshold value of the residual for the selected user value (<f surf.>). When the residual value for
the user is below the specified Level, then the computation stops.

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FlowVision Help 34

Note:
In many other exercises in this guide stopping conditions are not specified. In these exercises stopping is done
at any time by decision of the user.

3.1.10 Starting the computation

You can start the computation from Pre-Postprocessor or fromTerminal. In this exercise, start from Pre-
Postprocessor is described. Solver-Agent and license server must be running.
To start the computation, you have to authorize on Solver-Agent:

Click the button .


Enter your user name and password under which you are registered on the license server:

In order to connect to a Solver, you have to:


Click the button .
Click on Run new, select the new solver the list and click on Connect.

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FlowVision Help 35

Upload your project on the solver:

Project files will be located in two directories: Client and Server. The Client directory contains the client part
of the projects - the parts, which are opened in Pre-Postprocessor. The Server directory contains the server
part of the project - the parts, which are loaded on the solver. The client part of the project appears when you
create a project in Pre-Postprocessor. At the same time the client directory is determined. The server part of
the project appears in the Server directory after the first upload of the project to the solver. The server
directory is specified when a user is registered on Solver-Agent. If necessary, you can open the window with
the Solver-Agent's registration information, using the button (Edit solver agent user information) after
authorization on Solver-Agent. Client and Server directories can not be same, can not be nested within
each other, can not be the same as the installation directory or be nested in the the installation directory.

The computed results are stored in server part of the project. You can see the results of the computation in
Pre-Postprocessor only if the project is opened in Pre-Postprocessor, Pre-Postprocessor is connected to a
Solver synchronized with the Solver.
If necessary, the Server directory can be changed. However, you should remember that after that change all
the results of computations that were in the old Server directory will no longer be available after connection of
Pre-Postprocessor to Solver unless you have manually copied them to new directory.
After the project is uploaded to the solver, you can start the solver for computation. To start the solver for
computation, do the following steps:

Click the button


Specify the starting parameters of the computation:

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FlowVision Help 36

You can stop the computation by clicking on .


Before starting the computation we recommended that you specify Visualization to see the results of
computation in dynamics.

3.1.11 Visualization

Visualization of the results of the computation is performed in Postprocessor.


Visualization of the computation results are only available if the proj ect is opened in Pre-Postprocessor and
loaded on a Solver.
Pre-Postprocessor and Solver must have connection between them.
Postprocessor provides the user with the following capabilities:
1. A set of standard methods of flow visualization in the View window
2. Interactive tuning of visualization parameters
3. Displaying integral values of variables in the View window
4. Indication of the visualization method in a separate Information window
To display the results of computation in Postprocessor you have to:
create and configure the corresponding object
create a layer or characteristics of required type on the object
select a variable and define the necessary settings of the layer or characteristics
Elements for visualization the results of the computation should be chosen depending on the type of data,
which are to be displayed:

Data Type Name of the element


Integral values:
Value of a variable on a surface and in a volume Characteristics
Local values:
Local values of a scalar variable along a line Plot along line
Plot along curve
Plot along ellipse
Local values of a scalar variable at a surface Color contours
Local values of a scalar variable in a volume Isosurface
Local values and directions of vector variable on a surface or in a Vectors
volume
Streamlines

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FlowVision Help 37

For long-term computations we always recommend you to visualize data during the computation, as in this
case you can permanently control over the process of convergence of the solution and, if necessary, intervene
in the process of computation when the solution becomes numerically unstable.

3.1.11.1 Charachteristics (pressure variation)

To display information about the value of the pressure on inlet, you can use the element Characteristics,
created earlier to define a Stop criterion. Information from Characteristics is displayed in the Info window and
recorded into a text file. Recording the information into a text file allows you to monitor changing the variable
over time.

In order to record the contents of the Characteristics into the file, open the tab Postprocessor and specify in
the Properties window of Characteristics #0:

Save to file
Type = Automatic

After the computation is done, the Characteristics become informative.


To open the Info window, select theCharacteristics #0 in the project tree in Pre-Postprocessor and click on
*).
the toolbar button

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FlowVision Help 38

All data is stored in a text GLO-file, which can be exported into Excel to plot the dynamics of values variation.
By default the GLO-file is saved into project directory in the server directory of the user. In order to download
the GLO-file from the server directory to to the client directory, do the following:

in the File menu, select Download additional files


in the Project download window, which opens, select GLO files

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FlowVision Help 39

To start Windows Explorer, which opens the client directory of the current project, use the menu command File
> Open Explorer.
In order to plot the variation of the pressure on inlet over time in any third-party graphics editor (Microsoft Excel,
Grapher, etc.), do the following steps:

open or import the recorded GLO-file in the appropriate graphical editor

plot variation of Avg*) over Time

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FlowVision Help 40

Since a Stop criterion was created based on the <f surf.> *) variable, its variation can be displayed directly in
Plot tab of the Monitor window of Pre-Postprocessor.

Note:
*)
Variable <f surf.> in the Info window and in the Stop criterion and variable Avg in the GLO-file correspond
to the average value of Pressure on Inlet.

3.1.11.2 Plot along line (pressure distribution)

The layer Plot along line allows you to display the distribution of the scalar variable along the selected line as
a plot.
In this exercise, we will use the layer Plot along line on a Line object to visualize the distribution of
pressures along the tube axis.
Create in Postprocessor a Line object for visualization:

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FlowVision Help 41

from the context menu of the folder Objects in Postprocessor select Create
the Create new object dialog box will open, select there Object type = Line

In the Properties window of the created object Line #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X 0
Y 0
Z 0.001
Direction

X 0
Y 0
Z 1

Create in Postprocessor a layer Plot along line on the Line #0:


in the context menu of the Line #0 select Create layer
specify Layer type = Plot along line

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FlowVision Help 42

In the Properties window of the layer Plot along line, specify:

Variable
Variable Pressure

In order to increase the number of points on which the plot is built, specify:
Number of points = 100

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FlowVision Help 43

3.1.11.3 Vectors (velocity distribution)

The layer Vectors visualize a vector field. The direction of the vector coincides with the direction of the vector
field at the starting point of the vector and the vector length is proportional to the modulus of the field at this
point.
In this exercise, we will use the layer Vectors on a Plane in order to visualize the vector field of velocity in the
plane of the flow.
In order to the layer do not obscure the geometry, specify:
in the Properties window of Plane #0 in the Postprocessor:

Clipping object = Yes


in the Properties window of the layer Solids
Clipped = Yes

Create a layer Vectors in the Plane #0:


in the context menu of the Plane #0 select Create layer
specify Layer type = Vectors

In theProperties window of the new Layer, specify:


Variable > Variable = Velocity

In the View window a visualization of the velocity distribution in the plane of the flow will appear:

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FlowVision Help 44

To increase the number of vectors in both directions, specify in the Properties window of the layer :

Grid
Size 1 = 10

Size 2 = 50

To paint the vectors with their absolute values, specify in the Properties window of the layer:

Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Color = Black

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FlowVision Help 45

3.1.11.4 Color contours (distribution of velocity's modulus)

The Color contours layer visualizes the distribution of a scalar variable using color transitions.

This example illustrates use of a layer Color contours for visualization of the value of velocity in the plane of
the circular cross section of the tube.
In Postprocessor create a Plane for visualization:

from the context menu of the folder Objects in Postprocessor select Create
in the Create new object dialog box select Type = Plane

In the Properties window of the new just created Plane #1, click on the button to direct the plane normal
along axis Z.
Create a layer Color contours on the Plane #1:
in the context menu of the Plane select Create layer
specify Layer type = Color contours
In the Properties window of the new layer Color contours specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 46

Color = Black

Note:
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus:

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FlowVision Help 47

4 Physical processes
The examples of this chapter demonstrate how to model:

Motion of fluid
Heat thansfer
Turbulence
Mass transfer
Free surface

Radiation
Electrodynamics

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FlowVision Help 48

4.1 Motion of fluid


In FlowVision implemented model of the flow of Newtonian fluid at any Mach numbers and two models of non-
Newtonian fluid flow at Mach numbers less than 0.3

In order to simulate the laminar flow of the liquid, it is necessary:


In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Liquid.
In the properties of the Substance you have to specify values of the Molar mass, Density, Specific heat
capacity and, if necessary, the Viscosity.

Enable computations of equations of Motion.


Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure.

In order to simulate the laminar flow of gas at Mach number less than 0.3, it is necessary:
In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Gas.
In the properties of the Substance you have to specify values of the Molar mass, Density, Specific heat
capacity and, if necessary, the Viscosity.
Enable computations of equations of Motion.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure.

In order to simulate the laminar flow of gas at Mach number greater than 0.3, it is necessary:
In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Gas.
In the properties of the Substance you have to specify the computation of the Density by the ideal gas law,
the Molar mass and Specific heat capacity, and, if necessary, the values of Viscosity and Thermal
conductivity.
Enable calculation equations of Motion and Heat transfer.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure. In the simulation of flow
around bluff bodies it is desirable to specify some initial conditions around them corresponding to the
parameters of flow deceleration.
When simulating movement at Mach numbers greater than 1 it is recommended to specify constraints for the
computation.

4.1.1 Laminar flow around circular cylimder

A two-dimensional laminar external flow around a cylinder is considered in the example below.

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FlowVision Help 49

Dimensions:
Cylinder diameter d = 0.02 [m]
Flow parameters:
Velocity V = 0.008 [ms-1]
Substance properties:
Density = 1.25 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 2 10-5 [kg m-1 s-1]
Reynolds number: Vdρ
Re 10
μ

Geometry: Cylinder_lam.WRL

Project: Cylinder_lam

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FlowVision Help 50
4.1.1.1 Computational domain

For simulating the external flow it is necessary to create the geometry, which is a region of flow around a
streamlined body. Distance from the body to the outer limits of the area is recommended to place at least 10
times more then specific body size in order to boundary conditions defined on the given limits, does not disturb
the flow around the streamlined body.
FlowVision geometry can only be three-dimensional. Therefore, when simulating a two-dimensional flow in
plane XY when you prepare the geometry you have to: *)
1. create a two-dimensional sketch of the geometry of the computational domain in the plane XY
2. select a constant thickness of the geometry in the direction Z

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FlowVision Help 51

Fully prepared and painted the geometry of the computational domain is in the file Cylinder_lam.WRL.

Notes:
*)
Further, when specifying a project, you must:

1. when you specify Boundary conditions on the surfaces of the planes of symmetry specify the boundary
conditions Symmetry
2. when you specify initial grid specify 1 cell in the direction along axis Z

4.1.1.2 Physical model

Do the following in the Preprocessor tab:


In the folder Substances:
Create Substance #0
Specify the following properties of the Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Gas *)


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density

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FlowVision Help 52

Value = 1.25 [kg m-3]


Viscosity
Value = 2e-5 [kg m-1 s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the the folder Substances
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
Specify in the folder Initial data #0:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 0.008 [m s-1]

Note:
*)
A gas moving with speed V < 0.17 M, behaves as an incompressible liquid, so the simulation of its motion
can be defined with either Aggregative state = Gas or Aggregative state = Liquid.

4.1.1.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0
Specify the following boundary conditions:

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FlowVision Help 53

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2
Name = Symmetry
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 3
Name = Outlet
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 4

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FlowVision Help 54

Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 0.01 [kg m-2 s-1]

4.1.1.4 Initial grid

In this example, in order to better resolve the flow near the cylinder, it is necessary to specify a two-
dimensional non-uniform initial computational grid, condensed near the cylinder.
To specify a non-uniform computational grid, FlowVision provides the Initial grid editor. The Initial grid
editor is called by the button from the Properties window of the element Initial grid in the tree in the
Preprocessor tab in the project tree.

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FlowVision Help 55

To specify in the Initial grid editor a non-uniform computational grid for OX, follow these steps:

Specify the following values in the group Grid parameters 1) :

kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.03 [m]
h_min = 0.001 [m]

Insert the reference line with the coordinate x = -0.015 m:


o set Insert = -0.015

o click on the Insert button

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FlowVision Help 56

2)
Specify parameters of reference lines :
o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =-0.2 m (the leftmost line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.03 [m]
o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =-0.015 m (the middle line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.001 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ = 0.9

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =0.4 m (the rightmost line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.03 [m]
kh- = 0.5

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FlowVision Help 57

To specify in the Initial grid editor a non-uniform computational grid for OY, follow these steps:
Click the Y button, to switch the editor to defining the grid across the Y axis

Specify the following values in the group Grid parameters 1):

kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.03 [m]
h_min = 0.001 [m]

Insert the reference line with the coordinate y = 0 m:

o set Insert = 0

o click on the Insert button


2)
Specify parameters of reference lines :
o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y =-0.2 m (the leftmost line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.03 [m]
kh+ = 1.5
o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y = 0 m (the middle line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.001 [m]
kh- = 1.2
kh+ = 0.8

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FlowVision Help 58

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y = 0.2 m (the rightmost line)

o in the group Reference line parameters specify:

h = 0.03 [m]
kh- = 0.5

After entering all the parameters click on the OK button. This will open the Grid statistics window, which
displays the parameters of the created grid:

When starting the Initial grid editor specifies by default a uniform grid across OZ consisting of 12 lines. Since
in this exercise we solve a 2-dimensional problem, so after you exit the Initial grid editor you have to specify
in the properties of Initial grid:

nZ =1

After creation the Initial grid the program also creates in Postprocessor the Initial grid layer and displays its
image in the View window:

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FlowVision Help 59

Notes:
1)
The values, which are specified in fields, are only applied after clicking on the Apply button.
2)
The values, which are specified in fields, are only applied after pressing on the Enter key the appropriate field
immediately after setting a value.
3)
In order to color the grid lines in black, specify Color=Black in the Properties window of the Initial grid
layer in Postprocessor.

4.1.1.5 Adaptation of calculation grid

In this example, you have to solve the boundary layer around the cylinder and a vortex shedding zone behind
the cylinder. For this it is necessary to make an adaptation of the grid in the volume of a box around the
cylinder.
Specifying grid adaptation in an object consists of two steps:
1. Specifying the object of adaptation
2. Specifying the adaptation criteria

To specify the object of adaptation, follow these steps:


In Preprocessor tab, in the context menu of the Objects folder, select Create
In the Create new object window select Object type = Box

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FlowVision Help 60

In the Properties window of the Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.01 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z = 0.005 [m]
Size
X = 0.05 [m]
Y = 0.04 [m]

Z = 0.01 [m]

In order to specify the criteria of adaptation, follow these steps:


In the context menu of the Adaptation folder, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new created element Adaptation #0 specify:

Activation = Yes
Object = Box #0
Max level =1
Split/Merge = Split
Zone = In volume

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FlowVision Help 61

Note:
In order to see the computational grid with adaptation, create a layer Computational grid on the
Computational space. The layer is displayed after its computation is done.

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FlowVision Help 62
4.1.1.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify the properties of the time step in the Solver tab of the Project window (Solver > Time step):

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.25 [s]

4.1.1.7 Stopping conditions

In this example we recommend that you specify stopping condition based on the X-component of the force
acting on the surface of the cylinder.

Create Characteristics:
In the Preprocessor tab, create a Supergroup on the surface of the boundary condition Wall using the
command Create supergroup > In Preprocessor from the context menu of the boundary condition's item
in the project tree.
Create Characteristics on the new just created Supergroup #0
In the Properties window of Characteristics #0 specify:

Characteristics
Variable
Variable = Pressure

Specify the stopping criterion:

in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 specify:

Level = 1e-6
Object = Characteristics # 0 (Supergroup on "Wall")
Variable = F fluid
Component =X

4.1.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. The dynamics of the X-component of the force, which acts on the cylinder's surface.
2. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow.
3. Pressure distribution on the surface of the cylinder.

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FlowVision Help 63
4.1.1.8.1 Force variation

View the dynamics of X-component of the force acting on the cylinder, on the Plot tab in the Monitor window.

4.1.1.8.2 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0

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FlowVision Help 64

Z =1
Create a new layer Vectors on Plane #0
In the Properties window of the new layer of Vectors, specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 100
Size 2 = 100
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.01
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Color = Black

4.1.1.8.3 Pressure distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Supergroup on "Wall".


In the Properties window of the new Color contours layer, specify:

Variable

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FlowVision Help 65

Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 6.5e-5
Min = -4.5e-5
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Note:
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

4.1.2 Time-varying flow in a tube

Axi-symmetric laminar water flow with variable inlet velocity is considered in the given example.

Dimensions:
Length of the tube L = 0.5 [m]
Diameter of the tube D = 0.04 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet: 2 t [m s-1]
Vinl 0.005 2 sin
1000

Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]
Reynolds number: VinlDρ 0.01 0.04 1000
Re 400
μ 0.001
Geometry: Tube_VarMassFlow.STL
Project: Tube_VarMassFlow

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FlowVision Help 66
4.1.2.1 Computational domain

In order to simulate the axisymmetric flow you should create a computational domain consisting of a sector
with a small opening degree (e.g., 1-2 degree)*).
Fully prepared geometry is located in the fileTube_VarMassFlow.STL.

Notes:
*)
Further, when specifying the project you have to:
1. When you specify Boundary conditions on the surfaces of the planes of symmetry, specify boundary
conditions Symmetry.
2. When you specify the Initial grid specify 1 cell in the direction of Z.
3. When you specify the Calculation parameters specify the Relative criterion for determining small cells.

4.1.2.2 Physical model

Do the following steps in the tree of the Preprocessor tab:


In the folder Substances:
Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:

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FlowVision Help 67

Create a continuous Phase #0.


Add Substance #0 into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0
Add Phase #0 into the folder Model #0 > Phases
Specify in the folder Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 0.01 [m s-1]

4.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0 specify:


Model = Model #0

When after your import of geometry the amount or arrangement of boundary conditions differ from those
desired, you should to specify the boundary conditions manually. Definition of boundary conditions consists of
3 steps:
1. Create boundary conditions

2. Place the boundary conditions


3. Specify parameters of the boundary conditions

To create a new boundary condition, select Create in the context menu of the Boundary conditions folder:

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FlowVision Help 68

The Boundary conditions are placed on Groups. There are two ways of placing the Boundary conditions:
1. either in the View window
2. or in the Geometry folder

In order to place a Boundary condition on a Group in the View window do the following:

switch to the Selection mode by clicking on button

select the appropriate Group in the View window


right-click to open the context menu
select a Boundary condition > B. Cond. #i

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FlowVision Help 69

In order to place a Boundary condition on a Group in the Geometry folder do the following steps:
apply the menu command File > Preferences and specify:
Display
Show all groups = Yes

in the Properties of the respective Group in the folder Geometry > Region - Surface #0 specify:
Boundary condition =B. Cond. #i

In this project, set the following boundary conditions:

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FlowVision Help 70

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 4
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

To set the Velocity variable on the Inlet do the following steps:


In the Properties window of the boundary conditions for the velocity on Inlet change the type of entered
value from Constant to Formula:

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FlowVision Help 71

Click on the button , which opens the Formula editor:

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FlowVision Help 72

Make an identification of the variable Time:


o In group of settings Variables & constants (on the tab All) expand item Integral > Integrated
Characteristics > Current time and double click on it.
o In the Variable identification window that appears, specify the name of the variable as "Time".

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FlowVision Help 73

Make an identification of the constant PI:


o In group of settings Variables & constants (on the tab Constants) select Pi number and double
click on it.
o In the Constant identification window that appears, specify the name of the variable as "PI".

In the Formula editor, specify the formula:

2 * PI *Time
5 * 2 sin
1000

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FlowVision Help 74

Click Accept

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FlowVision Help 75
4.1.2.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 100
nY = 20
nZ =1

4.1.2.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 10 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Small Cells
Criterion = Relative

Note:
By default, the Absolute criterion of the smallness of the cells is used. It defines that the cells, the final sizes
of which are less than a specified fraction of the original (non-truncated by the geometry), are merging together
with the neighboring cells. If we had used this criterion in this problem, then the cells located near the axis of
the tube would be merged with the neighboring cells, and the flow near the the axis would not be resolved by
this grid. In order to avoid this effect, the program provides the Relative criterion for small cells. Using this
criterion, a cell is merged with the neighboring cells when its size is smaller then the specified fraction of the
neighboring cell's size.

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FlowVision Help 76
4.1.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

4.1.2.6.1 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0
In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 50
Size 2 = 11
Coloring

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FlowVision Help 77

Variable
Variable = Velocity

Note:
The illustration shows the Velocity distribution at a certain moment of time. As the flow is non-stationary, so
the shown distribution does not correspond to the flow at other moments of time.

4.1.3 Flow in clearance - use of the Gap model

In this example we consider simulating of flow in a narrow two-dimensional channel using the Gap model.
The Gap model is used in conjunction with a given model of the flow and is designed for taking into account
the resistance created by a narrow channel. The Gap model avoids resolution of the narrow channel by the
grid. The Gap model is only applied in cells of the gap. The gap cells are cells, which locate between two
'gap-bounding' surfaces. Surfaces are 'gap-bounding' when the distance between them does not exceed the
specified maximal gap clearance. The gap cells are identified by FlowVision automatically.

Geometry Gap_Channel.WRL
Project Gap_Channel

4.1.3.1 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value = 0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

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FlowVision Help 78

Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
Specify in the Properties window of Model #0:

Use Gap model = Standard Gap model

4.1.3.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

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FlowVision Help 79

Boundaries 1 and 2
(You have to create two different boundary conditions, both of them has type "Wall")
Border 1 is the upper wall, and boundary 2 is the lower wall.
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 3 (set on the large side faces)


Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 4 (input)
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 10 [kg m-2 s-1]

Boundary 5 (outlet)
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

4.1.3.3 Initial grid

In this example in order to better resolve the flow in the channel area, it is necessary to specify a two-
dimensional non-uniform computational grid, condensed near the channel.

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button to call the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

fir axis OX
Grid parameters: 1)

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FlowVision Help 80

kh_max =2
d_min = 0.1 [m]
h_max = 0.00025 [m]
h_min = 0.00005 [m]
Insert reference lines with coordinates:
x1 = 0.0035 [m]
x2 = 0.0045 [m]
Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0 2) [m]
h = 0.00025 [m]
Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.0035 2) [m]

h = 0.00005 [m]
Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.0045 2) [m]
h = 0.00005 [m]
Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.008 2) [m]
h = 0.00025 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nY =8
nZ =1

Notes:
1)
Values specified in these fields are only applied after clicking on the Apply button.
2)
Values specified in these fields are only applied after pressing on the Enter keyboard key.

4.1.3.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.001 [s]

4.1.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Distribution of gap cells
2. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

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FlowVision Help 81
4.1.3.5.1 Distribution of gap cells

Create a layer Cell set on the Computational space


In the Properties window of this layer Cell set specify:

Type = Gap (open)


Appearance
Mode = Lines

4.1.3.5.2 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object

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FlowVision Help 82

Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0
In theProperties window of the layer Vectors specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
On regular grid = No
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.2
Min =0

4.1.4 Flow of crude oil in a petroleum reservoir

A model of the movement of oil in the reservoir with influence of gravity. From a wellbore with radius r oil is
pumped at a speed V. The upper layer with thickness h1 has larger resistance D1 and almost does not allow
the oil to go through. The lower layer has thickness h2 and lower resistance D2 and has a better capacity.

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Dimensions:
Radius of the wellbore r =1 [m]
Thickness of the upper layer h1 =6 [m]
Thickness of the lower layer h2 =5 [m]
The flow rate in the wellbore:
Velocity: V = 0.1 [m s-1]
Parameters of the substance:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]
Geometry: Oil.STL

Project: Oil

4.1.4.1 Physical model

In this problem, motion of the fluid in a gravitational field is simulated. Therefore, you have to specify the gravity
vector. Also, problems in which the motion of the fluid in a gravitational field is simulated, it is possible to count
the pressure in the computational domain not from the reference pressure, but from the equilibrium hydrostatic
pressure. This allows you to improve the accuracy of the computation and specify in the initial and boundary
conditions not the pressure with hydrostatic column, but the difference of pressure between the real and and
the equilibrium pressure. For this the hydrostatic parameters are to be specified.
Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.
In the properties of the General settings specify:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y = -9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]
g-Point
X =0 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
g-Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

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FlowVision Help 84

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0
Specify the following properties of the Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

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4.1.4.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Symmetry

Type = Symmetry *)
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Total pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Name = Outlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet

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Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = -100 [kg m-2 s-1]

Note:
*)
In order to set the boundary condition on the boundary corresponding to the slip without leakage, use the
Symmetry type of the border condition.

4.1.4.3 Modifiers

Modifiers are Subregion's elements that allow modifying the geometry and/or the solution in the area of their
application. In particular, you can use modifiers to specify a volume force, resistance, heat sources, etc.

The process of specifying a Modifier consists of two stages:


specifying the area where the Modifier is applied
specifying the Modifier on/in this area

In this example, we need two resistances and, accordingly, we will specify two Modifiers.

In order to set the modifier, which corresponds to the main resistance of the wellbore do the following steps:
In Subregion #0 in the context menu of folder Modifiers, select Create.
In the Create new modifier window, which opens, select:

Modifier type = Resistance


Objects = Computational space

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In the properties of the new modifier Resistance #0 specify:

Activation
Type = Permanent

Resistance coef. =5

In order to set the modifier, which corresponds to the resistance of the reservoir in the middle of the
computational domain, it is necessary to to create not only the modifier properties, but also an Object on
which the modifier will be applied.

To specify the Object do the following:


In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.
In the Create new object window that appears, select Box.
In the Properties window of the Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = -5 [m]

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Y = -3 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Size
X = 10 [m]
Y =6 [m]
Z = 0.35 [m]

In the View window an image of Box #0 will appear.

To create a Resistance inside of the created Object do the following:


In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the folder Modifiers select Create.

In the Create new modifier window, which opens, specify:

Modifier type = Resistance


Objects = Box #0
In the properties of the new modifier Resistance #1, which appears in the project tree, specify:

Activation
Type = Permanent
Resistance coef. = 500

To specify absence of the resistance in the borewell itself, create a modifier with zero resistance on an Object,
which corresponds to the borewell.

To specify the Object do the following:


In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

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In the Create new object window that appears, select Box.


In the Properties window of Box #1 specify:

Location

Reference point
X = -0.5 [m]
Y = -6 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Size
X =1 [m]
Y = 10 [m]

Z = 0.35 [m]

In the View window an image of Box #1 will appear.

To create a Resistance inside the created Object do:


In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the Modifiers folder, select Create.
In the Create new modifier window, which appears, specify:

Modifier type = Resistance


Objects = Box #1
In the properties of the new modifier Resistance #2, which appears in the project tree, specify:

Activation

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Type = Permanent
Resistance coef. =0

Modifiers of the same type are applied sequentially in order of their location in the folder Modifiers. Priority of
a Modifier is higher when it is located lower in the list. Thus, in the area, which is the set-theoretic intersection
of Box #0, Box #1, and Subregion #0, the Modifier is applied, which is specified in Box #1.

4.1.4.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nX = 100
nY = 100
nZ =1

4.1.4.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 10 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Small Cells
Criterion = Relative

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4.1.4.6 Stopping conditions

In this example problem, we recommend that you define the stopping condition by the static pressure at the
outlet.

Create Characteristics:
In the Preprocessor tab, create a supergroup on the surface of the boundary conditions Outlet using the
command of the context menu Create supergroup > In Preprocessor.
Create Characteristics for the just created Supergroup #0.
In the Properties window of Characteristics #0 specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure

Specify the stopping criterion:


in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

Level = 1e-6
Object = Characteristics #0 (Supergroup on "Exit")
Variable = <f surf>

4.1.4.7 Visualization

Build:
1. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow
2. Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account in the plane of the flow

4.1.4.7.1 Pressure distribution

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In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object

Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of Color contours #0 specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max =0
Min = -7
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

Note:
When a hydrostatic is given, the Pressure variable corresponds to the deviation from the equilibrium
hydrostatic pressure. To display pressure distribution relative to the reference pressure, without deduction of
the equilibrium hydrostatic pressure, you have to display pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into
account.

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FlowVision Help 93
4.1.4.7.2 Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of Color contours #1 specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure (+ hydrostatic)
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 100000
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

4.1.5 Trans-sonic flow in Laval nozzle

An one-dimensional trans-sonic flow of inviscid zero-conductivity gas in the Laval nozzle is considered in the
given example.

Parameters of the fluid:

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Density: inl
= 1.29 [kg m-3]

Viscosity: =0 [kg m-1s-1]


Thermal conductivity =0 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat cp = 1009 [J (kg K)-1]

Sonic speed a = 331.6 [m s-1]


Inlet parameters:
Total pressure on the inlet P =6895 [Pa]
Total temperature on the inlet T =125 [K]
Outlet parameters
Pressure on the outlet Pst = 5171 [Pa]

Geometry: Nozzle.STL
Project: Nozzle

4.1.5.1 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:


Specify the following parameters:

Reference values
Temperature = 125 [K]

Pressure = 6895 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of Substances #0 *):

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density = Ideal gas law
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

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Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes *):

Motion = Newtonian fluid

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Note:
*)
When simulating the gas flow at Mach > 0.15 is necessary to consider the dependency of density on
pressure. To do this:
1. In the properties of the Substance you have to specify Aggregative state = Gas, the dependency of
Density by Ideal gas law and values of Molar mass and Specific heat.
2. In Physical processes turn on computation of the Heat transfer equations.

4.1.5.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Symmetry *)
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2
Type = Inlet/Outlet

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Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Total temperature
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure
Total pressure =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value = -10 [K]


Velocity(Phase #0) = Inlet pressure
Pressure = -1724 [Pa]

Note:
*)
In order to set on a boundary a boundary condition corresponding to the slip without leakage, you have to use
the Symmetry type of boundary condition.

4.1.5.3 Initial conditions

When simulating the flow in the nozzle it is recommended specify in the constriction of the nozzle values of
pressure and temperature equal to the input values, and in the expansion specify values of pressure and
temperature equal to the output values. When you specify such initial conditions, the pressure surge will be
located in the narrowest part of the nozzle, not on the inlet or the outlet, and the flow will be more stable.
To set the initial conditions in the nozzle expansion, you have to:
1. Specify the Initial data corresponding to the parameters of the flow on the outlet.

2. Specify the Object covering the area of the nozzle expansion.


3. Specify the Initial conditions, which establish correspondence between the Object and the Initial data.

To set initial data corresponding to the parameters of the flow on the outlet, specify in Model #0 > Init. data
#0:

Temperature(Phase #0) = -10 [K]


Pressure(Phase #0) = -1724 [Pa]

To specify the Object:


In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.
In the Create new object window that appears, select Box.
In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

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Reference point
X = 1.9 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Size
X = 1.3 [m]
Y = 0.4 [m]
Z = 0.4 [m]

In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the folder Initial conditions apply the Create command, which
creates Init. condition #0.

In the properties of Init. condition #0 specify:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Init. data #0

In the part of the computational domain, which is not covered by any Object containing the initial data, the
initial values of all variables are automatically set equal to 0. In this example, in the constriction of the nozzle
initial values are to be equal to the values on the input. Since the input values of all calculated variables are
equal to 0, you do not need to specify any additional initial conditions.

4.1.5.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nX = 1000
nY =1

nZ =1

4.1.5.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =1
Max step = 0.001 [s]

Note:
When simulating the gas flow at Mach number M>1 it is recommended to specify the step by the CFL number
and use the Convective CFL in a range from 1 to 10.

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4.1.5.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.
2. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow.

4.1.5.6.1 Mach Number distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on the Plane.
In the Properties window specify:

Variable
Variable MachNumber
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 1.6
Min = 0.2

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Load the thermal palette from the file heat.fvpal:

o In the Properties window of the Layer click button Palette > Operations > (Load palette from
file)

o In the window that appears, select the file heat.fvpal.

4.1.5.6.2 Pressure distribution

Create a layer Color contours on the plane.


In the Properties window specify:

Variable
Variable Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max =0
Min = -5500
Load the thermal palette from the file heat.fvpal.

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4.1.6 Supersonic flow past wedge

In this example a supersonic flow around a 15-degree wedge in two-dimensional channel is simulated.

Dimensions:
Angle: = 15 [Deg]
Dimensions of the computational domain 6x 2x 1 [m x m x m]
Parameters of the substance:
Molar mass: M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Viscosity: = 1.82 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat capacity cp = 1009 [J (kg K)-1]

Sonic speed: a = 331.6 [m s-1]


Parameters on inlet:
Static pressure P = 101000 [Pa]
Temperature at infinity T = 273 [K]
Velocity on inlet Vinl = 600 [m s-1]

Mach number M = 1.8

Geometry: Wedge.WRL
Project: Wedge

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4.1.6.1 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the folder Substances:

Create Substance #0.


In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density = Ideal gas law

Viscosity
Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.026 [W (m K)-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
Specify in the folder Models > Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 600 [m s-1]

4.1.6.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value


Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) Normal velocity with pressure
Velocity =600 [m s-1]
Pressure =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Pressure =0 [Pa]

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4.1.6.3 Initial grid

Specify properties of the Initial grid:


nX = 75
nY = 25
nZ =1

4.1.6.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this project it is necessary to solve the grid in the area of pressure surges. To provide this, specify
adaptation by the gradient of pressure.

Specify the adaptation by the maximal gradient of pressure:


In the folder Adaptation to solution specify:

Activation

Type = Active by step


Start in steps = 400
Duration in steps =1
Period in steps = 50
Max level =2
Cell number = 25000

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Create in the subfolder Adaptation to solution an elements Adaptation to solution #0.


In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Object = Computational space


Activation = Yes

In the properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Variable = Pressure
Value/Gradient = To gradient

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4.1.6.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =1
Max step = 0.0001 [s]

4.1.6.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Pressure distribution in the plane of the
flow before the start of computation.

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4.1.6.6.1 Pressure distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on the plane.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Value range

Mode = Manual
Max = 2.5e5
Min =0
Method = Isolines
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

Note:
In order to view the computational grid with the adaptation, create the Computational grid layer on the
Computational space. The layer will be displayed after at least one step of computation is done.

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4.1.7 Hypersonic flow around sphere

In this example an external hypersonic flow around a sphere is simulated.

Dimensions:
Radius of the sphere: R = 0.016 [m]

Substance: Air
Flow Settings:
Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]
Temperature at infinity: T = 273 [K]
Velocity at infinity: V =3830 [m s-1]
Mach number at infinity: M = 11.2
Geometry: Sphere.STL

Project: Sphere

Note:
Computation of this project may require long time and significant amount of computing resources.

4.1.7.1 Computational domain

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This problem require simulation of an axisymmetric external hypersonic flow. Therefore, you have to create a
computational domain, which is a region with flow around a streamlined body, which is a sector with a small
degree (eg 1-2 degrees). When the gas flows at a velocity corresponding to the Mach number > 0.1 it is
possible to use non-reflecting boundary conditions. They make less disturbance to the flow, so the distance
from the body to the limits of the region, in many cases, can be set less than 10x characteristic body size.

You can find fully prepared geometry of the computational domain is in the file Sphere.STL.

4.1.7.2 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

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In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

4.1.7.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2
Type = Non-reflecting
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

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Velocity at inf. [m s-1]


X = 3830
Y =0
Z =0
Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

4.1.7.4 Initial conditions

In supersonic and hypersonic external flow around bluff bodies we recommend to specify near the body initial
values of variables, corresponding to the parameters of flow deceleration, and in the rest of the domain specify
initial conditions, which are relevant to parameters of the undisturbed flow.

To set initial conditions, which are relevant to parameters of the undisturbed flow, in properties of the element
Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity(Phase #0)

X = 3830 [m s-1]

To set initial conditions corresponding to the deceleration of the flow near the body, you have to:
1. Specify Initial data corresponding to the parameters of flow deceleration.
2. Specify an Object corresponding to the region around the sphere.
3. Specify Initial conditions, establishing correspondence between the Object and the Initial data.

Specify the Initial data:


In the context menu of the folder Model #0 > Init. data select Create.
In properties of the new just created element Init. data #1 specify:

Temperature (Phase #0) = 7300 [K]


Pressure (Phase #0) =1.65e7 *) [Pa]
*)
1.65e7 is notation for 1.65x107.

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Specify the Object:


In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.
In the dialog box Create new object, which opens, select Ellipsoid/sphere.

In the Properties window of Ellipsoid/sphere #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.003 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Parameters
Radius = 0.02 [m]

In the View window an image of Ellipsoid/sphere #0 will appear:

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To define a correspondence between the Object and the Initial data:


In the Subregion#0 in the context menu of the folder Initial conditions, select Create:

In the Properties window of Init. condition #1 specify:

Object = Ellipsoid/sphere #0

Init. data = Init. data #1

The initial conditions are applied sequentially in the order they appear in the folder Initial conditions. Priority
of an Initial condition is higher when the item is lower in the list1).. Thus, in the set-theoretic intersection of
Ellipsoid/spheres #0 and Subregion #0, in the initial moment time parameters of flow deceleration are set,
and parameters of the undisturbed flow are set in the rest of the domain .

Note:
1)
You can change priority of an Init. conditions element moving it in the list up and down using the context
menu commands Move Up and Move Down.

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FlowVision Help 113
4.1.7.5 Initial grid

To better solving the flow near the sphere in this example, specify a two-dimensional non-uniform computational
grid, condensed near the sphere.

In the Properties window, click on the Initial grid button call Initial grid editor
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.01 [m]
h_min = 0.0002 [m]
Insert the reference line with the coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -0,112 [m]


h = 0.01 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h =0.0002 [m]
kh- = 1.07
kh+ = 0.97
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.208 [m]
h = 0.01 [m]
kh- =1

OY
Grid parameters:
kh_max =2

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h_max = 0.01 [m]


h_min = 0.0002 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h =0.0002 [m]
kh+ = 0.95
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.112 [m]
h = 0.01 [m]
kh- =1

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nZ =1

4.1.7.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab:


in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =1
Max step = 0.0001 [s]

in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Limiters for calculation


Pressure abs, min. = 100 [Pa]
Pressure abs, max. = 108 [Pa]

Temperature abs, min. = 10 [K]


Temperature abs, max. = 105 [K]

Density, min. = 0.001 [kg m-3]


Velocity, max. = 105 [m s-1]
Small Cells
Criterion = Relative

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4.1.7.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.
2. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow.

4.1.7.7.1 Mach Number distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on the Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Mach number
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 12
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 116
4.1.7.7.2 Pressure distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 2e7
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 117

4.2 Heat thansfer


In FlowVision a convection-diffusion model for heat transfer is implemented.

In order to simulate the convection-diffusion heat transfer, you have to:


In properties of the Substance it is required to specify values of Density and Specific heat capacity, and, if
necessary, the value of the Thermal conductivity.
Enable calculation of the equation of Heat transfer.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the Temperature.

4.2.1 Heat thanser in a solid body

Heat transfer in a solid body by means of conduction is considered in the given example.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
The length of the bar l =1 [m]
Parameters of the substance
Density = 7900 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity = 46 [W m-1K-1]


Specific heat cp = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Inlet parameters:
Temperature on the hot wall Th = 100 [C]

Heat flux from the cold wall qc = -4600 [W m-2]

Geometry: Conduct.STL
Project: Conduct

4.2.1.1 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

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Aggregative state = Solid


Molar mass
Value = 0.056 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 7900 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 46 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In the folder Phase #0 > Substances load Substance #0.
In the Properties window of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes specify:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

4.2.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:

Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables

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FlowVision Help 119

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value


Value = 100 [K]

Boundary 2
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Flux
Value = -4600 [W m-2]

4.2.1.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 100
nY =1
nZ =1

4.2.1.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 10000 [s]

4.2.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Temperature distribution along the length
of the bar before the start of computation.

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FlowVision Help 120
4.2.1.5.1 Temperature distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on the Plane.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 100
Min =0

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FlowVision Help 121
4.2.2 Forced convection

Consider the simulation of laminar flow of cold water in a tube with a hot wall.

Dimensions:
Length of the tube L =2 [m]
Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 0.001 [m s-1]

Temperature on inlet Tinl =0 [K]

The wall temperature Tw = 90 [K]

Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 10-3 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat cp = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 0.001 0.1 1000


Re 102
μ 0.001
Geometry: Tube.WRL
Project: ForceConvection

4.2.2.1 Physical model

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

Aggregative state = Liquid

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FlowVision Help 122

Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity(Phase #0)

X =0 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z = 0.001 [m s-1]

4.2.2.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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FlowVision Help 123

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value = 90 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity =1 [kg m-2 s-1]

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FlowVision Help 124
4.2.2.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 20
nY = 20
nZ = 50

4.2.2.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 20 [s]

4.2.2.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of
the flow before the start of computation.

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FlowVision Help 125
4.2.2.5.1 Temperature distribution

Create a Color contours layer on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 90
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

4.2.3 Natural convection

In this example, the simulation of laminar air flow in a rectangular cavity, vertical walls are maintained at
different temperatures (one cold and one hot), while the horizontal walls are insulated. Under the influence of
buoyancy due to a temperature difference arises dimensional convective motion.

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FlowVision Help 126

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions of the region: a×b = 0.03 x 0.09 [m × m]


Inflow parameters:
The temperature of the hot wall: T = 50 [K]

The temperature of the cold wall: T = 20 [K]


Parameters of the fluid:
Molar mass M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Viscosity = 1.82×10-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W (m K)-1]
Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Prandtl number: Pr = 0.71


Rayleigh number: Ra = 105

Geometry: Natur_Convect.WRL

Project: Natur_Convect

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FlowVision Help 127
4.2.3.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 293 [K]

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y = -9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]
g-Density = 1.224 [kg m-3]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Gas


Properties of child elements in the project tree:
Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density = Ideal gas law
Viscosity
Value = 1.82 x 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

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4.2.3.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:

Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value = 30 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

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FlowVision Help 129

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 4
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

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FlowVision Help 130
4.2.3.3 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.1 [m]
h_max = 0.00125 [m]
h_min = 0.0004 [m]

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FlowVision Help 131

Insert reference lines with coordinates:


x1 = 0.005 [m]
x2 = 0.025 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0004 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.005 [m]
h = 0.00125 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.025 [m]
h = 0.00125 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.03 [m]
h = 0.0004 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nY = 73
nZ =1

4.2.3.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.2 [s]

4.2.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow
2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

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FlowVision Help 132
4.2.3.5.1 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

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FlowVision Help 133

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 50
Size 2 = 50
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.075
Min =0

Note:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

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FlowVision Help 134
4.2.3.5.2 Temperature distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 30
Min =0
Method = Isolines

Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

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FlowVision Help 135

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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FlowVision Help 136

4.3 Turbulence
FlowVision mainly uses the following turbulence models:

1. The standard k-ε model


2. Low-Reynolds k-ε model AKN
3. Quadratic k-ε model
4. SST model
5. SA model

In order to simulate the turbulent motion of the liquid or gas:


In a Substance specify Aggregative state = Liquid or Gas.
In the properties of the Substance specify values of Density and Viscosity.
Enable computation of equations of the Motion and the corresponding Turbulence model.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the parameters of the turbulence.
When using the Low-Reynolds k-ε model we recommend you to run a preliminary computation using the the
standard k-ε model.
If high gradients of the variables or divergence of the equations of turbulent transport appear in the process of
computation, we recommend to set a limiter on the maximum value of the turbulent viscosity, and also
specify non-zero background values of turbulent variables in initial conditions and boundary conditions.

4.3.1 Turbulent flow in a pipe

The standard k-ε turbulence model is intended for simulation of flows with values of y+ > 3 and small pressure
gradients.

Consider an application of the k-ε turbulence model in an example of simulation of turbulent flow in a tube.

A turbulent flow is characterized by the Reynolds number (Re) more then 104.

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FlowVision Help 137

Dimensions:
Length of the tube L =2 [m]
Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 10 [m s-1]

Parameters of the substance:


Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Reynolds number: VinlDρ 10 0.1 1000
Re 10 6
μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube.WRL
Project: Tube_turb

4.3.1.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 298 [K]
Pressure = 100000 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:

Create Substance #0.


Specify properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

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Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity (Phase #0)


Z = 10 [m s-1]

4.3.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Name = Outlet

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FlowVision Help 139

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 10000 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

4.3.1.3 Initial grid

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FlowVision Help 140

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nX = 20
nY = 20

nZ = 50

4.3.1.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.01 [s]

4.3.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Pressure variation on inlet
2. Turbulent viscosity distribution in the plane of the flow
3. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow
4. Pressure distribution along the axis of the tube

4.3.1.5.1 Pressure variation on inlet

Create a Supergroup on BC Inlet using the Create supergroup > In Preprocessor command from the

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FlowVision Help 141

context menu.
Create Characteristics on the Supergroup
In Postprocessor in the Properties window of the Characteristics, specify:

Characteristics
Variable
Variable = Pressure
Save to file
Type = Automatic

4.3.1.5.2 Turbulent viscosity distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = TurbViscosity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.9
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

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4.3.1.5.3 Velocity distribution

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 10
Size 2 = 40
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 11.2
Min = 8.2

Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button in the toolbar. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the
Palette group of settings.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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FlowVision Help 143
4.3.1.5.4 Pressure distribution

CreateLine #0.
In the Properties window of Line #0, specify:

Object
Reference point
X 0
Y 0
Z 0.001
Direction
X 0

Y 0
Z 1
Create a layer Plot along line on Line #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 13000
Min =0

Notes:

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FlowVision Help 144

To display information about a layer, open the Info window. Select an item in the Postprocessor tab of
project tree and then click on the button in the toolbar.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

4.3.2 Turbulent flow over plate

The Low-Reynolds k-ε turbulence model (AKN) with equilibrium wall functions can be used for simulation of
flows with small gradients at y+>3 and with no wall functions at 1<y+<3.
Consider the use of the Low-Reynolds turbulence model without wall functions for simulating the dynamic and
the thermal boundary layers on a plate.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions

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FlowVision Help 145

Length of the computational =2 [m]


domain
Width of the computational =1 [m]
domain
Length of the plate L= 1 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Plate temperature T = 20 [K]
Velocity on inlet V=1 [m s-1]
Temperature on inlet T= 0 [K]
Parameters of the substance
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 0.6 [W m-1 K-1]
Specific heat capacity cp= 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Reynolds number VLρ 1 1 1000


Re 106
μ 0.001

Geometry: Plate.WRL
Project: Plate

4.3.2.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid

Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.

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FlowVision Help 146

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.


Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Turbulence = KES *)

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X =0 [m s-1]
Y =1 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Pulsations (Phase #0)
Value = 0.0001
Turbulent scale (Phase #0)
Value = 0.001 [m]

Note:
*)
Before applying the Low-Reynolds k-ε turbulence model (AKN), you need to carry out a preliminary
computation using the Standard k-ε turbulence model (KES) with wall functions.

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4.3.2.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value = 20 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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FlowVision Help 148

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 1000 [kg m-2s-1]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.0001
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.001 [m]

Boundary 4
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

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4.3.2.3 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.1 [m]
h_min = 0.0001 [m]
Parameters of reference lines:
Position =0 [m]
h = 0.0001 [m]
kh+ =1

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Position =1 [m]
h = 0.1 [m]
kh- = 0.5

OY
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.125 [m]
h_min = 0.002 [m]
Insert reference lines with coordinates:
y1 = -0.5 [m]

y2 = 0.5 [m]
Parameters of reference lines:
Position = -1 [m]
h = 0.125 [m]
Position = -0.5 [m]
h =0.002 [m]
kh- = 0.9
kh+ = 1.1
Position = 0.5 [m]
h =0.002 [m]
kh- = 0.9
kh+ = 1.1
Position =1 [m]

h = 0.125 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nZ =1

4.3.2.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.01 [s]

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4.3.2.5 Preliminary computation

Do a preliminary computation using the Standard k-ε turbulence model (KES) of turbulence:
Run the project on computation.
Do 10 iterations.

Stop computation.

Change the model of turbulence to the Low-Reynolds k-ε model AKN.


Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KEAKN

In the Properties window of the boundary condition Wall,specify:

Wall interaction
Phase #0 = No wall functions *)
Run the project on computation for continuation.

Notes:
*)
When y+ < 3 over most of the surface of the wall, it is recommended to specify the Wall interaction= No
wall functions.

4.3.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation of the fluid:
1. Y+ distribution on a surface of the wall

2. Viscous friction distribution along the plate

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FlowVision Help 152
4.3.2.6.1 Y+ distribution

Create a Supergroup on BC Wall using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the
context menu.
Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Y_plus
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max =3
Min = 1.5

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FlowVision Help 153
4.3.2.6.2 Viscous friction distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X = 0.01

Y = -0.51
Z = 0.05
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1

Create a layer Plot along curve on the plane.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Shear stress
Shift = 0.0001

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FlowVision Help 154

Number of points = 1000


Rotation angle = 180

4.3.3 Turbulent flow around a backward facing step

The Quadratic k-ε turbulence model is intended for simulation of flows with values 30<y+<300 and recirculation
zones.

Consider the use of the k-ε quadratic turbulence model in the example of a flow over an opposite facing step.

Dimensions:
Step height D =1 [m]
Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 1.76 [m s-1]

Fluid parameters:
Density =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity =1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Reynolds number: VinlDρ 1.76 1 1
Re 105
μ 1.82 10 5

Geometry: BaskwardFacingStep.WRL

Project: BaskwardFacingStep

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4.3.3.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity

Value = 2e-5 [kg m-1s-1]


Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KEQ

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases


In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 1.76 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.095
Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.05 [m]

4.3.3.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) =Symmetry
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 1.76 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.095
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

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Value = 0.05 [m]

Boundary 4
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

4.3.3.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nX = 120
nY = 25
nZ =1

4.3.3.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 100
Max step =1 [s]

4.3.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Velocity distribution in the plane of the
flow before the start of computation.

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4.3.3.5.1 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
On regular grid = No
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity

Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 1.8
Min =0

Note:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

4.3.4 Turbulent flow around a box

The SST k-ε turbulence model is used for simulation of flows with a high degree of turbulence, with recirculation
zones and large back pressure gradients, and it also provides good results for free flows and flows with small
pressure gradients.

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Consider the use of the SST k-ε turbulence model in the example of simulation of a turbulent flow around a
cube.

Dimensions:
Side of the cube d = 0.0254 [m]
The length of the computational domain 17.6d = 0.447 [m]
The width of the computational domain 11.6d = 0.294 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet Vinl = 7.65 [m s-1]

Fluid parameters:
Density = 1.226 [kg m-3]
Viscosity =1.8325e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Reynolds number: Vinldρ 7.65 0.0254 1.226
Re 1.3 10 4
μ 1.8325 10 5

Geometry: Box.STL
Project: Box

4.3.4.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

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Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1.226 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = SST

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 7.65 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.05
Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.00254 [m]

4.3.4.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1

Type = Wall
Wall interaction
Phase #0 =No wall functions
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Fixed value
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) =Symmetry
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) =Symmetry

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Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 9.38 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.05
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.00254 [m]

Boundary 4

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Velocity = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy = Zero gradient
TurbDissipation = Zero gradient

4.3.4.3 Initial grid

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In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.03 [m]
h_min = 0.00075 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]
Reference line parameters

Position = -0.147 [m]


h = 0.03 [m]
Position =0 [m]
h =0.00075 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ =1
Position = 0.3 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]

OY
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.03 [m]
h_min = 0.00075 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:


y1 =0 [m]
Reference line parameters
Position = -0.147 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]
Position =0 [m]
h =0.00075 [m]
kh- =1 [m]
kh+ =1 [m]
Position = 0.147 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

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nZ =1

4.3.4.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this example, you must resolve the vortex formation zone. For this it is necessary to make a grid adaptation
in the volume of a parallelepiped around the cube (you can see cells of the adapted computational grid after the
computation using the Computational grid layer).

Specifying the grid adaptation in an object consists of two steps:


1. Specifying an Object for the adaptation
2. Specifying adaptation criteria

In order to create an Object for the adaptation:


In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.
In the Create new object window select Object type = Box.
In the Properties window of the Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.01 [m]
Y =0 [m]

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Z = 0.005 [m]
Size
X = 0.05 [m]
Y = 0.05 [m]
Z = 0.005 [m]

In order to specify the criteria of adaptation:


In the context menu of the folder Adaptation, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new just created element Adaptation #0 specify:

Activation = Yes
Object = Box #0
Max level =1
Split/Merge = Split
Zone = In volume

Note:
In order to see the computational grid adaptation, create on Plane #0 a layer Computational grid section.

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4.3.4.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.0003 [s]

4.3.4.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Y+ distribution on the surface of the parallelepiped.
2. Velocity distribution in the plane of symmetry.

4.3.4.6.1 Y+ distribution

Create a Supergroup on BC Wall using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the
context menu.
Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Y_plus

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Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

4.3.4.6.2 Velocity distribution

Velocity distribution visualized as vectors displays generation of turbulent eddies, which form and go away from
the box some time after starting the computation (initially the fluid moves behind the box symmetrically and with
no eddies)

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity

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FlowVision Help 168

Grid
Size 1 = 100
Size 2 = 100
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 12
Min =0

Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

4.3.5 Subsonic flow around an airfoil

The SA model is an one-parameter model, which was developed for aerospace applications. This model can be
used both in Low-Reynolds and Hi-Reynolds computations.
Low-Reynolds computations assume that the viscous boundary layer is resolved by a computational grid. We
recommend to build a grid with dimensionless distance y+ from the center of the wall cell to the wall does not
exceed 1 (the structure of the boundary layer is discussed in work H.Schlichting (1974) "Boundary layer
theory" Nauka, Moscow, 711 pages / Шлихтинг Г. (1974) "Теория пограничного слоя", Москва, Наука, 711
с.).
Consider the application of the SA model for the example problem of subsonic flow around airfoil at Reynolds
number Re = 1.68x106 and Mach number M = 0.3. In this example Hi-Reynolds computations are done, so a
quite coarse computational grid is built (the viscous boundary layer is not resolved) and wall functions are used.

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Dimensions:
Chord length c = 0.256 [m]
Dimensions of the computational 5.3 x 5 x 0.00254 [m x m x m]
domain
Angle of attack =3°
Substance: Air

Inflow parameters:
Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]
Static temperature: T = 298 [K]
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 103.83 [m s-1]

Mach number: M = 0.3


Reynolds number: Re = 1.68x106
Geometry: NACA0012_3deg.STL

Project: NACA0012_3deg

Note:
Computation of this project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

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4.3.5.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 298 [K]

Pressure = 100000 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction
Turbulence = SA

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases
In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity
X = 103.83 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]

4.3.5.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry

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Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Non-reflecting
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.


Velocity at inf.
X = 103.83 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]
TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [m2 s-1]

4.3.5.3 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.635 [m]
h_min = 0.0006415 [m]
Insert a reference line with a coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]

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h = 0.635 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h =0.0006415 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ = 0.95
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.794 [m]
h = 0.635 [m]

OY
Grid parameters
kh_max =2

h_max = 0.635 [m]


h_min = 0.0006415 [m]
Insert a reference line with a coordinate:
y1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54
h =0.635 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h =0.0006415 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.54 [m]
h =0.635 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nz =1

4.3.5.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

Specify adaptation on the surface of the wing. To do this, specify in the Properties window of the boundary
condition, which is set on the wing's surface:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =3
Cell Strata =5

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4.3.5.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method =In seconds


Constant step = 1e-5 *) [s]
*)
This notation means 10-5.

Note:
In this problem, the time step is chosen approximately equal to 0.04 of the time of flight over the wing's chord.

L 0.256 5
own 0.04 * 0.04 * 10
V 103.83

4.3.5.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.
2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the wing.

4.3.5.6.1 Mach Number distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:


Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:
Variable
Variable MachNumber

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Method Isolines
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.4
Min = 0.2
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1
Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

4.3.5.6.2 Pressure distribution

On BC Wall create a Supergroup in Preprocessor.


Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.
In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 6000
Min = -6000

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FlowVision Help 176

Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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FlowVision Help 177

4.4 Mass transfer


In FlowVision two mass transfer models are implemented:

1. The Mass transfer + Chemistry model simulates convective-diffusive mixing (with chemical reactions) of
several Substances.
2. The Combustion model simulates gas-phase combustion.

In order to simulate the mass transfer + chemistry of a liquid or a gas, do the following:
Create the required Substances.

Specify Aggregative states for the Substances (Liquid or Gas).


In the properties of each Substance specify values of its Molar mass and Density.
In a Phase add more than one Substance and in the Phase's Physical processes specify Mass transfer =
Mixing + Chemistry.
If you want to simulate chemical reactions, set the parameters of the sources of appropriate substances in
child elements of the Mass transfer element.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the concentration of Substances.

In order to simulate a gas combustion, do the following:


Create the substances that correspond to fuel, oxidizer, and combustion products.
For all these Substances specify Aggregative state = Gas.
In the properties of each Substance is required to specify the values of its Molar mass, Viscosity, Thermal
conductivity, Specific heat capacity, Enthalpy of formation, and its Density must be specified as
complying to the Ideal gas law.
Add Substances into the Phase in the following order:
o Fuel
o Oxidant
o Products of combustion

You have to enable in the Phase physical processes Movement, Heat transfer, and Mass transfer =
Combustion.
In the Combustion's parameters you have to specify Combustion model, stoichiometric coefficients (i_1,
i_2, i_3), temperature of ignition (T ignition), combustion limits Alpha min. and Alpha max.
Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the concentration of the fuel, combustion products,
and the dispersion of fuel (when the Arrhenius-Magnussen combustion model is used).
Specify an Ignition / extinction zone modifier if it is necessary to initiate the combustion or define an
extinction zone.
In order to prevent a possible instability of the solution, we recommend to specify constraints for the
computation.

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4.4.1 Mixing of non-reacting substances

Consider simulation of mixing air with pure oxygen and pure nitrogen.

Parameters of the problem:

Inflow parameters:
Mass flow rate of air Vair = 0.1 [kg m-2s-1]

Mass flow rate of oxygen VO2 =1 [kg m-2s-1]

Mass flow rate of nitrogen VN2 =1 [kg m-2s-1]

Geometry: Mixture.WRL

Project: Mixture

4.4.1.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)
Create Substance #0.

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Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substances = Oxygen
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create Substance #0.


Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substances = Nitrogen
Phases = Gas

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add all Substances, which you have just created, into the folder Substances in the following
order 1):
o Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)
o Nitrogen_Gas
o Air_Gas (equilibrium)

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry
Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Notes:
1)
When simulating the Mixing + Chemistry we recommend to place on the last place in the folder Phase #N
> Substances those Substance, which has higher mass fraction in this Phase.

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4.4.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall

Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas(Phase #0) = Symmetry

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TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry


TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 0.129 [kg m-2 s-1]
Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Value
Value =0

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase #0) = Value


Value =0
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

Boundary 4
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 1.4 [kg m-2 s-1]

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase = Value


#0)
Value =1
Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase #0) = Value
Value =0
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

Boundary 5
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

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FlowVision Help 182

Value = 1.24 [kg m-2 s-1]


Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas = Value
(equilibrium) (Phase #0)
Value =0
Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase = Value
#0)
Value =1
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

Boundary 6
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas = Zero gradient
(equilibrium) (Phase #0)
Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase = Zero gradient
#0)
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

4.4.1.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 200
nY = 100
nZ =1

4.4.1.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.1 [s]

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4.4.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Concentration distribution in the plane of
the flow before the start of computation.

4.4.1.5.1 Concentration distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable
Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"
Variable = Mass. frac. [Air_Gas (equilibrium)]

Note:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

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FlowVision Help 184
4.4.2 Radioactive decay

Consider the simulation of radioactive decay of the isotope.

Parameters of the problem:

The length of the area: L = 0.7 [m]


Inflow parameters:
Flow rate: V =1 [m s-1]
Mass fraction of isotopes: Y = 10-3
Properties of sodium isotopes:
Molar mass M = 0.023 [kg mole-1]
Density = 925 [kg m-3]
Viscosity =6.68145 x 10-4 [kg m-1 s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 84.9 [W m-1 K-1]
Specific heat Cp = 1382 [J kg-1 K-1]

Geometry: Isotope.WRL
Project: Isotope

4.4.2.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 373 [K]
Pressure = 101325 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Sodium
Aggregative state = Liquid
Properties
Molar mass =Constant
Value = 0.023 [kg mole-1]
Density =Constant

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FlowVision Help 185

Value = 925 [kg m-3]


Viscosity =Constant
Value = 6.68145 * 10-4 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity =Constant
Value = 84.9 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat =Constant
Value = 1382 [J kg-1 K-1]
Enthalpy of formation
Value =0 [J kg-1]

Copy Sodium
In the properties of this material set

Name = Isotope
Enthalpy of formation
Value = 106 [J kg-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0
InPhase #0 add the folderSubstancesby all agents in the following order:
Isotope
Sodium
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Phases in the properties of the phase #0 Physical Processes > > > Isotope Mass transfer set:

D = -1

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4.4.2.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Boundary 1
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature (Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 925 [kg m-2 s-1]
Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Value
Value = 10-3

Boundary 2

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Temperature (Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature (Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Symmetry

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4.4.2.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 250
nY =1
nZ =1

4.4.2.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =5
Diffusion CFL =5
Max step =1 [s]

4.4.2.5 Visualization

Build:
1. Isotope concentration distribution in the plane of the flow
2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

4.4.2.5.1 Isotope concentration distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object

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FlowVision Help 188

Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable
Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"
Variable = Mass. frac. [Isotope]
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 3

4.4.2.5.2 Temperature distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.35
Min =0
Palette

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Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

4.4.3 Combustion

Consider simulating the combustion of natural gas in the air.

Parameters of the problem:

Length of the tube: L = 0.1 [m]


Substances
Fuel = Natural Gas
Oxidant = Air
Inflow parameters:
Speed of natural gas: V = 75 [m s-1]
Pressure: P = 101 000 [Pa]
Mixture combustion parameters:
Steheometrichesky ratio of i_1 = 16.92
oxidant
Steheometrichesky ratio of i_2 = 17.92
combustion products
Flashpoint T = 923 [K]
Alpha min. α_min = 0.6
Alpha max. α_max = 1.9

Geometry: Combustion.WRL
Project: Combustion

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4.4.3.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 298 [K]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Natural Gas


Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

CreateSubstance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases =Gas

CreateSubstance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Gas + Air Products


Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0

InPhase #0 add the folderSubstances by all agents in the following order*):


Prirodnyy_Gas (equilibrium)
Air_Gas
Natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium)
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

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Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Mass transfer = Combustion
Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

InPhase #0 > Physical Processes > Massoperenos specify:

Combustion model = Arrhenius-Magnussen

i_1 = 16.92
i_2 = 17.92
T ignition = 923 [K]
Alpha min. = 0.6
Alpha max. = 1.9

Note:
*)
In simulating the combustion of substances in Phase should go in the following order:
Fuel
Oxidant
Products of combustion

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FlowVision Help 192
4.4.3.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) (Phase = Zero gradient
#0)
Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium) = Zero gradient
(Phase #0)
Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) = Zero gradient
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Symmetry
Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0)= Symmetry
Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 50 [kg m-2s-1]
Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) =Value
(Phase #0)
Value =1
Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas =Value
(equilibrium)(Phase #0)
Value =0
Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) =Value

Value =0
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.03
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.0008 [m]

Boundary 4
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0
Velocity(Phase #0) = Inlet pressure
Value =0 [kg m-2s-1]
Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya =Value

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(equilibrium) (Phase #0)


Value =0
Masses. The share of natural gas + air =Value
produkty_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0)
Value =0
Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) =Value
Value =0
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.03
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

4.4.3.3 Ignition

In this task, you must burn the fuel in the mixing of fuel with an oxidant. To do this, select amodifierIgnition.

Process of settingthe Modifierconsists of two stages:


area where is action of the Modifier
reference to the application of the Modifier

Specify the area where is action of the modifier:


In the folder object is createdcone / cylinder
In the object properties windowcone / cylinder #0 set:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.1001 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Parameters
Height = 0.001 [m]
Radius 1 = 0.005 [m]
Radius of 2 = 0.005 [m]
Regular attitude. =1
Channel = Constant wall
Rel. channel = 0.8

Create a modifier ignition:


In the context menu folder Modifiers, select Create

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In the Create new modifier, specify:

Modifier type = Zone ignition / quenching


Objects =Cone / cylinder #0

In the area created modifier ignition/quenching #0 set:

Activation
Type = Inactive
Type = Ignition

Note:
Modifier ignition is recommended to include from the beginning of the calculation, and only after for aborted.

After switching off the ignition Modifiers may be a temporary extinction of the flame.

4.4.3.4 Initial conditions

Specify the parameters for the initial distribution of the oxidant:


In the initial dataset# 0:

Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.03


Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.01 [m]

Specify the parameters for the initial distribution of fuel:

InModel #0 Initial create. data # 1


Inthe Setup. dataset# 1:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 75 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya = 1
(equilibrium) (Phase #0)
Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.03
Turbulence scale (Phase #0) =0.0008 [m]

In the folderobject is created cone/cylinder #1


In the object properties window cone/cylinder #1set:

Parameters
Height = 0.105 [m]
Radius 1 = 0.005 [m]

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Radius of 2 = 0.005 [m]


Regular attitude. =1

CreateSetup. conditions # 1
InSubregion #0 InitialProperties window.# 1setof conditions:

Object =Cylinder / cone # 1


Init. data =Init. data #1

4.4.3.5 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max = 2
h_max =0.025 [m]
h_min = 0.0002 [m]
Insert a reference line with a coordinate:
x1 = 0.11 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.005 [m]
kh+ = 0.9
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.11 [m]
h =0.0002 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 1 [m]
h = 0.025 [m]
kh- = 0.9

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FlowVision Help 197

OY
Grid parameters
kh_max = 2
h_max =0.025 [m]
h_min = 0.0002 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0
h =0.0002 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.254 [m]
h =0.025 [m]
kh- =1

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nz =1

4.4.3.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method =In seconds


Constant step = 0.001 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Limiters for calculation


Pressure abs, min. = 1000 [Pa]
Pressure abs, max. = 300000 [Pa]
Temperature abs, min. = 200 [K]
Temperature abs, max. = 3000 [K]
Density, min. = 0.01 [kg m-3]
Velocity, max. = 1000 [m s-1]
Small Cells
Criterion = Relative

4.4.3.7 Preliminary calculations

On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the element Advanced settings:

Numerical method > Type of scheme = Implicit new

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Numerical method > Pressure gradient = Simple


Start the project's computation.

After 10 steps stop the computation and specify:


On the Preprocessor tab in the Properties window of the modifier Ignition / extinction zone #0:

Activation
Type = Permanent
On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number

Convective CFL = 50
Max step = 0.0001 [s]
Start the computation for continuation.

After stabilization of the flame, stop the computation and specify:


On the Preprocessor tab in the Properties window of the modifier Ignition / extinction zone #0:

Activation
Type = Inactive
On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element,specify:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =1
Max step = 0.0001 [s]
and continue the computation again.

4.4.3.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Oxidant excess factor's distribution in the plane of the flow.
2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow.

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FlowVision Help 199
4.4.3.8.1 Oxidant excess factor's distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the Color contours #0 specify:

Variable
Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"
Variable = Odds. excess oxidant recovery.
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max =2
Min = 0.4
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 200
4.4.3.8.2 Temperature distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer Color contours # 1 specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 1800
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 201

4.5 Free surface


InFlowVisionfor simulating free surface method is implemented VOF.

In order to simulate the movement of the liquid based on a free surface, it is necessary:
In the substances set Aggregative state = liquid
In the properties of the substance is required to specify the value of the density,
Create two phases, one phase to add substance and the calculation to include the equations of motion, and
the other phase is left blank,

Add both phases in one model, with the first on the list should be phase with the movement, and the second
- an empty phase,
Specify the appropriate boundary conditions for the variable phase volume, be sure to ask anywhere in the
computational domain initial value VOF = 1,
Use the time step is not more than 5 Surface CFL. When significant changes in shape of the free surface,
use a step corresponding to 1 superficial CFL.

In order to simulate the movement of the two liquids or a liquid and gas based interface, it is necessary:
Create two substances set Aggregate states of liquid / liquid or liquid / gas,
In the properties of the substance is required to specify the value of the density or density calculations on the
ideal gas law,
Create two phases, each phase is to add the relevant substances and enable the calculation of equations of
motion,
Add both phases in one model, with the first on the list should be phase, the density of matter in which more
Specify the appropriate boundary conditions for the VOF variables for each phase, be sure to ask anywhere
in the computational domain initial value VOF = 1,
Use the time step is not more than 5 Surface CFL. When significant changes in shape of the free surface,
use a step corresponding to 1 superficial CFL.

4.5.1 Broken dam

In this example, the simulated two-dimensional collapse of the dam. Part of the computational domain is filled
with water, which is separated by a partition. Initially, the partition is removed rapidly and begins to spread a
wave.

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FlowVision Help 202

Dimensions:
Dimensions of the axb =5x 3 [m × m]
computational domain
Dimensions of the liquid columnd × d = 2 x 2 [m x m]
Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry: Wave.STL
Project: Wave

4.5.1.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

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FlowVision Help 203

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES
Create a continuous Phase #1.

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Notes:

1. In this task, the motion of matter in the second phase can be neglected, so the Phase #1 Physical
processes are not set. At the same time, phase, in which the physical processes are not specified, must
always be second in the Model folder Phases.
2. When loading Phase #0 and #1 inthe PhaseModelautomatically will be the type of interaction phases-
continuous-vacuum, and in Phase #0 Physical processes appears element transfer phase

4.5.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

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Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall

Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Boundary 2
Type =Symmetry
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry
VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

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4.5.1.3 Specifying water column

In the simulation of fluid motion, taking into account the free surface should always set the initial phase
distribution.

In order to set the initial data in theModel # 0#0 Init. dataspecify:

VOF
Value =1

In order to set the scope of the initial data in the folderobjects:


create aBox #0
in the Properties window,set theparallelepiped # 0:

Location
Reference point
X =1 [m]
Y =1 [m]
Z = 0.025 [m]
Size
X =1.99 [m]
Y =1.99 [m]
Z = 0.05 [m]

In the graphics window shows the pictureof a parallelepiped

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In order to define a mapping between the object and the initial data in the Subregion #0in the folderproperties
windowInitial conditionsInitial. conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Initial. data #0

Thus, the volume of a parallelepiped set volume phase VoF = 1, which corresponds to the presence in the
initial time domain estimated water column with dimensions 2x2.

Note:
Since the initial data is assigned to all the cells, even partially in contact with the box, installsizeis somewhat
smaller parallelepiped required not to catch the extra cell.

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FlowVision Help 207
4.5.1.4 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.125 [m]
h_min = 0.03 [m]

Insert reference lines with coordinates:


x1 =1 [m]
x2 =4 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 1 [m]
h = 0.125 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 4 [m]
h = 0.125 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 5 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]

OY

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Grid parameters
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.1 [m]
h_min = 0.03 [m]
Insert reference lines with coordinates:
y1 = 0.5 [m]
y2 = 2.5 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.5 [m]
h = 0.1 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.5 [m]
h = 0.1 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 3 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nZ =1

4.5.1.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Number of CFL


Convective CFL =1
Surface CFL =1
Max step = 0.01 [s]

4.5.1.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build water distribution in the plane of
symmetry before the start of computation.

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4.5.1.6.1 Water distribution

Create a layer VOF on Computational space.

4.5.2 Free jet

In this example, consider the motion of a free two-dimensional jet in the gravity field

Parameters of the problem:

Acceleration due to gravity g = 9.8 [m s-2]


Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Inlet parameters:
Flow rate V =3 [m s-1]
Initial angle of the flow to the horizon α = 45

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Geometry FreeJet.STL
Project: FreeJet

4.5.2.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Create a continuous Phase #1.

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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4.5.2.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Boundary 2
Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 3000 [kg m-2 s-1]
VOF (Phase #0) = Value
Value =1

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

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FlowVision Help 212

Value =0 [Pa]
VOF (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

4.5.2.3 Initial conditions

In problems with a free surface is necessary that at the initial time in the present volume of fluid.

Specify the initial volume of liquid in the vicinity of the entrance:


Properties window Init. data # 0#0 models:

Velocity
X = 2.12 [m s-1]

Y = 2.12 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
VOF
Value =1

In the folder Objects, create Box #0.


In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.1 [m]
Y = 0.1 [m]
Z = 0.05 [m]
The X axis

X =1
Y =1
Z =0
Size
X = 0.1 [m]
Y = 0.06 [m]
Z = 0.1 [m]

in the Subregion #0 InitialProperties window.conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Initial. data #0

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Note:
Clicking theApplybuttonin the Properties windowBox #0 vectors of the coordinate system of the parallelepiped
will be automatically redirected and proortonormirovany.

4.5.2.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 150
nY = 50
nZ =1

4.5.2.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL =1
Surface CFL =1
Max step = 0.01 [s]

4.5.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build water distribution before the start of
computation.

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FlowVision Help 214
4.5.2.6.1 Water distribution

Create a layer VOFon Computational space.

4.5.3 Sweepout of oil with water

In this example, consider the displacement of theoiltankwith water. At the start of the tank is completely filled
with oil. From the hole in the side wall of the tank water enters gradually displacing oil from the tank.

Parameters of the problem:

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Water parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Surface tension s = 0.073 [N m-1]
Oil parameters
Density = 500 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]
Surface tension s = 0.0647 [N m-1]
Inlet parameters:
Water feed rate V = 0.1 [m s-1]

Geometry TwoFluids.wrl
Project: TwoFluids

4.5.3.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:


Define the following:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Point
X =0 [m]
Y = 0.25 [m]
Z =0 [m]
g-Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity

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Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]


Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]
Surface tension
Value = 0.073 [N m-1]

CreateSubstance # 1
Specify the following properties of the substances # 1:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass

Value =0.009 [kg mole-1]


Density
Value = 500 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value =2688 [J kg-1 K-1]
Surface tension
Value =0.0647 [N m-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Create a continuous Phase #1.
In Phase #1 add Substance #1 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #1 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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Notes:
1. In this problem, amodel ofthe firstphaseshould go# 0,the density of matter in which more than inPhase # 1.
2. When loadingPhase #0 and# 1inthe PhaseModelautomatically will be the type ofinteraction phases-
continuous-continuous, and inPhase #0 andPhase # 1inphysical processeswill be an element oftransfer
phase.

4.5.3.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables

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Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity


Value = 100 [kg m-2s-1]
VOF (Phase #0) = Value
Value =1
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Normal mass velocity
Value =0 [kg m-2s-1]
VOF (Phase # 1) = Value
Value =0

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry

Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Slip
VOF (Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
VOF (Phase #0) =Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

VOF (Phase # 1) =Zero gradient

Boundary 4
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip
VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry
Velocity(Phase # 1) = No slip
VOF (Phase # 1) =Symmetry

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4.5.3.3 Initial conditions defining volumes of liquids

InModel #0 :
InInit. data #0 set:

VOF(Phase # 1)

Value =1

CreateNach.dannye # 1
InInit. data # 1set:

Velocity (Phase #0)


Value

X = 0.1 [m s-1]
VOF(Phase #0)
Value =1

In the folderobjects:
create aBox #0
in the Properties window,set theparallelepiped # 0:

Location
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = 0.06 [m]
Z = 0.005 [m]

Size
X = 0.04 [m]
Y = 0.035 [m]
Z = 0.01 [m]

InSubregion #0 :
Specify theInitialProperties window.conditions # 0:

Object = Computational space


Init. data = Initial. data #0

CreateSetup. conditions # 1
Specify theInitialProperties window.conditions # 1:

Object = Box #0

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Init. data = Init. data #1

4.5.3.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 50
nY = 100
nZ =1

4.5.3.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Surface CFL =1

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Max step =1 [s]

4.5.3.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build the liquid surface before the start of
computation.

4.5.3.6.1 Water distribution

Create a layer VOF on Computational space.

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4.6 Dispersed media

4.6.1 Droplet evaporation in air

Consider the evaporation of droplets in the air under the influence of heating:

Parameters of the problem:

Inflow parameters:
Mass flow rate of air: V = 0.5522 [kg m-2 s-1]
Air temperature: Tair = 10 [K]

Water droplets' temperature Tdrops =0 [K]

The diameter of the water droplets d = 0.0001 [m]


The share of water droplets: = 0.001 [kg m-2s-1]
The parameters of the heat source
Power P = 2e6 [W m-3]

Geometry: Drops.WRL
Project: Drops

4.6.1.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

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Create Substance #0.


Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substance = Water

Phases =Gas (equilibrium)

Create Substance #0.


Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substances = Water
Phases = Liquid
In the folder Phases:

Create a continuous Phase #0.


Add the following substances in the folder Substances:
Water_Gas (equilibrium)
Air_Gas (equilibrium)

It is important that you add the Substances into the Phase using this order.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Motion = Newtonian fluid
Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry

Create a dispersed Phase # 1.


Add Water_Liquid to folder Substances of Phase #1.
Specify properties of the folder Phase #1 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Phase transfer = Convection & diffusion
Motion = Motion
Mass transfer = Mass transfer

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
In the folder Phase interaction in the properties window of the element Continuum-dispersed do:

o Click Add ( ) near the element Couple of substances.

o Specify:

Couple of substances

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[0]
Phase 0 = Water_Gas (equilibrium)
Phase 1 = Water_Liquid
Cd = Model1
Nu = Model1
Model of evaporation = Model1
Sh = Model1

In Init. data #0 specify:

Volume phase (Phase #0)

Value =1
Temperature (Phase #0)
Value =0 [K]
Velocity (Phase #0)
Value
X =1 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]

In substance Water_Gas (equilibrium) must also download the dependence of saturation pressure on
temperature from a text file:
In the Properties window, the saturation pressure of the substance Water_Gas (equilibrium),select the
type of the variable table f (x)

Click Table f (x)

In the Table of f (x) then click Open

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In Windows Explorer, select the file p(x).txt in folder Tutorial > Samples > Geom and click Open

In the Table of f (x),clickto select the variables x


In the Select variable tab in the folder AllPhase #0,select the variable temperature and click Ok

In the Table of f (x) clickOk

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4.6.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value = 10 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 0.5522 [kg m-2 s-1]
Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase =Value
#0)
Value =0
Volume Phase(Phase # 1) =Value

Value = 0.001
Temperature(Phase # 1) =Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Velocity of the particles
Velocity of the particles
X =1 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Diameter (Phase # 1) =Value
Value = 0.0001 [m]

Boundary 2

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Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Symmetry
Volume Phase(Phase # 1) = Symmetry
Temperature(Phase # 1) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Slip
Diameter(Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Volume Phase(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface
Temperature(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface
Velocity(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface
Diameter (Phase # 1) =Value

4.6.1.3 Modifiers

In order to set the Volume heat source modifier, do the following:

In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.


In the Create new object window, which appears, select Box.
In the Properties window of the Box #0, specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.15 [m]
Y = 0.05 [m]
Z = 0.05 [m]
Size
X = 0.1 [m]
Y = 0.1 [m]
Z = 0.1 [m]

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In the context menu of the Modifiers folder, select Create.


In the Create new modifier window, specify:

Modifier type = Volume heat source

Objects = Box #0
In the Volume heat source #0, which appear, define:

Activation
Type = Permanent
Volume heat source = 2e6 [W m-3]

4.6.1.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 104
nY =1
nZ =1

4.6.1.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab:


In the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 10
Diffusion CFL =1

In the properties of the Advanced settings element specify:

Type of scheme = Implicit new


Pressure gradient = Simple

4.6.1.6 Visualization

Specify visualizations:
1. Moisture vapor distribution in the plane of the flow
2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

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4.6.1.6.1 Moisture vapor distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"
Variable = Mass. frac [Water_Gas (equilibrium)]
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.03
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

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4.6.1.6.2 Temperature distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 60
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

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4.7 Radiation
InFlowVisionfor simulating radiation implemented:

1. P1 radiation model
2. Model of an optically thin layer

In order to simulate the transport of radiation, it is necessary:


In the properties of the substance is required to set the values of the density and specific heat capacity, and,
if necessary, the value of thermal conductivity,

Enable calculation of the equation of heat transfer and radiation,


Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the temperature and density of the radiation flux,
If signs of instability of the solution is recommended to reduce the time step.

4.7.1 Radiative transfer in turbid medium

Consider the one-dimensional simulation of radiation heat transfer in an opaque medium between two walls with
different temperatures.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
The length of the bar l =1 [m]
Inlet parameters:
The temperature of the hot wall T = 100 [K]
The temperature of the cold wall T =0 [K]
The absorption coefficient α = 100 [m-1]

Geometry: Radiation.WRL
Project: Radiation

4.7.1.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Solid

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Density
Value =1 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 10-10 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

In the Properties window of Physical processes, specify:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Radiation = P1
In the Properties window of Radiation, specify:

Absorption coefficient = 100 [m-1]

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

4.7.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:

Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

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Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Rad. flux
Value =0

Boundary 2
Type = Wall
Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value


Value = 100 [K]
Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Calculated rad. flux
Blackness =1

Boundary 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Calculated rad. flux
Blackness =1

4.7.1.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 100
nY =1
nZ =1

4.7.1.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method =In seconds


Constant step =1 [s]

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Note:
In the simulation of radiative heat transfer it is recommended to use a time step that is comparable to the
diffusion CFL.

4.7.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build a temperature distribution before the start of
computation.

4.7.1.5.1 Temperature distribution

Create a Line object in the folder Objects.

In the Properties window of Line #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X = -0.5 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z = 0.05 [m]

Create a layer Plot along line on Line #0.


In the Properties window of the layer Plot along line #0 (Line #0) specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Number of points = 100

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4.8 Electrodynamics

4.8.1 Mutual interaction of two isolators

The interaction of the two plates, which conduct electricity poorly. Between the upper ends of the plates (A and
B) are maintained at a constant voltage, and the lower ends of the plates (A1 and B1) are connected to short-
circuited conductor.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
The height of the plates h = 0.2 [m]
The distance between the plates d = 0.05 [m]
Inlet parameters:
The potential difference between A and UAB = 20 [V]
B
The potential difference between the A1 UA1B1 =0 [V]
and B1
The potential distribution in the dielectric U AB x
AA1 U (y) [V]
2 h
The potential distribution in the dielectric U AB y [V]
BB1 U (y)
2 d
Properties of substance between isolators
-1
Conductivity =1 [ m-1]

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Dielectric permittivity ε =1

Geometry: DielPlates.WRL
Project: DielPlates

4.8.1.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]]
Density
Value =1 [kg m-3]
Specific heat
Value = 1000 [J kg-1 K-1]
The electrical conductivity
-1
Value =1 [ m-1]

The dielectric permittivity


Value =1

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of the Physical processes:

EHD = Electrodynamics

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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4.8.1.2 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables

Potential (Phase# 0) =Value

To define the potential distribution in the range of 1:


In the properties of thepotential (Phase# 0)in theValuedata box,switch the way to set the value of a formula

Call theEquation Editorby clicking


In theFormula Editor,create a link to a coordinate on the X (Variablesand ConstantsAll X-
coordinate):

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Specify the formula for the potential distribution in the insulator: 10*(COORD_X +0.01)/0.02

Click theAcceptbuttoninthe Formula Editor


Click theApplybuttonin theproperties of thepotential (Phase# 0)

Specify the following boundary conditions (formula at the Border 2 and 3 are also given, as well as on the
Frontier 1):

Boundary 2
Type = Wall
Variables
Potential (Phase# 0) =Value
Value = -10*(COORD_X +0.01)/0.02 [V]

Boundary 3
Type = Wall

Variables
Potential (Phase# 0) =Value
Value =-10 *COORD_Y/0.0025 [V]

Boundary 4
Type = Wall
Variables
Potential (Phase# 0) =Value
Value =0 [V]

Border 5
Type = Symmetry

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Variables
Potential (Phase# 0) = Symmetry

Note:
Detailed description of the boundary conditions by using Equation Editor in Example Flow in a tube with
variable flow.

4.8.1.3 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 200
nY = 50
nZ =1

4.8.1.4 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step =1 [s]

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4.8.1.5 Visualization

Build:
1. Electrical intensity's distribution in a plane in the plane of symmetry.
2. Electrical intensity's distribution along a line on the horizontal axis.

4.8.1.5.1 Electrical intensity's distribution in a plane

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Electric field intensity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 4000
Min =0
Method = Isolines
Palette

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Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

4.8.1.5.2 Electrical intensity's distribution along a line

Create a line object in the folder objects


In thePropertieswindow, set theLine #0:

Object
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = -0.0024 [m]
Z = 0.00125 [m]
Direction
X =0
Y =1
Z =0

Create a layer Plot along line on Line #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Electric field intensity

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Rotation angle = -90


Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 2050
Min = 2000

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5 Advanced modules
This section describes the following additional featuresFlowVision:

1. Pairing
2. Rotation
3. Movable body

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5.1 Conjugate problems


Conjugate problems - problems in which it is necessary to take into account the interaction between the
different subregions or different boundaries one Subregion.

In order to simulate the associated task, you must:


Prepare a geometric model of the computational domain, consisting of several sub-areas,
On both sides of the surface, which will go mate subregions, set the boundary conditions are related,
Create Bundle, constraints and correspondence between the bond and communication conditions.

5.1.1 Conjugate heat exchange

Consider laminar flow simulation viscous cold air tube with a thick metal wall heated from the outside.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
Length of the tube L = 0.1 [m]
The radius of the inside of the R = 0.015 [m]
tube
Wall Thickness d = 0.005 [m]
Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 0.1 [m s-1]

Temperature on inlet Tinl =0 [K]

The temperature of the outer wall Tw = 100 [K]

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Fluid parameters:
Density =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity =1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]


Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

The parameters of a rigid body


Density = 7900 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity = 45 [W m-1K-1]
Heat capacity cp = 457 [J kg-1K-1]

Reynolds number: 2RVinlρ 2 0.015 0.1 1


Re 165
μ 1.82 10 5

5.1.1.1 A project based on a single detail

Geometry: Conjugate_Convection.STL
Project: Conjugate_Convection

5.1.1.1.1 Computational domain

In the preparation of a geometric model based on one piece in such problems arises the problem of preparing
geometric model - there is a situation of so-called T-shaped surfaces.

To solve this problem, it is necessary to change the geometry of adding the thin walls where there were T-
shaped surface. On the border of the wall are given fictitious adiabatic boundary conditions. The disadvantage
of this method is that it distorts the picture physical process. If the problem is solved the energy equation, the
introduction of such walls will cause thermal bridges.

Fully prepared geometry of the computational domain is in the fileConjugate_Convection.STL

5.1.1.1.2 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Steel
Aggregative state = Solid
Molar mass
Value = 0.056 [kg mole-1]

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Density
Value = 7900 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 45 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create Substance #0
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:

Create a continuous Phase #0


In the Properties window,set thePhase#0:

Name = Steel
In the folderSubstancesPhaseSteelSteelload.
Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Create a continuous Phase #0


In the Properties window, set thePhase #0:

Name = Air
In the folderSubstancesphaseairdownloadAir.
Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

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Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Steel
Add phase Steel into subfolder Steel > Phases.
CreateModel #0
In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air
Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.
In Init. data #0 set:

Velocity (Air)
X =0 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z = 0.1 [m s-1]

5.1.1.1.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface at the tube):

Boundary 1

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Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(air) = Value
Value =0 [C]
Velocity(Air) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 0.1 [kg (m2s)-1]

Boundary 2
Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Temperature(air) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Air) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Name = Wall
Type = Bound

In the Properties window of the Subregion between the outer and inner tubes set:

Name = Tube

Model = Steel

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Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface of the tube and greater at the outer surface of
the tube):

Boundary 1
Name = Outer wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Steel) = Value
Value = 100 [C]

Boundary 2
Name = Wall

Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Steel) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Name = Inner wall
Type = Bound

In the Properties window of the Subregion inside inner tube set at:

Name = Flow
Model = Air

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Notes:
When setting the boundary conditions on the smaller tube must be chosen not only the surface but also the
side. On the outer side of the surface at the tube boundary conditions are given in the subregion tube, and on
the interior - the boundary conditions in a subregion within. In order to select the lower side surface of the tube
in the graph window, it is necessary:

go toselection modesurface in the graphics window by clicking Modes toolbar,or press and hold
downCtrl,
hover your mouse over the corresponding surface
click on the left mouse button,
if there was not an isolated surface, then pressing the left button repeatedly until until selected the desired
surface,
if not allocated by the party, it must be on a dedicated surface right-click and open the context menu, where
you select Select the other side:

Understand which side is selected, it is possible by the nature of the surface of the paint. Dedicated side
surface is painted in one tone without ornament, and the unselected side - in the same color as the selected,

but with an ornament on top of the coloring .

Also, to select the surfaces you can use the tree Preprocessor Subregion > Subregion #i > Geometry >
Group #i. To the contents of the geometry folder displayed, you need in the File menu > Preferences >
Display define Show all groups = Yes. With a large number of nested sub-areas and geometric groups, this
method becomes preferable.

5.1.1.1.4 Binding subregions

Binding of boundary conditions consists of the following stages:


CreatingBundlesof two boundary conditions to the typeLinked
CreatingCommunication conditions
The mapping oftheligaments andthe communication conditions

CreateBundle # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersboundary connections Bundles

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CreateCondition connection # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderboundary connections Communication conditions


In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Type of connection = Conjugate heat transfer


Model # 1 = Steel
Model # 2 = Air

Match theligaments andcommunication conditions:


In yourcondition connection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove
HighlightBundle #0 in the listare not selected,and then clickAdd >>

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5.1.1.1.5 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 25
nY = 25
nZ = 25

5.1.1.1.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this example, you must make an adaptation network within subregions of continuous walls of the tube and
near the wall in a subregion of the flow.
To make an adaptation of the network within the Subregion Tube, create a criterion of adaptation:
In Subregion tube in the context menu folder Adaptation, select Create
In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =1
Split/Merge = Split

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Zone = In volume

In Subregion flow properties of the boundary conditions set Wall:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =1

5.1.1.1.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.1 [s]

5.1.1.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of
the flow before the start of computation.

5.1.1.1.8.1 Temperature distribution

In the layer Solids:

Clipped = Yes

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On thePlane #0 set:

Clipping object = Yes


Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 100
Min =0
Palette
Operations = Load from File heat.fvpal

5.1.1.2 A project based on a several details

Geometry: Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL
Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL
Project: Conjugate_Convection_TConnect

5.1.1.2.1 Computational domain

In preparing the geometric model based on the so-called build T-shaped surfaces are correctly and there is no
need additionally to modify the geometric model, as in the previous example.

In this case, the geometric model of each subregion must be contained in a separate file. Assemble in the
establishment phase of the project when loading all files in FlowVision.
In order to create a project based on the assembly:
On the File menu, select Create assembly
In the window that appears on the list of available files with geometric models and select the files:
o Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL
o Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL

and then click Add.

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The selected files will be displayed in the panel Files in the assembly. The files are to be
displayed there in the following order:
1) Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL
2) Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL

This order is important, because the external subregion must be specified on the first place in the
list of assembly , and internal subregions on other places.
If necessary, change the display order of the files by selecting them in the Files in the assembly
panel and use the Up and/or Down buttons.
!

Click Ok

In the window Part intersection fix that appears leave the default settings and click Ok.

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Specify the name of the project.

5.1.1.2.2 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Steel
Aggregative state = Solid
Molar mass

Value = 0.056 [kg mole-1]


Density
Value = 7900 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 45 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create Substance #0
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air
Aggregative state = Gas
Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density

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Value =1 [kg m-3]


Viscosity
Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0

In the Properties window,set thePhase#0:

Name = Steel
In the folderSubstancesPhaseSteelSteelload.
Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Create a continuous Phase #0


In the Properties window,set thePhase# 0:

Name = Air
In the folderSubstancesphaseairdownloadAir.
Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Steel
Add phase Steel into subfolder Steel > Phases.
CreateModel #0
In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air
Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.
InInit. data #0 set:

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Velocity (Air)
X = 0.1 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]

5.1.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion between external and internal surfaces, specify:

Name = Tube
Model = Steel

Define the following boundary conditions (on the inner side of the outer surface of the inner and outer surfaces):

Boundary 1
Name = Outer wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Steel) = Value
Value = 100 [C]

Boundary 2
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables

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Temperature(Steel) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Name = Inner wall
Type = Bound

In the Properties window Subregion within the inner surface of the set:

Name = Flow
Model = Air

Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface at the tube):

Boundary 1

Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(air) = Value
Value =0 [C]
Velocity(Air) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 0.1 [kg (m2s)-1]

Boundary 2
Name = Outlet
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Temperature(air) = Zero gradient

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Velocity(Air) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3
Name = Wall
Type = Bound

5.1.1.2.4 Binding subregions

Binding of boundary conditions consists of the following stages:

CreatingBundlesof two boundary conditions to the typeLinked


CreatingCommunication conditions
The mapping oftheligaments andthe communication conditions

CreateBundle # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersboundary connections Bundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderboundary connections Communication conditions
In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Type of connection = Conjugate heat transfer


Model # 1 = Steel
Model # 2 = Air

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Match theligaments andcommunication conditions:


In yourcondition connection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove
HighlightBundle #0 in the listare not selected,and then clickAdd >>

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5.1.1.2.5 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 25
nY = 25
nZ = 25

5.1.1.2.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this example, you must make adaptation of a grid within subregions of solid walls of the tube and near the
wall in a subregion of the flow.
To make adaptation of a grid within the Subregion tube, create a criterion of adaptation:
In Subregion tube in the context menu folder Adaptation, select Create
In the Properties window created element Adaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =1
Split/Merge = Split

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Zone = In volume

In Subregionflowproperties of the boundary conditionsset Wall:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =1

5.1.1.2.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.1 [s]

5.1.1.2.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of
the flow before the start of computation.

5.1.1.2.8.1 Temperature distribution

In the layer Solids:

Clipped = Yes
On thePlane #0 set:

Object

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Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z = -1
Clipping object = Yes

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 100
Min =0
Palette
Operations = Load from File heat.fvpal

5.1.2 Conjugate radiation heat transfer

Consider the natural convection of air around the lamp bulb, heated from the inside by a filament.

Boundary parameters:
The temperature of the helix Ts =2400 [K]

Ambient temperature Tair =0 [K]

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The emissivity of the flask = 10-4


Air conditions:
Molar mass M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Viscosity =1.82x10-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Geometry: Lamp.STL
Project: Lamp

5.1.2.1 Computational domain

InFlowVisioncan create a surface from which the sub-region is formed after the creation of the project. Surface
geometry is imported from a file or created on the basis of objects Preprocessor. In this project, you must
create an outer surface of the Subregion, which is modeled by the movement of air.

Create an outer surface of the subregions:


In the folder Objects on the Preprocessor tab, create a Box.
In the Properties window,set theBox # 0:

Size
X = 0.5 [m]
Y = 0.5 [m]
Z = 0.5 [m]
In the context menu,selectBox #0 Build into the main geometry.
In the Properties window, set the created Subregion:

Name = External Environment

In the Properties window Subregion corresponding lamp set:

Name = Lamp

5.1.2.2 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]
g-density = 1.286 [kg m-1s-1]

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In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air
Aggregative state = Gas
Properties
Molar mass = Constant
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]
Density = Ideal gas law
Viscosity =Constant

Value =1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]


Thermal conductivity =Constant
Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat =Constant
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]
CreateSubstance #0
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Vacuum
Aggregative state = Solid
Properties
Density =Constant
Value = 0.001 [kg m-3]
Thermal conductivity =Constant

Value = 10-8 [W m-1K-1]


Specific heat =Constant
Value = 108 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase#0
In the Properties window,set thePhase#0:

Name = Air
Add SubstanceAir Substancesin the folderphaseair
Specify the air phase in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

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Create a continuous Phase#0


In thePropertieswindow, set thePhase# 0:

Name = Vacuum

Add substanceVacuum Substancesin the folder phase vacuum


Specify the vacuum phase in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction


Radiation = P1

In the folder Models:

Create Model #0.


In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air
Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.
CreateModel #0
In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Vacuum
Add phase Vacuum into subfolder Vacuum > Phases.

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5.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the lamp Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Vacuum

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1

Name = Glass bulb


Type = Bound
Variables
Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux
Blackness = 0.0001

Boundary 2
Name = Spiral
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature (Vacuum) = Value
Value = 2400 [K]
Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux

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Blackness =1

Boundary 3
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature (Vacuum) = Zero gradient
Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux
Blackness =1

In the Properties window, set the external environment Subregion:

Model = Air

Specify the following boundary conditions:

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Boundary 1
Name = Glass bulb
Type = Bound

Boundary 2
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(air) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Air) = No slip

Boundary 3
Name = Outlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(air) = Value
Value =0 [C]
Velocity (Air) = Total pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

5.1.2.4 Binding subregions

Create Bundle #0:


Select Create from the context menu of the folder Bundles

In the Creating a bundle specify:

List of unbound BC = Lamp: Glass bulb


List of unbound BC =External environment: Glass bulb

Create Connection Condition #0:


Select Createfrom the context menu of a folder Communication conditions
In the formation of the communication condition set:

Type of connection = Conjugate heat transfer


Model # 1 = Vacuum
Model # 2 = Air

Match theligaments andcommunication conditions:

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In yourcondition connection #0 in the context menu select Add folder Bundles/Remove


AddBundle #0

5.1.2.5 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX =5
nY =5
nZ =5

5.1.2.6 Adaptation

Specify Adaptation in subregions Lamp

In SubregionLampinAdaptfolder, create a new


In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =4
Split/Merge = Split
Zone = In volume

Specify Adaptation in subregionsexternal environment:


In the Preprocessor object is created in the folder objectcone / cylinder
In the object properties windowcone / cylinder #0 set:

Location
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = -0.26 [m]
Z =0 [m]
The X
axis
X =0
Y =1
Z =0
Parameters
Height = 0.2 [m]
Radius 1 = 0.025 [m]
Radius of 2 = 0.025 [m]
Regular attitude. =1

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In Subregionexternal environmentin the folder,create a newAdaptation


In the Properties window created elementAdaptation # 1set:

Activation = Yes

Object = Cone / cylinder #0


Max level =4
Split/Merge = Split
Zone = In volume

In the properties of the boundary conditionGlass bulbset:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =5
Cell Strata =6

5.1.2.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 100
Max step =1 [s]

5.1.2.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow


2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

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5.1.2.8.1 Velocity distribution

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0


In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 100
Size 2 = 100
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 0.3
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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Color = Black

Note:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

5.1.2.8.2 Temperature distribution

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable
Variable = Temperature
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 14
Min =1
Method = Isolines
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

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Note:
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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5.2 Rotation
FlowVisiontakes into account the rotation of the surfaces in the selected coordinate system. Thus, the
application can take into account both normal and tangential components of the rotation speed and only
tangential.

In order to set the rotation, you must:


Create a local coordinate system and Rotation,
Specify a spin on the boundary condition, mounted on a rotating surface,

If necessary, set the Rotation Region.

5.2.1 Rotor

In this example, the simulated turbulent viscous motion of an incompressible fluid between the rotating rotor
blades.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]
Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]

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The thickness of the blade d = 0.05


Inflow parameters:
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 20 [m s-1]

Speed of rotation = 300 [Radian s-1]


Parameters of the substance:
Density =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 1.82 * 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Reynolds number: VinlDρ 20 0.05 1
Re 5*10 4
μ 1.82 10 5

Geometry: Rotor.STL
Project: Rotor

5.2.1.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Gas


Molar mass
Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density
Value =1 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]
Thermal conductivity
Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]
Specific heat
Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify properties of folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:

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CreateModel #0
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations


Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

5.2.1.2 Rotation

In order to set the rotation of the surface, it is necessary:


Create alocal coordinate systemrelative to which the rotation will occur
Sets therotationofthe localcoordinatesystem
SpecifyRotationon the surface

Create alocal coordinate system:


In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:
In the Local CS #0 in the context menu folderRotation, select Create
Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Speed = 300 [Radian s-1]


Direction
X =0
Y =0

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Z =1

To enable accounting of normal velocity components in rotation,setthe propertiesof the Region:

Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation

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5.2.1.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet

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Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3
Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 4
Name = Blades
Type = Wall
Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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5.2.1.4 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify using the Initial grid editor:

OZ

Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.01 [m]
h_min = 0.0025 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0025 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]
h = 0.01 [m]
kh- =1

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

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nX = 50
nY = 50

5.2.1.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In the properties ofthe boundary conditionsset Blades:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

5.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.0001 [s]

5.2.1.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Pressure variation on inlet
2. Velocity distribution in the plane of rotation of the blades

5.2.1.7.1 Pressure variation

Create a Supergroup on BC Inlet.


CreateCharacteristicsonSupergroup,
In thePropertieswindow, set the Characteristics:

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Characteristics
Variable
Variable Pressure
Save to file
Type Automatic
After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom
theAvgTime

5.2.1.7.2 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X =0

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Y =0
Z = 0.01
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
On regular grid = No
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 55
Min = 15
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

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5.2.2 Sector of a rotor

In this example, simulated movement of air between the vanes, the sector of the rotor 8. To speed up the
calculation of the motion is modeled in one sector of the rotor.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]
Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]
The thickness of the blade d = 0.05
Inflow parameters:
Mass velocity on inlet Vinl = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

Speed of rotation = 50 [Radian s-1]


Substance: = Air
Geometry: RotorSector.WRL
Project: RotorSector

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5.2.2.1 Making geometry of computational domain

In the simulation of the flow in the rotor, which consists of several identical sectors, to reduce the dimension of
the problem it is advisable to calculate the movement in one of the sectors. To do this:
during the preparation of the geometry cut from the full geometric model of the rotor is one of the periodic
sectors
when specifying the project to link the respective surfaces by periodic communication conditions

5.2.2.2 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create continuous Phase #0.
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

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Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify the initial data #0 folder:

Pulsations (Phase #0)


Value = 0.01
Turbulence scale (Phase #0)
Value = 0.01 [m]

5.2.2.3 Rotation

Create alocal coordinate system:


In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:
Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0
Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Speed = 50 [Radian s-1]


Direction
X =0
Y =0
Z =1

In the propertiessetin the Region:

Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation

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5.2.2.4 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1

Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

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TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations


Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3
Name = Outlet
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 4
Name = Blades
Type = Wall
Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall


TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 5
Name = Surface due 1_1
Type = Bound

Boundary 6
Name = Surface due 1_2
Type = Bound

Border 7

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Name = Surface due 2_1


Type = Bound

Border 8
Name = Surface due 2_2
Type = Bound

5.2.2.5 Binding subregions

Upon binding of boundary conditions are not different sides of one surface, it is necessary to set the reference
point - for the control points the two binding surfaces which upon binding correspond to each other. It suffices
to give one pair of reference points for each bunch.

In order to ask a couple of reference points, it is necessary:


In the folderUnbound BCin the context menu of both linked boundary conditions selectCreate reference
point
In the properties window, the two reference points define their position so that when the binding surfaces are
matched to each other.

Create a reference point on BCsurface due 1_1:


In the folderUnbound BCin the context menu of BCsurface due 1_1selectCreate reference point
In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates

X = -0.039199
Y = 0.028954
Z =0

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Create a reference point on BCsurface due 1_2:


In the context menu of BCsurface due 1_2selectCreate reference point
In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates
X = -0.007244
Y = 0.048191
Z =0

Create a reference point on BCsurface due 2_1:


In the context menu of BCsurface due 2_1selectCreate reference point
In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates
X = 0.004345
Y = 0.097904
Z =0

Create a reference point on BCsurface due 2_2:


In the context menu of BCsurface due 2_1selectCreate reference point
In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates
X = 0.072301

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Y = 0.066156
Z =0

Create abunch of #0 and # 1 Bundle:


SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersBundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderCommunication conditions
In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Type of connection = Periodic surface

Model # 1 = Model #0
Model # 2 = Model #0

Match theligamentsandcommunication conditions:


In theConditionelementconnection #0 in the context menu of a folder,selectAdd AllBundles

5.2.2.6 Initial grid

Specify using the Initial grid editor:

OZ

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Grid parameters
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.01 [m]
h_min = 0.0025 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0025 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]
h = 0.01 [m]
kh- =1

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 25
nY = 25

5.2.2.7 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In the properties ofthe boundary conditionsset Blades:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

5.2.2.8 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.0001 [s]

5.2.2.9 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Pressure variation on inlet
2. Velocity distribution in the plane of rotation of the blades

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5.2.2.9.1 Pressure variation

On BC Inlet create a Supergroup in Preprocessor (use in the context menu the command Create
supergroup > In Preprocessor).
Create Characteristics on this Supergroup.
In the Properties window, specify properties of the Characteristics:

Characteristics
Variable
Variable Pressure
Save to file
Type Automatic
After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom
theAvgTime

5.2.2.9.2 Velocity distribution

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In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Reference point

X =0
Y =0
Z = 0.01
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
On regular grid = No
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 55
Min =5
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

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5.2.3 Rotor+Stator

In this example, simulated movement of air between rotating rotor blades and the stator channel.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]
Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]
The thickness of the blade d = 0.05
Inflow parameters:
Mass velocity on inlet Vinl = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

Speed of rotation = 50 [Radian s-1]


Substance: = Air
Geometry: RotorStator.STL
Project: RotorStator

5.2.3.1 Making geometry of computational domain

For simulating problems with the rotation of the surfaces in the computational domain, the outer boundary of
which is not a surface of revolution about a respective axis of rotation, it is necessary to divide the geometry
into several subregions. Thus, the outer boundaries of the subregions, which will be set rotating, have to be
present a surface of revolution about a respective axis. Relationship between subregions by usingTrailing
Terms connectionthat allows you to simulate the flow of liquid or gas between the subregions with respect to

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rotation relative to the stationary rotating subregion.

In order to separate subregion, you must:

CreateRotation
Create a dividing surface
Divide Computational domain into subregions for separating surface

Create aSpin:
Create alocal coordinate system
Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0

Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Speed = 50 [Radian s-1]


Direction
X =0
Y =0
Z =1

Create a separating surface:

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In the folderobject is createdcone / cylinder


Specify the properties windowCone / Cylinder#0

Location

The X axis
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Parameters:
Height = 0.02 [m]
Radius 1 = 0.1025 [m]

Radius of 2 = 0.1025 [m]


Regular attitude. =1

In the context menuCone / Cylinder#0 selectCopy as imported object


In the window,selectCopy surfacesofthelateral surface. Lower baseandupper basemust remain
unmarked

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In the context menu of a folder,selectCreateSliding surfaces


In theCreate new sliding surface,specify:

Objects = Imported object #0

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Divide Computational domain into subregions for separating surface:


In the Properties windowSliding surface #0 set:

Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation

In the context menuSliding surface # 0,selectInsert:

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5.2.3.2 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Pulsations (Phase #0)


Value = 0.01

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Turbulence scale (Phase #0)


Value = 0.01 [m]

5.2.3.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion, which corresponds to the rotor (see illustration below) specify:

Name = Rotor
Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Name = Inlet
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale


Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3
Name = Surface connection
Type = Bound

Boundary 4
Name = Blades
Type = Wall
Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation

Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

In the Properties window Subregion corresponding stator (see. Fig. Below), specify:

Name = Stator
Model = Model #0

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Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Name = Wall
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3
Name = Surface connection
Type = Bound

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5.2.3.4 Binding subregions

CreateBundle # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersBundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:
SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderCommunication conditions
In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Type of connection = Sliding surface


Model # 1 = Model #0
Model # 2 = Model #0

Match theligaments andcommunication conditions:


In theConditionelementconnection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove
AddBundle #0

In the Properties window, set the rotor subregion:

Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation

5.2.3.5 Initial grid

Specify using the Initial grid editor:

OZ

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Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
d_min = 0.05 [m]
h_max = 0.01 [m]
h_min = 0.0025 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0025 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]
h = 0.01 [m]
kh- =1

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 75
nY = 70

5.2.3.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In SubregionRotor:
In the properties ofthe boundary condition Blades,specify:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

In the properties of thesurface boundary condition duespecify:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

In SubregionStator:
In the properties of thesurface boundary condition duespecify:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata =2

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5.2.3.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Number of CFL


Convective CFL = 100
Moving CFL =1
Max step = 0.001 [s]

5.2.3.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Pressure variation on inlet

2. Pressure distribution in the plane of rotation of the blades

5.2.3.8.1 Pressure variation

On BC Inlet create a Supergroup in Preprocessor (use in the context menu the command Create
supergroup > In Preprocessor).
CreateCharacteristicsonSupergroup,
In thePropertieswindow, set the Characteristics:

Variable
Variable Pressure
Save to file
Type Automatic
After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom
theAvgTime

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5.2.3.8.2 Pressure distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X =0

Y =0
Z = 0.01
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual

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Max = 13000
Min = -1000
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 3
Color = Black

Note:
In the current version of the program inaccuracies might appear in the displaying of layers when solving
problems with sliding surfaces.

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5.2.4 Rotating tank

In this example, the simulated rotation tank half filled with liquid.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions:
The height of the tank L =2 [m]
The radius of the tank R = 0.5 [m]
Parameters wall
Speed of rotation = 10 [Radian s-1]
Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 100 [kg m-1s-1]
The liquid level h =1 [m]

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Geometry: Bak.STL
Project: Bak

5.2.4.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of thesubstances # 0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 100 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Create a continuous Phase # 1

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add phases Phase #0 andPhase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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5.2.4.2 Rotation

Create alocal coordinate system:


In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:
Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0
Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Speed = 10 [Radian s-1]


Direction
X =0
Y =1
Z =0

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5.2.4.3 Boundary conditions

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1, 2
Type = Wall
Local FR = Local FR #0
Rotation #0 = Rotation
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip
VOF (Phase #0)
=Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet

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Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
VOF (Phase #0)
= Zero gradient

5.2.4.4 Initial conditions

Specify the initial volume of the liquid:


in the properties of the elementNach.dannye # 0#0 models:
VOF

Value =1

In the folder Objects create Box #0.


In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = 0.5 [m]
Z =0 [m]

Size
X =1 [m]
Y = 0.99 [m]
Z =1 [m]

in the Subregion #0 InitialProperties window.conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Initial. data #0

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5.2.4.5 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 20
nY = 40
nZ = 20

5.2.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In the propertiesofthe interface1(B. Cond. #0),specify:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes

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Max level =2
Cell Strata =1

5.2.4.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Surface CFL =1
Max step =1 [s]

5.2.4.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build liquid surface before the start of
computation.

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5.2.4.8.1 Surface of the liquid

Create a layer VOF on Computational space


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Appearance
Shaded
Color = Blue

Notes:
If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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5.3 Moving bodies


FlowVisionallows adjusting the initial position and to simulate movement (translational or rotational), the
geometry of the individual parts. For this module is used Movable body. The geometry of the moving body is
loaded from files, files with similar basic geometry.

In order to simulate the problem with moving bodies, should:


Create a geometric model of the moving bodies inFlowVisionor a third-party CAD system
Based on the created geometric models to create Imported objects,

Create a movable body


Disable updating the moving bodies that will not move in the process of calculation,
Specify a law of motion of the moving bodies, which will be moved in the process of calculation,
Specify the appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the moving bodies,
It is advisable to use a time step of about 1 Surface CFL,
In the case where the movement of the moving bodies in an incompressible fluid under the influence of forces
exerted by the fluid oscillations occur, it is necessary to set the value of the compressibility factor in the
properties of the substance, if the oscillations are gone, the Movement including artificial compressibility and
set the values of the coefficients is damped.

5.3.1 Transonic flow around an airfoil

In this example, we transonic flow airfoil RAE 2822 at an angle of attack2.31degrees.

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Dimensions:
Chord length: c = 0.3 [m]
Dimensions of the computational 13.8 x 12 x 0.1 [m x m x m]
domain
Angle of attack: = 2.31 °
Substance: = Air
Inlet parameters:
Static pressure: P = 109 000 [Pa]
Static temperature: T = 255.6 [K]
Velocity on inlet: Vinl =233,585 [m s-1]

Mach number: M = 0.73


Reynolds number: Re = 6.5 x 106
Geometry: RAE_2822_Domain.WRL
Project: RAE_2822

Note:
Calculation of the project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

5.3.1.1 Physical model

In theRegion set the following options:

Geometric Tolerance = 1e-10

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 255.6 [K]
Pressure = 109000 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
DownloadSubstance #0 ofthe Standard Base substances:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folderPhases:
Create a continuous Phase #0
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

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Specify in the properties of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Turbulence = SA

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Velocity

X = 233585 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]

5.3.1.2 Moving body


In order to be able to define an angle of attack across the interface must be set as themovable bodyprofile.

A movable body consists of the following stages:


Creating GeometryMoving body
Create a modifiermovable body

Geometry Moving body, can be created:


In the third-party apps geometric modeling and loaded intoFlowVisionasimported objects
InFlowVision

In this example, the geometry of the movable body is loaded duringFlowVisionfile. In order to get the geometry
of theMoving body:
SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderObjects
Specifytype=imported objects
Download the geometry of the moving body from a fileRAE_2822_Airfoil.STL

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In order to assign the imported object status of the movable body:


In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:
Model = Model #0
In the folder,create a newmodifiermodifiermovable bodyon the basis ofimported objects #0

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In theMoving bodyset:
The initial position
The X axis
X = 0.999187
Y = -0.04030
Z =0

In theMoving bodyset:

Update
Type = Disabled

Notes:
1. After you disable updates Moving body mass characteristics, translational motion, rotation, initial position,
limiters are unavailable for editing. Therefore the initial position must be set to disable the update.
2. When the update Moving body at each iteration occurs meshing. This operation is an expensive and takes
some CPU time. Therefore, for applications in which the movable body is not moving, it is recommended to
disable the update.
3. If there are several mobile phone, an update of at least one of them will lead to the updating of all the others.

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5.3.1.3 Boundary conditions

Boundary 1
Type = Non-reflecting
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Velocity at inf.
X = 233585 [m s-1]

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Y
Z
Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]
TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip


TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

5.3.1.4 Making a two-dimensional grid based on an adapted calculation grid

When simulating two-dimensional flow adaptation in the third direction arise extra cell. This can lead to a
substantial increase in the dimension of the problem by an unplanned direction. To avoid this, you can create
additional unplanned subregion located at a considerable distance from the settlement in the third direction
and, thus, reduce the number of cells obtained after adaptation to 1.

In order to create an additional unplanned subregion:


In the folder Objects on the Preprocessor tab, create a Box.
In the Properties window,set the Box #0:

Location
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =2 [m]
Size

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X = 0.1 [m]
Y = 0.1 [m]
Z = 0.1 [m]
In the context menu,selectBox #0 Build into the main geometry.

5.3.1.5 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify in the Initial grid editor:

X
Grid parameters:

kh_max = 2
h_max = 1.5 [m]
h_min = 0.0015 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -6 [m]
h = 1.5 [m]
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0015 [m]
kh- = 0.97
kh+ = 0.97
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 7.8 [m]
h = 1.5 [m]
kh- = 0.83

Y
Grid parameters:

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kh_max = 2
h_max = 1.5 [m]
h_min = 0.0015 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
y1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -6 [m]
h = 1.5 [m]
kh+ = 1.4
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.0015 [m]
kh- =1
kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 6 [m]
h = 1.5 [m]
kh- = 0.6

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nZ =1

5.3.1.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this project it is necessary to solve the grid in the region of the boundary layer profile and the area of the
pressure jump. For this adaptation must be set on the surface of the profile and adapted to the pressure
gradient.

Specify adaptation to the boundary condition prescribed on the airfoil surface (boundary 3):

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =2
Cell Strata = 10

Specify the adaptation by the maximal gradient of pressure:


In the folder Adaptation to solution specify:

Activation
Type = Active by step
Start in steps = 500
Duration in steps =1

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Period in steps = 300


Max level =3
Cell number = 300000

Create in the subfolder Adaptation to solution an elements Adaptation to solution #0.


In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Object = Computational space


Activation = Yes
In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Variable = Pressure
Value/Gradient = To gradient

5.3.1.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab:


In the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 10
Max step = 0.01 [s]

In the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Limiters for calculation


Pressure abs, min. = 100 [Pa]
Pressure abs, max. = 108 [Pa]

Temperature abs, min. = 100 [K]


Temperature abs, max. = 105 [K]

Density, min. = 0.001 [kg m-3]


Velocity, max. = 1500 [m s-1]
Small Cells
Criterion = Relative

Note:
Switching criterion for the relative smallness of the cells is necessary in order to received after the nonisobaric
subregion cells were calculated (similar to the example Flow in a tube with variable flow).

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5.3.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow
2. Distribution of Average on the profile surface

5.3.1.8.1 Mach number distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable MachNumber

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FlowVision Help 333

Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 1.1
Min = 0.3
Method = Isolines
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes

5.3.1.8.2 Cp distribution

Building on Wed distribution profile surface consists of the following steps:

1. Creating a variable Cp
2. Creating a layer along the curve graph on Wed

5.3.1.8.2.1 Create Cp

Create a variable Cp in the Postprocessor:


In your User Variables > Local in the context menu select Create > Scalar

In theProperties window created variable callEquation Editor(button in the Value field)

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In theFormula Editor,identify the variable pressure (Phase #0).


menu Variables and Constants tab All in Phase #0 , select the variable pressure and call
boxidentification variable

in theidentification of the variable,specify the name under which the variable will be involved in the
formula

In the formula editor to set -PRES0 / (1.485713 * 233.585 ^ 2/2)

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FlowVision Help 335

ClickAccept

5.3.1.8.2.2 Create Plot along curve

In thePropertieswindow, set thePlane # 0:

Object
Reference point
X = -0.1
Y = -0.1
Z = 0.05

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FlowVision Help 336

Create a layer Plot along line on Line #0.


In the Properties window, set the graphics along the curve:

Variable

Category = User Variables


Variable = UV #0
Shift = 0.0001
Number of points = 1000
Distribute Each curve =
Rotation angle = 90
The X axis

Mode = Manual
Length = 0.5
Appearance
Graphs
Visible =1

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FlowVision Help 337
5.3.2 Ball falling in viscous fluid

In this example, we consider the problem of the fall of the ball by gravity inside the column of a viscous
incompressible fluid.

A fall in the fluid ball the force of gravity and the force of resistance.
For some time reached a stationary regime in which the velocity of the body relative to the fluid is constant.

Parameters of the problem:

Dimensions of the region = 30x30 [mhm]


Parameters of the ball
Radius R = 0.5 [m]
Density = 1500 [kg m-3]
Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 1000 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry FallingBall_Domain.STL
Project Falling_Ball

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FlowVision Help 338
5.3.2.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Add hydrostaticlayerby pressing


Define the following:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]
g-Point
X =0 [m]

Y =5 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Layer
g-thickness = 30 [m]
g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 1000 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

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In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Comment:
Viscosity value = 1000 is set to accelerate convergence.

5.3.2.2 Moving body

In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:


Model = Model #0

Create geometryMoving body:


In thePreprocessorobject is created in the folder object Ellipsoid/sphere
In theellipsoid / Spheres#0 set:

Parameters
Radius = 0.5 [m]
Approximation
The number of partitions = 200
In the context menuellipsoid / Spheres# 0,select Copy as imported object

Specify amovable body:


In the folderModifiersSubregion #0 createmovable bodybased onImported object #0
In theMoving body #0 set:

Mass Properties
Weight = 785.4 [kg]
Translational motion
VremyaCil [s]
X =0 [s]
Y =0 [s]
Z =0 [s]
Hydrosila [N]
X =No
Y = Yes
Z =No

Note:
1. Magnitude and GidroSily GidroMomenta program calculates automatically.

2. In order to place the body in the initial position, you must press

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FlowVision Help 340
5.3.2.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 2
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

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FlowVision Help 341
5.3.2.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 15

nY = 15
nZ = 15

5.3.2.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid

In this embodiment, the grid should be adapted to the surface of the moving ball and drained previously adapted
cells that are far away from the ball. To do this, you must set two conditions of adaptation:
1. Splitting the cells on the surface of a sphere
2. Merging the cells in the volume away from the ball

Specify adapt to the ball's surface

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 342

Max level =4
Cell Strata =3

Create a folder in the test adaptation Adaptation.


Specify in the adaptation:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =0
Split/Merge = Merge
Zone = In volume

5.3.2.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 100
Surface CFL =1
Max step = 0.01 [s]

5.3.2.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build dependence of the velocity of the ball
from time to time before the start of computation.

5.3.2.7.1 Ball velocity in time

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FlowVision Help 343

CreateCharacteristicsforimported objects
In the Properties window, set the Characteristics:

Characteristics

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Save to file
Type = Automatic

After calculation, the GLO-download the file from the server part of the project through the File menu >
Download additional files > GLO-files

According to data from GLO-file plot the dependence of the velocity of the ball along the axis Y (Velocity.y)
from time to time (Time).

5.3.3 Floating box

In this example, we consider the motion of a body with a displaced center of mass (= center of mass) on the
surface of the water and the generation of waves on the surface under the influence of body movement.

Dimensions of the = 0.6x0.3x0.3 [m x mxm]


region
Body parameters
Dimensions axbxc = 0.2x0.05x0.1 [m x mxm]
Density = 500 [kg m-3]

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Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry FloatingBox_Domain.WRL
Project FloatingBox

5.3.3.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Add hydrostaticlayerby pressing


Define the following:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =-9.8 [m s-2]
Z =0 [m s-2]
g-Point
X =0 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Layer

g-thickness = 0.15 [m]


g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat

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Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]


Compressibility
Value = 4.44e-10 [m2N-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Create a continuous Phase #1

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

5.3.3.2 Moving body

In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:


Model = Model #0

Create amovable body:


Download the geometry imported from a file objectFloatingBox_Box.stl
In the folderModifiersSubregion 0 #create The movable bodyonimported objects #0

Specify the window properties of themovable body:

Mass Properties
Weight = 0.5 [kg]
The center of mass
X =0 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z = -0.005 [m]
Moment inertsii0
X = 0.00846 [kg m2]
Y =0 [kg m2]
Z =0 [kg m2]
Moment inertsii1
X =0 [kg m2]
Y = 0.00333 [kg m2]
Z =0 [kg m2]

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FlowVision Help 346

Moment inertia2
X =0 [kg m2]
Y =0 [kg m2]
Z = 0.00333 [kg m2]
Translational motion
VremyaSil[s]

X =0 [s]
Y =0 [s]
Z =0 [s]
Hydrosila[N]

X = No
Y = Yes
Z = No
Rotation
Time points[s]

X =0 [s]
Y =0 [s]
Z =0 [s]
GidroMoment [N]
X = Yes
Y = No
Z =No
The initial position
Reference point
= 0.3
X [m]
= 0.05
Y [m]
= 0.15
Z [m]

Note:

In order to place the body in the initial position, you must press

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FlowVision Help 347
5.3.3.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions:


Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip
VOF (Phase #0)
=Symmetry

Boundary 2

Type = Free Outlet


Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0
VOF (Phase #0)
= Value
Value =1

Boundary 3
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0
VOF (Phase #0)
= Value

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FlowVision Help 348

Value =0

5.3.3.4 Initial conditions

InModel # 0#0 Init. dataspecify:


VOF

Value =1

In the folderobjects:
create Box #0

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X = 0.3 [m]
Y = -0.075 [m]
Z = 0.15 [m]
Size
X = 0.6 [m]
Y = 0.149 [m]
Z = 0.3 [m]

InSubregion #0 InitialProperties window.conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Initial. data #0

5.3.3.5 Initial grid

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FlowVision Help 349

Specify using the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.05 [m]
h_min = 0.03 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x = 0.3 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.05 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.3 [m]
h = 0.03 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.6 [m]
h = 0.05 [m]

OY
Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.025 [m]
h_min = 0.004 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
y =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -0.15 [m]


h = 0.025 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.004 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.15 [m]
h = 0.025 [m]

OZ
Grid parameters:
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.0375 [m]
h_min = 0.006 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

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FlowVision Help 350

z = 0.15 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0
h = 0.0375 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.15 [m]
h = 0.006 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.3 [m]
h = 0.0375 [m]

5.3.3.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Surface CFL =1
Max step = 0.1 [s]

5.3.3.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Water surface before the start of
computation.

5.3.3.7.1 Water surface

Create a layer VOF on Computational space.

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FlowVision Help 351
5.3.4 Floating boat

In this example, consider the motion of the boat in the water.

Dimensions of the region = 52x25x 24 [m x mxm]


Body parameters
Weight m = 968 [kg]
Water parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Inlet Rate Vin = 4 [m s-1]

Geometry Boat_Domain.wrl
Project Boat

Note:
Calculation of the project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

5.3.4.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Add hydrostaticlayerby pressing


Define the following:

Gravity vector
X =0 [m s-2]
Y =0 [m s-2]
Z =-9.8 [m s-2]
g-Point

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FlowVision Help 352

X =0 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Layer
g-thickness = 12 [m]
g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES
Create a continuous Phase #1

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

5.3.4.2 Moving body

In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:


Model = Model #0

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FlowVision Help 353
Create amovable body:
Download the geometry imported from a file object Boat_Body.WRL
In the folderModifiersSubregion 0 #create The movable bodyonimported objects #0

Specify the window properties of themovable body:

Mass Properties
Weight = 968 [kg]
The center of mass
X = 3.856 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z = -0.12 [m]
Moment inertsii0
X = 304 [kg m2]
Y =0 [kg m2]
Z =0 [kg m2]
Moment inertsii1
X =0 [kg m2]
Y = 6025 [kg m2]
Z =0 [kg m2]
Moment inertia2
X =0 [kg m2]
Y =0 [kg m2]
Z = 6080 [kg m2]
Translational motion
VremyaSil[s]

X =0 [s]
Y =0 [s]
Z =0 [s]
Hydrosila[N]

X = No
Y = No
Z = Yes
Rotation
VremyaMomentov[s]
=0
X [s]
=0
Y [s]
=0
Z [s]
GidroMoment [N]

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FlowVision Help 354

X =No
Y = Yes
Z =No
The initial position
Reference point
=0
X [m]
=0
Y [m]
=0
Z [m]
Job rotation Rotation matrix
The X axis
= -1
X
=0
Y
=0
Z
Y-axis
=0
X
= -1
Y
=0
Z
FSI

Artificial compressibility = Yes


Compliance = 0.0001 [m Pa-1]
Mobility = 0.05 [m2kg-1]

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FlowVision Help 355
5.3.4.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 4000 [kg m-2 s-1]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]
VOF (Phase #0)
= Value
Value =1

Boundary 2
Type = Inlet/Outlet

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FlowVision Help 356

Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity [kg m-2s-1]
Value = 4000
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value = 0.01 [m]
VOF (Phase #0)
= Zero gradient

Boundary 3
Type = Symmetry

Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry
VOF (Phase #0)
=Symmetry

Boundary 4
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value = 0.01
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]


VOF (Phase #0)
=Zero gradient

Border 5
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
VOF (Phase #0)
=Symmetry

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FlowVision Help 357
5.3.4.4 Initial conditions

InModel # 0#0 Init. dataspecify:

Velocity(Phase #0)
Value

X =4 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]
Pulsations(Phase #0)
Value = 0.01
Turbulence scale(Phase #0)

Value = 0.01 [m]


VOF (Phase #0)

Value =1

In the folderobjects:
create Box #0
In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = -12.5 [m]
Z = -6 [m]
Size

X = 52 [m]
Y = 24.999 [m]
Z = 12 [m]

In Subregion #0:
In the Properties of Initial conditions #0 set:

Object = Box #0
Init. data = Initial. data #0

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FlowVision Help 358
5.3.4.5 Initial grid

Specify using the Alternative initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters
Mesh Type Step (hi)
f max =1
C max = 10
C min =1
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x =0 [m]
Reference line parameters c coordinate =0 [m]
Odds
User left = -0.3
User Right = -0.1

Management = Yes
Grid spacing
User = 0.2
Parameters of reference line with coordinate= -26 [m]
Odds
User Right =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 26
User left =1

OY
Grid parameters
Mesh Type Step (hi)
f max =1
C max = 10

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FlowVision Help 359

C min =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
Odds
User left = -0.05
Management = Yes
Grid spacing
User = 0.2
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -25 [m]
Odds
User Right =1

OZ
Grid parameters:
Mesh Type Step (hi)
f max =1
C max = 100
C min =0
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
z =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
Odds
User left =0
User Right =0
Management = Yes

Grid spacing
User = 0.05
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -12 [m]
Odds
User Right =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 12
User left =1

5.3.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

Specify adaptation on the surface of the boat:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes

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FlowVision Help 360

Max level =1
Cell Strata =4

Create a folder in the test adaptationAdaptation.


Specify in theadaptation:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =0
Split/Merge = Merge
Zone = In volume

5.3.4.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Surface CFL =1
Max step =1 [s]

5.3.4.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Water surface
2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the boat

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FlowVision Help 361
5.3.4.8.1 Water surface

Create a layer VOF on Computational space.

In the Properties window of the VOF layer specify:

Appearance
Shaded
Color = Blue
In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Reference point
X =0 [m]
Y = -0.0001 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Normal
X =0
Y = -1

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FlowVision Help 362

Z =0
Clipping object = Yes
Mirror = Yes
In the Properties window of the layer Solids specify:

Clipped = Yes

5.3.4.8.2 Pressure distribution

Create a layer Color contours on theimported objects.


In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Shift = 0.000001
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 2000
Min = -1200
Palette

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FlowVision Help 363

Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

Note:
In order to display only the surface of the interface and hide the surface of the phase-boundary of the
computational domain, it should be in the layersetVOFVolume = None.

5.3.5 Rotary compressor

In this example, the simulating of the flow in the hydraulic pump.

Inflow parameters:
Pressure on inlet pin = 101000 [Pa]

Back pressure at the outlet pout = 102000 [Pa]

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FlowVision Help 364

Rotor
The angular velocity of the left rotor Wl = 600 [Radian s-1]

The angular velocity of the right rotor Wr = 400 [Radian s-1]

Substance = Air

Geometry Compressor_Domain.STL
Project Compressor

5.3.5.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:

Create Substance #0.


Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction
Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify the properties window #0 models:

Use Gap model = Standard Gap model

5.3.5.2 Moving bodies

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, set:


Model = Model #0

Create Left rotor:

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FlowVision Help 365
Download the geometry imported from a file object Compressor_Male.stl
In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects

Specify in the Properties window of the Moving body:

Rotation
Speed of rotation
X =0 [Radian s-1]
Y =0 [Radian s-1]
Z = 600 [Radian s-1]

Create the Right rotor:


Download the geometry imported from a file object Compressor_Female.slt
In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects

Specify in the Properties window of the Moving body:

Mass Properties
The center of mass
X = 0.085 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z =0 [m]
Rotation
Speed of rotation
X =0 [Radian s-1]
Y =0 [Radian s-1]
Z = -400 [Radian s-1]

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FlowVision Help 366
5.3.5.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundaries 1, 2, 3
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 4

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FlowVision Help 367

Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Total temperature
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure
Total pressure =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

Border 5
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Value
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure
Total pressure = 1000 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

5.3.5.4 Initial conditions

In the simulation of screw compressors is recommended in the area near the exit to set the initial values of the
variables equal to the output.

InModel # 0#0 Init. dataspecify:

Pressure
Value = 1000 [Pa]

In the folderobjects:
create Box #0
In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location
Reference point

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FlowVision Help 368

X = 0.04275 [m]
Y = -0.095 [m]
Z = 0.005 [m]
Size
X = 0.05 [m]
Y = 0.08 [m]
Z = 0.012 [m]

InSubregion #0 InitialProperties window.conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

5.3.5.5 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 18
nY = 22

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FlowVision Help 369

nZ =5

5.3.5.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

Specify adaptation in the area of gears:

Create an object to adapt:


Box # 1,create afolderObjects
Specify the following settings in the Properties windowof the parallelepiped # 1:
Location
Reference point

X = 0.0427 [m]
Y =0 [m]
Z = 0.005 [m]
Dimensions
X = 0.2 [m]
Y = 0.12 [m]
Z = 0.012 [m]

Create a criterion of adaptation


Create an elementAdaptation #0 in the folderAdaptation
In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes
Object = Box # 1
Max level =2
Split/Merge = Split
Zone = In volume

5.3.5.7 History

In this task, is proposed to display the history of the calculation time.


In order to display the history of the calculation, it is necessary:
preserve the history of calculation
create a layer for the visualization
start progressive download of calculation results with saving images to a file

5.3.5.8 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab:


in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

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FlowVision Help 370

Constant step = 0.00001 [s]

Autosavein thedataset:

History = Yes
Frequency
Type = On time
The number of = 0.0005 [s]
seconds

5.3.5.9 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Distribution of gap cells
2. Instant Velocity distribution plane of symmetry
3. The dynamics of the velocity field Time

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FlowVision Help 371
5.3.5.9.1 Distribution of gap cells

Create a layer Cell set on the Computational space


In the Properties window of this layer Cell set specify:

Type = Gap (open)


Appearance
Method = Lines

Note:
Selection algorithm gap stretches cells, see section Flow in a channel using a model of the gap

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FlowVision Help 372
5.3.5.9.2 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =0
Z =1
Create a layer Vectors on the plane.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity

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FlowVision Help 373

Grid
Size 1 = 50
Size 2 = 50
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 33
Min =0
Palette
Overlay
Enabled = Yes
Style = Style 1

5.3.5.9.3 Velocity variation

In order to display the trend in time of the velocity field:

go to the first step through the stored keys

run sequentially storing the image file in the Graphics window by button
Leave the default window size

specify the name of the image file

run serial download data stored intermediate steps by buttons


after the end of the serial data loading stop saving images of the Graphics window to a file through the button

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FlowVision Help 374

6 Coupling with other software

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FlowVision Help 375

6.1 Deformable valve in channel

A two-dimensional channel, which is partially overlapped by a deformable valve, is simulated. The deformation
of the valve is modeled in Abaqus.

Inflow parameters:
Velocity V = 10 [m s-1]
Fluid parameters:
Density = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Parameters of the valve
Density = 3500 [kg m-3]
Young's modulus E = 3 x 109 [Pa]

Poisson's ratio = 0.3

Geometry Valve_Channel.WRL

Project Abaqus Valve_stnd.INP

Project FlowVision Valve_Channel

6.1.1 Preparing the project in Abaqus

In Abaqus deformation of the valve is modeled.

Requirements for Abaqus models:


1. Details of the model involved in the coupling analysis should be modeled using continuum or shell elements.
2. In the model interface surfaces for the direct coupling interface must be defined.
3. The interface surface must be:
closed
determined on a continuous mesh. The mesh should have no "duplicate" nodes, modified elements
and should not contain a surface of two meshes connected with TIE-contact.

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6.1.1.1 Model

Create a valve with the following parameters:

Dimensions
= 0.005
X [m]

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FlowVision Help 377

Y = 0.05 [m]
Z = 0.02 [m]
The material parameters
Density = 3500 [kg m-3]
Young's modulus = 3 * 109 [Pa]
Poisson's ratio = 0.3
= Encastre (anchorage for all degrees of freedom of nodes of the lower
The boundary condition on the lower bound: U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0)
surface
Grid
Cell number = 800
Type of elements = S3D8R
Solver = Standard

6.1.1.2 Direct coupling surface

Specify the interface surface for the coupling analysis:

Assembly > Tools > Surface > Create > Name: DC_SURF, Type: Mash

6.1.1.3 INP file modification

Open the INP project file in a text editor. Add the following lines to the module STEP:

* CO-SIMULATION, PROGRAM = DIRECT, NAME = FV_TEST, CONTROLS = COSIM_CONTROLS


**
* CO-SIMULATION REGION, IMPORT
DC-surf, CF
**

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FlowVision Help 378
* CO-SIMULATION REGION, EXPORT
DC-surf, COORD
**
* CO-SIMULATION CONTROLS, NAME = COSIM_CONTROLS, TIME INCREMENTATION = LOCKSTEP, TIME MARKS = YES

These lines are used to identify the coupling analysis with the other program. More details about these settings
can be found in theAbaqus Keywords Reference Manual:

* CO-SIMULATION
* CO-SIMULATION CONTROLS
* CO-SIMULATION REGION

6.1.1.4 Create a geometry for FlowVision

In general, the input file of Abaqus data for finite element mesh of several objects, which can lead to the
creation of an open surface due upon import. In order to avoid such a situation, the objects involved in the
coupling analysis must be imported into FlowVision separately. For this purpose, based on the input file, you
must create a new file containing only the data for the finite element mesh imported object.
Thus, in the INP file will only have the contents of the following modules:

* Part, name = valve


* Node
......................
......................
......................
* Element, type = C3D8R
......................
......................
......................
* End Part

It should be noted that for this problem the above operation is unnecessary, as the input file contains the
Abaqus finite element mesh of only one object (valve). When you import a file valve_stnd.INP FlowVision
automatically extract only the data containing three-dimensional network, ignoring the rest of the line.

6.1.2 Preparing the project in FlowVision

In FlowVision motion of the fluid in the channel is simulated.


Requirements to to the FlowVision's project:
The geometry of the deformable body has to be loaded from Abaqus to In FlowVision, and this geometry
must completely comply to the deformable geometry in the Abaqus project.
The geometry of the deformed body, loaded into FlowVision, must comply with the requirements to the
geometry in FlowVision (see. User's guide).

6.1.2.1 Physical model

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

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FlowVision Help 379

Aggregative state = Liquid


Molar mass
Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]
Density
Value = 1000 [kg m-3]
Viscosity
Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]
Specific heat
Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Turbulence = KES

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Velocity (Phase #0)


X = 10 [m s-1]

6.1.2.2 Moving body

In the Properties window of the Subregion #0, specify:


Model = Model #0

Create a moving body:


Download the geometry of the Imported object from the file Valve_stnd.INP.
In the folder Modifiers Subregion 0 #create A moving body on the basis of imported objects
In the Properties window, set the Moving body:
The initial position
Reference point
X 0 [m]
Y -0.001 [m]
Z -0.01 [m]
Y-axis
X =0
Y =0
Z = -1

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FlowVision Help 380
Note:
In order to see where the valve will be located when you start the calculation, it is necessary in its properties
window, click Add a body to the starting position

6.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

Specify the following boundary conditions:

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2
Type = Symmetry
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Inlet/Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity
Value = 10000 [kg m-2 s-1]

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FlowVision Help 381

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations


Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale
Value =0 [m]

Boundary 4
Type = Free Outlet
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure
Value =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 5
Name = Valve
Type = Wall
Variables
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

6.1.2.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:

nX = 60
nY =1
nZ = 20

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FlowVision Help 382
6.1.2.5 Adaptation

In this problem, it is necessary to carry out the adaptation of the grid on the surface of the valve and merge
previously adapted cells, located away from the valve.
Specify adaptation on the surface of the valve. In the properties of the boundary condition set on the surface
of the valve, set:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =4
Cell Strata =3

Create a folder in the test adaptation Adaptation.

Specify in the adaptation:

Activation = Yes
Object = Computational space
Max level =0
Split/Merge = Merge
Zone = In volume

6.1.2.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds
Constant step = 0.05 [s]

6.1.2.7 Modification of the project (FVPROJ) file

Open the FVPROJ project file in a text editor. Add into the module <FVPROJECT> the following line:
<ConnectorID> MpmConnector </ConnectorID>

6.1.3 Preparing the project in MPManager

MPManager is a module designed to prepare coupling analysis of Abaqus and FlowVision. In MPManager
the following functionality is carried out:
Specifying connection Solver agent FlowVision
Project Selection FlowVision
Setting the exchange (general settings)
Project Selection Abaqus
Running the calculation

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FlowVision Help 383
6.1.3.1 Connection with Solver-Agent

Specify in the window of MPManagerDirect:

Select the operating mode The online mode (connected to solver agent)
FlowVision's Solver-Agent

IP IP-address of the computer, on which Solver and


Solver-Agent are installed
Port Port to connect to the Solver-Agent

Click Next
Specify in the Authorization window:

Name Username on the Solver-Agent


Password Password for the Solver-Agent

6.1.3.2 Select FlowVision project

Specify in theProject Selection:

Use an existing project


Name of the project Project Name FlowVision (server-side)

ClickNext

Note:
Before starting the calculation, you must create the server part of the project.
You can not start the calculation of the project that you downloaded in Solver, which is connected to pre-
postprocessor.

6.1.3.3 General parameters

Specify in theGeneral tab:

Step exchange
Absolute step exchange, s 0.05
Conversion Factors
Load 1
Relaxation parameters for the load
R1 0
R2 1
N1 0
N2 1

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FlowVision Help 384

ClickNext

6.1.3.4 Select Abaqus project

Specify the Settings window Abaqus

Running Abaqus
Run Abaqus automatically Yes
MPM-Agent IP IP address of the machine on which the
MPM-Agent and Abaqus
MPM-Agent port Port to connect to the MPM-Agent

Direct connection
Abaqus port Port for direct connection to Abaqus and
FlowVision (Direct coupling port settings
Abaqus)
Project Abaqus
The project file Local path to the Abaqus project
Parameters double

ClickNext

Note:
The project file name Abaqus provides no extension.

6.1.3.5 Launch simulation

Specify in theRun solver

Start FlowVision solver and start calculating the project

Start calculation first

Notes:
1. The number of processors that are running a project is determined by the user.
2. If the parameters of the coupling analysis Abaqus - FlowVision already been set once, the calculation can
be started via the Terminal.

6.1.4 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:
1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow.
2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the valve

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FlowVision Help 385

6.1.4.1 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object
Normal
X =0
Y =1
Z =0
Create a layer Vectors on the Plane.
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Velocity
Grid
Size 1 = 50

Size 2 = 20
Coloring
Variable
Variable = Velocity
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 35
Min =0
Palette
Operations = Load from File > heat.fvpal

Notes:
To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

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FlowVision Help 386

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

6.1.4.2 Pressure distribution

Create a Supergroup on BC Valve using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the
context menu.
Create a layer Color contoursonSupergroup
In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable
Variable = Pressure
Value range
Mode = Manual
Max = 1000000
Min = -25000

Notes:

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FlowVision Help 387

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use
the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of
Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of
settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their
context menus.

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FlowVision Help 388

6.2 Optimization of orientation of an airfoil

In this example we optimize the rotation angle profile NACA0012.


Optimization goal (criterion optmimizatsii) - to maximize the lift force acting on the profile.
Adjustable parameter (parameter optimization) - the angle of rotation to the flow profile (pitch angle).

Dimensions:
Chord length: c = 0.256 [m]
Dimensions of the computational 5.3 x 5 x 0.00254 [m x m x m]
domain
Substance: Air
Inlet parameters:
Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]
Static temperature: T = 298 [K]
Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 103.83 [m s-1]

Mach number: M = 0.3


Reynolds number: Re = 1.68x 106
Geometry: NACA0012_opt.WRL
Project: NACA0012_opt

6.2.1 Preparing project in FlowVision

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FlowVision Help 389
6.2.1.1 Physical model

In the Properties window of the element General settings specify:

Reference values
Temperature = 298 [K]

Pressure = 100000 [Pa]

In the folder Substances:


Create Substance #0.
Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:
o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

o In the new window Load from Database, select:

Substances = Air
Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folder Phases:


Create a continuous Phase #0.
Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.
Specify in the properties of the folder Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid


Heat transfer = Convection & conduction
Turbulence = KES *)
*)
This means the Standard k-ε turbulence model.

In the folder Models:


Create Model #0.
Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.
Specify the initial data folder# 0:

Velocity
X = 103.83 [m s-1]
Y =0 [m s-1]
Z =0 [m s-1]

6.2.1.2 Moving bodies

In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:


Model = Model #0

Create a Moving body:

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FlowVision Help 390
Download the geometry of the moving body from a fileNACA0012_opt_Airfoil.WRL
In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects #0

In the Moving body set:

The initial position


Job rotation = The Aviation angles

6.2.1.3 Boundary conditions

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FlowVision Help 391

Boundary 1
Type = Wall
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient
Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry
Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3
Type = Non-reflecting
Variables
Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Value =0 [K]
Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.
Velocity at inf.
X = 103.83 [m s-1]
Y
Z
Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]
TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations
Value =0
TurbDissipation(Phase #0) =Turbulent scale
Value =0

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6.2.1.4 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.
Specify the Initial grid editor:

OX
Grid parameters

kh_max =2
h_max = 0.635 [m]
h_min = 0.002 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]
h =0.635 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.002 [m]
kh- = 1.001
kh+ = 0.95
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.794 [m]
h =0.635 [m]

OY
Grid parameters
kh_max =2
h_max = 0.635 [m]
h_min = 0.002 [m]
Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:
x1 =0 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]
h =0.635 [m]
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]
h = 0.002 [m]
kh- =1

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FlowVision Help 393

kh+ =1
Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.54 [m]
h =0.635 [m]

Specify in the Properties window of the Initial grid:


nZ =1

6.2.1.5 Adaptation

Specify adaptation to the airfoil surface. In the properties of the boundary condition set on the airfoil surface
(boundary 1) specify:

Adaptation
Enabled = Yes
Max level =1
Cell Strata = 10

6.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab:


In the properties of the Time step element:

Method = Via CFL number


Convective CFL = 50
Max step =1 [s]
In the properties of theTerms stop length of time:

Starting =0 [s]
Stop = 0.05 [s]

6.2.1.7 Optimization parameters

In this problem, the parameter optimization is the rotation angle of the profile to the stream. In order to make it
accessible to change IOSO, should make it an external parameter.
In order to make the pitch angle external parameter:
In the context menu ofinitial position Pitch anglein the properties windowMoving body #0 to
highlightAdd to exposed parameters table...

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In the window that appears,set the valueof the parameter identification=Pitch angle

After this update, you can disable the moving body. In theMoving bodyset:
Update
Type = Disabled

6.2.1.8 Optimization criteria

In this problem, the optimization criterion is the lift force. Also, as additional information it is advisable to
withdraw the force of resistance profile. In order to make their values available for reading IOSO, it is necessary
to make their output parameters.

Preprocessor tab
Create Propertiesforimported objects #0
In thePropertieswindow, specify0 # Characteristics:

Variable
Variable = Pressure

Solver tab
in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

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FlowVision Help 395

Name = Fx
Object = Characteristics #0 (imported object #0)
Variable Fl = F
Component =X

in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.
In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

Name = Fy
Object = Characteristics #0 (importedobject #0 )
Variable Fl = F

Component =Y

In theexternal parametersplace a check mark in the boxto generate a table:

6.2.2 Setting up connection to IOSO

Without closing the created project FlowVision menuselectAdditionsOptimization with IOSO:

Log on Solver-Agent:

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FlowVision Help 396

Specify the parameters and run the project IOSO solver FlowVision

Otpimizatsiya Select the version IOSO, on which you will carry out the calculation

Timeout Specify the maximum calculation time of one project FlowVision


Solver Specify the startup mode solver FlowVision

Click Ok. The draft FlowVision automatically closes and opens the project IOSO

6.2.3 Preparing the project in IOSO

6.2.3.1 Optimization parameters


In the created project already defined mathematical model FlowVision with input and output files. Only required
to set up the parameters and criteria for the optimization and restrictions for them.

Specify the parameter optimization and changes in the boundaries of its IOSO:
Switch to the Statement of the Problem

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FlowVision Help 397

Input Parameters tab, select the Pitch angle and set


Type =Independent

Specify:
The lower limit of-90
Top border= 0

ClickOk

6.2.3.2 Optimization criteria

In IOSO ntab andoutput parametersare displayed options made available for reading from FlowVision after the
calculation:

In FlowVision calculated forces acting on the flow from the side of the profile which are equal in magnitude and
opposite in sign to the forces acting on the flow profile from the side. In order to be used as the optimization
criterion coefficient of lift force acting on the profile side stream is necessary to add a synthetic parameter and
make it optimization criterion:

Synthetic Optionstab, click


Specify the formula for the new value -RS2 / 16.17 and clickOK*
Specify:

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FlowVision Help 398

Criterion=Maximize
Name = Cy

In this problem, as additional information is also advisable to display the drag coefficient and the coefficient of
aerodynamic efficiency, equal to the ratio of lift to drag force. To do this, you can create additional synthetic
parameters:

click ,
set formula for a new parameter -RS1 / 16.17 and clickOK*
specify the name of Cx,

click ,
set the formula for the new value RS1 / RS2 and clickOK*
specify the name of k.

Note:
*)If you specify a synthetic parameter that depends on the output parameters in the formula for the calculation
as the variables corresponding to the output parameters used by their ID, displayed on the tab ofthe Output
Parameters

6.2.3.3 Setting up parallel computations

Switch to theProject Setup

Calculation tab nodes specify:


Setting settlement units = Standard
place a check mark in the Enabled
specify:
Number of nodes =2

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FlowVision Help 399

In the project tree IOSO context menu itemModel FlowVisionand selectProperties:

In the window that appearsIOSO PM. Mathematical modelplace a check mark in theCopy all files for
multiprocessor nodes:

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FlowVision Help 400

6.2.3.4 Running the optimization

Switch to theStatus:

To start the optimization, press

After that will appear on the computational project launches FlowVision and time calculation of these projects

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FlowVision Help 401

Optimization can be stopped by pressing

Stop optimization is recommended to carry out when the optimization results do not change much.

6.2.3.5 Viewung results

Once will be held over 10 settlements, will be available to view the results. In order to display the results of a
calculation, switch to theResultstabSearch History.

This mode displays the results of all calculations FlowVision:

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FlowVision Help 402

In order to display a graph with the results of optimization:


Bottom of the table, select thedisplay type=Table and Diagram

On the resulting graph, clickPlot


Specify:
The X axis
= Pitch angle
Y-axis
Cy =

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FlowVision Help 403

SelectResults=Filtered

In the IOSO displays a graph of the lift from the pitch angle:

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