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Individual Case 1: The lost coupon

Joe, Ellen and a group of three others were riding in the hotel elevator from the twelfth floor
to the casino. At the seventh floor one other individual joint and they all overheard the
following conversation between the group of three:
"Just tell them that you lost the coupon."
"We could, but that's what we told them last time and it was hard to convince them."
"Well, make-up a believable story, like you opened the outside deck door to your room and
the wind just blew it out."
"We really want to save that $82.00, and we can't do it unless you get us a coupon too."
At this particular hotel if one stays an additional night as a registered guest, one can request
an additional night coupon for half price. The cost of the room is normally $164.00. It
appears that a couple wanted to check in for one night only, but wanted to use the discount
coupon from a friend for their first night. By having the friend get the additional second night
coupon, they could save $82.00 for their first night. It was hotel policy that the coupon could
be used for an additional night or on a return visit.
From overhearing the conversation, the couple had made it clear that they were going
directly to the front desk to negotiate the small scam and that is where Joe was going also.
He realized he would be standing directly behind the person as they lied about their
situation. Interestingly, Joe and Ellen are investors in the corporation that owns the hotel.
What makes matters worse is that, behind Joe and Ellen, the individual from the seventh
floor is also waiting in line.

Case based on and adapted from: http://www.uvu.edu


Question 1 Problem statement
Question: Formulate short and brief the problem of this case. Instruction: Read the case.
Pick the problem you would like to analyse and, based on this, formulate a problem
statement.

It must clearly state:


What the problem is
Who has to act (the problem owner)
The moral nature of the problem

Question 2 Problem analysis


Question:
State the 5 most important stakeholders and their interests.
Which interests conflict with each other?
State the relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts you need to solve this problem.

Question 3 Options for action


The problem owner of your choice has several options in this case. Make a list of actions out
of which he could choose. State four different options

Question 4 Intuition: Explain what you would do if you were the problem owner.
Reflect on all options derived from question 3.
Hand in this assignment at or before the beginning of next lecture!

Review and feedback form Individual assignment 1


Name student:
Student ID:

Date:
Assessor:

Topics
Phase 1: Moral problem statement (30 points)
It must clearly state:
What the problem is
Who has to act
The moral nature of the problem

Comment

Points

Phase 2: Problem Analysis (30 points)


Stakeholders and their interests
Relevant moral values
Relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts
Phase 3: Options for action (30 points)
Black-and-white strategy
Creative middle way solutions
Cooperation strategy
Whistle blowing
Phase 4: Ethical evaluation (10 points)
Intuition (explain what you would do when you
were the problem owner. Reflect on all options
derived in phase 3)
TOTAL POINTS AWARDED

3.5.2 Individual assignment 2 Case: HR dilemma


Table of contents:
Phase 1,2,3 and 4 of the ethical cycle:
Moral problem statement
Problem analysis
Options for action
Intuition
Utilitarianism
Bentham
Mill

Individual Case: HR dilemma


You are a Human Resources Specialist and work for a staffing services company. Early
Monday morning you receive a phone call from one of your most important clients. They
want to get rid of one of your assignment employees (is a temporary employee of your
company). The employee has been absent for several days because she is pregnant. She
has been working as a banking receptionist, a position that requires consistent attendance
and a cheerful disposition towards bank clients.
You discuss the legal consequences attendant on firing or reassigning a pregnant employee;
this includes possibilities such as a wrongful dismissal and an anti discrimination suit. But
your client is not receptive of this. He responds by asking you if you can think of a legal way
to get around these problems.
Case based on and adapted from:
http://www.uprm.edu/etica/PDF/Web/HumanResourcesSpecialist.pdf

Question 1 Moral problem statement


Formulate short and brief the problem of this case. Instruction: Read the case. Pick the
problem for analysis and, based on this, formulate a problem statement.

It must clearly state:


What the problem is
Who has to act (the problem owner)
The moral nature of the problem

Question 2 Problem analysis


State the 5 most important stakeholders and their interests.
Which interests conflict with each other?
State the relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts you need to solve this problem. (you
may make assumptions)
Question 3 Options for action
The problem owner of your choice has several options in this case. Make a list of actions out
of which he could choose. State three different options.
Question 4 Ethical Evaluation - Intuition
Based on your intuition, what would you do?
Question 5 Ethical evaluation - Utilitarianism
Question 5a: What would Jeremy Bentham say? List all stakeholders and their different
interests for three options and score these - for example from 1 (being negative) to 5 (being
positive). Which option would be regarded as the best according to utilitarian principles?
Question 5b: Do you think that John Stuart Mill would come to another conclusion? Why or
why not?
3

Question 6 Reflection
Would these theories help you in choosing any of the options? If yes explain why, if not
explain why not. Elaborate!
Hand in this assignment at or before the beginning of next lecture!

Review and feedback form Individual assignment 2


Name student:
Student ID:

Date:
Assessor:

Topics
Phase 1: Moral problem statement (15 points)
It must clearly state:
What the problem is
Who has to act
The moral nature of the problem

Comment

Points

Phase 2: Problem Analysis (20 points)


Stakeholders and their interests
Relevant moral values
Relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts
(relevant facts derived from recent articles,
literature)
Phase 3: Options for action (15 points)
Black-and-white strategy
Creative middle way solutions
Cooperation strategy
Whistle blowing
Phase 4: Ethical evaluation (40 points)
Intuition
Common sense
Utilitarianism
Utility principle (Bentham)
Freedom principle (Mill)
Phase 5: Reflection (10 points)
Reflect on the outcomes and use of the
utilitarian approach of phase 4
TOTAL POINTS AWARDED

3.5.3 Individual assignment 3: case: Unreliable


Table of contents:
Phase 1,2,3 of the ethical cycle:
Moral problem statement
Problem analysis
Options for action
Phase 4 of the ethical cycle:
Intuition
Utilitarianism
Bentham
Mill
Kantiism
Deontology (Kant)
Description of the case: Marta Malasobras is unreliable

Marta Malasobras is unreliable. She has arrived late to work almost every day. Her
co-workers are quite angry about this and discuss their frustrations with the
supervisor. They claim that she is affecting the work environment. Because she is
not doing her share, everyone else in the work team is overloaded.
Martas group carries out a process that requires cooperative group work. Four
operators must work as one coordinated production unit. If one team member is
absent, the rest of the team works less efficiently. Company policy mandates that
hourly employees must begin everyday at 6:00 a.m.
The supervisor talked with Marta and has asked her why she is so often late. She
burst into tears. She had to drive her six-year old boy to school every morning. The
school gates do not open until 6:30 and she has to wait until this time to drop off her
son safely. This particular morning, bowing to the pressure she felt from her work
team, she dropped her boy off before the gates opened. She worried about him the
entire morning. She knew that she had to get to work on time. She understood the
effect that her habitual lateness was having on her groups effectiveness. Yet there
was no one she could find to take her boy to work in the morning.
The supervisor finds himself being unhappy about this situation and tries to figure
out what to do.
Question 1 Problem Statement:
Formulate short and brief the problem of this case. Instruction: Read the case. Pick the
problem you would like to analyse and, based on this, formulate a problem statement by
using a moral / normative question.
The question must clearly state:
What the problem is
Who has to act (the problem owner)
The moral nature of the problem
Explain yourself!
Question 2 Problem Analysis
State the 5 most important stakeholders and their interests or values.
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Which interests conflict with each other?


State the relevant facts and the uncertain or possible missing facts you need to solve this
problem. (you may make assumptions)

Question 3 Options for action


The problem owner of your choice has several options in this case. Make a list of actions out
of which he could choose. State three different options.

Question 4 Ethical evaluation - Intuition


Based on your intuition, what would you do?
Question 5 Ethical evaluation - Utilitarianism
Question 5a: What would Jeremy Bentham say? List all stakeholders and their different
interests for three options and score these - for example from 1 (being negative) to 5 (being
positive). Which option would be regarded as the best according to utilitarian principles? And
from the black & white perspective?
Question 5b: Do you think that John Stuart Mill would come to another conclusion? Why or
why not?
Question 6 Ethical Evaluation - Kant
Question 6a - Universalistic principle (The first maxim)
Formulate the universalistic principle for both the black and the white scenario. Could this be
a universal law? If yes, explain. If no, formulate the contradiction.
Question 6b - Respect principle (The second maxim)
State for the black and white scenario whether or not the stakeholders (Other than the
problem owner) are treated as an end (goal) and/or as a mean (tool). (in other words: are
they being given the opportunity to act as a rational human being?) Explain yourself.
Question 6 c - What would a deontologist do in this situation?

Question 7 Reflection
What would you do after your ethical evaluation?
What makes it difficult for you to make this choice?
What conflicts do you feel or could you create following this decision?
What do you like about Kants ethics of principles?
What criticism do you have on Kants ethics of principle?

Review and feedback form Individual assignment 3


Name student:
Student ID:

Date:
Assessor:

Topics
Phase 1: Moral problem statement (10 points)
It must clearly state:
What the problem is
Who has to act
The moral nature of the problem

Comment

Points

Phase 2: Problem Analysis (15 points)


Stakeholders and their interests
Relevant moral values
Relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts
(relevant facts derived from recent articles,
literature)

Phase 3: Options for action (5 points)


Black-and-white strategy
Creative middle way solutions
Cooperation strategy
Whistle blowing

Phase 4: Ethical evaluation (60 points)


Intuition
Common sense
Utilitarianism
Utility principle (Bentham)
Freedom principle (Mill)
Kants theory
Universality principle
Reciprocity principle

Phase 5: Reflection (10 points)


Reflect on the differences and outcomes of the
utilitarian an Kantian approach of phase 4
TOTAL POINTS AWARDED
Hand in this assignment at or before the beginning of next lecture!

3.5.4 Individual assignment 4:Case Yesterday's Pastry


Table of contents:
Phase 1,2,3 of the ethical cycle:
Moral problem statement
Problem analysis
Options for action
Phase 4 of the ethical cycle:
Intuition
Utilitarianism
Bentham
Mill
Kantiism
Deontology (Kant)
Virtue Ethics and professional virtues
Phase 5 of the ethical cycle: Wide reflective equilibrium

Yesterday's Pastry
By Rama Asundi
Atlantic bakery, owned by Manuel Trigo, makes a variety of pastries to serve the
Mayagez community. The product is good, and Trigo's business has grown rapidly.
He is justly proud of the quality of his products and their fair prices.
But success brings its own problems. Trigo finds it increasingly difficult to handle
both the financial aspects of the business and the bakery operation. He has decided
to concentrate on baking and delegate the financial responsibilities to Jos Chavito,
a recent graduate from the College of Business Administration at UPRM.
Jos joined Atlantic bakery with great expectations of improving the business
operation and increasing its profitability. Upon setting up a paper accounting system,
he found that the profitability of the operation was not very good and somewhat
erratic. Part of the problem stemmed from increasing competition. But Atlantic also
lost money because of the large amounts of left over pastries that were simply
thrown away.
Jos decided to solve this problem by mixing the left over pastries with fresh ones
and then selling the whole lot at a slightly reduced price. This eliminated the waste
and also benefited the customer by lowering the overall price. But it also lowered
quality because some of the items bought by the customer were not as fresh as the
others. Still, Jos reasoned that the lower prices would attract new customers while
eliminating profit draining waste. Manuel Trigo feels a bit uncomfortable with the
situation, and he wonders if he is doing the right thing for both his customers and the
company.Overall he has 8 employees in the bakery, and he cant afford to let his
bakery go bankrupt, since he feels responsible for the wellbeing of his employees
and their families.
Question 1 Problem statement
Question: Formulate short and brief the problem of this case. Instruction: Read the case.
Pick the problem for analysis and, based on this, formulate a problem statement.
It must clearly state:
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What the problem is


Who has to act
The moral nature of the problem

Problem analysis
Question 2 Problem analysis
State the 4 most important stakeholders and their interests.
Which interests conflict with each other?
State the relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts you need to solve this problem. (you
may make assumptions)

Question 3 Options for action


Question: The problem owner has several options in this case. Make a list of actions out of
which he could choose. State three different options.

Question 4 Ethical Evaluation - Intuition


Based on your intuition, what would you do?
Question 5 Ethical evaluation - Utilitarianism
Question 5a: What would Jeremy Bentham say? List all stakeholders and their different
interests for three options and score these - for example from 1 (being negative) to 5 (being
positive). Which option would be regarded as the best according to utilitarian principles? And
from the black & white perspective?
Question 5b: Do you think that John Stuart Mill would come to another conclusion? Why or
why not?
Question 6 Ethical Evaluation - Kant
Question 6a - Universalistic principle (The first maxim)
Formulate the universalistic principle for both the black and the white scenario. Could this be
a universal law? If yes, explain. If no, formulate the contradiction.
Question 6b - Respect principle (The second maxim)
State for the black and white scenario whether or not the stakeholders (Other than the
problem owner) are treated as an end (goal) and/or as a mean (tool). (in other words: are
they being given the opportunity to act as a rational human being?) Explain yourself.
Question 6 c - What would a deontologist do in this situation?

Question 7 Ethical evaluation - Virtues


Question 7a: Which professional virtues do you think, does an entrepreneur need to have in
general? List 5 virtues in order of relevance, the first being the most important, according to
you.
1
2
..
Question 7b: Which virtues does the problem owner need to possess to make a morally
right decision in this specific situation? List 5 virtues in order of relevance, the first being the
most important, according to you.
1
2

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Question 7c: Are there any differences between the first and second list of virtues? If no,
why not. If yes, explain why these differences occur.
Question 7d: Considering your answers above: If Manuel Trigo had to act according to
virtue ethics, what would be the right decision in this situation?

Question 8 Reflection
Explore your answers on the four ethical approaches (Intuition, Utilitarianism, Deontology,
and Virtue Ethics) and see if you gave (can give) an answer considering the questions
below.

Final questions:
a)What is your philosophical or ethical justification whichever way you decide?
Utilitarianism? Deontology? Virtue Ethics? Other?
b)Which theory helps you best in this situation? Explain yourself by giving pros and
cons about the different theories.
c) Which of these theories helps you to bargain for your own intuitive decision?
d)Are you able to reason against people who favor other decisions in this case?

e)What happens if you would have to take it on against somebody with a complete
different opinion?
f) What would you do in this specific business situation?
g)Would the same solution work in different countries?
h)Can company rules or codes of conduct provide a solution in this situation?
Hand in this assignment at or before the beginning of next lecture!

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Review and feedback form Individual assignment 4


Name student:
Student ID:
Topics
Phase 1: Moral problem statement (5 points)
It must clearly state:
What the problem is
Who has to act
The moral nature of the problem

Date:
Assessor:
Comment

Points

Phase 2: Problem Analysis (20 points)


Stakeholders and their interests
Relevant moral values
Relevant, uncertain and possible missing facts
(relevant facts derived from recent articles,
literature)

Phase 3: Options for action (5 points)


Black-and-white strategy
Creative middle way solutions
Cooperation strategy
Whistle blowing

Phase 4: Ethical evaluation (50 points)


Intuition
Common sense
Utilitarianism
Utility principle (Bentham)
Freedom principle (Mill)
Kants theory
Universality principle
Reciprocity principle
Virtue ethics (Aristotle) / professional virtues

Phase 5: Reflection (15 points)


Criticise each of the ethical theories
Answer the questions for reflection:
Does an ethical framework provide reasons
that support my intuitive opinion?
Does an ethical framework succeed in
selecting those features of a situation that are
morally relevant?
Wide reflective equilibrium!
Phase 6: Moral acceptable action (5 points)
Define the Moral acceptable action
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TOTAL POINTS AWARDED

4 Group assignment second period: Research Paper


4.1 Assessment criteria Research Plan of Approach EBEBEH1B.5
Countries:.

First/second change:..

Name student/ID:

Name Student/ID.

Name student/ID:

Name Student/ID.

Subjects
Two countries of research
Main Research question
(something like the
question How is business
ethics practised in country
x and y? is possible)
Sub questions: Theoretical,
Empirical, Analytical.
(which questions does the
student need to ask in
order to solve the main
research questions? See
also the main topics from
the assessment criteria)
Research methodology
(interview, survey, desk
research, observations,
literature study etc.)
Time plan (when to execute
the activities / research
methodology): What does
the student need to know
and in which order?
Division of tasks and
responsibilities.
Assignments to be handed
in hardcopy and well
presented (covers, front,
title page, index,
references, reference list
and appendixes etc).
The title page includes:
Course name
Title
Students names
Students Ids
Signature of each student
Date
Total

Remarks

GO/NOGO

GO/NOGO

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Teacher:. Date:

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4.2 Assessment Criteria Research Paper EBEBEH1B.7


Name student:
Student ID:
Topics
Analysis of definitions (10 points)
Describe with a clear and correct use of
resources, four common international
definitions of ethics, business ethics and
culture. (other than the ones we have
used in class)
Give a critical comparison of the
definitions, look for similarities and
differences.
Analyse and make your own definition of
ethics, business ethics and culture
based on the four definitions you have
found.
Show examples of how business ethics
is executed from theoretical research.
(What are the common approaches,
other than the theories you had during
this class?)

Date:
Assessor:
Comment

Points

Analysis of cultures in two different


countries (20 points)
Compare and analyse the cultures of the
two selected countries on the basis of
the theories of Hofstede and
Trompenaars. (use all the appropriate
dimensions! >10 % difference in scores
between countries is assumed to give
cross cultural problems)
Analyse and describe the possible
influence of the national cultures on the
practice of business ethics in these
countries (think of topics like HR,
Marketing etc..Your own interest;
meaning 3 or 4 topics)
Elaborate! Summarise these factors.
Description and analysis of ethics in
practice in two different countries (10
points)
Describe how ethics is practiced in the
two selected countries, using various
resources (Internet, articles, literature).
Address at least two practices per
country. Analyse and compares the
resemblances and differences and
explain them from ethical theories and
cultural dimensions.
Elaborate. Draw conclusions.
Two examples of business ethics in
practice from companies in the respective
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countries (25 points)


Describe two real life examples of
business ethics in practice, using input
from real profit or non-profit
organisations from these countries.
Analyse these real life examples and
explain the resemblances and
differences and explains them from
theory of business ethics and cultural
dimensions.
- Formulates a correct moral problem
statement 10%
- Makes a relevant problem analysis
20%
- Defines options for action 10%
- Evaluates ethical options 50%
- Reflects on the outcomes 10%
Draw conclusions.
Compares theory and practice and draws
conclusions, answering the main research
question, including a critical reflection on
the research, validity and reliability issues.
(15 points)
This analysis includes an analysis of
different cultural factors
Presents research process, outcomes and
critical reflection to the rest of the class (15
points)
(see also reflection criteria from previous
assignments)
TOTAL POINTS AWARDED
Notes:
Do not forget to use the ethical theories we have addressed in previous period!
Make use of correct references in the text and in reference list!

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5. Peer assessment Group assignment EBEBEH1B.9


This peer assessment gives you the opportunity to assess your fellow group members and
yourself. As every group member will have this opportunity, it gives a clear indication of the
contributions each team member has made to this assignment. Furthermore this is of course
also an ethical issue, so it is a tool that fits with this course.
The result of this peer assessment will influence the individual grades, based on the overall
assignment grade.
Please complete the form below:
A:

Your overall group assignment grade =

B:

Number of team members (including yourself) =

A x B (number of points you can divide among team members =


You may now divide the outcome amongst yourself and your team members. Please note
that you may split this up in content, group dynamics and procedures. Content meaning the
actual input and work on the content of the assignment. Group dynamics, meaning the
contribution to the team and atmosphere. Procedures, meaning following up agreements,
being on time, handing in work etc.

4.1 Example
A:

Your overall group assignment grade = 8

B:

Number of team members (including yourself) = 4

A x B (number of points you can divide among team members) = 32


Member: Stephan Plat

Content

Points
awarded
2,5

Group dynamics

Procedures
Overall*

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Good job on the article search

Try to give more input for the


analysis

Always cheerful

Try to talk with less volume

Always on time for meetings

Try to follow up deadlines

2
7,5

* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.

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After scoring, discuss the outcomes with your fellow group members: State three personal
points for improvement which you will actively pursue in the next group assignment (research)
Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.
Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.
Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.

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Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.
Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.
Member:
Points
awarded

TOP compliment

TIP - advice

Content
Group dynamics
Procedures
Overall*
* The overall score is the grade that you would assess to this person. The total of overall points of all
team members should correspond with the outcome of A x B.

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