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ANALYSIS

Physics is the study of matter, energy, and the interaction between


them. Yes, many of us knew it, but do we really know its significance and its role in
our life?
To understand how the world around us works is the main role of
Physics wherein it deals with fundamentals, and helps us to see the connections
between seemly disparate phenomena. In addition, it is also about what can cause an
object to accelerate. That cause is called force that can be define as an agent which
generates or has a tendency to generate a motion and in some occasions kills or
"tends to kill a motion. It is also said to be the pull or push upon an object resulting
from the interaction with another object. The force is said to act on the object to
change its velocity. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects, there is a
force upon each of the objects. When the interaction comes to an end, the two objects
no longer experience the force. Force only exist as a result of an interaction.

A tug of war, where each team is pulling


equally on the rope, is an example of
balanced forces. The rope will have an
acceleration of zero under the action of
these balanced forces. It will therefore
remain stationary.
FIGURE 1

This picture explains the balanced and unbalanced forces. Balanced


forces are forces where the effect of one force is cancelled out by another.
"Unchanging motion" is when the body is at rest or is moving with a steady speed
in a straight line. Balanced forces are responsible for unchanging motion.

Force is a quantity that is measured using the standard metric unit


known as the Newton, which is abbreviated by an N. One Newton is the amount
of force required to give a 1 kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. A force is a vector
quantity, which is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To fully describe
the force acting upon an object, you must describe both the magnitude, size or
numerical value, and the direction.
Newtons second law of motion states that the acceleration produced
by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same
direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object:
a = F/m or F = m a (eq. 1)
For the case when an object is not undergoing an acceleration, the velocity of the
object is either 0, or the object is moving at a constant velocity, then F = 0, which
is the first condition for equilibrium. The sum of the forces, F, is the algebraic sum
of all the individual forces:
F = F1 + F2 + F3 + ... = 0 (eq. 2)
Take for example the case of a box that is hanging motionless from a rope. The force
that is due to the weight of the object, F1, must be equal and opposite to the direction
of another force, F2, if the box is not accelerating. F2 must be the support force,
in this case, the tension in the rope that acts in the upward direction to balance the
force downward. Weight is a force, and by eq. 1, the force F1 on the box downward
is:
W = m g (eq. 3)
Where W is the weight and g is the acceleration due to gravity, -9.8 m/s^2 where the
negative sign indicates that gravity is acting in a downward direction. By the
condition for equilibrium, F1 + F2 = 0, or W + F2 = 0, or F2 = -W.

Equation 2 deals with vector quantities; breaking this down into components yields
three equivalent scalar equations, each representing one of the spatial directions, x,
y, or z:
Fx = F1x + F2x + F3x + ... = 0 (eq. 4)
Fy = F1y + F2y + F3y + ... = 0 (eq. 5)
Fz = F1z + F2z + F3z + ... = 0 (eq. 6)
Therefore, if the magnitude and direction of a force are known, then its components
in each of these directions may be found using trigonometry. The x and y
components can be found by the following equations assuming that the angle is
defined as counterclockwise from the positive x axis:
Fx = F cos and Fy = F sin (eq. 7 and 8)
The x and y components of a vector can be summed by means of the Pythagorean
Theorem to produce the magnitude of the resultant vector; the angle indicating the
direction of the resultant can be found by taking the inverse tangent of the ratio of
the magnitude of the y and x components:
= 2 + 2 = tan1

There are variety of ways which motion can be explained. Isaac


Newton, a 17th century scientist, put forth a variety of laws that explain why objects
move or don't move as they do. These three laws have become known as Newton's
three laws of motion. Newton's first law of motion which is the law of inertia is often
stated as an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with
the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
The motion of all objects that are speeding up, slowing down or changing direction
is governed by Newton's Second Law of Motion.

A single vector can be broken down into two components, namely its
horizontal and vertical vectors. The task of determining the amount of influence of
a single vector in a given direction involves the use of trigonometric functions, that
is through the component method. To determine the vertical component of a vector,
cosine function is used while sine function is used in a horizontal component.
Afterwards, the Pythagorean Theorem is used in order to come up with the
magnitude and direction of the resultant. Another one would be to through the
parallelogram method, a graphical representation of the vectors. The single vector
which effect is the same as that of vectors when added is called a resultant, which is
the sum of vectors. The vector that balances a resultant is called the equilibrant,
which is equal in magnitude with the resultant but oppositely directed. Equilibrium
is a state of balance. When an equilibrium is at rest, it is a static equilibrium. The
first condition of equilibrium states that the sum of all forces acting on a body or
system is zero. Equilibrium occurs when the resultant force acting on a point particle
is zero (that is, the vector sum of all forces is zero). When dealing with an extended
body, it is also necessary that the net torque in it is 0.
Resolution of force may involve the splitting of a force into many of its
parts, without altering its influences on the body. Generally, the resolution of force
is carried out along two mutually perpendicular paths. In addition, it allows us to
analyze causes of motion separately in vertical, mediolateral, and anteroposterior
directions. Resolution of forces is very important in sport biomechanics because it
allows to better understand human neuromuscular functions in many motor tasks.
Amongst examples of motor tasks where it is useful to know individual component
forces separately are walking, running, jumping, throwing, postural stability, etc.
The principles of resolution states that the algebraic sum of the resolved
components of a number of forces, through a given path, is equal to their resultant
resolved part in the same direction.

In the performed experiment, concurrent forces act on a ring pulled by


4 strings with loads attached to its ends. The objectives of this experiments are to
determine the resultant force of concurrent forces using the Graphical and Analytical
method, to determine the first condition of equilibrium and its implication, and to
differentiate scalar from vector quantities and compare resultant from equilibrant.
The materials that were used are force table, super pulley with clam, mass hangers,
slotted mass, and a protractor. We are given some instructions for equipment care
such as extra care should be given on the super pulleys to avoid damages and use
reasonable mass on the hanger. The goal is to find the equilibrant, in order to know
what the resultant of the three vectors is. This was done in a two-dimensional plane.
We need to find the equilibrant ( ). It is equal to the resultants magnitude but in
opposite direction.
=
We are ask to find the equilibrant using the experimental method and
then the graphical and analytical method at home.
There are two parts in performing this experiment. The first is to
calculate the fourth force (its magnitude and direction) that is required for a system
of three forces in equilibrium. In the second part of the experiment, we will verify
that the system of all three forces is in fact in equilibrium by the use of the force
table.
Force Table
It is used to measure the angle and
the mass needed to reach its
equilibrium state by experimental
method

FIGURE 2

In the graphical method, accuracy in drawing and measuring length of


lines is needed. A ruler and a protractor are needed as the resultant will depend on
the length of the arrow obtained. In addition, knowledge in scaling is important. This
method includes the parallelogram and polygon methods.
The parallelogram method is only used for adding two forces. In this,
the tail of the arrow is in the same location of the two vectors or origin and a
parallelogram is drawn with the diagonal line representing the resultant force. Figure
1 shows two forces, F1 and F2, added with the resultant R.

Figure 3
On the other hand, the polygon method is used if there are more
than two given forces. The arrows in this method are connected head to tail.
The arrow that closes the polygon will be the resultant R. The tail of the
resultant is located at the tail of the first vector while its head is pointed toward
the head of the last vector. Figure 2 shows the resultant R is drawn from the tail
of the first vector F1 to last vector F3.

Figure 4

For analytical method, a more reliable way of finding a resultant


vector is by the component method. A component of a vector is the projection

of the vector on an axis. In this method, the resultant may be determined by


adding first all the components of forces along the x-axis and along the y-axis
Force is a vector quantity that, when applied to a rigid body, has a tendency
to produce translation, which means a movement in a straight line. When the
equilibrant was identified, the ring in the middle did not experience a change in
motion anymore. This means that it reached its state of equilibrium.
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the resultant force of
concurrent forces using the graphical and analytical method. Also, to determine the
first condition of equilibrium and its implications. And lastly, to differentiate scalar
from vector quantities and compare resultant from equilibrant.
To start with Experiment 101: Resolution of Forces, we are given 7
procedures to help us solve this experiment. This will serve as a guide for us to have
an idea on what we are going to do.

The first procedure is


assembling the system using
four pulleys of the force table

FIGURE 5

As shown in Figure 5, a force board (or force table) that has three (or
more) chains or cables attached to a center ring. The chains or cables exert forces
upon the center ring in three different directions. Typically the experimenter adjusts

the direction of the three forces, makes measurements of the amount of force in each
direction, and determines the vector sum of three forces. Forces perpendicular to the
plane of the force board are typically ignored in the analysis and it is use with a ring,
bench pulley, and string.

The second procedure is to attach a


hanger at the end of each string that
passes over a frictionless pulley and
arbitrarily suspend a mass on each
hanger. These strings are used to
place the slotted mass as shown on
figure 6.

FIGURE 6

The third procedure is by


trial and error. As shown
in Figure 5, the ring must
be placed at the center by
adjusting the angle of the
strings or vary the load on
the hanger.

FIGURE 7

The fourth procedure is to pull the ring slightly to one side and then
release. Then afterwards, observe if the ring returns to the center. And if not, going

back to the third procedure is a must and adjust the position or load of one string if
balance is difficult to obtain.
The fifth procedure is to record the mass of each sting and its angle
once the ring is at the center and balanced.
Here are the pictures of our gathered data:
Trail 1

177
121.5

Trial 2

192
102.5

The sixth procedure is determine the resultant of 1 , 2 , 3 , using the


polygon method and the component method. Then compare the result of 4 . The last
procedure is to perform another trial by repeating procedures 1 to 6 but with a
different mass on the hangers or different angles for the strings.
In trial 1, Mr. Baun, our Physics lab professor gave us three different
masses and angles which are 1 = 50, 2 = 50, 3 = 25, 1 = 0, 2 =
20 3 = 310 . As shown below, using the polygon method, the resultant is
115g, = 358 and the percent error is 5.35 and 0.28 which I think is too high. On
the other hand, by component method, the values that we get are 115.9279g for mass
and 347.22 for the angle. As for the percentage error, we get 4.58 and 2.73.
Polygon method:
10 g : 1 cm
5 cm

2.5 cm

5 cm
R=11.5 cm; 358

11.5

10
1

= 115 ,

Therefore, R=115g; = 358



| 100%

121.5 115
% () = |
| 100% = 5.35%
121.5
357 358
% () = |
| 100% = 0.28%
357
% = |

Component method:
X-component

Y-component

= 2 + 2

1 = 50

500

500

R=115.9279

2 = 50

5020

5020

= tan1

3 = 25

25310

25310

=347.22

Rx= 13.054321 Ry= 25.6515


121.5 115.9279
| 100% = 4.58%
121.5
357 347.22
% () = |
| 100% = 2.73
357
% () = |

While in trial two, we are given another 3 set of masses and angles
which

are

1 = 25, 2 = 40, 3 = 60, 1 = 30, 2 = 60 3 =

330 . As shown below, using the polygon method, the resultant is 97g, = 12
and the percent error is 5.36 and 0. On the other hand, by component method, the
values that we get are 97.16g for mass and 11.96 for the angle. As for the percentage
error, we get 5.2 and 0.33.
Polygon method:
10 g : 1 cm

4 cm

6 cm

2.5 cm
R=9.7 cm; 12

102.5 97
| 100% = 5.36%
102.5
12 12
% () = |
| 100% = 0%
12
% () = |

Component method:
X-component

Y-component

= 2 + 2

1 = 25

2530

2530

R=97.16

2 = 40

4060

4060

= tan1

3 = 60

60330

60330

=11.96

Rx= 93.6122

Ry= 17.14101615

121.5 115.9279
| 100% = 4.58%
121.5
357 347.22
% () = |
| 100% = 2.73
357
% () = |

The biggest percentage error that we have acquired is 5.36 which


was from the 2nd trial at the polygon method. This means that the ring was near at
the equilibrium state but not entirely at the center. There are numerous factors that
can be found. One of these factors could be the uneven flooring of the room. We
noticed how the table is shaking too much. It could either be the floor or the table
itself.
Based on the frequent adjustments in the trial and error part, we can
say that F4 is entirely dependent on F1, F2, and F3. Everything on the force table must
be balanced in order to get the ring to its equilibrium state.

MASS
1 = 50g

ANGLE
1 = 0

MASS
1 = 25g

ANGLE
1 = 30

2 = 50g

2 = 20

2 = 40g

2 = 60

3 = 25g

3 = 310

3 = 60g

3 = 330

= 121.5g

= 102.5g

Trial 1

Trial 2

CONCLUSION
The three objectives of the experiment was achieved. Its first objective
is to determine the resultant using the graphical and analytical method. In graphical
method, we use the ruler and protractor to know the resultant, the vectors should be
drawn precisely, following a scale, in order to have a right value. On the other hand,
analytical method uses calculator to find the summation of forces along the x-axis
and the y-axis to identify its resultant, the principles of cosine, sine and the
Pythagorean Theorem should be used. The second objective was obtained the first
condition of equilibrium and its implications by balancing the forces in the force
table apparatus. The white ring plays a big role in balancing because its positioning
tells whether the force table apparatus is at equilibrium or not. The net force can be
obtained by adjusting the fourth mass and angle such that while plastic ring aligns
with the black ring printed on the force table. Since there is no resultant and is
balanced, then the sum of all forces acting on a body or a system is equal to zero.
You must also consider the weight of the hangers because it might affect the
equilibrium. The third objective was accomplished by differentiating the scalar from
vector quantities and compare resultant from equilibrant, that scalar quantities means
quantities with magnitude without direction while the vector quantities means
quantities with magnitude and direction. The comparison of resultant from
equilibrant is that they have the same magnitude but opposite in direction. If all
methods are done accurately, the resultant should all be the same, with a percentage
of error of less than 10. For me, the best way to find the resultant or the equilibrium
is by using the analytical method which is the component because it gives more
accurate answer and much easier rather than graphical method (polygon method)
wherein you need to graph the given vectors accurately which is time consuming.