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TOTAL FINA ELF

EXPLORATION PRODUCTION
GENERAL SPECIFICATION
GS SAF 216
AREA CLASSIFICATION

10/00

No change to TOTALFINA SP-SEC-216 Rev. 7

Rev

Date

Notes

"This document is the property of TotalFinaElf. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorisation"

GS SAF 216
TOTAL FINA ELF
DGEP/SE

AREA CLASSIFICATION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1... REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ........................................................................................................... 4
1.2. . INTENT AND SCOPE OF AREA CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................ 4
1.3... LIMITS OF APPLICABILITY.......................................................................................................... 5
1.3.1. Type Of Petroleum Installations And Fluids .................................................................................................. 5
1.3.2. Scenarii .......................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.3. Existing And New Installations ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.4... TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 6

2.

KEY PARAMETERS OF AREA CLASSIFICATION......................................................................................... 12


2.1... TYPES OF SOURCES AND GRADES OF RELEASE ...................................................................................... 12
2.2... ZONES ............................................................................................................................................................. 12
2.3... CHARACTERISTICS OF PETROLEUM FLUIDS ............................................................................................ 13
2.3.1. Classification Of Petroleum Fluids Based On Closed Cup Flash Points (Ip 15)......................................... 13
2.3.2. Fluid Categories........................................................................................................................................... 14
2.4... BUOYANCY OF RELEASE ............................................................................................................................... 14
2.5... TYPE OF LOCATION......................................................................................................................................... 15
2.5.1. Open Area .................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.5.2. Sheltered Area .............................................................................................................................................. 15
2.5.3. Enclosed Area .............................................................................................................................................. 15
2.5.4. Guidelines .................................................................................................................................................... 16
2.6... TYPE OF VENTILATION .................................................................................................................................. 17
2.6.1. Foreword...................................................................................................................................................... 17
2.6.2. Adequate Ventilation .................................................................................................................................... 17
2.6.3. Dilution Ventilation And Evacuation Of Gas Leaks..................................................................................... 18
2.6.4. Ventilation Checks........................................................................................................................................ 19
2.7... PRESSURISATION VENTILATION ................................................................................................................. 21
2.7.1. Overpressure Protection .............................................................................................................................. 21
2.7.2. Underpressure Protection ............................................................................................................................ 22

3.

DETERMINATION OF THE HAZARD RADIUS............................................................................................... 23


3.1... THE HAZARD RADIUS ..................................................................................................................................... 23
3.2... METHOD ............................................................................................................................................................. 23
3.3... PUMPS ............................................................................................................................................................. 24
3.4... DRAINS AND SAMPLE POINTS ...................................................................................................................... 24
3.5... COMPRESSORS.................................................................................................................................................. 26
3.6... COLLECTION OF PSV'S AND VENT EFFLUENTS ........................................................................................ 26
3.7... PIPING, INSTRUMENT TUBING, FLANGES AND VALVES........................................................................ 27
3.8... PIG RECEIVERS AND LAUNCHERS ............................................................................................................... 28
3.9... SUMPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS IN OILY WATER TREATMENT UNITS.......................... 28

4.

CLASSIFICATION OF OPEN, SHELTERED AND ENCLOSED AREAS ...................................................... 31


4.1... OPEN AREAS...................................................................................................................................................... 31
4.2... SHELTERED AREAS.......................................................................................................................................... 33
4.3... ENCLOSED AREAS............................................................................................................................................ 36
4.3.1. Size Of Hazardous Area ............................................................................................................................... 36
4.3.2
Zone Classification For Enclosures ............................................................................................................. 38

CLASSIFICATION OF WELLHEADS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN WELL OPERATIONS..................... 39


5.1... FOREWORD........................................................................................................................................................ 39
5.2... DRILLING ........................................................................................................................................................... 39
5.3... WIRELINE ........................................................................................................................................................... 40
5.4... PRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................................... 40
5.5... SURFACE MUD SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................... 44

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5.5.1. Water Based Mud Systems ........................................................................................................................... 44


5.5.2. Oil Based Mud Systems ................................................................................................................................ 45
5.6... GAS VENT........................................................................................................................................................... 45
6.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND HEATERS .................................................................................. 46


6.1... GAS TURBINE .................................................................................................................................................... 46
6.1.1. Foreword...................................................................................................................................................... 46
6.1.2. Pre-Purging.................................................................................................................................................. 46
6.1.3. Ventilation And Classification Of The Turbine Enclosure ........................................................................... 47
6.1.4
Protection By Pressurisation........................................................................................................................ 47
6.1.5. Ventilation And Classification Of The Turbine Room.................................................................................. 48
6.1.6. Hot Surfaces In Areas Not Provided With Dilution Ventilation (e.g. exhaust pipes) ................................... 48
6.2... GAS AND LIQUID FUEL ENGINES ................................................................................................................. 50
6.2.1. General Requirements.................................................................................................................................. 50
6.2.2. Gas Engines ................................................................................................................................................. 50
6.2.3. Diesel Engines.............................................................................................................................................. 50
6.3... HEATERS ............................................................................................................................................................ 52

7.

ACCUMULATOR BATTERIES............................................................................................................................ 53
7.1... INSTALLATION OF ACCUMULATOR BATTERIES IN BUILDINGS.......................................................... 53
7.1.1. Basics ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
7.1.2. Location And Hydrogen Detection............................................................................................................... 53
7.2... DILUTION VENTILATION CRITERIA ............................................................................................................ 54
7.2.1. Open Batteries.............................................................................................................................................. 54
7.2.2. Certified Recombination Batteries ............................................................................................................... 54

8.

HYDROCARBON STORAGE ............................................................................................................................... 55


8.1... UNDER-GROUND OR WITHIN-EMBANKMENT STORAGE TANKS : ....................................................... 55
8.2... OVERHEAD, FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS :............................................................................................ 55
8.3... OVERHEAD, FLOATING ROOF STORAGE TANKS :.................................................................................... 56
8.4... LPG STORAGE STORED UNDER PRESSURE :.............................................................................................. 56
8.5... REFRIGERATED LPG STORAGE :................................................................................................................... 57
8.6... LNG STORAGE................................................................................................................................................... 57

9.

MISCELLANEOUS................................................................................................................................................. 58
9.1... LABORATORIES ................................................................................................................................................ 58
9.2... ANALYSER SHELTERS..................................................................................................................................... 59
9.3... SMALL STORAGE OF FLAMMABLE PRODUCTS ........................................................................................ 59
9.4... LOADING AN FILLING OPERATIONS (ROAD TANKER, RAIL CAR, DRUM FILLING) ......................... 60
9.5... JETTIES (LOADING, DISCHARGE) ................................................................................................................. 60
9.6... AIR INTAKES ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
9.7... AIR EXHAUSTS.................................................................................................................................................. 60
9.8... CHIMNEYS AND EXHAUSTS .......................................................................................................................... 60
9.9... FLARES ............................................................................................................................................................. 60
9.10. TRAFFIC ............................................................................................................................................................. 61
9.10.1 Roads And Railways (ONSHORE) ............................................................................................................... 61
9.10.2 Helidecks, Helipads And Air Strips .............................................................................................................. 61
9.10.3. Boats............................................................................................................................................................. 61
9.11. PURGING ............................................................................................................................................................ 61
9.12. CLASSIFICATION OF ENCLOSED BUILDINGS ............................................................................................ 63

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1.

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INTRODUCTION
1.1.

Reference documents
For the classification of hazardous areas in COMPANY petroleum installations the order
of precedence is as follows:
1. Relevant national regulations if they are more stringent than GS SAF 216.
2. Project Safety Concept and S.O.R. (Statement Of Requirement) approved by
COMPANY.
3. COMPANY general safety specification GS SAF 216.
4. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standards.
5. IP-15: Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations, Part 15 of the Institute of
Petroleum Model Code of Safe practice (London, March 1990).
6. Other relevant international standards.
This specification can be used as a stand-alone document. It complies with IEC 79-10
Classification of hazardous areas. Since IEC 79-10 does not provide detailed
recommendations regarding the extent of the hazardous areas in specific industries and
applications and allows reference to other codes, GS SAF 216 is mainly based on IP-15.
The general philosophy of IP-15 and a lot of its detailed recommendations are adopted. This
specification and IP-15 differ mainly in areas not adequately covered by the code or where
the code requires interpretation.
In some cases reference is made to standards other than IP-15, including API RP 500,
although the latter shall not be used as a general reference.
The COMPANY general safety specifications that are referred to in this document are:
GS SAF 221 : Safety rules for buildings.
GS SAF 222 : Safety rules for equipment handling hydrocarbon in enclosed areas.
GS SAF 228 : Liquid drainage.
GS SAF 253 : Impacted area, restricted area and fire zones.
GS SAF 261 : Pressure protection & relief, emergency shut-down and depressurisation.
GS SAF 262 : Safety rules for hydrocarbon disposal system.

1.2.

Intent and scope of Area Classification


Installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored shall be designed so that
the probability of coincidence of a flammable atmosphere and a source of ignition is so
small as to be acceptable. To meet this objective a method, called Area Classification, is
used to classify the locations where a flammable atmosphere may occur.
For example, in situations where a flammable gas atmosphere has a high likelihood of
occurring and that likelihood cannot be reduced, reliance will be placed on using equipment
which has a low likelihood of creating a source of ignition.
A hazardous area is defined as a three dimensional space where a flammable atmosphere
may be expected to be present at such frequencies as to require special precautions for the
type and use of electrical apparatus or other potential ignition sources.
Hazardous areas will be identified and classified into Zones 0, 1, 2 based on the frequency
of the occurrence and duration of a flammable atmosphere. The outcome of the area
classification exercise is a partition of a petroleum installation into Zones 0, 1 and 2 which

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are marked on plot plans, and the rest of the installation classified as non-hazardous or
safe.
This document is concerned with the classification of the areas located around facilities
handling or storing flammable petroleum fluids. In practice, all hydrocarbons handled at a
temperature above their flash point, or whose flash-point is below 21C, are liable to
generate hazardous areas (the classification of the hydrocarbons commonly encountered in
COMPANY installations is detailed in 2.3 of this document).
1.3.

Limits of applicability
1.3.1.

Type of petroleum installations and fluids


GS SAF 216 covers all E&P operations: drilling, production, treatment, storage
and bulk distribution.
The scope of GS SAF 216 is limited to the petroleum flammable fluids or fluids
with similar physical characteristics. In particular it does not apply to toxic gases,
which on manned installations may lead to more stringent rules, to combustible
dusts and to ignitable fibres.
GS SAF 216 is applicable to all petroleum products: LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)
and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) can be treated as Category A fluids in the
point source method (refer to chapters 2 & 3).
For the classification of installations producing and/or storing LNG however,
NFPA 59A shall be applied until a European standard (EN) covering the same
scope is available (e.g. pr 50145 under preparation at time of issue of this
specification).
The marine facilities covered by the IMO (International Maritime Organisation)
codes (e.g. tankers) are excluded from the scope of this specification. The case of
tankers at berth that generate a hazardous area on the jetty is covered in 9.5 of
this document.
The application of this specification to a FSO (Floating, Storage and Offloading)
and to the oil storage related facilities on a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage
and Offloading) is not mandatory if IMO codes apply. The battery limits between
the process areas where GS SAF 216 applies and marine areas where IMO codes
apply shall be defined on a case by case basis with the nominated classification
agent and COMPANY.

1.3.2.

Scenarii
The classification of hazardous areas takes into consideration events which are
"liable to occur during normal or abnormal plant operating conditions (IP-15).

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Are not considered for Area Classification:


1. Large gas/vapour releases from process vents or flares. Such releases shall
require appropriate dispersion calculations (refer to 3.6 of this specification).
2. Failure scenarios that are not predictable, such as the rupture of a process
vessel or pipe (IEC 79-10). For these scenarios reliance is placed on the
emergency shutdown system (ESD) and safety distances resulting from
consequence analysis calculations (refer to GS SAF 253) to protect the
installation.
1.3.3.

Existing and new installations


New installations constructed by COMPANY and the modifications to existing
installations operated by COMPANY affiliates, onshore and offshore, shall
comply with GS SAF 216.
GS SAF 216 is not retroactive: its application to the facilities put in operation
before the issue of the specification is not mandatory.
It is recommended however that the status of the equipment in these installations
be checked. Where the design is of a standard lower than this specification and
this introduces a significantly risk, modifications should be implemented to
upgrade the design to a standard as close as possible to GS SAF 216, or
precautions should be taken (e.g. procedures) to mitigate the risk.

1.4.

Terminology & definitions


There are three types of statements in this specification, the shall, should and may
statements. They are to be understood as follows:
Shall :
Is to be understood as mandatory. Deviating from a shall statement requires derogation
approved by the COMPANY Corporate Safety and Environment Division.
Should :
Is to be understood as strongly recommended to comply with the requirements of the
specification. Alternatives shall provide a similar level of protection and this shall be
documented.
May :
Is used where alternatives are equally acceptable.
For the purpose of this specification, the following definitions shall apply (the terms defined
in this section are often in bold characters in the text of the specification):
Area
For the purpose of this specification, an area is a three-dimensional region or space (as per
IEC 79-10).

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Adequate ventilation
This is ventilation, natural, artificial or a combination of both, sufficient to avoid
persistence of flammable atmospheres within sheltered or enclosed areas but insufficient
to avoid their initial formation and spread throughout the area. This will normally be
achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum of twelve air changes per hour with no
stagnant areas (IP-15).
Air-lock
Two self-closing vapour-tight doors with a space in between (the gap) kept above the
pressure prevailing in the adjacent hazardous area. The minimum pressure difference
between the gap and the hazardous area must be 50 Pa (0.5 mbar). A local alarm buzzer plus
an alarm sounding and lighting in the main control room are to be provided to warn the
operators and personnel if both doors are open simultaneously. Loss of differential pressure
in the gap between the 2 doors shall also alarm in the main control room.
Area classification
Area classification is the notional division of a facility into hazardous areas and nonhazardous areas, and the sub-division of hazardous areas into zones (refer to chapter 2,
2.2). Definition from IP-15.
Dilution ventilation
This is artificial ventilation sufficient to maintain generally as non-hazardous an enclosed
area containing a source of release or an aperture into a hazardous area (IP-15).
Emergency Shut-Down (ESD)
Control actions undertaken to shut down equipment or process in response to a hazardous
situation (ISO).
Enclosed area
Any building, room or enclosed space within which, in the absence or failure of artificial
ventilation, the ventilation does not meet the requirements for adequate ventilation (IP15).
ESD system
System of manual stations and automatic devices that, when activated, initiate a shutdown
of the installation.
Fire & Gas system (F&G)
The Safety System which monitors the temperature or the energy flux (fire), the
concentration of flammable or toxic gases (gas), and initiates relevant actions (alarm, ESD,
emergency depressurisation, active fire-fighting, electrical isolation etc.) at pre-determined
levels (COMPANY).
Flammable atmosphere
Mixture of flammable gas or vapour with air in such a proportion that, without any further
admixture, it will burn when ignited. In the context of area classification the term
flammable is synonymous with explosive (IP-15).
Flammable limits (upper, lower)
The limits of combustibility of flammable gases or vapours when mixed with air (IP-15).

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Flash-point
Lowest temperature to which a liquid must be heated to give off sufficient vapour to form a
flammable mixture with air. Ignition does not occur at the flash point unless there is a
source of ignition (IP-15).
Fuel source
Same as ISO definition of "source of release" (API).
Hazard radius
The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal extent of the hazardous
area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted
natural ventilation (IP-15).
Hazardous area and zone
A hazardous area or zone is defined as a three dimensional space in which a flammable
atmosphere is or may be expected to be present in such frequencies as to require special
precautions for the construction and use of electrical apparatus or other potential ignition
sources (IP-15). All other areas are referred to as non-hazardous areas in this context. In a
hazardous area three types of zone (0,1,2) are recognised (IP-15).
HVAC
Abbreviation for Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning.
Ignition source
Source of temperature and energy sufficient to initiate combustion (API).
Ignition temperature (synonymous with auto- and self-ignition temperatures)
The temperature at which a substance will begin to burn without application of any source
of ignition (IP-15). The test conditions shall be as per IEC 79-4 and BS 4056.
Open area
An are in an open air situation where vapours are readily dispersed by wind. Typically air
velocities should rarely be less than 0.5 m/s and should frequently be above 2 m/s (IP-15).
Overpressure
Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure
above the ambient pressure (IP-15). Overpressure obtained by artificial ventilation is
referred to as simply overpressure in this specification.
Self-closing doors
Doors that are designed to close by themselves and to remain closed if not intentionally
opened or kept opened.
Sheltered area
An area within an open area where ventilation may be less than in a true open area but is
adequate ventilation (IP-15).
Source of release
Point from which flammable gas, liquid or a combination of both can be released into the
atmosphere (ISO).
Underpressure

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Artificial ventilation of an enclosed area to maintain the area at a controlled pressure


below the ambient pressure (IP-15). Underpressure obtained by artificial ventilation is
referred to as simply underpressure in this specification.
Ventilation (natural, artificial)
Ventilation is a general term to indicate air movement and replacement by fresh air. Natural
ventilation refers to ventilation caused by wind or convection effects. Artificial ventilation
refers to ventilation caused by air purges or mechanical means such as fans (IP-15).
1.5.

Area classification procedure


Area Classification should be carried-out by persons who have a good knowledge of the
properties of the flammable materials used in the installation, of the processes and of the
environment of the installation to be classified.
For new projects it is recommended that Area Classification is conducted by a senior safety
engineer assisted by a process engineer. For the modifications of an existing installation the
team should include a member of the operating crew. It should be noted that although the
results of Area Classification have direct implications on the selection of the electrical
apparatus, knowledge in electrical matters is not a must for conducting or participating to an
Area Classification exercise.
The area classification shall be done in three steps:
1. Identify the sources of release. Determine and record their basic characteristics for area
classification. All the sources of release in the installation shall be analysed. Their
characteristics shall be recorded in a data base which shall contain all the information
requested in Table 1.
2. Study how to reduce the risk through design improvements. Consider reducing the
number and grades of the releases and optimise the equipment lay-out wherever possible
to decrease the risk of ignition (e.g. pertinent grouping of equipment, optimisation of
ventilation, consideration of buoyancy).
3. Prepare/modify the hazardous area drawings, draw the envelopes of the zones.
A flow diagram showing the basic steps for determining the hazardous area around a source
of release is shown in Figure 1.
This procedure shall be followed at each stage of a development Project and whenever there
is a modification to an existing installation.
The classification of hazardous areas depends on the ventilation of the areas where
flammable vapours are likely to be present and to accumulate. This specification defines
only the functional requirements for ventilation or pressurisation systems to effectively
dilute flammable gases or prevent the ingress of flammable gases in areas not suitable for
the presence of a flammable atmosphere. It is not a specification for the design and
operation of ventilation and pressurisation systems. It does not cover in particular HVAC
requirements for human comfort, temperature control and the extraction of smoke
during/after a fire (refer to GS SAF 221 for ventilation in buildings).

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EQUIPMENT

GRADE OF RELEASE - 2.1

FLUID CATEGORY - 2.3.2

BUOYANCY OF RELEASE - 2.4

LOCATION - open, sheltered, enclosed area - 2.5

VENTILATION - 2.6

POINT TYPE SOURCE HAZARD RADIUS - 3.3 to 3.8

COMMON TYPE EQUIPMENT - 3.9, 5 ,6 ,7 ,8 & 9

HAZARDOUS AREA ENVELOPE- 4, tables 4.1 and 4.2

ZONE NUMBER FOR ENCLOSURES - 4, tables 4.3 and 4.4

Figure 1 How to determine a hazardous area

RULES FOR DETERMINATION


AND CLASSIFICATION
OF HAZARDOUS AREAS

TOTAL FINA ELF


DGEP/SE

Hazardous
equipment
Tag Description Natur MW
nb.
e
V 110 Separator Gas
22
(1)

Note 1
Note 2
Note 3
Note 4

Flammable fluid
T
C
50
(2)

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Draft October 1999

Area

P
Flash Buoyancy Category Type Ventilatio
bara C
n
75
heavier
G
Shelter Adequate
(2)
(3) and lighter

Source of release
Nature

Grade

Instrument
vent

Flow
m3/h
(4)

Range of MW to cover all situations.


Design pressure and design temperature or the most critical combination of P and T for hazardous releases.
For liquids only.
Only for vents that are covered by this specification (see section 3.6)
Table - 1 - Hazardous equipment table

Classification
Zone
2

Hazard radius
m
7.5

Remark

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KEY PARAMETERS OF AREA CLASSIFICATION


2.1.

Types of sources and grades of release


For the purpose of area classification a source of release is defined as a point or surface
from which a flammable gas, vapour or liquid may be released into the atmosphere. Three
grades of release are defined in terms of their likely frequency and duration.
Continuous grade release = continuous source
A release which is continuous or expected to occur for long periods : the cumulative
duration of release exceeds 1000 hours per year.
Example : Gaseous atmosphere in a hydrocarbon storage tank.
Primary grade release = 1st degree source
A releases which can be expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normal
operation : the cumulative duration of release is in the range of 10 to 1000 hours per year.
Example : Sampling connection (for regular, open to atmosphere sampling).
Secondary grade release = 2nd degree source
A releases which is not expected to occur in normal operation and, if it does, is likely to do
so only infrequently and for short periods : the cumulative duration of release is less than
10 hours per year.
Examples : Flanges, pump seal.
Releases not considered for Area Classification :
Refer to section 1.3.2.
Note: Normal operation means operation within the plant design parameters, including
start-ups, shutdowns, routine maintenance and any degraded modes of operations foreseen
during design.

2.2.

Zones
The classification in zones or zoning is the partition of the installation into volumes in
which a flammable atmosphere may be present (refer to the definition of a hazardous area).
The following definitions are from IP-15:
Zone 0 :
That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is continuously present, or
present for long periods.
Zone 1 :
That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal
operation.
Zone 2 :
That part of a hazardous area in which a flammable atmosphere is not likely to occur in
normal operation, and, if it occurs, will exist only for a short period.
For further guidelines refer to IP-15 ( 1.5.3).

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"Type of sources" and "zones" are not synonymous. The type of a zone depends on the
level of ventilation in the considered area. In open areas only they agree (for the
definition of open area refer to 2.6) i.e.:

Zone 0 is generated by a continuous grade release,

Zone 1 is generated by a primary grade release,

Zone 2 is generated by a secondary grade release.


Throughout this specification, the zones are represented as follows:
Zone 0

2.3.

Zone 1

Zone 2

Characteristics of petroleum fluids


For Area Classification in petroleum installations, the classification of petroleum fluids
shall be done in two steps, first in classes then in categories:
1.
2.

The Class of liquid hydrocarbons relates to their flash point and handling temperature
at actual storage or process conditions.
The Category is derived from the class and indicates to which extent a fluid on
release can form a flammable mixture with air. This is a determining factor in the
calculation of the hazard radius (chapter 3).

2.3.1.

Classification of petroleum fluids based on closed cup flash points (IP 15)
Class 0: liquefied petroleum gases.
Class I: liquid hydrocarbon with a flash point below 21C.
Class II: liquid hydrocarbon with a flash point equal or above 21C but below
55C.
II(1): handled below flash point
II(2): handled at or above flash point.
Class III: liquid hydrocarbon with a flash point equal or above 55C but below
100C
III(1): handled below flash point,
III(2): handled at or above flash point.
Unclassified are liquid hydrocarbons with a flash point above 100C. However
they should be considered as class III(2) when handled at, or above, their flash
point temperature.
For further guidance on this classification refer to Appendix A of IP-15.
Class 0, I, II(2) and III(2) liquids shall be categorised as per section 2.3.2.

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2.3.2.

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Fluid categories
Cat
G
A

B
C

Definition
Flammable gas or vapour.
Any flammable liquid that, on release, will vaporise rapidly or
substantially. Includes LPG and lighter flammable liquids e.g. LNG.
Also includes any flammable liquid at a temperature sufficient to
produce, on release, more than 40% vaporisation with no heat input
other than from the surroundings.
Any flammable liquid, not in Category A, but at a temperature sufficient
for boiling to occur on release.
Any flammable liquid, not in Category A or B, but which can be at a
temperature above its flash point or form a flammable mist, on release.

Following are guidelines for application to the oil and gas production
installations :
Unstabilised crude oil should be put in Category B because of the wide
boiling temperature range involved.
Stabilised crude oil should be put in Category C. Crude oil may be regarded
as stabilised when separation from gas has been at a pressure at or below
1.1 bara.
When handled below their boiling temperature, Class I, Class II(2) and Class
III(2) liquid hydrocarbons should be put in Category C.
When handled at or above their boiling temperature, Class I, Class II(2) and
Class III(2) liquid hydrocarbons should be put in Category B.
Class II(1) and Class III(1) hydrocarbon liquids may be categorised as "nonhazardous" when they do not form a flammable mist or spray on release.
For further guidance to categorise the petroleum fluids refer to IP-15,
Appendix B.
2.4.

Buoyancy of release
The general rule is:
gas with MW < 21 shall be considered as lighter than air,
gas with MW > 31 shall be considered as heavier than air,
gas whose MW is between 21 and 31 shall be considered lighter and heavier than air
(see bottom note).
It should be noted that this rule differs from IP-15. MW is the molar mass of the gas.

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Where a buoyancy categorised lighter and heavier than air leads to excessively large
hazardous areas or impracticable design, the buoyancy can be further assessed using one of
the two following methods :
Method n1 :
gas can be considered as heavier than air if MW > 29 and T release < T ambient,
gas can be considered as lighter than air if MW < 29 and T release > T ambient.
Method n2 :
gas can be considered as heavier than air if it is demonstrated that relative density > 1 at
release conditions and T release > T ambient,
gas can be considered as lighter than air if it is demonstrated that relative density < 1 at
release conditions and T release < T ambient.
The relative density is the density relative to the density of air at the same pressure and
temperature.
When variations of the effluent MW during the life of field can be anticipated (e.g. from
reservoir depletion), they should be considered during initial design phases.
Note : An example of vapours that are categorised lighter and heavier than air is a LNG
release. It generates a vapour heavier than air because of its very low temperature, but it is
bound to become lighter than air after warming up. For vapours and gases having this
buoyancy, the hazardous area resulting from the classification exercise is the envelope of
the hazardous areas determined for a heavier and a lighter than air vapour or gas.
2.5.

Type of location
2.5.1.

Open area
An area in an open air situation where vapours are readily dispersed by wind.
Typically air velocities should rarely be less than 0.5 m/s and should frequently
be above 2 m/s (IP-15).

2.5.2.

Sheltered area
An area within an open area where ventilation may be less than in a true open
area but is adequate ventilation (IP-15).
Note : the API RP 500 word is "partially enclosed area" and the IP-15 word is
"sheltered or obstructed open area".

2.5.3.

Enclosed area
Any building, room or enclosed space within which, in the absence or failure of
artificial ventilation, the ventilation does not meet the requirements for
adequate ventilation (IP-15).
All pits and depressions are enclosed areas.

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Guidelines
The table in this section provides guidelines to determine whether a location is
categorised as Sheltered or Enclosed for the purpose of Area Classification,
based on their geometrical characteristics i.e. with natural ventilation only.
Guidance from this table is broadly in line with the guidance offered in
API RP 500 (6.3.2.4.7, second edition, November 1997).
There was no attempt to segregate between sheltered and open in this table
as both types of location are adequately ventilated. Some types of locations
indicated as sheltered in the table may be eligible for the open category.
Walls (% surface) (2)
0 to 25

25 to 50

50 to 75

75 to 100

Floor + ceiling

sheltered

enclosed(3)

enclosed

enclosed

No floor (1) +
ceiling

sheltered

sheltered

enclosed

enclosed

Floor, no ceiling

sheltered

sheltered

sheltered

enclosed

sheltered
sheltered
sheltered
sheltered
No floor (1), no
ceiling
Note 1 : Gratings are regarded as no floor.
Note 2 : Plain walls (no louvers).
Note 3 : May be regarded as sheltered i.e. natural ventilation may be found
adequate in some cases.
The buildings described below are regarded as sheltered areas and may be used
as weather protection for equipment handling flammable fluids.
Buildings where no walls extend below 2.5 m above ground, and the space
under the roof is adequately ventilated (e.g. there are openings in the roof for
this purpose, examples are given in Figure 4.3 and 4.4 of chapter 4).
Buildings where the walls are provided with louvers or other types of slits
purposely designed for ensuring that natural ventilation will be adequate. As
a minimum the louvers should be present on three (out of the four) sides of
the building: two strips of louvers, each with a minimum vertical width of
1 m, shall run along the full length of the wall, one at the top i.e. close to the
roof/ceiling, the other at the bottom i.e. close to the floor/ground. It should
also be checked that these buildings offer a sufficient free area of inlet
openings as per the formula given in 6.3.2.4.6 of API RP 500.

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2.6.

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Type of ventilation
2.6.1.

Foreword
This specification addresses only the issues of dilution and dispersion of
flammable gases in hazardous areas. This specification does not deal with
dangers associated with the toxicity of gases and vapours which may be dealt
with by similar techniques. It does not deal with requirements not related to
explosion safety.
For all artificial ventilation systems, the ventilation air shall be taken from a nonhazardous area and shall not, by virtue of any chemical products or impurities
which it may contain, produce deleterious effects or introduce a risk of reduced
safety.

2.6.2.

Adequate ventilation
This is ventilation, natural, artificial or a combination of both, sufficient to
avoid persistence of flammable atmospheres within sheltered or enclosed
areas but insufficient to avoid their initial formation and spread throughout the
area. This will normally be achieved by a uniform ventilation rate of a minimum
of twelve air changes per hour with no stagnant areas (IP-15).
Application:
1. Open areas : natural ventilation is adequate in open areas.
2. Sheltered areas : they shall be regarded as adequately ventilated.
3. Enclosed areas : adequate ventilation as a minimum provided by an artificial
ventilation system shall be implemented when they contain sources of
secondary grade releases (and/or if they have a direct opening to an external
Zone 2 area). Such enclosed areas will be classified Zone 2 in presence of
adequate ventilation. Enclosed areas shall not contain a source of primary
grade of release and shall not be open to a Zone 1 area.
Loss of artificial ventilation:
This paragraph applies to enclosed areas provided with artificial ventilation and
classified Zone 2 in presence of adequate ventilation.
Audible and visual alarms shall be provided in case of loss of the artificial
ventilation. If the area is not provided with fixed gas detection the electrical
equipment and the other sources of ignition not suitable for use in Zone 1 shall
be immediately and automatically suppressed.
If the area is provided with fixed gas detectors, gas detection shall immediately
and automatically suppress these sources of ignition. Suppression of these
ignition sources on loss of ventilation may be delayed to allow the loss to be
investigated.
Note : if an enclosure contains sources of primary grade of release the equipment
not suitable for use in Zone 0 shall be shut down immediately and automatically
on loss of ventilation, even if gas detection is installed in the enclosure (Note that
a primary grade of release is not acceptable in enclosed areas and shall require a
derogation to this specification approved by COMPANY).

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2.6.3.

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Dilution ventilation and evacuation of gas leaks


This is artificial ventilation sufficient to maintain generally as non-hazardous an
enclosed area containing a source of release or an aperture into a hazardous area
(IP-15). Dilution ventilation must be sufficient to immediately bring the
flammable gas concentration under 20% of the Lower Flammability Limit
(LFL) and keep it so all the time.
Typical ventilation rates covering all scenarios for dilution ventilation cannot be
proposed. A calculation shall be carried-out to estimate hydrocarbon leaks. It
shall be based on the largest secondary grade release. Should simultaneous
release from more than one secondary grade releases be likely, then the
cumulated release shall be considered.
Note 1 : Any primary grade of release if present shall be added (Note that a
primary grade of release is not acceptable in enclosed areas and shall require a
formal derogation to this specification approved by COMPANY).
Note 2 : As pipe rupture or other low probability accidental leak scenario are not
considered for dilution ventilation, all electrical apparatus installed in an
enclosure protected by dilution ventilation shall be suitable for Zone 2.
Applications:
Dilution ventilation provided by an artificial ventilation system shall be
implemented in enclosed areas containing sources of secondary grade of release
(and/or if they have an aperture to an external Zone 2 area) and ignition sources
not suitable in a hazardous area (e.g. hot surface). Enclosed areas shall not
contain a source of primary grade of release and shall not have a direct opening
into a Zone 1 area.
1. Case of gas turbine hoods : refer to chapter 6.
2. Case of laboratories and analyser shelters : refer to chapter 9.
3. Case of battery rooms : refer to chapter 7.
Note that methods to calculate minimum introduction rates to achieve adequate
ventilation are proposed in API RP 500 (Appendices B & C, 1997).
Loss of ventilation :
Audible and visual alarms shall be provided in case of loss of the artificial
ventilation ensuring dilution. If the area is not provided with fixed gas detection
the electrical equipment and the other sources of ignition not suitable for use in
Zone 1 shall be immediately and automatically suppressed.
If the area is provided with fixed gas detectors (mandatory inside gas turbine
enclosures), gas detection shall immediately and automatically suppress these
sources of ignition. Suppression of these ignition sources on loss of ventilation
may be delayed to allow the loss to be investigated.
The bottom note of 2.6.2 applies.
Note on toxicity: the possibility for the presence of toxic gases in an enclosed
area where personnel may be present shall be systematically checked. Dilution
ventilation shall be installed so as to prevent the formation of a toxic atmosphere.
The design shall be based on an estimation of (i) the leaks which may occur in
normal operation and of (ii) the abnormal leakage caused by a foreseeable failure
of the components which will create the most dangerous situation. The dilution

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ventilation shall keep the concentration of the toxic component(s) in the air
below the Threshold Limit Value(s) (TLV) for continuous exposure (TWA or
Time Weighted Average). Presence of personnel in such enclosed areas shall be
subjected to strict control measures including personal toxic gas detectors, fixed
toxic gas detection and the provision safe escape facilities (e.g. breathing
apparatus) in the building. Toxic gas detectors shall be set no higher than the
TLV-TWA.
2.6.4.

Ventilation checks
The degree of ventilation required in a location should be investigated using the
method of Figure 2.1. from IP-15. This method applies in areas where sources of
flammable gases are present. Where toxic gases may be released, the ventilation
rates given in the figure are not relevant.

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Figure 2.1 - Ventilation check

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2.7.

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Pressurisation ventilation
This section is concerned with the protection of a room or building containing electrical
equipment or other potential sources of ignition and located where flammable gases or
vapours may be present. The ingress of these gases or vapours into the room is prevented
by maintaining inside it a protective gas at a higher pressure than that of the outside
atmosphere.
A room or building is an enclosure of sufficient size to permit the entry of a person. This
section is not concerned with the electrical apparatus for which protection by
pressurisation in hazardous areas follows the electrical codes (The protection of the
electrical apparatus in hazardous areas shall comply with COMPANY specification SPELC-120).
The protection by pressurisation of COMPANY rooms and buildings containing electrical
equipment shall adhere to IEC 79-13 and GS SAF 216 (some of the requirements of this
section exceed the requirements of IEC 79-13). This specification addresses only
functional requirements.
The types of pressurisation and associated construction requirements for buildings are
addressed in IEC 79-13.
Enclosed areas shall contain no source of primary/continuous grade of release and shall
not have a direct opening into a Zone 1 area. They may contain only sources of secondary
grade of release and/or have a direct opening into a Zone 2 area.
The protective gas shall not, by virtue of any chemical products or impurities which it may
contain, produce deleterious effects or introduce a risk of reduced safety.
For the purpose of this specification over and underpressure are defined as the
differential pressure (respectively above or under that of the surroundings) that is
necessary to prevent ingress of flammable gases or vapours. This does not relate in this
context to the design or maximum allowable pressure in the equipment.
2.7.1.

Overpressure protection
Overpressure protection (overpressurisation) is achieved when artificial
ventilation or static pressurisation controls the pressure inside an enclosed area
sufficiently above that of the surrounding (hazardous) area to prevent ingress of a
flammable atmosphere from an outside fuel source.
Overpressurisation shall be fitted to totally enclosed areas:
1. Containing ignition sources, but no source of release, and having a direct
opening to an external hazardous area (e.g. electrical room, workshop).
2. Containing sources of secondary grade of release and sources of ignition, and
having a direct opening to an external hazardous area, in conjunction with
dilution ventilation (e.g. turbine hood in process area).
The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater than 50 Pa (0.5
mbar).

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Loss of pressurisation :
Overpressure shall be monitored, or detected by a pressure switch as a minimum.
Pressurised enclosed areas shall be provided with fixed gas detection to
immediately and automatically suppress all ignition sources not suitable for
Zone 1. Loss of overpressure shall initiate an alarm.
Note : if gas detection is not provided or if a source of primary grade of release is
installed in the building (either shall require a derogation to this specification
approved by COMPANY), loss of overpressure shall automatically and
immediately suppress all ignition sources not suitable for Zone 1.
2.7.2.

Underpressure protection
Underpressure protection (underpressurisation) is achieved when artificial
ventilation keeps the pressure inside an enclosed area sufficiently below that of
the surrounding area to prevent possible egress of a flammable atmosphere to an
outside less or non hazardous area.
Underpressure protection shall be fitted to an enclosed area containing sources of
secondary grade of release and ignition sources, and having a direct opening to
an external non-hazardous area, in conjunction with dilution ventilation (e.g.
turbine hood in non hazardous area).
The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater than 50 Pa (0.5
mbar).
Loss of pressurisation :
Underpressure shall be monitored, or detected by a pressure switch as a
minimum. Loss of under-pressure shall initiate an immediate alarm, and suppress
all ignition sources located in the vicinity of the enclosed area and not suitable
for Zone 1. Suppression of these ignition sources on loss of underpressure may
be delayed to allow the loss to be investigated.

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3.

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DETERMINATION OF THE HAZARD RADIUS


This section provides the requirements for the classification and extent of the hazardous areas
using the individual point source method from IP-15.
It is a generic method that should be used in cases not covered by the direct examples given in
chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 of this specification.
3.1.

The hazard radius


The hazard radius of a source of release is the largest horizontal extent of the hazardous
area that is generated by the source when situated in an open area under unrestricted
natural ventilation.
The hazard radius is not the result of a fully deterministic approach. It should be regarded
as a standard to be used when no better method is available. It is not a substitute for good
engineering judgement. For example one may consider that a particular item of equipment
gives rise to a critical risk and decide to enlarge the associated hazardous area.
The hazard radius does not take into consideration all the actual physical properties of the
gas, characteristics of the environment and conditions of release. Gas dispersion
calculations, if necessary, shall be carried out as per GS SAF 253, using codes (computer
programs) approved by COMPANY.

3.2.

Method
The classification of hazardous areas (zone number and extent) shall be conducted in two
steps
1. First the hazard radius around each potential release source. It is determined in this
chapter. It depends on the characteristics of the source of release, the fluid category,
and the dimension of the release (e.g. flowrate, diameter of release point).
2. Then this hazard radius is used to set up the three dimensional envelope of the
hazardous area taking account of the type of area, the ventilation in the area, the natural
or artificial obstacles in the gas path, and the buoyancy of the release (see chapter 4).
To draw the line between hazardous and non-hazardous areas, apply the following:
Secondary grade releases : it shall be considered that the source of release can be
anywhere at the periphery of the equipment skid. A detailed study of each single
secondary grade release is not required. It is only in case of difficulty that the exact
location of the sources of release should be considered. This would require input from
the equipment vendor.
For non skid mounted equipment e.g. vessels, it shall be assumed that sources of release
are located at a distance of 0.8 m from the equipment external limits (e.g. vessel
shell).
The accurate location of each primary or continuous grade releases shall be considered
for drawing the hazardous areas they generate.
Two adjacent hazardous areas shall be joined in any point where their distance does not
exceed 3 m.

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Generally a whole offshore deck or a whole onshore unit containing essentially


hydrocarbon processing or storage equipment should be classified as Zone 2. GS SAF 216
shall then be used for:
 Defining the Zones 0 and 1 inside such unit.
 Defining the Zone 2 contour around the items of equipment located at the deck/unit
surface limits.
All distances in this chapter are given in metre.
3.3.

Pumps
LNG pumps, for which motor and pump are submerged in a can or in a storage tank, do
not generate a hazardous area.
Sources of release on pumps include their seals, vents, drains, valves, piping flanges and
filter/strainers. They are normally all secondary grade sources because flanges are broken,
filters opened and vents and drains operated infrequently. Likewise a seal failure resulting
in an appreciable release of liquid is unlikely. Should any of these events be part of
normal operation (as defined in 2.1) or occur frequently then the item should be
regarded as an individual primary grade source.

Hazard radius (m)


Fluid category

Standard pump

High integrity
pump

30

7.5

15

7.5

Table 3.1 - Pumps


In this table the term "high integrity" refers to a pump for which the design reduces
significantly the probability of release. The pumps of glandless type, or fitted with a
double mechanical seal system with a means of detecting leaks through the inner seal
should be regarded as high integrity pumps.
The hazardous area generated by the pump should be drawn from the periphery of the
pump. For this purpose the term "pump" should include the associated equipment which
can be source of release.
Vents and drains which are not blanked off in normal operation generate their own
hazardous areas, independently from the pump they are associated with.
3.4.

Drains and sample points


This section applies to process equipment drains, instrument drains and liquid sample
points that discharge directly to atmosphere.

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Drains and sample points should be graded based on the expected frequency of use. If used
more than once a day they should be regarded as primary grade sources as a minimum.
The following rules shall apply:
1. Draining and sampling of Category A liquids shall not be done directly to atmosphere.
They shall require a closed collection system, designed to be safely vented to an
appropriate disposal system such as a flare (refer to GS SAF 262 for the design of
hydrocarbon disposal systems, and GS SAF 228 for the design of closed drain
systems).
2. Draining and sampling of Category B liquids directly to atmosphere should be
avoided. Wherever feasible, draining should be done to a closed drain system. Samples
should be taken in a sealed container designed to be connected to the drain point for the
duration of the sampling. And there shall be a hazardous area of 3 m radius around
such sample points as for flanges and valves ( 3.7).
3. Equipment drains (with the exception of the instrument drains) shall be designed as per
GS SAF 228. As such they are normally blanked off and used only after the equipment
is isolated and depressurised. They generate a hazardous area as for valves and flanges
( 3.7). If for any reasons equipment drains were not blanked off they would follow the
Table 3.2 and in this case the possibility for draining category B liquids shall be
considered.
4. Sampling of gases to an open system, i.e. with a release to atmosphere, shall generate a
hazard radius equivalent to a vent ( 3.6 applies). Sampling to a closed system with
normally no release to atmosphere shall generate a hazard radius of 3 m as for flanges
and valves ( 3.7).
In all other cases, in particular the instrument drains and sampling of liquids to an open
system, the hazard radius shall be determined in Table 3.2. The hazardous area will extend
from the point of draining/sampling.
Hazard radius (m)
Fluid
category

Diameter *

Diameter *

Diameter *

Diameter *

3 mm

6 mm

12 mm

25 mm

**

**

**

**

7.5

15 ***

30 ***

0.3

1.5

1.5

This is the diameter of the smallest item on drain or sample line i.e. line, valve
or restriction orifice.
** Draining and sampling of Category A liquids directly to atmosphere shall not
be allowed.
*** For hazard radii of 15 or 30 m, alternative design options should be considered:
a closed collection system (refer to the text of this section), or a smaller
diameter (e.g. a restriction).

Table 3.2 drains (not blinded) and liquid sample points

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3.5.

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Compressors
Sources of release on compressors include seals, glands and joints. The hazardous area
should be drawn from the periphery of the unit.
Gas buoyancy
Heavier than air

Hazard radius (m)


15 *

Lighter than air

* The radius may be reduced to 7.5 m for pressures below 20 bara and shaft
diameters of 50 mm or less.
For diaphragm compressors the hazard radius may be reduced to 3 m
provided there are no vents or drains to atmosphere at the compressor.

Table 3.3 - Compressors


Vents and drains which are not blanked off in normal operation generate their own
hazardous areas, independently from the compressor they are associated with.
3.6.

Collection of PSV's and vent effluents


Process vents
As far as practicable, permanent or occasional outflows of combustible vapour shall be
collected and discharged away from possible sources of ignition.
If the collecting piping is all welded i.e. is without flanged fittings and valves, the space
around the piping shall be regarded as a safe area.
All vent flowrates in this section are given at ambient conditions.
Table 3.4 applies to vents with a peak flowrate not exceeding 200 m3/h and a gas exit
velocity below 150 m/s. These recommended distances are based on unrestricted upward
discharge and dispersion of vapour without condensation.
For vents with flowrates exceeding 200 m3/h a dispersion calculation shall be carried out
to check if the distances of this table are adequate (gas dispersion calculations shall be
carried-out as per GS SAF 253). A dispersion calculation is also recommended for vents
with flowrates exceeding 100 m3/h. Material that could condense shall not be vented
directly to atmosphere. The hydrocarbon disposal systems recommended by COMPANY
(e.g. cold vent, flare) are described in GS SAF 262.
For vents with flowrates kept below 100 m3/h and where the velocity of all the releases are
above 150 m/s, the distance to LFL given in API RP 521 should be adopted.
Vents should be classified as continuous, primary or secondary grades of release
depending on the frequency of operation. Vents used frequently (e.g. daily) should be
classified as primary grade as a minimum. For some vents there may be a small flow from
a continuous or primary grade with a larger occasional flow, for example during abnormal
or emergency operation. When the expected frequency of the smaller release generates a

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Zone 0 or 1, and an occasional larger release is graded as secondary, then the Zone 0 or 1
hazardous area shall be surrounded by a larger Zone 2 area defined by the larger flow.
Gaseous sample points should be designed so that the flowrate is less than 10 m3/h at
ambient conditions.
Vent rate at ambient conditions (m3/h)

Hazard radius (m)

Less than 10

10-100

7.5

100-200

15

Note : This table applies only to velocities up to 150 m/s. It applies to heavier-than-air
gases and vapours with unrestricted discharge upwards. For lighter-than-air gases
discharged upwards a 5 m hazard radius may be used or alternatively the radius
may be obtained by calculation.

Table 3.4 - Process vents


Instrument vents
The hazard radius from vents on instrument systems should be based on Table 3.5. This
includes vents from vessel level glasses. Instrument vents may generally be regarded as
secondary sources of release.
Hazard radius (m)
Fluid category

Diameter * 6 mm

Diameter * 12
mm

Diameter * 25
mm

7.5

15

30

7.5

15

0.3

1.5

G lighter than air

7.5

G heavier than air

7.5

15

* This is the diameter of the smallest item on the vent line, i.e. line, valve or restriction orifice. 25 mm
shall not be considered unless specifically requested in the COMPANY approved Project Safety
Concept.

Table 3.5 - Instrument vents


3.7.

Piping, instrument tubing, flanges and valves


All-welded (without fittings such as valves, instruments and flanges) piping and instrument
tubing designed and constructed to COMPANY specifications should not be considered as
sources of release.

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Flanges and valves are normally sources of secondary grade releases. Flanges routinely
broken in normal operation e.g. with a frequency greater than once a week, should be
considered as primary grades of releases.
Blow out of part of a gasket has not been considered since it is regarded as an incident
with a low probability that is considered in consequence analysis for the determination of
fire zones (refer to GS SAF 253).
Hazard radii listed below are from the periphery of flanges and valves in piping and
instrument tubing.
Fluid Category

Hazard radius

1.5

G heavier or lighter than air

Table 3.6 - Flanges and valves


3.8.

Pig receivers and launchers


The design of the pig traps shall be such that they cannot be opened while under pressure ;
this is normally achieved by a mechanical interlock between the door mechanism and the
vent. A pressure gauge shall be provided with a range suitable for checking zero pressure
before opening the door.
On this basis, the doors of the pig traps should be regarded as sources with a hazard radius
of 7.5 m. Vents and drains should discharge to a safe location and the hazard radius they
generate shall be estimated using section 3.6 of this chapter.
Pig receivers and launchers are likely to be opened frequently and should normally be
regarded as sources of primary grade release.

3.9.

Sumps, interceptors and separators in oily water treatment units


For the purposes of this specification a sump means a vessel, open or vented to
atmosphere, used to collect petroleum liquids, usually as a result of deliberate draining.
Other liquids, e.g. water, can enter the sump but the petroleum liquid is normally an
appreciable part of the total liquid entering.
In contrast, interceptors and separators in oily water treatment are vessels open or vented
to atmosphere, used to separate petroleum liquids from other non-flammable liquids,
typically water, and in which the petroleum liquids are present in smaller quantity.
Typically they are found on the main oily water effluent treatment system of a facility.

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Sumps
Sumps are intended to contain petroleum liquids and normally should be considered as
continuous or primary grade sources depending on the frequency with which oil is
expected to enter (see 2.1 of this specification).
The sump may be regarded as a secondary grade source when oil can enter only during
maintenance operations which are expected to be infrequent, e.g. major maintenance at
intervals of about 2 years or longer. The possibility of more frequent unplanned
maintenance should always be considered.
The typical layout of a sump is shown in Figure 3.1 and the space within the walls of an
open sump or to ground level, whichever is higher, should be regarded as an enclosed area.
For a primary grade source it should be classified as Zone 0 and for a secondary grade
source as Zone 1.
The hazardous area above ground and outside the sump walls should be drawn as shown
from the periphery of the sump using the appropriate distances obtained from Table 3.7 in
cases when it can be assumed that entry of only category C fluids can occur. Generally
this assumption can be made only in the case of storage and tankage areas, including
installations and depots. This area should be classified as Zone 1 or Zone 2 depending on
whether the source is primary or secondary grade.
When there is a possibility that hot material could enter the sump in sufficient quantity to
produce appreciable quantities of gas, or that Category A or B material could
inadvertently enter, then a horizontal distance D2 of 15 m should be used with the
corresponding vertical distances of Table 3.7.
Interceptors and separators
Interceptors and separators should normally be regarded as primary grade sources.
They may be regarded as secondary grade sources when oil can enter only as a result of
equipment failure, e.g. failure of a cooler tube in a cooling water system or a major
spillage and they can not be polluted accidentally more than once a year.
The space within the walls of an interceptor or separator or to ground level, whichever is
higher, should be regarded as an enclosed area. For a primary grade source it should be
classified as Zone 0 and for a secondary grade source as Zone 1. The hazardous area above
ground and outside the separator walls should be drawn from the periphery of the
separator, as shown in Figure 3.2.
These relatively large areas and the Zone 2 around a Zone 1 area are recommended
because larger quantities of more volatile material than normal can often inadvertently
enter an interceptor or separator. The appropriate distances obtained from Table 3.7
should be used in cases when it can be assumed that entry of only category C fluids can
occur. In storage facilities including installations and depots containing only category C
fluids the larger Zone 2 area outside the Zone 1 may be omitted.
For vented sealed sumps, interceptors and separators, the hazardous area should be drawn
from the vent.
Open sumps and vessels with covers removable in normal operation e.g. removable
concrete slabs should not be regarded as sealed vessels but as open sumps.

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D2
3

H1

H2

Less than 5

D1
3

3+h

5 to less than 10

7.5

7.5

3+h

10 or greater

15

7.5

7.5

7.5

Notes : 1.This table should be used only for Category C liquids.


2.L is the width of the sump. The hazardous area should extent from the edge of the
pool.

H2

H1

Table 3.7 - Sumps, interceptor and separators (all distances in metres)

Liquid
Zone 0

Ground

D1
D2

Zone 1

Notes : 1.For a secondary grade source the areas shown as Zones 0 and 1 would be Zones 1 and 2.
2.Dimensions from Table 3.7.

3m

7.5 m (H1 )

Figure 3.1 - Open sump - zoning shown for primary grade source

Ground
Liquid
7.5 m
(D2 )

15 m (D1 )

Zone 0

Zone 1

Zone 2

Figure 3.2 - Separator or interceptor - primary grade source

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AREA CLASSIFICATION

DGEP/SE

CLASSIFICATION OF OPEN, SHELTERED AND ENCLOSED AREAS


The size of the hazardous zones is determined in this chapter based on the hazard radius from
chapter 3, the buoyancy of the release and the degree of ventilation at the location of the fuel
source.
The size of the hazardous zones does not depend on the grade of release. The grade of release is
however a key factor for the classification in Zone 0, 1 or 2.
4.1.

Open areas

H1

D2

D2

H2

Source
h

Ground
D1

H2

H1

Source above ground

Solid platform

D1 - S D1 - S

3 H1

Source

0.3H1min
S
H1min

0.3H1min
Vapour tight
roof/deck

D1

D1

Source above elevated platform

H1min
Ground

H2

Pit
Zone 1

Source
h

4.

Rev.0 Oct. 2000

D2
D1

D2
D1

Ground/
deck

Notes : 1.Hazardous areas shown should be classified as Zone 1 or 2 depending on the grade of
release.
2.S is the distance from source to edge of solid platform.

Figure 4.1 - Hazardous area from point source - open area - release heavier-than-air

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Hazard radius
(m)

D1 (m)

D2 (m)

H1 (m)

H2 (m)

30

30

15

7.5

15

15

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

7.5

H1 + h

H1 + h

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

H1 + h

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

H1 + h

Notes : 1.h is the height of the source above ground level or solid platform floor.
2.D1 for open area by definition is equal to the hazard radius.
3.The hazard radius is determined from the Tables in chapter 3.

H1

H2

Source

h < H2

H1

Table 4.1 - Hazardous area envelope dimensions - open area - release heavier-than-air

Source
D1

Ground or
solid deck

D1

Vapour tight
roof/deck

Solid deck

H1min

D1 - S D1 - S

Source

H2

Source

H1min

0.3H1min

D1

H2

H1

0.3H1min

Ground/deck

D1

D1

S
Open area (release lighter than air)

Note : The hazardous area is Zone 1 or 2 depending on grade of release.

Figure 4.2 - Hazardous area from point source - open area - release lighter-than-air

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Hazard radius
(m)

D1 (m)

H1 (m)

H2 (m)

7.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

Note : The hazard radius is determined from Tables in chapter 3.

Table 4.2 - Hazardous area envelope dimensions - open area - release lighter-than-air
Sheltered areas
There are many cases of natural ventilated situations where there is some restriction to free
air circulation : some associated with an otherwise open area layout but where there is an
obstruction in the form of a wall, adjacent structure or open-sided roof, which will intrude
into what otherwise would be within the open area hazard zone ; others where a partial
restriction to natural air flow is in-built by design in the form of a structure that has pierced
openings or louvers to provide weather protection.
The term sheltered area applies to any such part of an otherwise open area where natural
ventilation is less than in a true open area but is adequate to avoid persistence of a
flammable atmosphere (refer to chapter 2, section 2.5 and 2.6).
The determination of the extent of the hazardous area will therefore depend on the type of
sheltered area, as shown below.
Vapour-tight roof
0.3 H1

0.3 H1

0.3 H1

0.3 H1

4.2.

Open area unwalled


down to ground
level-classified
as in Fig. 4.1 and 4.2
Ground

Notes : 1.The area shown around the roof should be classified as hazardous, with the same zone
classification as the hazardous area from a source (outside or below the area) which
impinges upon it.
2.Where two areas do not directly impinge, it is prudent to fill the gap between these two
areas.
3.Where the underlying hazard zone is Zone 1, then the intermediate space, up to and
including the roof area, may be classified Zone 2 for heavier than air gases or vapours.
4.H1 is obtained from Table 4.1 for heavier-than-air gases or vapours and from Table 4.2 for
lighter-than-air gases.

Figure 4.3 - Extent of hazardous area around unventilated roof (producing a sheltered
area above the open-sided area) : applicable to lighter or heavier-than-air gas or
vapour)

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0.3 H1

0.3 H1

roof

0.3 H1
Open area unwalled
down to ground
level-classified
as in Fig. 4.1 and 4.2
Ground

Notes :

Same as Figure 4.3

Figure 4.4 - Extent of hazardous area around ventilated roof (producing a sheltered
area above the open-sided area : applicable to lighter or heavier than air gas or
vapour)
0.3 H1 min

Source

0.3 H1 min

Extending
vertically down
to ground level

Vapour-tight roof

0.3 H1 min
upward
from top of
uppermost
aperture

H 1 min

0.3 H1 min

D2
d > D1

Ground

D 1> d

Notes : 1.The open area hazard radius is determined from chapter 3. From this the dimensions D1, D2, H1
and H2 are obtained from Table 4.1.
2.The above diagram illustrates the case where the release is great enough for the open area hazard
radius to substantially fill or extend beyond the confines of the aperture walls.
3.The area is classified Zone 1 or 2 throughout its entire area according to the grade of release of the
source. All pits within the zone should be Zone 1.
4.With a source of smaller hazard radius e.g. a sample point, the ventilation locally can sometimes
be high enough to prevent the source from influencing the classification of the whole enclosure.
There would still be a local Zone 1 or 2 around the source and the extent of this zone should be
greater than for an open area, typically about twice the hazard radius of an open area.

Figure 4.5 - Extent of hazardous area around sheltered area with perforated walls
containing source (gas or vapour heavier-than-air) and meeting the criterion of adequate
ventilation

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0.3 H1 min

0.3 H1 min
0.3 H1 min

0.3 H1 min
from top of
uppermost
aperture

H 1 min

Vapour-tight roof

H2

Source

D1

Ground

Notes : 1.The open area hazard radius is taken from chapter 3. The dimensions H1, D1 and H2 are then
obtained from the table of Table 4.2.
2.With a source of smaller hazard radius, e.g. a sample point, the ventilation locally can sometimes
be high enough to prevent the source influencing the classification of the whole enclosure. There
would still be a local Zone 1 or 2 around the source, and the extent of this zone should be greater
than in the open air, typically about twice.

Figure 4.6 - Extent of hazardous area around sheltered area with perforated walls
containing source (gas or vapour lighter-than-air) and meeting the criterion of adequate
ventilation

S
Radius
D -S
1

D1

Source

Plan view

Notes : 1.D1 is obtained from Table 4.1 or Table 4.2.


2.The wall should extend to at least the full vertical height of the hazardous area if it is to be used as
a deflection wall.

Figure 4.7 - Extent of hazardous area around wall producing sheltered area (gas or vapour
lighter or heavier than air)

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4.3

Page 36 of 63
Rev.0 Oct. 2000

Enclosed areas
4.3.1.

Size of hazardous area


An enclosed area is any building, room or enclosed space within which, in the
absence or breakdown of artificial ventilation, the ventilation will not be
regarded as adequate (refer to sections 2.5 and 2.6 of chapter 2).
For the purpose of Area Classification any enclosed area shall be assumed to be
in contact with (i.e. have an aperture in) an outside area, unless the enclosed
walls, ceilings, floors and any ducting are vapour-tight by construction. A
vapour-tight door or hatch, locked in normal operation and opened only under a
permit to work procedure, and air-locks should not be considered as apertures.
One ordinary door or one door of a vapour-tight design (self-closing or not) shall
be considered as an aperture.
Air-locks and self-closing doors are defined in 1.4.
When a source of release is located within an enclosed area then the whole space
within the enclosure should be classified, depending upon the grade of release
and the degree of ventilation. The outside areas in contact with the enclosed area
should be classified as shown in the figures of this section. Only sources of
secondary grades of release may be located within an enclosed area: sources of
primary grade of release in enclosed areas shall require a derogation to this
specification approved by COMPANY.
When there are no sources within the enclosed area but the enclosure is in
contact with (has an opening into) an external hazardous area, then the enclosure
should be classified based on the zone number of the external area and the degree
of internal ventilation that is provided.

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Page 37 of 63
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Notes : 1.The vertical dimension H1 of the external zone area is considered as if the largest source in
the enclosed area was located at the top of the aperture, height h. The values of D1, D2,
H1 and H2 should be taken from Table 4.1 using the open air hazard radius.
2.The zone classification for both the internal and surrounding external areas should be
determined based on the ventilation and grade of release.
3.All pits and depressions within a hazardous area with gas heavier-than-air shall be
classified as Zone 1.

Figure 4.8 - Extent of hazardous area around the aperture of an enclosed area
containing a source of release (gas or vapour heavier-than-air)

Notes : 1.The dimensions H1, D1 and H2 are taken from the Table 4.2 using the open air hazard
radius for the largest source of release.
2.For releases lighter-than-air, H1 and H2 are taken from the top and bottom of the aperture
respectively.
3.The zone should be determined from Table 4.3.

Figure 4.9 - Extent of hazardous area around the aperture of an enclosed area
containing a source of release (gas lighter-than-air)

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4.3.2

Zone classification for enclosures

Grade of

Type of artificial ventilation


(2)

Adequate(3)

internal release

Inadequate

Continuous

Zone 0 (1)

Zone 0 (1)

Primary

Zone 0 (1)

Zone 1 (1)

Secondary

Zone 1

Zone 2

Dilution if
attainable (4)

Overpressure

Non-hazardous Not applicable where there is an


internal primary or continuous
grade of release, but may be
applicable in conjunction with
Non-hazardous adequate ventilation for an
enclosed area containing only
secondary grade releases, classed
as Zone 2, surrounded by a Zone 0
or 1 area.
Non-hazardous

Notes : 1.Continuous or primary grade sources shall not be located within an enclosed area. Such design shall require
formal derogation to GS SAF 216
2.With inadequate ventilation, for a source within an enclosed area, the external zone classification will be : for
continuous release Zone 0, for a primary release Zone 1, for a secondary release Zone 2. The extent of these
external zones will be as shown in Figures 4.8 and 4.9.
3.With adequate ventilation, for a source within an enclosed area the external zone classification will be the same
as that of the enclosed area itself.
4. An area within a larger enclosure subject to local artificial ventilation, i.e. by extractor fan, should be classified
according to the local ventilation rate in that local area, i.e. either dilution or adequate depending on which is
met.
5.With a source of small hazard radius, e.g. a sample point, the local ventilation may be high enough to prevent
the source from influencing the classification of the whole enclosure. There should still be a local Zone 1 or 2
around the source and the extent of this zone should be greater than in the open air, typically about twice the
extent.

Table 4.3 - Enclosed area with an internal source of release - effect of ventilation on zone classification
of the hazardous area
Grade of
external zone

Inadequate

Type of artificial ventilation


Adequate
Dilution

Zone 0

Zone 0(1)

Zone 0(1)

Not applicable

Zone 1

Zone 0(1)

Zone 1(1)

Not applicable

Zone 2

Zone 1

Zone 2

Not applicable

Overpressure (1)

Non-hazardous if source is
outside the enclosed area. For
measures to be taken in the
event of loss of overpressure
refer to section 2.7.1.

Notes : 1.Location of an enclosed area without overpressure protection in a Zone 0 or 1 is not acceptable, this shall
require formal derogation to GS SAF 216.

Table 4.4 - Enclosed area with no internal source of release but in connected to an outside hazard zone effect of ventilation on zone classification of the hazardous area

GS SAF 216
TOTAL FINA ELF

AREA CLASSIFICATION

DGEP/SE

CLASSIFICATION
OPERATIONS
5.1.

Page 39 of 63
Rev.0 Oct. 2000

OF

WELLHEADS

AND

EQUIPMENT

USED

IN

WELL

Foreword
This chapter sets out COMPANY requirements for the Area Classification of production,
wireline, workover and drilling operations, onshore and offshore. It does not cover the
production operation equipment located downstream of the wellheads.

5.2.

Drilling
Classification of areas for drilling and workover operations is shown on Figures 5.1 and
5.2, based on the potential sources of hydrocarbon release on the surface at the bell-nipple
and around the flowline outlet.
In an open area the hazardous area should extend 7.5 m vertically and horizontally from
the bell-nipple and down to ground or sea level. When a solid deck or platform is more
than 9 m above the sea then the hazardous area may stop 9 m below this deck or platform.
Hazardous areas from miscellaneous sources such as vents, drains, valves and flanges on
the BOP, its stack and the riser assembly will normally be within the hazardous area shown
on Figure 5.1. If not, they shall be determined as per the relevant sections of chapter 3.
Vents and pressure drains should as far as practicable not be released directly to
atmosphere, i.e. they should be collected in a purposely designed system discharging at a
safe location (away from ignition sources, refer to chapter 3).
The occurrence of a blow-out is not considered in Area Classification. "Kicks" are not
considered as well. Kicks are regarded as accidental, rare events on COMPANY drilling
and work-over sites: the installation of equipment for degassing the mud and continuously
monitoring the pit level, the level of hydrocarbon gases and gas extraction is mandatory on
these sites.
On drilling installations, the "dog house" and all other technical facilities should be
classified as Zone 2. Generally, sheltered areas ( 2.5) should generate a hazardous area
extending 3 m outside the shelter (beyond the 7.5 m from the bell-nipple if necessary). Any
apertures from an enclosed area containing a source of release should be regarded as a
secondary grade source ( 2.1) and the resulting hazardous area should be drawn from
the apertures (see chapter 4).
If the derrick is enclosed ( 2.5), and if it contains a secondary grade source of release
(e.g. flanges, valves in hydrocarbon pipes) the internal space should be classified as Zone
1, with a Zone 2 extending 3 m outside the enclosure. Primary grade sources of release
such as vent line outlets shall not be allowed within an enclosed derrick or the shielded
portion of a derrick.
If the sub-structure is enclosed and if it contains a secondary grade source of release
(e.g. flanges, valves in hydrocarbon pipes), the internal space should be classified as Zone
1 with a Zone 2 extending 3 m outside the enclosure or 7.5 m from the bell-nipple
whichever is greater. Primary grade sources of release such as vent line outlets shall not
be allowed within an enclosed area.

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Page 40 of 63
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The hazardous area generated from the mud system is not in the scope of this section and
should be determined as per 5.5.
All electrical equipment on the drilling mast shall be suitable for Zone 2 as a minimum
(sufficient if the derrick is adequately ventilated).
All electrical equipment needed for controlling drilling operations in an emergency (i.e.
kick, blow out) shall be suitable for Zone 1.
For a non eruptive onshore well the zone numbers may be reduced, as shown in
Figure 5.2.
5.3.

Wireline
Area Classification for wireline operations is shown on Figures 5.3 and 5.4, based on the
potential sources of hydrocarbon release on surface and at the stuffing box.
For a non eruptive onshore well the zone numbers may be reduced, as shown in
Figure 5.4.

5.4.

Production
Area Classification for production operations are shown on Figures 5.5 and 5.6. For an
onshore well the ground cellar is classified as Zone 1 for all servicing and production
operations. In the case of a beam pumping well, the stuffing box of the pump shall be
considered as a secondary source of release generating a Zone 2 with the extent shown in
Figures 5.5 and 5.6.

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TOTAL FINA ELF

Page 41 of 63

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Rev.0 Oct. 2000

DRILLING AND WORKOVER

7.5 m

Top of wind break

Rig floor
BOP
Main deck
Bell-nipple (rig floor level)
Flowline

HP riser
Wellhead

9 m or to
sea level

Cellar deck

Sea level

Zone 2
Zone 1

7.5 m

Figure 5.1 - Offshore wellhead in drilling and workover phase

7.5 m

7.5 m

Zone 2
7.5 m

Zone 1

BOP

W
Wellhead

Ground
Bell-nipple (rig floor level)
Flowline

Figure 5.2 - Onshore wellhead in drilling and workover phase


For a non eruptive well Zone 1 becomes Zone 2 and Zone 2 becomes a safe area

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WIRELINE

7.5 m

Zone 2
Zone 1
Stuffing box
BOP
Main deck

9 mor to
sea level

Cellar deck

Xmas tree x
x
Wellhead W

Sea level

7.5 m

7.5 m

Figure 5.3 - Offshore wellhead in wireline phase - source point is at stuffing box

Zone 2
Zone 1

7.5 m
7.5 m

7.5 m

Stuffing box

Xmas tree x
x

Wellhead

7.5 m

BOP

15 m

Ground

Figure 5.4 - Onshore wellhead in wireline phase for an eruptive well.


For a non eruptive well Zone 1 becomes Zone 2 and Zone 2 becomes a safe area

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Page 43 of 63
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Figure 5.5 - Offshore wellhead - production or injection (open area)

Note : In the case of a beam-pumped well, the release source to be considered is the stuffing box

Figure 5.6 - Onshore wellhead production or injection (open area)

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AREA CLASSIFICATION

DGEP/SE

Surface mud systems


The surface mud system includes the mud circulating pumps, the shale shaker area and the
settling tank, together with any mud degassing equipment.
5.5.1.

Water based mud systems


Pumps on the surface mud system should normally not be regarded as sources of
release.
Hazardous areas around mud tanks and shale shakers located in open areas are
shown on Figures 5.7 and 5.8.
Enclosures containing a mud tank should, unless there is adequate (artificial)
ventilation, be classified as Zone 1, with an additional Zone 2 area extending 3 m
from any openings in the enclosure.
When a shale shaker is located in an enclosure without adequate (artificial)
ventilation, the enclosure should be classified as Zone 1, with an additional
Zone 2 area extending 7.5 m from any openings.
The extent of the hazardous area from sources of release on the mud degasser
system should be based on the requirements of Chapter 3.

3m

3m

Liquid level

Ground
or deck

3m

7.5 m

1.5 m

Figure 5.7 - Hazardous area around mud tank (open area)

7.5 m

5.5.

Rev.0 Oct. 2000

Ground or deck
7.5 m

1.5 m

Figure 5.8 - Hazardous area around shale shaker (open area)

GS SAF 216
TOTAL FINA ELF

AREA CLASSIFICATION

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5.5.2.

Page 45 of 63
Rev.0 Oct. 2000

Oil based mud systems


The possibility of the mud being itself hazardous (e.g. an oil-based mud) shall be
considered. A mud shall be considered hazardous whenever its temperature may
reach its flash point or the auto-ignition temperature during:
storage, or
circulation (as a result of high subsurface temperature and/or mixing with
reservoir hydrocarbons), or
upon release (e.g. heated by sun radiation, other hot objects, or when spray
atomisation leading to mist formation can occur).
Advice from geologist should be obtained to estimate the maximum operating
temperature of the mud.
When the drilling mud itself is considered to be hazardous the extent of the
hazardous areas around the mud system equipment should be estimated based on
Chapter 3. Open tanks should be regarded as sumps. The larger of the distances
indicated in Chapter 3 and those defined in this chapter should be used to define
the hazard zones.
Mud pumps and associated pipe work, valves and fittings should be considered
as sources of release when the mud is hazardous, and the extent of the hazardous
areas should be based upon Chapter 3.

5.6.

Gas vent
The gas vent outlet of the main mud system should be located at the top of the derrick
(outside the enclosure if the derrick is enclosed) or be remote from the drilling area.
When the maximum anticipated vent rate can be estimated, then the extent of the
hazardous area should be based on the recommendations on process vents given in
Chapter 3 (3.6). When this information is not available, the hazardous area should
extend at least 15 m in all directions from the vent.
With a vent at the derrick top, any area within the derrick less than 15 m from the vent
should be considered hazardous.
The gas vent should normally be considered a source of secondary grade release (see
chapter 2).

GS SAF 216
TOTAL FINA ELF

AREA CLASSIFICATION

DGEP/SE

6.

Page 46 of 63
Rev.0 Oct. 2000

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND HEATERS


6.1.

Gas turbine
6.1.1.

Foreword
6.1 sets out the COMPANY requirements for the design and installation of gas
turbines normally fuelled by hydrocarbon gas, with regard to the risk of
ignition/explosion.
Gas turbines shall be installed in a totally enclosed area. One important function
of the enclosure/room as defined below is to reduce the noise level around the
unit (acoustic enclosure), the other is to make this area safe by dilution
ventilation.
The turbine enclosure designates the enclosure housing the gas turbine and its
auxiliaries (e.g. liquid-fuel and/or fuel gas supply, the lower part of the exhaust,
ventilation and cooling). It is assumed that dual-fuel turbines do not raise
additional, specific hazards. Note that a small turbine enclosure may also be
called a turbine hood.
The turbine room contains the turbine and its enclosure, the driven equipment
and all the auxiliaries. The main justification of a turbine room is to provide a
safe environment to the driven machinery (e.g. alternator) if it has to be installed
in a hazardous area (e.g. offshore). In cases where the driven equipment does not
require a safe environment (or is installed in a safe area of the plant), the turbine
room is not mandatory. The hazardous area classification of the turbine room
shall be determined as per 4.3 of this specification.
The requirement for over/underpressure protection of a gas turbine enclosure
depends on the classification of the area outside the enclosure (refer to 6.1.4).
Gas turbines shall not be installed in Zone 0 or Zone 1. As a result gas turbines
shall drive equipment that is either a source of secondary grade of release
(hydrocarbon gas compressor, oil pump), or that is not a source of release
(alternator, water pump).

6.1.2.

Pre-purging
In cases where there is electrical equipment under the enclosure not suitable for
Zone 1, the enclosure shall be purged with at least 5 air changes before starting
the turbine or energising any other electrical equipment not suitable for Zone 1.
The purging system shall be suitable for Zone 1.
Note that purging is of course not required if the enclosure is kept pressurised
with hydrocarbon free air at all times.

GS SAF 216
TOTAL FINA ELF

AREA CLASSIFICATION

DGEP/SE

6.1.3.

Page 47 of 63
Rev.0 Oct. 2000

Ventilation and classification of the turbine enclosure


Fuel supply (gas, liquid) and combustion chambers are in the enclosure, where a
lot of heat is generated by the operation of the turbine. The enclosure contains
both ignition sources (hot surfaces, and electrical equipment not suitable for
Zone 1) and sources of release during the operation of the turbine. Therefore the
enclosure shall be provided with a ventilation system for cooling purposes and to
dilute flammable gases. 90 air changes an hour is a minimum to achieve
dilution ventilation.
The ventilation necessary to run the turbine is called the normal ventilation. A
standby ventilation shall also be provided. The standby ventilation shall
automatically start on loss of normal ventilation.
Normal and standby ventilation should normally be identical. This means that
they achieve cooling and dilution ventilation, are suitable for Zone 1 and are
supplied from an auxiliary power source (i.e. independent from normal power
and which takes over in case of shutdown of the normal power). After the turbine
is shut down, the auxiliary power source shall be capable of keeping the
ventilation running until hot surfaces have been cooled below the auto-ignition
temperature of the gas/air mixtures that may be present in the hood. If this
design cannot be wholly implemented the following lists the minimum
requirements for the safe operation of the turbine:
1. The standby ventilation shall be suitable for Zone 1 and be supplied from an
auxiliary source of power as defined above.
2. The standby ventilation shall provide dilution ventilation as a minimum.
3. The normal ventilation shall be suitable for Zone 2.
The electrical equipment under the enclosure shall be certified for use in Zone 2
as a minimum.
Fuel gas supply to the turbine shall be provided with a double block and bleed
arrangement (bleed to safe location), actuated by the turbine protection system,
to automatically isolate the combustion chambers on any turbine shut down. In
addition to this double and bleed arrangement, a shutdown valve (not part of the
turbine package) shall be provided to shut off the main fuel gas supply at the
source and be actuated by the main process plant Emergency Shutdown System.
The fuel gas equipment under the turbine enclosure should be minimised and
limited to: a pressure control valve (or regulator), a normally dry knock-out pot
being the ultimate protection in case of accidental liquid carry-over, the double
block and bleed arrangement, and the inter-connecting piping.

6.1.4

Protection by pressurisation
Differential pressure shall be provided as applicable :
underpressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a safe area,
overpressure where the turbine enclosure is surrounded by a hazardous area.
If the turbine enclosure is located in a non-hazardous area the pressure within the
hood shall be controlled to below the outside pressure with a minimum under-

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pressure of 50 Pa (0.5 mbar). If the enclosure is located in a turbine room the


underpressure may be achieved from the combined effect of the underpressure
inside the enclosure and the overpressure in the turbine room.
When the turbine enclosure is located in a hazardous area the pressure within the
hood shall be controlled to above the outside pressure with a minimum
overpressure of 50 Pa (0.5 mbar).
In both cases (underpressure and overpressure) a pressure switch shall initiate an
alarm if the differential pressure drops below 50 Pa (0.5 mbar).
6.1.5.

Ventilation and classification of the turbine room


If the driven equipment is not a source of release (e.g. alternator, water pump)
and the turbine room is located in a hazardous area, the turbine room shall be
made safe by adequate ventilation and overpressure protection (see
Figure 6.2).
An overpressure of at least 50 Pa (0.5 mbar) shall be maintained in the turbine
room with respect to all surrounding classified areas with apertures into the room
(including the turbine enclosure itself which shall be maintained 50 Pa under the
turbine room pressure). A pressure switch shall initiate an alarm if the
differential pressure drops below 50 Pa (0.5 mbar).
The fuel gas line shall be all-welded inside the room (no flanges and no valves).
In particular, the fuel gas isolation valves shall be located outside the turbine
room.
The fuel gas double block and bleed arrangement shall be installed so that the
bulk of the fuel gas inventory inside the turbine hood is depressurised on any
turbine shutdown.
If the driven equipment is a source of release the turbine room shall be made
Zone 2 by adequate ventilation. The fuel gas line to the turbine enclosure may in
this case have flanges inside the room. The turbine enclosure shall be
overpressurised.

6.1.6.

Hot surfaces in areas not provided with dilution ventilation (e.g. exhaust pipes)
When located within the restricted area of the petroleum installation, they shall
be thermally insulated as far as practicable. Their surface temperature shall not
exceed 80% of the ignition temperature of any flammable gas mixtures likely to
be present. By default the surface temperature shall not exceed 250C (Note that
the restricted area is defined in GS SAF 253).

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over-pressure

d >2 m

under-pressure

d >2 m

Ventilation
d>2m
Turbine hood.
Over pressure = 0.5 mbar

Combustion air

Turbine

COMP.

d>2m

Safe zone
d : distance from exhaust
and air intake location
to any hazardous area.

External hazardous area


To flare

Fuel-gas

Figure 6.1 - Turbine driven compressor in a hazardous area


over-pressure

Turbine exhaust
Turbine hood
ventilation exhaust

under-pressure

Main and standby fans

Turbine hood ventilation


air intake

Turbine hood

Combustion air
intake

Turbine

Dilution
ventilation and
under pressure
Load
(alternator
pump, etc.)

Turbine room - adequate


ventilation and over pressure

Turbine room
ventilation air intake
Fuel gas

To flare

Figure 6.2 - Typical gas turbine arrangement in a room

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Gas and liquid fuel engines


6.2.1.

General requirements
Spark ignited, gasoline-fuelled engines shall not be installed in hydrocarbon plants.
A diesel fuel engine and its fuel circuit are not regarded as a source of release, i.e.
they do not generate a hazardous area. The quantity of hydrocarbon vapour involved
is small enough to be disregarded. A diesel fuel engine is a source of ignition,
mainly due to its high skin temperature and the possibility of spark emission.
Gas engines, as gas turbines, are both sources of ignition and sources of release.
Diesel fuel and gas engines should be installed in a non-hazardous area. They shall
not be installed in Zone 0 or 1. They shall not be installed in a Zone 2 where a group
IIC gas (e.g. hydrogen, acetylene) may be present. They shall not be installed in
areas where liquid hydrocarbon spillage may occur and result in the release of
vapours with an auto-ignition temperature lower than 135C.

6.2.2.

Gas engines
Gas engines should comply with the requirements of 6.1 (pressurised enclosure
with dilution ventilation), as gas turbines. Adherence to 6.1 is mandatory for a gas
engine installed offshore.
Onshore, adherence to 6.1 is not mandatory if a package comprising one engine,
its driven equipment and their auxiliaries (see the note below) is installed:
1. 30 m or more from the hydrocarbon process and storage facilities and their
technical rooms (see the note below), and
2. 45 m or more from LPG units, and
3. 45 m or more from the installation main control room, and
4. 60 m or more from the living quarters, offices and workshops.
Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2 as far as practicable.
Note: process facilities and technical rooms shared by several gas engines such as
the fuel gas treatment unit are not regarded as auxiliary and shall be installed at
the distance specified above. Several gas engine driven packages of the same type
and function may be grouped in the same unit (refer to Figure 6.3).

6.2.3.

Diesel engines
A diesel fuel engine installed in Zone 2 should either be EEMUA certified for
Zone 2 or protected by internal overpressure in an enclosure. This is mandatory
offshore.
Onshore this is not mandatory if the engine, its driven equipment and their
auxiliaries (see the note below) are installed:
1. 30 m or more from the hydrocarbon process and storage facilities and their
technical rooms (see the note below), and
2. 45 m or more from LPG units, and
3. 45 m or more from the installation main control room, and
4. 60 m or more from the living quarters, offices and workshops.

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area boundary encroac


hi n
ous
rd
g

t
on

Ha
z

Ignition sources should be made suitable for Zone 2 as far as practicable.


Note: process facilities and technical rooms shared by several diesel engines such as
the fuel gas treatment unit are not regarded as auxiliary and shall be installed at
the distance specified above. Several diesel engine driven packages of the same type
and function may be grouped in the same unit (refer to Figure 6.3).

oe

ng
in
es

ENGINE

ENGINE

ENGINE
Unit edge

Unit edge

d = defined in 6.2

Figure 6.3 Diesel and gas engines in a hazardous area onshore

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Heaters
The extent and classification of hazardous areas around fired heaters and other fuelled
utilities shall be based upon the following principles :
1. any valve or set of flanges on the fuel gas network shall generate a Zone 2 with a
radius of 3 m,
2. any valve, set of flanges on the liquid-fuel network shall generate a Zone 2 of a radius
of 1.5 m for Diesel oil or Category C liquids and 3 m for lighter liquids,
3. main burners, igniters and pilots generate no hazardous area in normal operation.
However, any equipment within a radius of 1.5 m around the main burners, igniters
and pilots shall be suitable for use in zone 2,
4. the tubes/coils within the radiant or convection sections in a direct fired heater
generate no hazardous area,
5. point leak sources on the heated fluid including valves, set of flanges, etc. shall
generate hazardous areas according to the rules defined in chapter 3.

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ACCUMULATOR BATTERIES
7.1.

Installation of accumulator batteries in buildings


7.1.1.

Basics
With the exception of small capacity sealed batteries which are outwith the scope
of this specification, accumulator batteries are regarded as primary sources of
release: they release hydrogen when they are charged.
At the time of issue of this specification, there is no international standard (IEC
or CEN) for the installation of accumulator batteries in enclosures/buildings.
Chapter 7 sets out the basic safety requirements for the design of installations
designed by or on behalf of COMPANY. They are based on two French
standards which, until an IEC or CEN standard covering this scope is approved
and issued, shall be adhered to:
 NFC 15-100, part 5, chapter 55, 554 and its Annexe
 NFC 58-311.
Gases released by batteries in charge mode can be recombined. Two types of
accumulator batteries shall be considered:
 Batteries for which the recombination rate is less than 95%. They are called
open batteries.
 Batteries for which the recombination rate is 95% or more. They are called
recombination batteries. To be regarded as recombination type, batteries
shall be certified as per NFC 58-311 requirements.
Dilution ventilation shall be provided in the enclosures containing accumulator
batteries. The dilution ventilation rates shall be calculated as per 7.2.
When dilution ventilation is achieved by artificial means, the battery charge
should be stopped on loss of ventilation (in most cases this means that the battery
chargers are switched off).

7.1.2.

Location and hydrogen detection


Accumulator batteries and their charger may be located in the same cubicle only
if this cubicle is provided with natural or artificial dilution ventilation as per the
requirements of this chapter.
The requirements set out in 7.1.1 shall apply to all batteries liable to release
flammable gases. This section addresses additional requirements that depend on
the capacity and discharge voltage of the accumulator batteries.
If Capacity (Ah) x Discharge voltage (V) is less than 1000, hydrogen detection
is not mandatory in the room (building) where the accumulator batteries are
installed.

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If Capacity (Ah) x Discharge voltage (V) is more than 1000, batteries and their
cubicles shall be installed in an electrical room.
For certified recombination batteries with certified chargers fitted with
downstream protections which shut down the charger supply on maximum
charging current, this may be a standard electrical room containing other
electrical equipment and where there is no hydrogen detection.
Open batteries shall be located in a dedicated battery room. The safety of
personnel handling the acidic fluids associated with open batteries in this
room shall be considered: provision of an eye wash station, type of paint
etc... The fans in this battery room shall be suitable for operation in Zone 1
for Group IIC gases. Hydrogen detection shall be installed. On hydrogen
detection the battery charge shall be switched off and all ignition sources in
the room shall be suppressed, with the exception of the electrical equipment
certified for Zone 1 Group IIC gases.
7.2.

Dilution ventilation criteria


7.2.1.

Open batteries
3
The minimum air flow Q in m /h required is:
Q = 0.05 I N where "I" is the maximum charging current in Ampere (A) and N
is the number of elements.
The value of the maximum charging current "I" depends of the battery charger's
protections and shall be stated by the supplier.
For a certified charger fitted with downstream current protections which shut
down the charger supply on maximum charging current, the value of "I" may
be assumed to be 0.2 x C (capacity in Ah) for a rough estimation of the
ventilation. This shall be checked as soon as the supplier's data is available.
For a charger fitted with upstream maximum current protections only, the
value of "I" cannot and shall not be estimated without suppliers data.

7.2.2.

Certified Recombination batteries


The use of certified recombination batteries is justified only if they are
associated with a certified charger fitted with downstream protections which shut
down the charger supply on maximum charging current.
In this case only the minimum air flow Q in m3/h required is:
Q = 0.0025 I N where "I" is the maximum charging current in Ampere (A) and N
is the number of elements.
The value of "I" may be assumed to be 0.2 x C (capacity in Ah) for a rough
estimation of the ventilation. This shall be checked as soon as supplier's data is
available.

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8.

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HYDROCARBON STORAGE
For storage containing Category C or non-hazardous fluids on release, IP-15, Section 3 shall be
adhered to. This is illustrated in sections 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3 of this chapter. As part of this
specification, IP-15 recommendations shall apply even if the ambient temperature exceeds 30C.
8.1.

Under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks :


For under-ground or within-embankment storage tanks containing liquids of Class I, II(2)
or III(2), the extent and classification of hazardous areas around the surface vents depend
on whether the tank is pump or gravity fed. Refer to IP-15, Section 3 for more details.

8.2.

Overhead, fixed roof storage tanks :


For Liquids of Classes I, II(2) or III(2), (normally of Category C on release) - the extent
and classification of the hazardous areas shall be as shown below :
3m

e1
Zon

2m

Zone 0
3m

Zone 2

Pit, if any, Zone 1

Figure - 8.1 - Fixed roof tank (Fluid class I, II(2) & III(2)).
Liquids of Classes II(1) or III(1) or unclassified are normally non-hazardous on release.
Considering however the possible changes in ambient temperature, and that the flash-point
of heavy fuels or bitumen in heated storage is not reliable, it is recommended to classify
the ullage space as Zone 0, with a small Zone 1 around roof vents and openings.
Zone 1

1m

Zone 0

Figure - 8.2 - Fixed roof tank (Fluid class II(1), III(1) or unclassified).

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8.3.

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Overhead, Floating roof storage tanks :


For floating roof storage tanks containing liquids of Classes I, II(2) or III(2) that are
normally of Category C on release, the extent and classification of hazardous areas shall be
as shown below :
2m

Zone 1
2m

Zone 2

Pit, if any, Zone 1

Figure - 8.3 - Floating roof tank (Category C on release).


LPG storage stored under pressure :
The extent and classification of hazardous areas around storage vessels containing Class 0
liquids (LPG) shall be based on French regulation, namely the "Arrt du 9 novembre
1972" for liquefied hydrocarbons stored under pressure at more than 0C ambient
temperature (Class A2 under French classification). Refer to Figures 8.4 and 8.5 below :

assumed to be

Zone 2
5m

PSV discharge

7.5 m

Zone 1

at this location
7.5 m

7.5 m

Storage vessel
Capacity < 200 m3
7.5 m

8.4.

Ground

Figure 8.4 - Storage vessel < 200 m3

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15

assumed to be

PSV discharge
at this location

Storage vessel
Capacity > 200 m 3

Zone 2
Zone 1

10 m
0.6 m
Ground

Figure 8.5 - Storage vessel > 200 m3


Notes on Figures 8.4 and 8.5
1. The figures are the cross-sections of the LPG storage vessel which contain the Pressure
Safety Valve (PSV) discharge point. The Zone 1 envelope is a sphere centred around the
PSV discharge point, and the Zone 2 envelope is made of cylinders with a vertical axis
containing the PSV discharge point.
2. The size and shape of the hazardous areas are determined by the location of the storage
vessel and the volume of the vessel containing LPG under pressure (less or more than
200 m3). They do not depend on the shape of the storage vessel (sphere, cylinder..).
3. The hazardous areas generated by piping connections, sample points, instrument vents
etc. shall be determined as per the standard rules given in chapter 3.
8.5.

Refrigerated LPG storage :


The case of LPG stored at atmospheric pressure (below 0C) is outwith the scope of this
specification. Refer to the local regulations and standards prevailing in the country of
application.

8.6.

LNG storage
NFPA 59A or more stringent national regulations shall be followed.

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9.

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MISCELLANEOUS
9.1.

Laboratories
A laboratory is a specific closed room or building where analyses are carried out by
personnel. It contains potential sources of release such as hydrocarbon gas samples, and
vapours from heated hydrocarbon liquids. Some of the equipment used for hydrocarbon
gas and liquid analysis cannot be made suitable for use in a hazardous area (e.g.
chromatograph) and therefore shall be considered as ignition sources. Also some leak
sources may be toxic for health. Dilution ventilation (refer to 2.6.3) shall be
implemented in laboratories to ensure that they can be continuously and safely occupied by
personnel.
All products contained in laboratories shall be checked for toxicity and flammability.
Dilution ventilation rates shall be determined on a case by case basis to take into
consideration the hazards specific to each case. The following dilution rates apply only in
the laboratories containing no toxic materials and no sources of primary grade of release.
They shall be considered by default until the leak rates of secondary grade releases are
assessed.
1. A laboratory handling flammable gases or liquids shall be provided with an exhaust fan
certified for Zone 1, which will achieve a ventilation rate of at least 12 air changes/h.
2. A fume cupboard shall also be provided, with an exhaust fan certified for Zone 1 which
will achieve a ventilation rate of at least 30 air changes/h.
Fixed lighting and electrical connections inside the laboratory shall be certified for Zone 2.
The inventory of flammable products in laboratories shall be minimised: flammable products
other than the minimum quantities necessary for the day-to-day work shall be stored outside
the laboratory, in suitable locations.
As far as the surroundings are concerned, a laboratory should be regarded as adequately
ventilated, and classified Zone 2. A laboratory should be a separate building, located in a
non-hazardous area. If incorporated in a larger building, it should be completely isolated
from other parts of the building. For laboratories where a pressure below that of the
surrounding area is maintained, air-locks may be permitted between the laboratory and the
remainder of the building. The laboratory ventilation system shall be independent from the
ventilation of the remainder of the building.
The doors of a laboratory should be self-closing and of a vapour-tight design. The
hazardous areas generated by the doors (vapour-tight or not) and the fan exhausts shall
extend to 3 m as shown in Figure 9.1.
Figure 9.1 - Laboratories
3m
Laboratory

Self-closing airtight door


ZONE 2

3m

Adequate
ventilation

Exhaust fan creating under pressure

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Analyser shelters
An analyser shelter or house is a specific closed room or building containing one or more
analysers for samples of flammable fluids which are or may be connected to a process
installation together with electrical equipment and auxiliary devices (IEC 79-16).
The design of analyser shelters shall adhere to the requirements of GS SAF 216, IEC 7916 and IEC 1285. In particular:
The analyser shelter shall be a separate building or shall be completely isolated from other
parts of the building.
If the analyser shelter is located in a hazardous area the ingress of the external atmosphere
into the shelter shall be prevented by an internal overpressure produced by forced
ventilation (refer to 2.7.1).
The analyser shelter containing ignition sources (e.g. electrical apparatus not suitable for
operation in Zone 2) and secondary grade of release sources shall be provided with
dilution ventilation (see 2.6.3). The dilution ventilation shall ensure 30 air changes per
hour as a minimum (IP-15).
Primary, continuous grade of release sources shall be vented, and sampling operations
which involve the intentional release of flammable substances shall be carried-out in a
suitable location outside the shelter. Hydrocarbon vent lines shall be fitted with a flame
arrester.
If a primary source cannot not be vented outside the shelter, dilution ventilation shall be
provided even if there are no ignition sources in the shelter (this shall require a derogation
to this specification approved by COMPANY and an assessment of the dilution rate).
The analyser shelters containing toxic sources (e.g. hydrocarbon gas containing H2S) shall
be provided with dilution ventilation. The dilution ventilation rate shall be assessed on a
case by case basis to make the shelter safe for personnel.
False ceilings and floors shall not be used in analyser shelters. Blow out panels should be
provided to minimise the consequences of an explosion.

9.3.

Small storage of flammable products


This section addresses the case of portable containers with small volumes of flammable
products e.g. bottles containing liquefied hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon gases under
pressure (acetylene, LPG..). Storage locations should be identified and designated on layouts during the design of an installation for this equipment such that the hazard of ignition
or explosion associated with such storage be minimised.
Since a leak from properly designed containers can be only accidental, such containers
should generate a hazardous area Zone 2, extending X m from the envelope of the
containers(s). X should be determined as per Table 3.6 flanges and valves i.e. X=3 for
fluids of Categories A, B and G, X=1.5 for fluids of Category C.

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Loading an filling operations (road tanker, rail car, drum filling)


Refer to IP-15, Section 3.

9.5.

Jetties (loading, discharge)


Refer to IP-15, Section 3.

9.6.

Air intakes
Air intakes shall be located to prevent ingress of flammable gas or vapour in areas
containing ignition sources: e.g. air intakes to heating and ventilation systems and to
combustion chambers.
Air intakes shall be located at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area.

9.7.

Air exhausts
Ventilation (adequate, non-adequate and purging) air exhausts from a classified enclosed
area should generate a hazardous area of 3 m radius with the same classification as the
enclosed area.

9.8.

Chimneys and exhausts


Exhaust and chimneys releasing hot gases shall not be located in hazardous areas Zone 1
or Zone 0.
They may be installed in hazardous areas Zone 2 only if their external skin temperature
does not exceed 250C.
The external skin temperature limits as given above apply to all hot exhaust chimneys
within the restricted areas of all petroleum installations (for the definition of the restricted
area refer to GS SAF 253).
Chimney outlets shall be at least 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2
and 9 m away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 or 0.
There is one exception to this rule: vents from turbine lube oil tanks, although generating a
Zone 1 hazardous area, may exit into the outlet of the turbine's main exhaust chimney. This
standard design is regarded as safe considering the risk specific to this situation.

9.9.

Flares
Flares shall be installed in a non-hazardous area but this is not sufficient.
COMPANY rules (refer to GS SAF 262 Safety Rules for Hydrocarbon Disposal
Systems 4.1.1) require that flares are located so as to prevent the ignition of a flammable
gas cloud resulting from accidental releases, including leaks from process or storage units
or releases from vents of the installation (a leak from the flare header is not considered).
This goes far beyond area classification requirements. Gas dispersion calculation shall be
carried out to determine the minimum height of the flare (for elevated flares) or the

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minimum distance between the flare and other process/storage units in the installation to
meet the requirements.
9.10. Traffic
9.10.1 Roads and railways (onshore)
The main roads of a plant (peripheral roads) shall be kept no less than 2 m away
from the border of any Zone 2 and 9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and
Zone 0.
If this is not practicable, traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed
gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk
mitigation measures shall be approved by COMPANY).
The safe distances should be materialised by signs wherever an access road
enters a hazardous area.
For railways, refer to IP-15.
9.10.2 Helidecks, helipads and air strips
Any point of these areas as well as any area being part of an helicopter/plane
approach zone shall be no less than 2 m away from the border of any Zone 2 and
9 m away from the border of any Zone 1 and Zone 0.
If this is not practicable, traffic restrictions and control procedures shall be
implemented: fixed gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms,
presence of a HLO (Helicopter Landing Officer) or other personnel qualified to
authorise landing and take-off (design and risk mitigation measures shall be
approved by COMPANY).
9.10.3. Boats
The boat landing and/or the mooring facilities shall be such that tugs or supply
boats are kept 2 m away from the border of any hazardous area Zone 2 and 9 m
away from the border of any hazardous areas Zone 1 and 0.
If this is not practicable, traffic restrictions shall be implemented based on fixed
gas detection which initiates visual and audible alarms (design and risk
mitigation measures shall be approved by COMPANY).
This requirement covers not only the ship hull and decks but also its chimney,
radio aerials and radar antenna and other appurtenances regarded as sources of
ignition.
9.11. Purging
Purging is the operation of passing a quantity of air through an enclosure and its associated
ducts in order to reduce any concentration of flammable gas or vapour within them to a
safe level (from IEC 79-16).

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The purging process shall last long enough to keep the flammable gas content under 25 %
of the lowest flammable limit in the worst conditions. In any case the minimum volume of
sweeping air shall be five times the total volume of the enclosure/premises. Purging shall
be done with air being totally free of flammable gas. This shall be established with
flammable gas detectors, fixed or portable. For the precautions specific to the operation of
fired heaters refer to GS SAF 227 5.
Care shall be taken that all areas have been effectively purged, particularly the confined
areas such as :
1.
pits, if heavier than air gas or vapour is present,
2.
ceiling recesses if lighter than air gas or vapour is present,
3.
blind corners.
Flammable gas detectors shall be used to check all spots where gas is likely to accumulate.

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9.12 Classification of enclosed buildings


The classification of the enclosed buildings shall be based on the rules defined in this
specification, particularly in chapter 4, with due consideration for ventilation and
pressurisation (as per chapter 2).

3m

3m

2nd degree
source

2nd degree
source

No leak source

Adequate
ventilation

Adequate
ventilation

Adequate
ventilation

2nd degree
source

Adequate
ventilation

No leak source

Note 1

Note 1

3m

Not adequately
ventilated

No leak source

Pressurised as
defined in section 2.7

Ordinary door
Self-closing airtight door
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
Ventilation fan

Note 1 : Zone classification and extent to be defined


according fig. 4.8 and 4.9 assuming the door is wide open.
Installation of self-closing airtight door is recommended.

Figure 9.2 - Classification of enclosed buildings

Note 1

3m

Note 1

Note 1

This section is intended to provide examples of the application of these rules, as shown in
Figure 9.2.