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A Deliverable by the NGMN Alliance

MULTI-ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY
Antenna Co-Site Solutions

next generation mobile networks

A Deliverable by
the NGMN Alliance

MULTI-ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY
Antenna Co-Site Solutions
Version:

2.4 Final

Date:

31st August 2012

Document Type:

Final Deliverable (approved)

Confidentiality Class:

P - Public

Authorised Recipients:

N/A

Project:

Multi Antenna Technology

Editor / Submitter:

Ma Xin, China Mobile

Contributors:

China Mobile, Datang Mobile, Huawei, ZTE

Approved by / Date:

Board 31 August 2012

For all Confidential documents (CN, CL, CR):


This document contains information that is confidential and proprietary to NGMN Ltd. The information may not be used,
disclosed or reproduced without the prior written authorisation of NGMN Ltd., and those so authorised may only use this
information for the purpose consistent with the authorisation.
For Public documents (P):
2012 Next Generation Mobile Networks Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission from NGMN Ltd.
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discussed as of the date of publication. This document is provided as is with no warranties whatsoever including
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Document Information
Editor in Charge

Ma Xin(China Mobile)

Editing Team

Yujiang Wu Huawei
Jianan LeeZTE
Li ChuanjunDatang Mobile

Document status:

FINAL

Version:

2.4

Date:

August 31 , 2012

st

Abstract
This deliverable is produced by the Next Generation Mobile Network Project MATE Multi-ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY.
This document provides the solutions of co-site antenna to reduce the antenna installation space and requirement for
2G/3G/4G. This deliverable will focus on the solutions on 2path and 8path co-site antenna.
This document includes two main solutions: 2path antenna solutions which are based on the requirements of
FDD/TDD/3G/GSM co-site;8path antenna solutions which are based on the requirements of FDD-TDD,TDD-TDD LTE
and TDD LTE-3G co-site .
The intention is to provide a specific, yet generic, description of co-site antenna features.

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Co-site solution is a big issue for the operators network deployments. The document focuses on the co-site solutions
from antenna side. Both 2 path solutions and 8 path solutions will be used in the future network when operators
operate more than one generation of mobile telecommunication system. In fact most of them have both 2G and 3G
network and will launch 4G soon and many of them have both TDD and FDD bands. The solutions in this document
will be important references.

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

CONTENT
0

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................ 3

INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE................................................................................................................................... 5

BACKGROUND & REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 5

2 PATH ANTENNA CO-SITE SOLUTIONS.................................................................................................................. 5


3.1
BAND ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
3.2
ANTENNA KEY DESIGN ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.2.1
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS........................................................................................................................................... 6
3.2.2
KEY PARAMETERS ...................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.2.3
Array layout ................................................................................................................................................................ 9
3.3
TDD/FDD CO-SITE SOLUTION.................................................................................................................................................10

8 PATH ANTENNA SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................................................. 12


4.1
REQUIREMENT ......................................................................................................................................................................12
4.2
ANTENNA DESIGN: 65DEGREE ELEMENTS.................................................................................................................................14
4.3
ANTENNA DESIGN: ANTENNA INTEGRATED COMBINER ................................................................................................................18
4.4
ANTENNA DESIGN: INDEPENDENT RET .....................................................................................................................................19
4.5
TDD 3G/4G CO-SITE ............................................................................................................................................................19
4.5.1
Solutions ...................................................................................................................................................................20
4.5.2
Simulation.................................................................................................................................................................21
4.6
TDD/FDD LTE CO-SITE ........................................................................................................................................................23
4.7
ANTENNA PRODUCTS ......................................................................................................................................................25
4.7.1
Side-by-side layout ...................................................................................................................................................25
4.8
LAB TEST ..............................................................................................................................................................................26
4.9
KEY ANTENNA PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................................................................27
4.10 TRIALS .................................................................................................................................................................................29

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 32

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE

The Multi-antenna Technology (MATE) project of NGMN, will share the information and experiences on antenna
deployment and conclude some basic modes for reference for future 3G/LTE antenna deployment. The project will
mainly focus on the multi antenna tech since it has been considered as the future trend for both TDD/FDD systems.
This document provides the solutions of co-site antenna to reduce the difficulty of antenna deployment for information
sharing. This deliverable will focus on the conclusion and summary of 2path/8path two basic co-site antenna modes
from operators and vendors experience.
.

BACKGROUND & REQUIREMENTS

Operators will operate more and more networks including 2G/3G/4G. However, it is harder and harder to find enough
antenna space for installation and deployment. Operators need new antenna solutions to co-site together to reduce
the antenna amount and difficulty to deployment. Furthermore, a good solution will benefit all systems and also reduce
the cost for maintenance.
For the multi-antenna solutions considering the requirements from TDD/FDD LTE system, there are 2 main
requirements:
First, co-site requirement of 2-path antenna.
2-path antenna has been widely used in GSM/3G/FDD-LTE, also will be used in TD-LTE in some scenarios. The basic
features including:
-super wideband: cover 2G/3G/4G band
-Dual-polar design
-Cover the parameter requirements from 2G/3G/4G, such as PIM
Second, co-site requirement of 8-path antenna.
8-path antenna has been widely used in 3 G/TD-LTE systems. We will also consider the future 4-path antenna
application in FDD LTE. The basic features including:
-Wideband: cover 3G/4G, and 2G in the future
-Support the FDD LTE co-site with 2 paths or 4paths
-Dual-polar design for both systems

3
3.1

2 PATH ANTENNA CO-SITE SOLUTIONS


BAND

In recent co-site solution is becoming more and more popular with the development of mobile communication.
Implementation of co-site solution can be classified in three types roughly, which are dual/triple band combiner, same
band combiner and multi-band antenna respectively. Because multi-band antenna can achieve independent RET
easily, it becomes the mainstream.
According to analysis of 3GPP band and deployment of existing network there are several common band
combinations shown in Table 3.1. For example, combination 1 chooses the above 5 bands for co-site solution. Other
combinations are achieved by deleting according band.
Table 3.1 Common band combination for co-site solution
Common Bands
790-862
880-960
1710-1880
1920-2170
2490-2690
Combination1

Combination 2

Combination 3

Combination 4

Combination 5

Combination6

Combination 7

Combination 8

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

3.2
3.2.1

ANTENNA KEY DESIGN


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

To achieve system performance several antenna requirements should be ensured


1. Independent RET
2. System isolation is more than 30dB
3. Better reliability
4. Moderate antenna size
With the help of independent RET, co-site system can be optimized respectively. With the help of high system isolation
interference between two systems can be suppressed in high power level. Reliability is a basic feature in antenna
survival. The performance of all system will be impacted in the co-site solution when some part of the antenna works
abnormally. Thereby co-site applications make antenna design facing more challenge not only in total size.

3.2.2

KEY PARAMETERS

Antenna for co-site solution should satisfy not only common antenna parameters requirements but also the
requirements for co-site application . These paremeters are shown as below.
1. VSWR
2. Isolation (inter-ISO, intra-ISO)
3. PIM
4. Power-handling
VSWR and ISO are key parameters for common antenna and will not be discussed here. Inter-ISO and PIM should be
paid more attention, for example, in some bands combination PIM 2 should be considered other than PIM 3.
PIM analysis is suggested to do before total design and measurement to ensure the antenna can operate normally in
co-site application. For better understanding, analysis of PIM 3 ~ PIM 11 is shown as below. TX/RX band information
should be collected first, which is listed in table 3.2
Table 3.2 Common band combination for TX/RX

Mode

TXMHz

RXMHz

Band 20
DD800

791 821

832 862

Band 8
E GSM900

925 - 960

880 - 915

Band 3
DSC1800

1 805 -1 880

1 710 - 1 785

Band 1
UMTS Band I

2 110 - 2 170

1 920 - 1 980

Band 7
FDD 2.6G

2620 2690

2500 2570

First, for 1710 MHz~2690 MHz wide-band antenna which combines UMTS band1, DCS 1800, FDD 2.6G PIMs for TX
are listed as below
Table 3.3 PIM analysis for UMTS Band 1, DCS 1800 and FDD 2.6G

Lower
boundary
TX
RX

DSC1800
Higher
boundary
1805
1880
1710
1785

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

Lower
boundary

UMTS Band I
Higher
boundary
2110
2170
1920
1980

Lower
boundary

FDD 2.6G
Higher
boundary
2620
2690
2500
2570

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM1
1

/
171
0
171
0
171
0
171
0

1730

1955

2050

2230

2550

2760

1655

2030

1990

2290

2480

2700

1580

2105

1930

2350

2410

2700

1505

2180

1870

2410

2340

2700

1430

2255

1810

2470

2270

2700

For easy understanding, spectrum distribution of impact of PIM for RX are listed as below
RX of DCS1800

TX of DCS1800

RX of UMTS Band I

RX of FDD2.6G

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.1 Analysis of PIM generated by DCS 1800


(Note:magnitude of Y axis does not mean the PIM level.)
RX of DCS1800

RX of UMTS Band I

TX of UMTS Band I

RX of FDD2.6G

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.2 Analysis of PIM generated by UMTS 1


RX of DCS1800

RX of UMTS Band I

RX of FDD2.6G

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.3 Analysis of PIM generated by 2.6G


NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

TX of FDD2.6G

2700

From these figures we know that PIM generated by DCS 1800 begins to impact others from 3rd inter-modulation.,.
Only PIM 7 should be measured for UMTS Band 1. As similar analysis only PIM 3 should be measured for Band VII.
Generally magnitude of product of PIM 3 is much higher than that of PIM 7, thus only PIM 3 will be tested by most
vendors.
Secondly, for 790 MHz~960 0 MHZMHz wide-band antenna which combines DD 800 and E-GSM 900 PIMs for TX are

listed as below.
Table 3.4 PIM analysis for DD800, E-GSM900

DD800
E-GSM900
Lower boundary Higher boundary Lower boundary Higher boundary
TX
792
822
925
960
RX
832
862
880
915
762
995
PIM3
852
890
790
960
PIM5
790
882
855
960
PIM7
790
912
820
960
PIM9
790
942
790
785
960
972
PIM11
790
790
750
960
960
Figure 3.4 and 3.5 show spectrum distribution of PIM for
TX of DD800
RX of DD800
RX of E-GSM900

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.4 Analysis of PIM from DD 800 to E-GSM 900


RX of DD800

RX of E-GSM900

TX of E-GSM900

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.5 Analysis of PIM from E-GSM 900 to DD 800


From these figures we can see that PIM coming from DD 800 and E-GSM 900 all begin from 3rd inter modulation. PIM
3 and PIM 5 impact DD 800 and E-GSM 900. So higher order inter modulation should be added in measurement other
than PIM 3. Normally only PIM 3 will be tested due to the higher magnitude than that of PIM 7.
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

3.2.3

Array layout

To achieve desired system performance, array layout of antenna for co-site solution should be treated carefully. Sideby-side, Co-axial and Side-by-side with co-axial are usual choice. When compact size is most need, radiator element
level sharing (RELS) is another good choice in array design.

Co-axial

Side-by-side
Side-by-side with co-axial
Figure 3.6 Array layout
Co-axial layout is more suitable for the application where frequencies are far away from each other in spectrum. It can
achieve good radiation pattern and realize compact size, but impact between low and high frequency unit is somewhat
serious that good electrical specifications are difficult to achieve. Side-by-side layout can reduce impact between units,
but direction of pattern and symmetry deteriorate for asymmetric reflector and width of total antenna is wider.
Radiator element level sharing (RELS) is new solution, which is based on combinerPCB or cavity designing
cascade with feeding network. The antenna size for this layout keeps the same, performance of different bands is
similar, and downtilt angle optimization can be done independently). However, reliability of the antenna challenges
more when a large number of combiners are arranged.

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

Figure 3.7 Sharing element layout

3.3

TDD/FDD CO-SITE SOLUTION

When bandwidth of antenna can cover TDD and FDD band at the same time, co-site solution can be applied. For a
antenna array which bandwidth is 1.71G~2.69G, we can choose suitable band from Band 33 to Band 40 to combine
with FDD band. Though PIM is not considered in TDD system, it should be key parameter in co-site solution because
PIM from TDD may fall in the RX band of FDD. Using principle of section 3.2.2 PIM analysis can be done for Band
1/Band 40 and Band 7/Band 40. PIM 9 or PIM 3 of Band 40 should be considered in this condition.
To demonstrate the architecture of this solution clearly, we analyse the combination of Band 7 and Band 40. This array
can be designed to cover 2.3G~2.7G. Using the technique of sharing element mentioned in section 3.2.3, TDD/FDD
co-site can be achieved. Figure 3.7 shows the architecture of this antenna array. Duplexers are set behind the antenna
element. TDD and FDD paths use different feeding network. In this architecture PIM of element is a challenge because
of the lack of analysis and improved technique. N connector is widely used in TDD system. When this connector is
used in co-site solution, we suggest that plating or alloy treatment should be employed to improve PIM. Besides
antenna PIM we should also pay the same attention to PIM in link.
Table 3.5 PIM for Band 1/Band 40 and Band 7/Bands 40

Mode

TXMHz

RXMHz

E-UTRA Band 1
UMTS Band 1

2110 2170

1920 1980

E-UTRA Band 7

2620 2690

2500 2570

E-UTRA Band 40
TD-SCDMA-E

2300 2400

2300 2400

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

10

RX of Band1

TX/RX of Band40

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.8 Analysis of PIM from Band 40 to Band 1


TX/RX of Band40

RX of Band7

PIM3
PIM5
PIM7
PIM9
PIM11

Figure 3.9 Analysis of PIM from Band 40 to Band 7


Typical spec for a wideband antenna2300-2700 MHz including Band 40 and Band 7
Frequency range (MHz)
2300-2400
Polarization()

2500-2690

45

Tilt

10

10

Gain(0.5dB)

17.3

17.2

16.8

17.4

17.3

17.0

3dB beamwidth

68

65

132

127

7.50.5

70.5

(horizontal) (4)
10dB beamwidth
(horizontal) (10)
(reference)
Variable Electrical Downtilt Range

010

3dB Beamwidth
(vertical)
Front to back ratio, copolar
(18030) (dB)
Front to back ratio, cross-polar) (18030) (dB)

>=26,Typ.30
>=24,Typ.26

Sidelobe suppression for first sidelobe above

10

10

17

16

16

17

16

15

vertical (dB), Typ.


>9dB

Sidelobe suppressionwithin 30150 sector


Typ. 12
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

11

above vertical
>=18dB @ 0

Cross Pole Discrimination (dB)


Typ. 10dB @ 10dB
Intermodulation (dBc) (2X20W Carriers)
Max. CW power per input (W)

250 (at 50 C ambient temperature)

Isolation Between Ports (dB)

>=30

VSWR
Impedance()
Vertical Beam Squint Across Downtilt Range()

> 150dBcPIM3

<=1.4:1
50
<= 0.5

8 PATH ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

The 4 columns 8 antenna elements dual polarized smart antenna is referred to 8 path smart antenna or dual polarized
smart antenna. Dual polarized smart antenna technology is also termed as beamforming, exploits knowledge of
channel information at transmitter. It utilizes the channel information to build the beamforming matrices as pre-filters at
transmitter to achieve link gain and capacity gain.
When evolving to TD-LTE, dual polarized smart antenna can be used to substantially to improve the TD-LTE system
performance by leveraging the spatial characteristics of the wireless channel. Dual polarized smart antenna with the
single-antenna port (port 5) can improve the power efficiency, and Dual polarized smart antenna with dual layer
transmission (port 7 & port 8) can increase the effective date rate. So the dual polarized smart antenna is best choice
for TD-SCDMA and TD-LTE.
At the same time, when evolving to TD-LTE, many operators find it difficult to obtain new sites for TD-LTE base
stations. Likewise, due to restrictions from authorities, zoning regulations, or concerns regarding RF exposure, it is
often difficult to add antennas to existing sites. However, co-site solutions enable operators to reuse existing equipment.
The co-site solutions is used to signify the sharing of equipment between different systems at a given site, for example,
the antenna, system, power and battery backup system, transmission, cooling, and shelters.
This article solely discusses the co-site of antenna system for TD-LTE and TD-LTE with different frequency spectrum,
TD-SCDMA, TD-LTE and GSM, TD-LTE and TD-LTE-A.

4.1

REQUIREMENT

TD-LTE system is being rolled out in some global operators network. Furthermore, TD-LTE has raised a great interest
to more and more operators in the world. TD-LTE networks have being or will being rolled out by operators who own
GSM network or LTE FDD network simultaneously. It means that operators need co-site solutions for GSM
900/GSM1800, TD-SCDMA (1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz), TD-LTE (2500-2690 MHz)/ TD-LTE-A in network
deployment. In the text that follows, we take an investigation in co-site solutions of antenna system for
TD-LTE and TD-LTE with different frequency spectrum
TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA
TD-LTE and GSM
TD-LTE and FDD-LTE
TD-LTE and TDD-LTE-A
Depending on the requirements, there is a way of co-site antenna systems solution for TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA. The
simplest method is to share antenna for TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA, replacing existing TD-SCDMA 1880-1920/20102025 MHz dual-polarized smart antenna with 1880-1920/2010-2025/2500-2690MHz dual-polarized smart antenna.
China mobile received the 2500-2690 MHz spectrum for TD-LTE, which necessitated smart antenna co-site solutions
for TD-SCDMA and TD-LTE. So, the China mobile developed 1880-1920/2010-2025/2500-2690 MHz dual-polarized
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

12

smart antenna which is referred to smart antenna. The smart antenna can be used to share the TD-SCDMA with new
TD-LTE system.
Three co-site solutions of antenna system for TD-LTE/TD-SCDMA or TD-LTE/TD-LTE are
1. smart antenna sharing solution : smart antenna, filter combiner
2. smart antenna sharing solution: smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner and MultiCoaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC)
3. smart antenna sharing solution : independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner
and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC)
The solution 1 shares smart antenna by filter combiner. Figure 4.1 shows smart antenna sharing solution 1. In this
solution, after replacing existing TD-SCDMA dual-polarized smart antenna with smart antenna, we should add filter
combiner and TD-LTE RRU to existing sites. We can find it is difficult to add filter combiner and TD-LTE RRU to
existing sites.
In this case, in order to solve difficulty in the installation of filter combiner, we develop smart antenna Integrated with
filter combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC). Existing TD-SCDMA dual-polarized smart
antenna is replaced with smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface
(MCIC), this solution is called smart antenna sharing solution 2, and is shown as Figure 4.2.
Since the antenna down-tilt angle and antenna direction is the same for TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA system in smart
antenna solution 1 and solution 2, the antenna down-tilt angle cant be adjusted independently which will affects the
cell planning. So the smart antenna sharing solution 3 is designed, and FA/D independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna
Integrated with filter combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC) is used in smart antenna sharing
solution 3, and is shown in Figure4.3.The down-tilt angle of TD-LTE and the down-tilt angle of TD-SCDMA can be
adjusted independently from 2 degree to 12 degree.
This three smart antenna sharing solutions are also be used in co-site solutions of antenna system for TD-LTE and
TD-LTE with different frequency spectrum. For example, the frequency range of first TD-LTE system is 18801920/2010-2025, and the frequency range of another TD-LTE system is 2500-2690 MHz.
The three type smart antenna will be introduced in the following section.
d
FAD smart
antenna

1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8 cal
filter combiner

TD-SCDMA(or
TD-LTE)
RRU
Power Cable

TD-LTE
RRU
Optical fiber

TD-SCDMA(or TDLTE)
BBU

TD-LTE
BBU

Figure 4.1 smart antenna sharing solution 1

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

13

FAD smart antenna


Integrated
with
filter combiner and
(MCIC)

filter combiner

MCIC
Interface
MultiCoaxial Incorporative
Cable(MCIC)

TD-SCDMA(or
TD-LTE)
RRU

TD-LTE
RRU
Optical fiber

Power Cable

TD-SCDMA(or TDLTE)
BBU

TD-LTE
BBU

Figure 4.2 smart antenna sharing solution 2


FA/D independent
Electrical Tilt smart
antenna Integrated
with filter combiner
and (MCIC)

FC is filter
combiner

FC

FC

FC

FC

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC

FC

FC

FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

MCIC
Interface
MultiCoaxial Incorporative
Cable(MCIC)

TD-LTE
RRU

TD-SCDMA(or
TD-LTE) RRU
Optical fiber

Power Cable

TD-LTE
BBU

TD-SCDMA(or TDLTE) BBU

Figure 4.3 smart antenna sharing solution 3


So independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable
Interface (MCIC) solution is an attractive choice for TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA co-site.

4.2

ANTENNA DESIGN: 65DEGREE ELEMENTS

Since the element beam width in 2500 2690 MHz frequency range is 6515 degree, FAD smart antenna is referred
to 65 degree element beam smart antenna. Figure 4-4 shows schematic diagram of 4 columns 8 antenna elements

450 polarized antennas are vertically oriented, and are spaced at a


+ 450 polarized, and antenna elements 5,6,7,8 are 450 polarized.

dual polarized smart antenna. The 4 columns


distance of

d . Antenna elements 1,2,3,4 are

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

14

5 2 6

cal

7 4 8

Figure 4.4 schematic diagram of 4 columns 8 antenna elements dual polarized

smart antenna (such as FAD frequency smart antenna)


Currently for TD-SCDMA, the frequency range of dual-polarized smart antenna is 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz. So, its
upper frequency fU is 2025 MHz and its lower frequency f L is 1880 MHz. The percentage of bandwidth is calculated
as follows:

percentage of bandwidth =

100( fU f L )
% = 7.43%
( fU + f L ) / 2

The column spacing for TD-SCDMA dual-polarized smart antenna at the range of 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz is
designed as 75mm, so the column spacing d L at lower frequency f L is 0.47 L in wavelength, and its column
spacing

dU

at upper frequency

fU

is 0.5062U in wavelength.

Since the column spacing is an significant parameter for design of the dual polarized smart antenna, and a percentage
of bandwidth 7.43% is very low percentage of bandwidth for dual polarized smart antenna design, so it is easy to
design this column spacing for such a low percentage of bandwidth. But as the percentage of bandwidth increases, the
design of column spacing will become difficult.
For example, when the frequency range of FAD smart antenna is 1880-1920/2010-2025/2500-2690 MHz, its upper

frequency U is 2690 MHz and its lower frequency


calculated as follows:

percentage of bandwidth =

f L is

1880 MHz. In this case, the percentage of bandwidth is

100( fU f L )
% = 35.45%
( fU + f L ) / 2

A percentage of bandwidth 35.45% is very wide bandwidth parameter. And it has a strong relationship with column
spacing design. Typically, in multiple columns smart antenna application, the column spacing is approximately 0.5

c
. The choice of frequency f is very important to smart antenna performance. If we choose the f = fU ,
f
dU = 0.5U
d f
0.5 f L
d L = U L L =
L = 0.3494L
c
fU
So in this case, the column spacing d L at lower frequency f L is 0.3494 L in wavelength, when its column spacing
dU at upper frequency fU is 0.5U in wavelength. Since column spacing of 0.3494L will lead mutual coupling

or 0.5

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

15

between columns to increase and the increased mutual coupling will lead to element beam broadened, and then
eventually lead to element gain decreased. So the physical column spacing

0.5

c
fU

is not suitable.

When the physical column spacing of FAD smart antenna is designed as 75mm, the column spacing at lower
frequency f L in wavelength is 0.47 L , and its column spacing at upper frequency fU in wavelength is 0.6725U .
The physical column spacing of FAD smart antenna is same with the column spacing of TD-SCDMA dual-polarized
smart antenna in 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz
The performance of FAD smart antenna in 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz is close to performance of TD-SCDMA dualpolarized smart antenna in 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz. And the performance of FAD smart antenna in 2500-2690
MHz can meet the requirement of TD-LTE system. The detail performance parameters of FAD smart antenna are
defined as:
Table 4.1 Parameters of FAD smart antenna (example)
Number

Category

Parameter

Frequency
Parameter

Freqency RangeMHz

Structure
Parameter

Path Number

Array Type
Polarization Type
Column Number
Column Spacingmm
Electrical downtilt
Electrical downtilt Accuracy
Input impedanceohm
Antenna Port VSWR
Isolation between same polarization
ports(dB)

linear array
45
4
75
6
1
50
1.5

Isolation between cross-polarization


ports(dB)
Maximum input power W

28

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Circuit
Parameter

10
11
12

Value
1880-1920F/2010-2025A
/2500-2690D

25

50

Transmission loss from antenna element


port to calibration port (dB)

-262

Difference in transmission coefficient


between any 2 antenna element port to
calibration port in magnitude(dB)

0.5

15

Difference in transmission coefficient


between any 2 antenna element port to
calibration port in phase(deg)

16
17

Calibraion port VSWR


Calibration port directional coupler (dB)

1.5
15

Active return loss of antenna


element(Relative to 50 ohms
dB

-10

13
14

18
19

Calibration
Parameter

Active return
loss
Vertical beam

20
21
22
23

Element beam

Vertical half-power beam width


Upper side suppression(USLS)dB
dB
Lower Null FilldBdB
GaindBi
Horizontal half-power beam width

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

16

7/6.5/5
-16
-22
14.5/15/16.5
10015/9015/6515

Horizontal gain attenuation at 60


dB
Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal pattern Cross-polarization
ratioon AxisdB

24
25
26

-/-/-123
23
15

27

Horizontal pattern Cross-polarization


ratioIn range of 60degreedB

10

28

GaindBi[note 1]

14.5/15/15

Horizontal half-power beam width


Horizontal gain attenuation at 60
dB
Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal pattern Cross-polarization
ratioon AxisdB

655

29
30

65 degree
broadcast beam

31
32

-123
28
15

33

Horizontal pattern Cross-polarization


ratioIn range of 60degreedB

10

34

Ripple in range of Horizontal half-power


beam widthdB

GaindBi

20.5/21/22.5

Horizontal half-power beam width


Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal side lobe leveldB
Difference of right and left Horizontal
side lobe leveldBdB

30/28/25
28
-12

DC Ground

35
36
37
38

0 degree scan
beam

39
40

Lightning
protection

Lightning protection

41

Mechanical
parameter

Connector Number
Connector Type
Connector position

8 antenna connector + 1
calibration connector
N-50K
Bottom

Mechanical tilt ()

0~+10

Mounting hardware (mm)

50~115

42
43
44
45
note 1

Mechanical
adjustment

including+ power divider loss - power loss due to weight amplitude(dB)

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

17

4.3

ANTENNA DESIGN: ANTENNA INTEGRATED COMBINER

In order to solve the difficulty in the installation of filter combiner, we develop FAD smart antenna Integrated with filter
combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC). And it is referred to FA/D combined smart antenna.
Figure 4.5 shows the schematic diagram of FA/D combined smart antenna.

FAD smart antenna


Integrated
with
filter combiner and
(MCIC)

filter combiner

MCIC
Interface

Figure 4.5 schematic diagram of FAD smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner
and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface (MCIC).
One (1) filter combiner, and 4 MCIC interface are integrated to smart antenna. The physical column spacing of FA/D

450 polarized antennas are vertically oriented, and are spaced at


0
1,2,3,4 are + 45 polarized, and antenna elements 5,6,7,8 are

combined smart antenna is 75mm, and 4 columns


a distance of 75mm, Antenna elements

450 polarized.

Antenna 1-8 port and calibration port are connected to combined port of filter combiner.

FC

FC

2 6 cal 3

7 4

FC

FC

Combined port

2 path filter
combiner

FC

FC

FC

FC

FC

filter combiner
MCIC
Interface

5- coaxial MCIC for


1880-1920/20102025MHz

4- coaxial MCIC
for 2500-2690MHz

4- coaxial MCIC for


1880-1920/20102025MHz

5- coaxial MCIC
for 2500-2690MHz

Figure 4.6 schematic diagram of filter combiner and MCIC interface


Figure 4-6 shows schematic diagram of filter combiner and MCIC interface. This filter combiner is composed of 9 two
path filter combiner. Every little 2 path filter combiner has two filter branches connected to a common combined port.
One filter branch is designed to 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz; another filter branch is designed to support the range of
2500-2690 MHz. The little 2 path filter combiner enables signals from each filter branch to be combined on the
common combined port and avoid signals from one filter branch leaking into another filter branch. The little filter
combiner also allows a combined signal that has been inserted the common combined port to be separated into its
components on the separated filter branches. The general characteristics of filter combiners are low loss and excellent
isolation between branches.
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

18

The MCIC interface is used in FA/D combined smart antenna design, 1 5- coaxial MCIC connector and 1 4-coaxial
MCIC connector are designed for TD-SCDMA 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz system. Meanwhile, another 1 5- coaxial
MCIC connector and 1 4-coaxial MCIC connector are designed for TD-LTE 2500-2690 MHz system.

4.4

ANTENNA DESIGN: INDEPENDENT RET

In order to solve the difficulty in cell planning for FA/D combined smart antenna , we develop FA/D independent
Electrical Tilt smart antenna Integrated with filter combiner and Multi-Coaxial Incorporative Cable Interface
(MCIC).which is referred to FA/D independent electrical tilt smart antenna. Figure 4.7 shows schematic diagram of
FA/D independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna.
FA/D independent
Electrical Tilt smart
antenna Integrated with
filter combiner and
(MCIC)

FC is 2 path
filter combiner

d
FC

FC

FC

FC

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Ph
FC ase

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC Shi
FC fter

FC

FC

FC

FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

FC
FC

5- coaxial MCIC for


1880-1920/20102025MHz

4- coaxial MCIC
for 2500-2690MHz

4- coaxial MCIC for


1880-1920/20102025MHz

5- coaxial MCIC
for 2500-2690MHz

Figure 4.7 schematic diagram of FA/D independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna
Integrated with filter combiner and MCIC
The physical column spacing for FA/D independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna is 75mm, and 4 columns

450 polarized antennas are vertically oriented, and are spaced at a distance 75mm,.Antenna elements 1,2,3,4 are
+ 450 polarized, and antenna elements 5,6,7,8 are 450 polarized. Each polarized (-45 or +45) dipole is integrated
with 2 path filter combiner. Each polarized (-45 or +45) dipole is connected to the common combined port of 2 path
filter combiner. The two filter branches of 2 path filter combiner are independent connect to the FA (1880-1920/20102025) phase shifter and D (2500-2690 MHz) phase shifter.
The MCIC interface is used in FA/D independent Electrical Tilt smart antenna design, 1 5- coaxial MCIC connector
and 1 4-coaxial MCIC connector are designed for TD-SCDMA 1880-1920/2010-2025 MHz system, and they are
connected to the FA phase shifter. Meanwhile, another 1 5- coaxial MCIC connector and 1 4-coaxial MCIC connector
are designed for TD-LTE 2500-2690 MHz system, and they are connected to the D phase shifter.

4.5

TDD 3G/4G CO-SITE

In recent years, CMCC has been preparing to deploy a 4G TD-LTE network. There will be many challenges and
opportunities to deploy 3G\4G co-site networks. In China, the TD-SCDMA network based on BMA antenna has
arranged more than 13,700 pcs (estimated value), running for more than 2 years, and come out good results after
stood on sun, wind, rain, salt spray, high and low temperature and other environmental challenges outside the field.
These huge resources push CMCC to offer better antenna solutions to resolve this big challenge.

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

19

4.5.1

Solutions

For 3G\4G co-site deployment, TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA co-antenna should be required in most scenarios. However, it
is not easy to find sufficient antenna resources for 4G deployment. Fortunately, there are many benefits to deploy
3G\4G co-location networks:

Co-location deployment is convenient for unified capacity and coverage planning.

Saves TCO (by sharing of site, peripherals, BBU, CN, etc).

Easy for engineering and maintenance

Easy for co-antenna as 3G TD-SCDMA also adopts 8-path antennas


Before 4G deployment, 3G TD-SCDMA wireless networks have been built in A band (2010-2025 MHz) and F band
(1880-1920 MHz). D band (2570-2620 MHz) TD-LTE is introduced for outdoor co-site deployment.
Here are two solutions for TDD 3G/4G co- antenna:
(1) One is FAD Antenna solution with a built-in combiner. In this solution, the combiner is built in the antenna.
(2) The other is Band D RRU solution with a built-in combiner. In this solution, the combiner is out of the antenna, and
built in the RRU.
There are two kinds of TD-LTE co-antenna options, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 4.1 TD-LTE co-antenna options


Both solutions have pros and cons. In the early stage, we adopt the built-in RRU combiner solution. However, as the
antenna technology becomes more and more mature, the built-in antenna combiner solution is more attractive and all
of antenna vendors claim that they can fully support this technology. Due to easy maintenance, when one RRU is
under maintenance, the services on other RRUs can still run normally without any interruption.

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

20

Table 4-1 Pros and Cons Between Two Co-antenna Solutions

Band D RRU With a

FAD Antenna With a

Built-in Combiner

Built-in combiner

Volume: increases by

Volume: increases by

1.5L~2.5L;

1.5L~2.5L;

Weight: increases 1.5-2.5

Weight: increases by

kg

1.5~2.5 kg

Cost

Increases 400-500 RMB

Increases 400-500 RMB

Same

Reliability

Little effect on BS reliability

Little effect on BS reliability

Same

Comparison Conclusion

Volume/Weight

Same

High coupling;

The second one makes


Low coupling;

Maintenance of Band D
Maintenance

operation and maintenance


Maintenance of any RRU

RRUs will affect Band AF

more convenient and


will not affect others.

RRUs.

reduces downtime.

RRUs need to be tailored,

Supported by antenna

Product

which goes against the

vendors;

Support

commonality of TD-LTE

No impact on TD-LTE

products.

globalization

The second solution will not


impact TD-LTE
globalization.
In a word, we recommend the built-in antenna combiner solution.

4.5.2

Simulation

Many infrastructure vendors have carried out simulation tests in 3G/4G co-site scenarios, and the test results show
good performance and compliance with the real field test. Our simulation is shown as follows.
RSRP and CINR in one cell represent the coverage performance. That is, in one cell, we may receive different signal
quality in different points. CINR will show different signal quality you may get from a near point to a far point according
to the location of the base station.
Throughput shows the capacity performance in one cell, including average spectral efficiency and edge spectral
efficiency.
As shown in the following tables, the performance including RSRP, CINR distribution shows that the results are quite
normal and similar to the independent antenna simulation result. And the throughput with co-antenna solution is just
around the normal average throughput value, with little affected. In a word, there is little difference in capacity and
coverage performance whether co-antenna or non co-antenna solution is adopted.

Table 4-2 TDD 3G/4G Co-site Simulation Result - RSRP


NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

21

Value
X < -110

20.81%

-110 <= X < -105

25.86%

-105 <= X < -100

23.16%

-100 <= X < -95

6.19%

-95 <= X << +INF

23.14%
Table 4-3 TDD 3G/4G Co-site Simulation Result -CINR

Value
-INF << X < -2

24.24%

-2 <= X < 0

24.13%

0 <= X < 5

37.40%

5 <= X < 10

11.94%

10 <= X < 15

1.35%

15 <= X << +INF

0.21%

Table 4-4 TDD 3G/4G Co-site Simulation Result -Throughput

LOAD=50%
UL\DL

Average Throughput (Mbps)

DL
UL

Edge Throughput (Mbps)

7.85106
2.40136

0.455112
0.14072

Here are some co-antenna scenarios. Take TD-SCDMA/TD-LTE co-antenna for example. The results include 3
different scenarios:
(1) Optimized for TDS
(2) Optimized for TDL
(3) Trade-off between TDL and TDS
There are some antenna parameters to be optimized for TD-LTE or TD-SCDMA coverage and capacity, including
down tilt angle, transmit power, heights of antenna, etc.The results are shown in the following tables.

Table 4-5 TDD 3G/4G Co-site in Different Scenarios -CINR

Value

Optimized for
TD-L

-INF << X < -2


-2 <= X < 0
0 <= X < 5
5 <= X < 10
10 <= X < 15
15 <= X << +INF

Optimized for
TD-S

12.45%
13.83%
32.24%
22.48%
13.28%
5.72%

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

Trade-off

15.39%
17.21%
34.98%
20.55%
8.75%
3.12%

22

13.03%
14.94%
34.50%
22.51%
11.20%
3.82%

Table 4-6 TDD 3G/4G Co-site in Different Scenarios -RSRP

Value

Optimized for

Optimized for

TD-L

-INF << X < -110


-110 <= X < -105
-105 <= X < -100
-100 <= X < -95
-95 <= X << +INF

Trade-off

TD-S

23.43%
14.41%
12.81%
8.37%
38.91%

25.45%
14.74%
11.94%
6.54%
39.19%

24.64%
15.34%
12.47%
6.49%
39.37%

Table 4-7 TDD 3G/4G Co-site in Different Scenarios -Throughput

DL SE

DL

DL ESE

DL Edge
Throughp
ut

UL SE

UL

UL ESE

UL Edge
Throughp
ut

Optimized for
TD-L
1.53974
16.62919
0.06182
0.66766
0.6769
5.415
0.02738
0.21904
Optimized for
TD-S
0.97065
10.48302
0.0325
0.351
0.3314
2.651
0.01235
0.0988
compromised
1.43146
15.45977
0.05275
0.5697
0.60494
4.84
0.02238
0.17904
The tables above show CINR and RSRP values in different scenarios in the case of TDD 3G/4G Co-site. From the
tables, we can find that when performance is optimized according to both TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA, a little bit of the
performance of RSRP and CINR is compromised, not so good as that of the optimized according to only TD-LTE, but
not much, just a little affected in coverage performance.
From the throughput test results, we can see that both of DL\UL throughput is decreased for TD-LTE, but the
performance decreased a little bit, which can be accepted.
In summary, the co-antenna solution for 3G\4G is quite attractive to most operators, and we strongly recommand it.

4.6

TDD/FDD LTE CO-SITE

TDD/FDD co-site solution can reduce the cost of base station deployment, achieve smooth evolution of multi-system. It
is a trend of future mobile communication. Though traditional base station antennas have developed maturely, antenna
for co-site solution will still face many challenges, which come from combiner, PIM, independent RET, power handing
control and so on.
TDD/FDD working frequency bands should not be overlapped for co-site solution because it can make signal distortion.
Frequency intervals for TDD and FDD are suggested to be large enough for the convenient of designing of combiner.
Because working frequencies of TDD and FDD are different, there are more combinations of 3rd order intermodulation.
More effect will be paid with the increasing of PIM level.
Because diversity of TDD and FDD customers in the same sector is different, it is different for when and how to
optimize the antenna. So co-site solution should provide independent RET. For the similar reason, power handling
should be designed separately.
There are three types of dual-polarized smart antenna for TDD/FDD co-site solution, which are shown as below.
Solution 1 is path shared design, in which 2 paths of 8-path dual-polarized smart antenna of TDD at the side will be
shared for FDD. There are two designs to share TDD path. One is to share the two polarization paths in the same
column at the edge of antenna array, as shown in solution 1A. The other is to share two interleaved polarization paths
of two adjacent columns, as shown in solution 1B. Solution 1B can be extended easily to share four paths of four
columns, in each one interleaved polarization is selected. There should be noted that the radiation pattern control of
the edge column faces more chandelles due to the effects of mutual coupling.
Solution 2 is side-by-side design, in which one column of dual-polarized antenna will be added to the side of the TDD
antenna. Relatively independent design can be implemented, comparing with solution 1. So good electrical
specification can be achieve with moderate antenna size. Solution 2 is a good compromise between antenna size and
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

23

electrical specification. It should be noted that co-axial layout with large frequency interval, such as 900 MHz and 1800
MHz, is not suitable for this solution because wide dimension will increase conspicuously.
Solution 3 is stacked design, in which dual band dual-polarized antenna for 800/900 MHz and 1800/2100 MHz will be
added to the top of the TDD antenna. Because isolation of stacked layout in longitude dimension is better than that of
side-by-side solution, implementation of solution 3 is the easiest among these solutions. But there is the least
convenience for large size.

Solution 1A

Solution 1B

Solution 2
Solution 3
Figure 4.9 Array layout of 8 path antenna for co-site solution

i.

Collusion
Frequency
expedition
Electrical
specification
Beam control
Mutual coupling
Size

Solution 1A
Easy, not support
low band

Solution 1B
Easy, not support
low band

Solution 2

Solution 3

Easy

Easy
Less
Extraordinary long

difficult

difficult

Easy, not
recommend for
low frequency
moderate

hard
Great
Compact

hard
Great
Compact

Easy
General
Moderate

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

24

easy

4.7
4.7.1

ANTENNA PRODUCTS
Side-by-side layout

Here is datasheet of an example of TD/GSM dual band antenna

Figure 4.10 Port definition of TD/GSM dual band antenna


Table 4.9 Basic information of TD/GSM dual band antenna

Frequency (MHz)

TD: 1880~1920/2010~2025/2300~2400
GSM: 824~960/1710~2170
TD: 6 GSM: 0~15/0~8
45
TD (24)+GSM(22)
65
50
-5~+10
1400550145
1440650250
22
4
29

Pre-set downtilt
Polarization
Number of units in column
Distance of unit (mm)
Distance between adjacent ports (mm)
Range of mechanical downtilt
Size of antenna (mm)
Size of package (mm)
Weight of antenna (Kg)
Weight of Package (Kg)
Weight of antenna with package (Kg)
Here is datasheet of TD/GSM antenna

Figure 4.11 Port definition of TD/GSM antenna


Table 4.10 Basic information of TD/GSM antenna

Frequency (MHz)

TD: 1880~1920/2010~2025/2300~2400
GSM: 1710~2170
TD: 6 GSM: 2~12
45
TD (24)+GSM(21)
65
50
-5~+10
1400550145
1440650250
22

Pre-set downtilt
Polarization
Number of units in column
Distance of unit (mm)
Distance between adjacent ports (mm)
Range of mechanical downtilt
Size of antenna (mm)
Size of package (mm)
Weight of antenna (Kg)
NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

25

Weight of Package (Kg)


Weight of antenna with package (Kg)

4.8

4
29

LAB TEST

The Measurements of above antenna are listed as below. Table 4.11 to 4.13 is for TD/GSM dual band antenna, and
Table 4.14 to 4.16 is for TD/GSM antenna.
Table 4.11 Isolation of TD antenna (dB)

Iso
(dB)

F (MHz)
1880
1900
1920
2010
2018
2025
2300
2350
2400

S12
-38.6
-42.5
-42.0
-42.7
-44.5
-47.2
-40.7
-43.3
-40.3

S23
-42.9
-44
-46.7
-34.8
-35
-35.4
-47.8
-45.5
-47.7

Same polarization
S34
S56
-36.7
-47.8
-42.4
-43.6
-48.7
-44.3
-42.5
-36.3
-42
-36.9
-41.5
-37.3
-41.3
-50.0
-43.5
-45.4
-44.2
-45.6

S67
-39.8
-38.4
-39.5
-42.4
-42.7
-43.4
-41.6
-49
-46.3

S78
-52.5
-50.1
-44.1
-39.8
-39.5
-39.4
-45
-45.2
-42.8

S15
-30.7
-29.3
-31.7
-30.8
-31.7
-37.9
-36.0
-30.9
-36.7

Different polarization
S26
S37
-32.2
-33.9
-30.8
-30.0
-32.5
-31.4
-30.3
-28.8
-30.2
-28.8
-30.2
-28.6
-33.2
-35.6
-33.9
-32.3
-38.7
-40.5

Table 4.12 Isolation of GSM antenna

Downtilt (deg)
T0
T5
T10
T15
T0
T4
T8

Frequency (MHz)
824~960
824~960
824~960
824~960
1710~2170
1710~2170
1710~2170

Iso (dB)
-32.8
-32.0
-33.6
-39.2
-37.4
-32.8
-37.9

Table 4.13 Isolation of TD and GSM antenna for port 4 (dB)

Iso
(dB)

F (MHz)
1880
1900
1920
2010
2018
2025
2300
2350
2400
824
892
960
1710
1940
2170

Same polarization
824~960
1710~2170
36.7
38.4
36.5
37.4
36.1
37.3
37.0
36.5
37.1
37.2
36.7
35.9
36.6
39.1
38.1
38.4
38.5
38.8
36.9
/
38.0
/
37.7
/
/
37.6
/
36.8
/
38.4

NGMN P-MATE D1-COMPACT ANTENNA SOLUTIONS

26

Different polarization
824~960
1710~2170
35.9
36.8
36.4
37.4
36.7
39.1
36.5
36.7
36.9
38.3
36.1
37.6
35.7
35.9
37.3
37.2
38.1
37.1
37.4
/
37.1
/
36.9
/
/
38.9
/
37.5
/
36.1

S48
-36.8
-33.3
-33.1
-29.9
-29.5
-29.9
-34.4
-32.5
-36.8

Table 4.14 Isolation of TD antenna (dB)

F (MHz)
1880
1900
1920
2010
2018
2025
2300
2350
2400

Iso
(dB)

S12
-38.6
-42.5
-42.0
-42.7
-44.5
-47.2
-40.8
-43.3
-40.3

S23
-42.9
-44.0
-46.7
-34.8
-35.0
-35.4
-47.8
-45.5
-47.7

Same polarization
S34
S56
-36.7
-47.8
-42.4
-43.6
-48.7
-44.3
-42.5
-36.3
-42.0
-36.9
-41.5
-37.3
-41.3
-50.0
-43.5
-45.4
-44.2
-45.6

S67
-39.8
-38.4
-39.5
-42.4
-42.7
-43.4
-41.6
-49
-46.3

S78
-52.5
-50.1
-44.1
-39.8
-39.5
-39.4
-45.0
-45.2
-42.8

S15
-30.7
-29.3
-31.7
-30.8
-31.7
-37.9
-36.00
-30.85
-36.71

Different polarization
S26
S37
-32.2
-33.9
-30.8
-30.0
-32.5
-31.4
-30.3
-28.8
-30.2
-28.8
-30.2
-28.6
-33.2
-35.6
-33.9
-32.3
-38.7
-40.5

S48
-36.8
-33.3
-33.1
-29.9
-29.5
-29.9
-34.4
-32.5
-36.8

Table 4.15 Isolation of GSM antenna

Downtilt (deg)
T0
T4
T8

Frequency (MHz)
1710~2170
1710~2170
1710~2170

Iso (dB)
-31.4
-33.1
-30.2

Table 4.16 Isolation of TD and GSM antenna for port 4 (dB)

Iso
(dB)

4.9

F (MHz)
1880
1900
1920
2010
2018
2025
2300
2350
2400
1710
1940
2170

Same polarization
1710~2170
39.4
36.4
38.3
38.5
37.2
35.9
38.1
38.4
38.8
36.6
36.8
38.4

Different polarization
1710~2170
37.8
38.4
39.1
36.7
39.3
37.6
36.9
37.7
37.6
38.5
38.5
37.1

KEY ANTENNA PARAMETERS

The parameters of FA/D combined smart antenna are shown Table 4.17 as example.
Table 4.17 Parameters of FA/D combined smart antenna

Number
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7

Category
Frequency
Parameter

Parameter
Frequency RangeMHz

Structure
Parameter

Circuit
Parameter

Value
1880-1920/20102025

2500-2690

Path Number

Array Type
Polarization Type
Column Number
Column Spacingmm
Electrical downtilt
Electrical downtilt Accuracy

linear array
45
4
75
6

linear array
45
4
75
6

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8
9
10
11
12
13

14

Calibration
Parameter

15
16
17
18
19

Active return
loss
Vertical beam

20
21
22
23
24

Element beam

25
26

27

28
29
30
31
32

65 degree
broadcast
beam

Input impedanceohm
Antenna Port VSWR
Isolation between same
polarization ports(dB)
Isolation between crosspolarization ports(dB)
Maximum input power W
Transmission loss from
antenna element port to
calibration port (dB)
Difference in transmission
coefficient between any 2
antenna element port to
calibration port in
magnitude(dB)
Difference in transmission
coefficient between any 2
antenna element port to
calibration port in phase(deg)
Calibraion port VSWR
Calibration port directional
coupler (dB)
Active return loss of antenna
element(Relative to 50 ohms
dB
Vertical half-power beam width

Upper side suppression(USLS)


dBdB
Lower Null FilldBdB
GaindBi
Horizontal half-power beam
width
Horizontal gain attenuation at
60dB
Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal pattern Crosspolarization ratioon Axis
dB
Horizontal pattern Crosspolarization ratioIn range of
60degreedB
GaindBi[note 1]
Horizontal half-power beam
width
Horizontal gain attenuation at
60dB
Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal pattern Crosspolarization ratioon Axis
dB

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50
1.5

50
1.5

25

25

28

28

50

50

-262

-262

0.5

0.5

1.5

1.5

15

15

-10

-10

7/6.5

-22
14/14.5

-16(2~7)
-14(8~12)
-22
16.5

10015/9015

6515

-/-

-123

23

23

15

15

10

10

14/14.5

16

655

655

-123

-123

28

28

15

15

-16

Horizontal pattern Crosspolarization ratioIn range of


60degreedB
Ripple in range of Horizontal
half-power beam widthdB

33
34

10

10

GaindBi

20/20.5

21

Horizontal half-power beam


width
Horizontal FBRdB
Horizontal side lobe level
dB
Difference of right and left
Horizontal side lobe level
dBdB

30/28

25

28

28

-12

-12

DC Ground

DC Ground

2( 1 4- core and 1 5core)


MCIC
Bottom
32
0.4/0.4

2( 1 4- core and 1
5-core)
MCIC
Bottom
32
0.5

35
36

0 degree scan
beam

37
38
39
40

Lightning
protection

Lightning protection

41

Mechanical
parameter

Connector Number

42
43
44
45
46

Filter combiner
Mechanical
adjustment

47
note 1

Connector Type
Connector position
Band suppression(dB)
insertion loss(dB)
Mechanical tilt ()

0~+10

Mounting hardware (mm)


50~115
including+ power divider loss - power loss due to weight amplitude(dB)

4.10 TRIALS
As co-antenna technology is implemented in 3G\4G co-site scenarios, we have carried out trials to demonstrate that
co-antenna is a good choice with little performance loss. Furthermore, this technology brings many advantages such
as less cost, easier installation, etc.
Take the test project located in Tianhe District, Guangzhou in CMCCs trial network by ZTEs equipment as example.
The test environment is characterized by dense population in CBDs with heavy traffic. The following figure shows the
test route map.

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Figure5. 4-4 Test Route Map

Before the test, we make assumptions and conditions. We take a contrast test between the co-antenna solutions and
broadband independent-antenna solutions. Both base stations and antennas are installed under the same conditions
to ensure our contrast test more meaningful. The test includes antennas of 61m high, down tilt angle of 6 degree,
UL\DL ratio of 2:2.
Under these conditions, we get the TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA performance results for two solutions.
As shown in Figure 4.1 and 4.2, it is clear that the TD-LTE performance with the co-antenna solution is quite similar to
that with the independent antenna solution. These performance parameters such as TD-LTE throughput, BLER, RSRP,
SINR are taken into account. The results fully prove that there is little difference in performance whether the coantenna solution or the non co-antenna solution is adopted. This co-antenna technology is highly recommended.

Figure 4.1 TD-LTE Test Result with Co-antenna Solution

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Figure 4.2 TD-LTE Test Result With Independent Antenna Solution

Another field test result shows that with co-antenna solution, the existing TD-SCDMA wireless performance is not
affected. These parameters including TD-S throughput, BLER, RSRP, SINR are quite the same.

Figure 4.3 TD-S Test Result with Co-antenna Solution

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Figure 4.4 TD-S Test Result with Independent Antenna Solution

In conclusion, the trials test result shows that TD-LTE and TD-SCDMA performance with the co-antenna solution is
quite similar to that with the independent antenna solution.

REFERENCES

[1]
MIMO and Smart Antennas for 3G and 4G Wireless Systems; Practical Aspects and Deployment
Considerations; 3G Americas May 2010

[2]
[3]
[4]

ITU-R, M.2134, Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s)
ITU-R, M.2135, Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT advanced.
3GPP TS 36.213, v10.0.0, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures.

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