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1) How long does the breathing pause have to be in order to be

considered apnea?
10 seconds
2) Where is the pre-Botzinger nucleus located in the brain
The brain stem
3) What is the name of the physiological response that infants
lack that can prevent hypoxic apnea
Auto resuscitation
4) Name a risk factor for SIDS?
Sibling History, Premature Birth, Alcohol, Smoking
5) What are the 4 structures important for forming and
maintaining the blood brain barrier?
endothelial cells, pericytes, basal lamina, astrocytes
6) What molecules can use simple diffusion across the BBB?
O2, CO2, anesthetic gas, lipid soluble molecules
7) What molecules can be actively transported into the BBB?
glucose and amino acids
8) What are the 2 types of junctions that are important in
cerebral epithelial cells?
tight junctions and gap junctions
9) Where is dopamine produced?
substantia nigra
10) What chemicals break down dopamine?
11) Some drugs used to manage symptoms?
Carvidopa-Levadopa, Dopamine agonist, Mao-B inhibitors,
12) What are the common symptoms of hypokinetic disorders?
akinesia, bradykinesia, rigidity
13) These nuclear masses and their pathways play a role in all
movement disorders
basal ganglia
14) The main goal of increased ICP treatment is to
Reduce the pressure within the skull

15) When is increased ICP typically treated?

When the ICP is greater than 20mmHg
16) What is the value for healthy, normal, ICP?
17) While treating increased ICP what must be maintained?
Cerebral perfusion pressure
18) Why is increased ICP dangerous?
It reduces blood flow to brain tissue that can result in ischemia
and irreversible brain damage
19) Which of the demyelinating disease has strong evidence of
environmental factors that come from prevalence and
migration studies?
Multiple Sclerosis
20) This demyelinating disease has symptoms such as: pyrexia,
headache and multifocal neurological deficits with seizures
that lead to death and is known as..
Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis
21) This demyelinating disease typical for children population
and usually misdiagnosed due to lack of MRI testing.
Acute Disseminated encephalomyelitis
22) Trigeminal nerve compression by an artery or vein is an
example of what demyelinating disease?
Compression induced demyelination
23) After Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA), cells cannot
produce energy to power their ATP-powered pumps, which
leads to a release of cytochromes from the _______, thus
signaling apoptosis.
24) The brain's vasculature contains a system for collateral
flow, called _______, which received blood flow from bilateral
carotid arteries and bilateral vertebral arteries.
The Circle of Willis
25) Structural pathologies of the circulatory system, such as
Tetrology of Fallot, patent foramen ovale, and arteriovenous
malformations, places patients at an increased risk for _____

26) Decreased energy production, resulting from hypoxia,

leads to a failure of ATP-powered pumps and an influx of _____,
a hygroscopic ion, which H2O follows into the cell, resulting in
27) Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the immune systems
attack on neurons doing what to their structure?
28) True or False: The damage done by MS is reversible with
the appropriate therapy.
False, MS is a progressive disease, causing irreversible damage
to the
nervous system.
29) Describe the typical MS patients age, gender, race, and
geographical location.
A thirty year old, Caucasian female, most likely from Scotland (or
any country located far from the equator.
30) As healthcare workers, what is our main concern for the
MS patient?
Pulmonary compromise
31) What is the most common type of MS?
Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
32) What is the second most common birth defect in the U.S.?
Neural tube defects
33) Name 2 risk factors for neural tube defects?
Decreased folic acid intake
Uncontrolled diabetes
Some anticonvulsant medications
34) What vitamin is recommended women of child bearing age
Folic acid (B9)
35) Name one type of neural tube defect:
Spina bifida
36) When providing anesthesia to a patient with MG which of
the following should be considered?

A) Having the patient withhold their anticholinesterase

medication the day
of surgery
B) Consider use of a Non-Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocker as
are resistant to Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers
C) If the patient is extubated after surgery, they should be
closely monitored
in a ICU where immediate intubation
equipment and medications are
D) All of the above
37) Which of the following methods can be used to manage
A) Caffeinated Beverages
B) Increasing physical activity to increase muscle strength
C) Coumadin to decrease stoke like symptoms associated with
D) Cholinesterase Inhibitors like Pyridostigmine
38) What Neurotransmitter and Receptor are affected by the
abnormal production of MG antibodies?
A) ACh and Nicotinic Receptors
B) ACh and Muscarinic Receptors
C) Epinephrine and Adrenergic Receptors
D) Na and Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
39) What causes Myasthenia Gravis?
A) A genetic disorder that causes painful muscle weakness
B) Overmedication of opiates
C) A chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by the
release of antibodies blocking the action of neurotransmitters
at the
neuromuscular junction
D) A clotting disorder leading to stoke like symptoms
40) Which neurotransmitter is involved in keeping us focused,
and when levels are low result in ADHD?
41) When are psychiatric disorder symptoms most likely to
During adolescent years to young adults
42) Which area of the brain is smaller in patients with Bipolar
Prefrontal cortex
43) Which type of schizophrenia has extreme anxiety, paranoia
and feels as though they are being persecuted?
Paranoid Schizophrenia

44) What is the most common type of intracranial aneurysm?

saccular aneurysm
45) Most intracranial aneurysms occur in what area of the
Circle of Willis?
anterior portion
46) What is the most reliable imaging method to diagnose
intracranial aneurysm?
cerebral angiogram
47) Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is what type of bleed?
48) List 3 things that will increase with cocaine abuse?
Tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, hyperthermia,
hyperglycemia, euphoria, addiction
49) List 2 of the 4 ways that cocaine can be taken?
Injected, snorted, smoked, chewing on cocoa leaves
50) Is glucose more or less likely to be used in the brain after
cocaine use?
Less likely
51) Abuse of what illicit street drug can cause ephedrineresistant hypotension?
52) What are the two motor divisions of cerebral palsy?
Spastic and non-spastic
53) Cerebral Palsy is caused by?
Brain damage/ brain malformation
54) Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy is made by age what?
Age 3
55) One of the most important treatments to maintain muscle
function in cerebral palsy is what?
Physical therapy
56) Three possible imaging studies done to diagnose a spinal
cord injury?
CT scan, MRI, X-ray
57) Treatment for neurogenic shock?

58) Leading cause of death for SCI patients?

Pulmonary embolism
59) What is poikilothermism?
adjust of body temperature to room temperature due to
sympathetic nervous system interruption
60) Two or more unprovoked seizures separated by 24 hours is
61) ___________ is the most common trigger for seizures.
62) Stiffening of the body and repeated jerks of the arms and
legs is a generalized seizure called a.
Tonic Clonic or Grand Mal seizure
62) A life threatening, abnormally prolonged seizure where the
patient does not regain consciousness between seizures is
Status Epilepticus
63) Where is CSF made in the brain?
Choroid Plexus
64) CSF acts as a _____________ to cushion the brain and spinal
cord from injury?
shock absorber
65) A ventricular shunt drains CSF where?
abdomen, heart, or lung
66) Obvious classic sign of potential hydrocephalus?
increased head circumference
67) Clear fluid that surrounds the brain, providing nutrients
and removing wastes
68) What is the function of the pituitary gland?
Produces hormones that control functions of other endocrine
69) What cranial nerve is in the most danger of being
compressed by a pituitary tumor?
Optic Nerve

70) Pituitary tumors (adenomas) can cause 3 major problems?

What are they?
Tumor mass effect (compression on brain)
71) What are the 4 standard treatments for pituitary tumors
Drug Therapy
73) At what level do most incidences of Autonomic
Hyperreflexia occur?
T6 or above
74) There are many causes for Autonomic Hyperreflexia, What
are the two most common?
distended Bladder and distended bowel (from constipation or
75) When does Autonomic Hyperreflexia occur?
After completion of spinal shock period
76) In relationship to the Spinal Cord Lesion, cool, and
piloerect skin appears in which location?
below the lesion
77) In relationship to the Spinal Cord Lesion, flushed skin,
diaphoresis, and constricted pupils appears in which location?
Above the lesion