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Chapter

5:
Project Time Management
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Processes
Initiating Planning process
process group
group

Plan Schedule
Management

Define Activities

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

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Estimate

Executing
process
group

Monitoring & Closing


controlling
process
process group group

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Control
Schedule

Plan schedule
management
The process of establishing the policies,
procedures, and documentation for planning,
developing, managing, executing, and
controlling the project schedule.

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Important ITTOs
Schedule management plan can establish the
following:
Project schedule model development
Level of accuracy
Units of measure. Such as staff hours, staff days, or
weeks for time measures, or meters, liters, tons,
kilometers, or cubic yards for quantity measures.
Organizational procedures links
Reporting formats
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Define activities
The process of identifying and documenting
the specific actions to be performed to
produce the project deliverables.

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Important ITTOs
Decomposition
Rolling wave planning
Activity attributes

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Decomposition

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Rolling wave planning


Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning
technique in which the work to be
accomplished in the near term is planned in
detail, while the work in the future is planned at
a higher level.
It is a form of progressive elaboration.

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Activity attribute
3 types of activities:

Discrete Effort (DE): an activity that can be planned and


measured and that yields a specific output. E.g.
Working Software, Delivered Machines etc.
Apportioned Effort (AE): an activity where effort is
allotted proportionately across certain discrete efforts
and not divisible into discrete efforts. E.g. testing,
inspection, verification, validation activities.
Level of Effort (LOE): an activity that does not produce
definitive end products and is measured by the passage
of time. E.g. daily stand up, release planning, project
budget accounting, customer liaison, or oiling
machinery during manufacturing, etc.
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Activity attribute

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Sequence activities
The process of identifying and documenting relationships
among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is
that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the
greatest efficiency given all project constraints.

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Important ITTOs

Precedence diagraming method (PDM)


Dependency determination
Leads and lags
Project schedule network diagrams

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PDM
Precedence Diagramming Model (PDM) or
Activity on Node (AON):

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Dependencies
determination
Mandatory: inherent in the nature of the work,
cannot be changed
Discretionary: based on the preference of the
team, can be changed
External: something outside the project impacts
something internal to the project
Internal: dependencies that are within the project
teams control

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Leads and Lags

Leads can be used only on finish-to-start activity


relationships.
Lags can be found on all activity relationship
types.
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Project schedule
network diagrams

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Estimate activity
resource

The process of estimating the type and


quantities of material, human resources,
equipment, or supplies required to perform
each activity.

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Important ITTOs
Resource breakdown structure

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Estimate activity
duration
The process of estimating the number of work
periods needed to complete individual
activities with estimated resources.

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Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 6-14 Page 166.
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Important ITTOs

Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
Three-point estimating
Reserver analysis

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Analogous estimating,
Parametric estimating
Analogous Estimating:

this estimating is based on previous projects (or activities).


e.g. the last 5 similar projects took 6 months, so this one
should also take 6 months.

Parametric Estimating:

this uses a mathematical model to calculate projected


times for an activity based on historical records from
previous projects and other information.
e.g. if the assigned resource is capable of installing 25
meters of cable per hour, the duration required to install
1,000 meters is 40 hours. (1,000 meters divided by 25
meters per hour).

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3-point estimating
PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for
an activitys duration:
Most likely (tM). This estimate is based on the duration of the
activity, given the resources, their productivity, realistic
expectations of availability for the activity, etc
Optimistic (tO). The activity duration based on analysis of the
best-case scenario for the activity.
Pessimistic (tP). The activity duration based on analysis of the
worst-case scenario for the activity.

Triangular Distribution:

tE = (tO + tM + tP) / 3

Beta Distribution (from the traditional PERT technique):


tE = (tO + 4tM + tP) / 6

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Reserve analysis
Contingency reserves are the estimated duration
within the schedule baseline. Contingency
reserves are associated with the known-
unknowns, which may be estimated to account
for this unknown amount of rework.
Management reserve is not included in the
schedule baseline, but it is part of the overall
project duration requirements. Management
reserves are intended to address the unknown-
unknowns that can affect a project.
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Develop schedule
The process of analyzing activity sequences,
durations, resource requirements, and
schedule constraints to create the project
schedule model.

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Edition (PMBOK Guide) 2013 Project Management
Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 6-16 Page 173.
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Important ITTOs

Critical paths method (CPM)


Critical chain method (CCM)
Resource optimization techniques
Schedule compression
Schedule baseline, project schedule

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Critical Path Method


Critical Path Method (CPM):

is a method used to estimate the minimum project


duration and determine the amount of scheduling
flexibility on the logical network paths within the
schedule model
the critical path is the sequence of activities that
represents the longest path through a project,
which determines the shortest possible project
duration.

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Critical Path Method


Total Float/Slack:
the amount of time that a schedule activity can be
delayed or extended from its early start date without
delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule
constraint.

Free Float/Slack:
the amount of time that a schedule activity can be
delayed without delaying the early start date of any
immediate successor or violating a schedule constraint.
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Critical Path Method


Calculate Float/Slack

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Critical Path Method


Calculate Float/Slack

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Critical Chain Method


Critical chain places buffers on any project
schedule path to account for limited resources
and project uncertainties.

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Resource Optimization
Techniques
Resource leveling:
often cause the
original critical path
to change, usually to
increase.

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Resource Optimization
Techniques
Resource smoothing:
critical path is not changed,
activities may only be
delayed within their free and
total float.

12 workers

11 workers
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Schedule compression
Fast tracking
Crashing

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Schedule compression
Example:
Activity

Original Crash
Time
Duration Duration Savings

Original Crash
Cost in Cost
Dollars

Extra
Cost

Crash
Cost Per
Day

10

10,000

12,000

2,000

1,000

14

10

14,000

24,000

10,000

2,500

15,000

17,000

2,000

2,000

12,000

18,000

6,000

3,000

To suppress the project duration by 1 day. Which


activity would you crash?
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Schedule compression
The answer is Activity A, as it has the minimum
crash cost per day.

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Schedule baseline,
Project schedule
Project schedule model are classified as
presentations:

Bar charts. also known as Gantt charts. Hammock


activity is used between milestones or across multiple
interdependent work packages.
Milestone charts: Duration of milestone is zero.
Project schedule network diagrams

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Control schedule
The process of monitoring the status of project
activities to update project progress and
manage changes to the schedule baseline to
achieve the plan.

A Guide to the Project Management Body of


Knowledge, Fifth Edition (PMBOK Guide)
2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. All
Rights Reserved. Figure 6-22 Page 185.
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Summary
4 relationship types (FS, SF, SS, FF), 4 dependency
determinations (Mandatory, Discretionary, External, Internal)
Activity duration estimating techniques: analogous, parametric,
three-point/PERT (Triangular Distribution and Beta Distribution)
PDM/AON, Critical Path Method (CPM), Critical Chain Method
(CCM), lead/lag, activity types (DE, AE, LOE), hammock
activities, rolling wave planning, reserve analysis, resource
breakdown structure.
Find critical path, calculate float/slack
Resource optimization techniques, schedule compression
techniques
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