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Note Taking Study Guide (On-Level, p. 159, Adapted, p. 159)

A. Effects of the Mexican Revolution

Diaz ruled for nearly 35 years.

Foreign investors controlled many of the natural resources.
Only a small group of people benefited from the riches.
Peasants worked on haciendas or large plantations owned by the wealthy.
The middle class wanted more of a say in government decisions.


Venustiano Carranza was elected president of Mexico in 1917.

A new constitution was approved; it called for
nationalization of foreign-owned interests.
The government set minimum wages for workers.
Church land was made property of the government.
The government gained greater control over the economy.
In 1929 the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) was created; dealt with many groups' concerns, including those of workers and business owners.

B. Effects of Nationalism in Latin America


Governments supported businesses and factories to produce goods.

Governments raised taxes on imported goods.
Some nations took control of foreign-owned interests.


People lost trust in governments.

New leaders came to power.


Traditional art forms enjoyed renewed interest.

Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros painted murals of the people's
National pride grew.

Summary (p. 160)

Reading Check the Institutional Revolutionary Party; it provided stability by making some
reforms, but it kept all the power
Vocabulary Strategy Intervening means "coming between two arguing factions."
Reading Skill anti-American feelings, Good Neighbor Policy
Review Questions 1. the wealthy landowners and military leaders; 2. Exports dropped;
imports rose in price; people wanted to develop their own industries and not have to buy foreign

Note Taking Study Guide, p. 161)
Rise of Nationalism
Region: Africa

Reasons for Rise

Oppressed by European colonialism

More than one million Africans fought on behalf of colonial rulers in World War I with
hopes of more rights.
Growth of Pan-Africanism movement
Growth of negritude movement


Europeans increased their control in some areas; the apartheid system was adopted in South
African National Congress protested unfair laws.
Egypt gained independence.
Region: Turkey and Persia

Reasons for Rise

n Collapse of Ottoman empire after World War I

n Persian resentment of British and Russian influence


Atatilrk established Turkey as a secular republic.

Atatfirk encouraged industrial expansion.
Reza Khan overthrew the shah of Persia.
Reza Khan built factories, roads, and railroads;

set up secular schools; and convinced British oil companies to hire Persian workers at all levels
and increase Persian share of profits.
Region: Middle East

Reasons for Rise


Growth of Pan-Arabism
Feelings of betrayal at Paris Peace Conference after World War I
Zionist movement to create Jewish state
The Balfour Declaration supported a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.


n Ongoing Arab resentment of Westerners

n Growing tensions between Arabs and Jews

Summary (p. 162)

Reading Check a movement that protested colonial rule in West Africa and the Caribbean
while expressing pride in African culture
Vocabulary Strategy Advocated means "supported or favored."
Reading Skill an ongoing conflict in the Middle East

Review Questions 1. Africans were forced off the best land and denied previous rights. 2.
He overthrew the shah; sought to create a modern country by building factories and railroads; he
demanded more oil profits for Persia.

Note Taking Study Guide, p. 163)
Independence in India Causes
Millions of Indians served in World War I for Britain, based on the promise of greater selfrule.

Limited British reforms after World War I frustrated Indians.

Protests against British rule sparked riots and attacks on British.
Congress Party did not represent poor Indians, who made up most of the population.
Mohandas Gandhi believed in using civil disobedience to protest unjust laws.
Gandhi had broad appeal and reached out to all Indians.


Gandhi called for a boycott of British goods, especially cotton textiles.

Gandhi's Salt March inspired other Indians to join his protest of the British monopoly on salt.
Gandhi's nonviolent tactics gained international attention.
World opinion became sympathetic to the Indian cause.
Gandhi's campaigns forced Britain to hand over some power to Indians.

Summary (p. 164)

Reading Check Gandhi had spent the previous twenty years fighting against laws in South
Africa. Vocabulary Strategy Discriminated means "treated differently because of a
prejudice." Reading Skill Causes: Earlier protests against British rule had sparked riots
and attacks, which prompted the British commander to ban public meetings; The crowd of
peaceful unarmed protesters jammed into an enclosed field; British soldiers opened fire, killing
nearly four hundred people and wounding over eleven thousand. Effect: It convinced Indians
that they needed to govern India themselves.
Review Questions 1. It had little in common with the Indian peasants, who made up the
majority of the population. 2. Worldwide criticism of British treatment of Indians during this
protest forced Britain to hand over some power to Indians.

Note Taking Study Guide, p. 165)
A. Upheavals in China
Causes of Upheaval
Warlord Uprisings
Disorder in provinces
Millions of peasants suffer.

Foreign Imperialism

Twenty-One Demands
Paris Peace Conference


May Fourth Movement

Birth of Communist Party

B. Conflict in China

Guomindang and Communists defeat warlords.


Civil war between Guomindang and Communists begins.

1934 1935

The Communists retreat.


Guomindang and Communists unite to defeat Japan.

Summary (p. 166)

Reading Check student protesters
Vocabulary Strategy Intellectual means "involving the ability to reason or think clearly."
Reading Skill The peasants had suffered under the Guomindang; Mao's soldiers treated the
peasants kindly, paid for food, and did not damage crops.
Review Questions 1. During the war, Japan presented China with the Twenty-One Demands in
order to gain control of the country; after the war, the Allies granted Japan power over former
German-controlled lands. 2. Japan invaded Manchuria, adding it to its growing empire in
China and its air force bombed Chinese cities, so the rivals formed an alliance against the
Japanese; the alliance only lasted until the end of the war with Japan.

Note Taking Study Guide, p. 167)
Conflicting Forces in Japan
Liberalism in the 1920s
Greater democracy

n Retreat from aggressive expansion

n Uneven distribution of wealth
Revolt against tradition by youth in cities

Militarism in the 1930s

n Depression causes unrest.

n Return to aggressive expansion

Militarists in power
n Public opinion supports the conquest of Manchuria.
n Attacks on China

Summary (p. 168)

Reading Check Hirohito
Vocabulary Strategy Manipulated means "influenced skillfully, often unfairly."
Reading Skill The economic crisis fed growing tensions between military officials and
ultranationalists and the government.
Review Questions 1. Japan became an industrial power by increasing production and
exporting to the Allies. 2. They assassinated business and political leaders who opposed
expansion. They pressured the government to limit democratic freedoms.