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Weidmann-ACTI

Inc. Fifth
Technical
Conference,
Albuquerque,
13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph
Krause:
Weidmann-ACTI
Inc. Annual
Fifth Annual
Technical
Conference,
Albuquerque,
13-15
Nov 2006
Design
by diagnostics
of transformers
still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service
"New improvement
Diagnostic Concepts
for Better
Asset Management"

Design Improvement by Diagnostics of


Transformers still in Operation
and of Apparatuses taken out of Service
Christoph Krause
Weidmann Transformerboard
Systems, Switzerland
A Member of the
1

Group

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Contents
1. Power rating enhancement by elimination of the limitation set by induced tank
heating through a complex, three-dimensional electromagnetic-thermal study of
a transformer still in operation, and subsequent design adaptation.
2. In-depth diagnostics of aged transformers by forensic investigations after
having been taken out of service before being scrapped
provides accurate information about the cooling efficiency of the apparatus.
enables better assessment of the status of similar transformers in the grid

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Contents
1. Power rating enhancement by elimination of the limitation set by induced tank
heating through a complex, three-dimensional electromagnetic-thermal study of
a transformer still in operation, and subsequent design adaptation.
2. In-depth diagnostics of aged transformers by forensic investigations after
having been taken out of service before being scrapped
provides accurate information about the cooling efficiency of the apparatus.
enables better assessment of the status of similar transformers in the grid

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

3D case study: Electromagnetic re-design to


prevent tank overheating
185 MVA 1ph GSU Transformer
Target:
Upgrade MVA-performance by > 20% of name plate rating
Problem:
Tank flange hot spot = 96C at 190 MVA
The enhanced oil cooling could not cope with the local tank hot spot

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Thermal scan at 190 MVA

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Shorting plate disassembled

185 MVA 1ph GSU Transformer

No Mag
Steel Cover

Bushing

Inspection on site
6

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Plane of symmetry

Modeling the zone of interest

Technical challenges:
Aluminum shields inside the tank
Mild steel tank wall
Non-magnetic steel cover parts
3-dimensional modeling

Flux Tangential Boundary Condition


8

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Creating the FEM mesh: 269000 (number of tetraedra)

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Infrared scan

3-D calculation of losses


10

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Acting together with the manufacturer of the current bus enclosures, a different
design was developed with significantly lower losses in the critical area of the tank

Original Design

Improved Design
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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Creating the
FEM mesh
659000
(number of tetraedra)

Detail view

The mesh was generated


using only standard mesh
controls, i.e. no special
methods were needed.

12

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Loss distribution
n
nts
g
i
e
s
De rovem
Imp

Original Model

Modified Model

Losses in the zone of


interest
scale: from 0 to 2.5x105 W/m3
13

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

3D case study: Electromagnetic re-design to


prevent tank overheating
Original Design
at 190 MVA, tank flange hot spot = 96C

at 228 MVA, tank flange hot spot = 72C

Re-Design

14

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

3D case study: Electromagnetic re-design to


prevent tank overheating
Summary:
Localized tank cover flange heating detected by infrared scan
Diagnosis technical challenge: aluminum shields inside the tank,
mild steel tank wall, non-magnetic steel cover parts 3D modeling
The simulation provided excellent match with the measured tank
temperatures
The solution consisted in moving the crossover shorting plate
to shift flux induced currents from the tank cover flange to the
middle of the tank cover
Redesigned busbar enclosure permits transformer upgrade from
185 MVA to 228 MVA.
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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Other types of simulations / calculations being performed


Losses (with/without harmonic currents) and impedance of:
Windings (including foil windings and complex circuit arrangements)
3D bus bars arrangements
Reactors (with/without core, with/without magnetic shielding)
Current distribution in high current windings as occur in industrial applications
(arc furnace AC & DC, rectifiers)
(3D): Losses in tanks, electromagnetic shields and conductive structures
Temperature distribution on tanks (3D)
Short circuit: computation of (transient) currents and peak forces on windings
Switch-on: computation of transient currents forces on primary winding
Electric field studies
16

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Today, we are performing magneto-thermal calculations regularly local


overheating is a problem that occurs frequently.
Here another example of such calculation of a GSU transformer. The results are
shown on left hand side and the thermal scan is shown on right hand side.

17

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Reference list

(some of our customers)

ABB Cordoba, Spain


ABB Industrial Transformer Legnano, Italy and Bad Honnef, Germany
ABB Rectifiers, Turgi, Switzerland
ABB Research Center, Baden, Switzerland
ABB Varennes, Canada
AREVA T&D, Stafford, UK
AREVA, Dubai, U.A. Emirates
ASA Trafobau GmbH, Bad Arolsen, Germany
Crompton Greaves Ltd, Mumbai, India
DUBAL, Dubai, U.A. Emirates
Dynegy, Houston, TX, USA
FRIEM Rectifiers, Segrate, Italy
France Transfo, Metz, France
Matelec Group, Lebanon
Pioneer Transformers Ltd, Canada
PII GE, UK
Portland GE Company, Oregon, USA
STEM Transformers, Trento, Italy
Tamini Group, Melegnano, Italy
Transpower, New Zealand
Wilson Transformer Company, Victoria, Australia
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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Contents
1. Power rating enhancement by elimination of the limitation set by induced tank
heating through a complex, three-dimensional electromagnetic-thermal study of
a transformer still in operation, and subsequent design adaptation.
2. In-depth diagnostics of aged transformers by forensic investigations after
having been taken out of service before being scrapped
provides accurate information about the cooling efficiency of the apparatus.
enables better assessment of the status of similar transformers in the grid

19

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Motivation for in-depth diagnostics of aged


transformers by forensic investigations:
Compare real aging with laboratory accelerated aging experiments
(DP, water and acid content, tensile and bending strength, dissipation factor
tan , resistivity)
Verify the cooling performance of the transformer active part
Assess the initial DP values of different solid insulation components
(when the transformer was put in service)
Identify the location of the true hot spot(s)
Detect unintended, hot spot areas / design flaws
Appraise of the aging condition of similar transformers still in operation
20

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Work clothes
Work safety

21

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Knives
Scissors
for cutting paper samples

22

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Cutting
Sawing

23

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Pincers of any kind

24

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Plastic bags
Paper tags
Pens
(oil and water resistant)

25

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Equipment and tools


Oil container
Plastic foil
Boxes and crates

26

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Determination of the aging status by measuring the


DP (Degree of Polymerization) of cellulose samples
In operation, the cellulose degrades continuously with time
This degradation alters (shortens) the cellulose molecules
The DP is a good measure of the aging status, because it is proportional to
the average length of the cellulose molecules
The DP of new Kraft pressboard and -paper is about 1200, that of completely
aged (end of life) about 200.

DP
1000

DP (t)

500
time (years)
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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Measurements of the aging status of cellulosic


insulation samples taken from three power transformers

Transformer A
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

Transformer B

110 / 63 kV
31.5 MVA
3
ONAF
Siemens Schuckert, Berlin, Germany
E.ON, Germany
1955 - 2003

Transformer C
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

220 / 110 kV
140 MVA
3
OFAF
TRO, Berlin, Germany
Vattenfall, Germany
1974 - 2004

one phase

380 / 220 kV
600 MVA / 3
1
OFAF
MFO, Zurich, Switzerland
NOK, Switzerland
1962 - 2005

region of sample taking


(top to bottom along axial height)
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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Transformer A
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:

110 / 63 kV
31.5 MVA
3
ONAF
Siemens Schuckert, Berlin,
Germany
Operating utility: E.ON, Germany
In service:
1955 - 2003

29

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

30

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Transformer A
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:

110 / 63 kV
31.5 MVA
3
ONAF
Siemens Schuckert, Berlin,
Germany
Operating utility: E.ON, Germany
In service:
1955 - 2003

Core

LV

Degree of Polymerization

1200

HV

Tap

> 900
801-900
701-800
601-700
501-600
401-500
301-400
201-300
< 200
Windings

1000
800
bottom

600

middle
top

400
LV

HV

Tap

200
0

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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Transformer B
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

220 / 110 kV
140 MVA
3
OFAF
TRO, Berlin, Germany
Vattenfall, Germany
1974 - 2004

32

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

33

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Transformer B
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

220 / 110 kV
140 MVA
3
OFAF
TRO, Berlin, Germany
Vattenfall, Germany
1974 - 2004

Tert LV

> 900
801-900
701-800
601-700
501-600
401-500

Degree of Polymerization

Core

1000
800
bottom
middle
top

200
HV

301-400
201-300
< 200
Windings

400

LV

Tap
DP

1200

600

HV

Tap

34

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Transformer C
Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

380 / 220 kV
600 MVA / 3
1
OFAF
MFO, Zurich, Switzerland
NOK, Switzerland
1962 - 2005

35

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

36

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

cylinders

Transformer C

380 / 220 kV
600 MVA / 3
1
OFAF
MFO, Zurich, Switzerland
NOK, Switzerland
1962 - 2005

LV

HV

DP

laminated strips
Core

Voltage:
Rating:
Phases:
Cooling:
Manufacturer:
Operating utility:
In service:

Tertiary

1200

> 900
801-900
701-800
601-700
501-600
401-500
301-400
201-300
< 200

Degree of Polymerization

1000
800
bottom
middle
top

600
400
Tertiary

LV

HV

200
0
37

Windings

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

16
14

Frequency

12

10

6
4
2
0
0

250

500

750

Degree of Polymerization
38

1000

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Influence of water on the ageing rate


<0.5% water content

1200

D egree of polym erization

D egre e of Polym e rization

2% water content
40C

1000
50C

800
600

60C

400
70C

200
90C

80C

0
0

10

20

30

40

1200
60C

1000

70C

800
80C

600
90C

400
100C

200

110C

0
0

50

10

20

30

40

Aging time (years)

Aging time (years)

Aging kinetic equation:


Due to the moisture increase
during transformer
life, the determination
EA

of the operational temperature,


in the transformer,
1
1at different locations
R

= A e
t
is not precise.
DP( t ) DP

39

50

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Summary
The DP profiles matched the expectation: lower DP-values at the winding top and
around the conductors, higher values at the bottom and of the inter-winding
insulation.
The insulation of transformers A (50 years) and C (40 years) was still in relatively
good condition.
The youngest transformer B (30 years) had reached its end of life - continuing
operation would have been associated with catastrophic failure hazard.
The moisture content was high, perhaps right from the beginning?
The DP of paper at the beginning of life time was lower, due to overheating
during drying?
The cooling design was insufficient?
The transformer was operated beyond name plate?
40

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Remarks
It takes relatively little effort to collect solid insulation samples, when power
transformers are scrapped. The findings may be of high value.
For a comprehensive aging replica, it is necessary to take samples
systematically throughout the transformer.
With the water content information of the samples, it is possible to assess
the operating insulation temperatures with better precision. Yet, measuring
the moisture of the samples requires quick handling on-site, due to
inevitable water absorption when exposed to the (humid) air.

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Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents

42

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases

43

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases
Assigned responsibilities on site: who is doing what
Experts shall take the samples

44

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases
Assigned responsibilities on site: who is doing what
Experts shall take the samples
(local) Work safety instruction and strict adherence to

45

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases
Assigned responsibilities on site: who is doing what
Experts shall take the samples
(local) Work safety instruction and strict adherence to
Time (patience). Envision unforeseen difficulties and effects. Teamwork!

46

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases
Assigned responsibilities on site: who is doing what
Experts shall take the samples
(local) Work safety instruction and strict adherence to
Time (patience). Envision unforeseen difficulties and effects. Teamwork!
Transformer operation records: temperatures, oil moisture, maintenance
(oil reclaiming etc.), power flow
Co-operate with transformer manufacturer - difficulty: old apparatuses
Respect (local) working hours (unions!)
47

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

Preconditions for valuable forensic analysis of power transformers


Acceptance of project and orientation of the transformer scrapping staff,
surplus time is about 1 day
Transformer drawings for determination of sampling;
transformer design & calculation documents
Plan (sequence of dismantling): winding, top to bottom, radial orientation,
inter-winding insulation, different phases
Assigned responsibilities on site: who is doing what
Experts shall take the samples
(local) Work safety instruction and strict adherence to
Time (patience). Envision unforeseen difficulties and effects. Teamwork!
Transformer operation records: temperatures, oil moisture, maintenance
(oil reclaiming etc.), power flow
Co-operate with transformer manufacturer - difficulty: old apparatuses
Respect (local) working hours (unions!)
48

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

49

Weidmann-ACTI Inc. Fifth Annual Technical Conference, Albuquerque, 13-15 Nov 2006; Christoph Krause:
Design improvement by diagnostics of transformers still in operation and of apparatuses taken out of service

50