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Final Assignment

Lecturer:

Ahmad Mukhlis Firdaus, S.T., M.T.

By:

Group 8

Achmad Hasan

15513066

Kharisma Jayatra

15513074

Dany Aryanzah

15513080

Hari Kurniawan

15512069

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Bandung Institute of Technology

2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................2

LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................4

LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................5

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................6

1.1

Background................................................................................... 6

1.2

1.3

Project Coverage............................................................................ 6

2.1

Bathymetry................................................................................... 8

2.2

Echo Sounding............................................................................... 8

2.3

GPS System............................................................................... 9

2.4

Method of Mapping.......................................................................10

3.1

Survey Planning........................................................................... 11

3.2

Benchmark.................................................................................. 11

3.3

Sounding Line Plan

12

3.4

Tidal Observation..........................................................................13

3.4.2 Admiralty................................................................................ 15

3.4.3 NAOtide.................................................................................. 17

3.4.4 ERGtide.................................................................................. 19

3.5

Recoinassance.............................................................................. 19

3.6

Land Surveying............................................................................ 19

3.7

Current Measurement.....................................................................20

3.8

GPS System................................................................................ 22

4.1

Survey Planning.......................................................................24

4.2

4.3

4.4

Budget Calculation........................................................................27

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION........................................................................................28

5.1

Conclusion.................................................................................. 28

5.2

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................31

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1.........................................................................................................................11

Figure 3.1.........................................................................................................................18

Figure 3.2.........................................................................................................................20

Figure 3.3.........................................................................................................................21

Figure 3.4.........................................................................................................................21

Figure 3.5.........................................................................................................................22

Figure 3.6.........................................................................................................................23

Figure 4.1.........................................................................................................................25

Figure 4.2.........................................................................................................................26

Figure 5.1.........................................................................................................................30

Figure 5.2.........................................................................................................................30

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1..........................................................................................................................27

Table 4.2..........................................................................................................................27

Table 4.3..........................................................................................................................28

Table 5.1..........................................................................................................................30

Table 5.2...........................................................................................................................30

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

Indonesia is a maritime country with an area of the oceans by two thirds of the

total area of Indonesia. This condition has a lot of potentials that should be used

maximally for country development. Furthermore, Indonesia has a lot of islands, that

separated by sea. Therefore, the most effective and efficient way to connect the islands is

by using sea transport, certainly for economic purpose. Because of that condition, this

facility must need some infrastructure to put in, port or harbor.

Beside that, the condition of water and the sea floor is needed so the ship could

sail and dock safely. For that reason, the information of the bathymetry and the

characteristic of current and bathymetry in the water are very important for the ship and

the construction of the port. In addition, other factors that must be considered is the

sediment that settles at the bottom of the sea. This situation can lead to silting so the ship

cannot pass the area. Therefore, it is necessary to do dredging shipping channel. The

purpose of dredging is the ship could sail safely.

To get those information, we must do the bathymetric survey. The purposes of

this survey are to get the water depth and seabed topography, and to find the the potential

danger for the sailing ship. Bathymetric surveys conducted along the corridor include

surveys with varying width. By knowing this term, we can do understand the field

condition and start processing the situation.

Project aim:

1. Planning the survey lane and calculate the total time and budget for surveying

2. Obtaining the contur and the bathymetric map of Ketapang area

1.3

Project Coverage

We plan to do this project in Ketapang, which is located Kalimantan. Ketapang is

one of the regencies of West Kalimantan province on the Borneo Island in Indonesia.

Ketapang city is located at 1o51S 109o59E. This data is needed for dredging of

shipping lane survey purposes. This project report discusses about planning a sounding

line for bathymetric survey purposes and calculate the budget that needed to get the data

of the depth and the topography of bathymetry. Then we can get the conclusion about the

areas that need to be dredged.

CHAPTER II

BASIC THEORY

2.1

Bathymetry

Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. Bathymetry

involved the measurement of ocean depth through depth sounding. The data used to make

bathymetric maps today typically comes from an echo sounder (sonar) mounted beneath

or over the side of a boat, shot a beam of sound downward at the seafloor or from remote

sensing systems. The amount of time it takes for the sound or light to travel through the

water, bounce off the seafloor, and return to the sounder informs the equipment of the

distance to the seafloor.

In order to make a bathymetric maps, we need to do the bathymetric surveying.

Early techniques used for bathymetric surveying is using a rope to measure the depth.

This techniques is inefficient and not accurate because it only measure the depth in a

single point at a time and there is sea current and wave that could make the rope bend. As

the development of times, the technologies can be very helpful at situation like this.

2.2

Echo Sounding

Echo sounding is a type of SONAR used to determine the depth of water by

transmitting sound pulses into water. The time interval between emission and return of a

pulse is recorded, which is used to determine the depth of water along with the speed of

sound in water at the time. This information is then typically used for navigation purposes

or in order to obtain depths for charting purposes.

Echo sounding can also refer to hydro acoustic echo sounders defined as active

sound in water (sonar) used to study fish. Hydro acoustic assessments have traditionally

employed mobile surveys from boats to evaluate fish biomass and spatial distributions.

Conversely, fixed-location techniques use stationary transducers to monitor passing fish.

2.3

GPS System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that

provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the

Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The

system provides critical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the

world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely

accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

GPS concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks that

are synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. Any drift from true time maintained

on the ground is corrected daily. Likewise, the satellite locations are monitored precisely.

GPS receivers have clocks as wellhowever, they are not synchronized with true time,

and are less stable. GPS satellites continuously transmit their current time and position. A

GPS receiver monitors multiple satellites and solves equations to determine the exact

position of the receiver for it to compute four unknown quantities (three position

coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time).

For receiver in continuous, most receivers have a track algorithm, sometimes

called a tracker, that combines sets of satellite measurements collected at a different

timesin effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver positions are usually

close to each other. After a set of measurement are processed, the tracker predicts the

receiver location corresponding are usually close to each other. After a set of

measurements are processed, the tracker predicts the receiver location corresponding to

the next set of satellite measurements. When the new measurements with the tracker

prediction. In general, a tracker can (a) improve receiver position and time accuracy, (b)

reject bad measurements, (c) estimate receiver speed and direction.

The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can only be

computed with a delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance

traveled between two position measurements drop below or near the random error of

position measurement. GPS units can use measurements of the Doppler shift of the

signals received to compute velocity accurately. More advanced navigation system use

additional sensors like a compass or an inertial navigation system to complement GPS.

GPS is important to plotting the depth data and make the bathymetric map. It is a

horizontal positioning while the vertical data captured by bathymetric surveying.

2.4

Method of Mapping

The mapping method that we used for processing the survey data is Kriging

method. Kriging method, as known as Gaussian process regression, is a method of

interpolation for which the interpolated values are modeled by a Gaussian process

governed by prior covariances, as opposed to a piecewise-polynomial spline chosen to

optimize smoothness of the fitted values. Under suitable assumptions on the priors,

Kriging gives the best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values. This

interpolating methods based on the other criteria such as smoothness need not yield the

most likely intermediate values. The method is widely used in the domain of spatial

analysis and computer experiments. This technique is also known as WienerKolmogorov

prediction.

10

CHAPTER III

WORK SCOPE

The scope of work for this particular survey was to create a detailed bathymetric

chart. In addition. Side slopes of Slack Point using a multi beam echo sounder method.

Furthermore, side scan sonar was used to provide additional seabed information,

particularly in near-shore shallow water which could not be imaged with the multi beam

transducer around the Slack Point shoreline. So we used single-beam echo sounder. Side

scan sonar imagery supplements the bathymetric survey, often providing more detail on

the nature and composition of the sea floor features.

3.1

Survey Planning

The first planning step to do is preparing base map, which is provided in various

source. What is a basemap? The term basemap has seen often in GIS and refers to a

collection of GIS data and/or orthorectified imagery that form the background setting for

a map. The function of the basemap is to provide background detail necessary to orient

the location of the map. Basemaps also add to the aesthetic appeal of a map.

Typical GIS data and imaginary that make up the layers for a basemap such as

streets, parcels, boundaries (country, county, city boundaries), shaded relief of a digital

elevation model, waterways, and aerial or satellite imagery. Depending on the type of

map, any combination of those layers can be used. For example, for a map showing

foreclosed properties, the basemap would consist of GIS data such as streets (with labels)

and parcel lines. A map showing hiking trails would benefit from a basemap containing a

digital elevation model or topo lines that shows elevation, thus allow viewers to

understand the rise and fall of a trails path.

3.2

Benchmark

Benchmark is a reference for processing the data. Benchmarks are the fixed

elevation markers against which the zero setting of the gauge is checked during its

operation, from which hydrographers may recover chart datum for future surveys, and

through which surveyors and engineers may relate their surveys and structures to chart

datum. Hydrographic benchmarks landmark the elevation of the benchmarks above

11

chart datum and this procedure is basic to charting and gauging procedures. Only the

Hydrographic Service of Canada may assign or alter the elevation quoted for a

benchmark above chart datum.

As part of the installation procedure of any water level gauge, a minimum of

three benchmarks are established in the immediate vicinity ( km) of the gauge, with

no two in the same feature or structure. The elevation difference between the

preliminary gauge zero and each of the benchmarks is then determined by accurate

spirit levelling. When the elevation of chart datum is finally chosen with respect to the

preliminary gauge zero, the benchmark elevations are converted and recorded in the

benchmark descriptions as elevations above chart datum. If the water level gauge is to

continue in operation, its permanent zero would be set to chart datum. The benchmarks

provide for the recovery of chart datum in future surveys and for consistency in the

setting of gauge zero for all water level measurements at the same site. For our case BM

data acquired from Bakosurtanal.

3.3

In survey planning there are some technical preparation we need to do, including

preparing Based Map, Preparing supporting data such as benchmark point from

Bakosutanal, Ministry of Public Work and other Government Agencies. Benchmark will

be used as a reference point. After that, we make tidal observation station planning. Then

we need to make sounding line plan. Sounding line is a route plan where the ship that do

the surveying will travel and take data. Sounding line contain the main line and cross

check line. The main line is the route plan where the main data taken while the cross

check line is the route to take data as a correction and checking point for the main data.

The main line should be parallel and perpendicular to shore line while the cross check

line should be about 60o-90o angle to main line. The gap between each mainline should be

close enough so the bathymetric data that captured by the ship is good and from the data

we could make bathymetric map in better resolution . But for the cross check line the gap

dont have to be that close because we just take the data just for checking the main data.

Depth sounding refers to the act of measuring depth. It is often referred to simply

as sounding. Data taken from soundings are used in bathymetry to make maps of the floor

of a body of water, and were traditionally shown on nautical charts in fathoms and feet.

12

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the agency responsible

for bathymetric data in the United States, still uses fathoms and feet on nautical charts. In

other countries, the International System of Units (metres) has become the standard for

measuring depth.

Sounding" derives from the Old English sund, meaning swimming, water, sea; it

is not related to the word sound in the sense of noise or tones.

Traditional terms for soundings are a source for common expressions in the

English language, notably "deep six" (a sounding of 6 fathoms). On the Mississippi

River in the 1850s, the leadsmen also used old-fashioned words for some of the numbers;

for example instead of "two" they would say "twain". Thus when the depth was two

fathoms, they would call "by the mark twain!". The American writer Mark Twain, a

former river pilot, likely took his pen name from this cry. The term lives on in today's

world in echo sounding, the technique of using sonar to measure depth.

3.4

Tidal Observation

Tide are a rise and fall the surface of sea levels because of the moon gravitation,

sun gravitation, rotation and revolution of earth. Tide cause the depth of the sea vary

depends on when the depth are measured. This is because the moon gravitation and the

sun gravitation is strong enough to draw and urge the sea level. Because of this tide,

bathymetric is not accurate if the bathymetric data hasnt corrected by tidal data. So

bathymetric is actually connected to tidal. Tidal observation usually observed on 30 or 15

days. Tidal observation could be done manually and automatically. And for bathymetric

data correction, tidal data usually observe with dense `time interval during bathymetric

survey.

There is some tidal observation method. Least Square, Admiralty, and NAOTide

3.4.1

Least Square

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis

to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in

which there are more equations than unknowns. "Least squares" means that the

overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in the

results of every single equation.

13

The most important application is in data fitting. The best fit in the leastsquares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals, a residual being the

difference between an observed value and the fitted value provided by a model.

When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable (the

x variable), then simple regression and least squares methods have problems; in

such cases, the methodology required for fitting errors-in-variables models may

be considered instead of that for least squares.

Least squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least

squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals

are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical

regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. The non-linear problem is

usually solved by iterative refinement; at each iteration the system is

approximated by a linear one, and thus the core calculation is similar in both

cases.

Polynomial least squaresdescribe the variance in a prediction of the

dependent variable as a function of the independent variable and the deviations

from the fitted curve.When the observations come from an exponential family

and mild conditions are satisfied, least-squares estimates and maximumlikelihood estimates are identical. ] The method of least squares can also be

derived as a method of moments estimator.

The following discussion is mostly presented in terms of linear functions

but the use of least-squares is valid and practical for more general families of

functions. Also, by iteratively applying local quadratic approximation to the

likelihood (through the Fisher information), the least-squares method may be

used to fit a generalized linear model.

For the topic of approximating a function by a sum of others using an

objective function based on squared distances, see least squares (function

approximation).The least-squares method is usually credited to Carl Friedrich

Gauss (1795),but it was first published by Adrien-Marie Legendre.

14

3.4.2

Admiralty

A new edition of the Admiralty Method of Tidal Prediction (N.P. 159)

was issued in January 1976, and it is felt that this is a suitable opportunity to

describe the method in some detail, with the reasons for the alterations that have

now been made.

The method is intended to supply a prediction of hourly heights for all

those ports for which Harmonic Constants are published in Admiralty Tide

Tables (A.T.T.), When used with the data given for Secondary Ports, this

provides the best available prediction of both hourly heights and High and Low

Waters. When used for Standard Ports, a very convenient method of providing

hourly height predictions is available, but account must be taken of the high and

low water predictions published in A.T.T.

These latter are based on a very large number of Harmonic Constants and

the use of very large electronic computers, and are thus of a much higher

standard than any prediction provided by the Admiralty Method. By plotting the

Standard Port predictions from Part I of A.T.T. on the Form B (N.P. 159) and

then drawing a curve to pass through these points while following the general

shape of the curve originally obtained on Form B, a prediction of a very high

standard can be obtained. For some Secondary Ports in A.T.T. there is no

suitable Standard Port available. In these circumstances, the letter p is given

instead of time differences, and the only way a prediction can be obtained is by

the use of N.P. 159.

The Method has been very carefully designed with the needs of the

mariner always borne in mind. Thus, simplicity has been kept to the forefront as

far as possible, without reducing the accuracy of the predictions to such a level

that they are no longer of any practical value. Thee quipment required has also

been kept to the minimum, so that the only tools needed in addition to the book

of forms and A.T.T. are a pencil, pair of dividers, and parallel rule. Other

equipment such as a pocket calculator or slide rule can be used to advantage if

available; however, a small table of logarithms is included inside the covers of

N.P. 159. The Method involves the combination of the Tidal Angles (A) and

Factors (F) for the day with the four main Harmonic Constituents M2, S2, K1

15

and O1 for the place concerned. The vectorial sum of the two semidiurnal (S.D.)

constituents is obtained by plotting on Form A. Hourly heights for the S.D. tide

are extracted from Form A using the dividers and plotted on Form B referred to

the line of Mean Level which, after being corrected for known seasonal

variations, has been drawn across the form. An hourly speed of 29 per hour has

been assumed for the total S.D. tide.

The values of A and F are calculated for 0000 Zone Time on the day in

question and corrected to 1200 Zone Time by the addition of the angles a. Thus

the phases are correct at noon but become progressively in error due to the

assumption o f a single speed for all the S.D. constituents. The error involved in

using this simplified method of calculation is nil at 1200 and increases

progressively as the time increases or decreases, becoming a maximum in tidal

height of about 14 % of M2 at 0000 and 2400. However, due to the fact that this

error varies with the relative phases of the constituents concerned, this

maximum is not often attained.

The central time for these calculations was chosen to be noon as it was

considered that most navigation takes place during daylight hours and that

therefore a prediction with its greatest accuracy at mid-day would be most

useful. If the angles a are ignored in the calculation on Form A, the accuracy

then becomes greatest at 0000 on the day in question. An estimate of the errors

involved in a particular prediction from this cause can best be found by

predicting two consecutive days and obtaining the difference between the two

predictions at midnight. If the mean of these two predictions is accepted as the

best available for midnight, and the differences found are used to correct the

two curves progressively from midnight towards noon, the predicted curves so

obtained will evidently give a better result than that obtained from one days

calculations.

The Diurnal prediction is obtained in a similar way using the vectorial

sum of K, and O, and an assumed speed of 14i per hour. Again some

progressive error must arise from noon towards midnight in each direction. In

this case it is much more difficult to assess the magnitude of the errors that may

arise from this cause due to the considerable variations in the relationships

between Kt and O, from area to area. However experience has shown that the

16

constituents are all to be used cannot be justified for this approximate method of

prediction particularly the meteorologically caused perturbations in the actual

tidal levels are considered.

3.4.3

NAOtide

Japan have developed new global ocean tide model and loading tide

model (NAO.99b model) for 16 major shortperiod constituents (M2, S2, N2,

K2, 2N2, 2, v2, L2, T2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, M1, OO1, and J1.) which are

developed by assimilating about five years of Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter

data into numerical hydrodynamical model. Japan also developed a regional

highresolution ocean tide model around Japan (NAO.99Jb model) which

17

assimilates coastal tide gauge data as well as T/P data. The new models have

improved the accuracy of ocean tide estimation especially in shallow waters

compared with the other two existing tide models, CSR4.0 model and

GOT99.2b model. This has been achieved by the following methodologies

applied to the current study;

1. Estimation of altimetric tides in small bins.

2. Accurate tidal analysis by response method in which fine

structure of admittance due to FCN resonance and radiational

anomaly is taken into account.

3. Precise estimation of ocean-induced self-attraction/loading effects

4. Assimilating coastal tide gauge data into NAO.99Jb.

The residual sea surface heights are analyzed within each grid using the

response method (Munk and Cartwright, 1966). The notable feature of the

response method is that the method does not insist upon expressing the tides as

sums of harmonic functions of specified tidal spectral line, but expressing the

tides by smooth admittance functions of each tidal species.

The accuracy of the new ocean tide models has been examined using tide

gauge data and collinear residual reduction test. NAO.99b shows a comparable

agreement with 98 open-ocean tide gauge data as well as CSR4.0 and

GOT99.2b. The comparison with 58 shallow water tide gauges, on the other

hand, supports the better accuracy of NAO.99b model in shallow seas. The local

comparison with 80 coastal tide gauge data around Japan shows further

improvement by NAO.99Jb. It has been also shown that NAO.99b model gives

smaller collinear residuals in shallow waters than CSR4.0 and GOT99.2b. A

preliminary result has been introduced as to barotropic ocean tidal energy

dissipation around Japan.

The main sinks of M2 tidal energy are the Yellow Sea - the East China

Sea region and the Sea of Okhotsk region within which ocean tidal energy is

dissipated at the mean rate of 155 GW and 54 GW, respectively. The K1 tidal

energy is mainly dissipated in the Sea of Okhotsk at the mean rate of 89 GW.

The geographical plots of tidal dissipation suggest that the dissipation is a

highly localized phenomenon in shallow seas. However T/P detects broadly

distributed surface manifestation of internal tide even in deep ocean. More

complete description of tidal energy budget, which includes contribution from

18

radial loading tide, internal tide, the energy converted into shallow-water

constituents, will be continued into our future work.

3.4.4

ERGtide

This method is using the application called ERG tide. This application can help us to

calculate the LWS, or Lowest Water Spring, automatically. This application can make our

planning easier.

3.5

Recoinassance

Reconnaissance survey is a social and a real condition survey for somewhere we

will start and do the survey. It contain the socialization to local community, government

and other stake holder in area of the survey location. It some kind of asking permission

formally and unformally. Reconnaissance survey also contain of understanding local

weather, orientation control point and benchmark location, orientation of tidal observation

station, current meter station, CTD, and other purposes such as local transportation.

3.6

Land Surveying

Land surveying is a survey where we synchronize the land data, tidal data, and

shoreline data. The shoreline measurement is necessary for correlated bathymetric data to

land survey data. For getting data usually this survey need to be done by small boat that

sail in very shallow water. Some of the survey equipment is theodolit and waterpass. For

the tidal data, land surveying is important because it also contain the vertical datum

19

whereas the reconnaissance and choosing the benchmark point is important for the

geographical position or the horizontal datum.

3.7

Current Measurement

Current measurement is a survey for measure the speed of the water current or an

observation of current flow velocity on survey location. Usually this observation and tidal

observation done simultaneously. But since numerical model are well developed, current

observation only need several days to be done.

20

V = 0.25 ( v0.2d + 2v0.6d + v0.8d)

Note:

V

: Depth of water

Water sampling and sediment sampling intend to know the sediment that water

contains. There are two kind of sediment sampling, seabed sampling and water

sampling. Some of the tools are

.

Figure 3.5 Clamshell Sediment Sampler

21

3.8

GPS System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that

provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the

Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The

system provides critical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the

world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely

accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

The GPS concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks

that are synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. Any drift from true time

maintained on the ground is corrected daily. Likewise, the satellite locations are

monitored precisely. GPS receivers have clocks as wellhowever, they are not

synchronized with true time, and are less stable. GPS satellites continuously transmit their

current time and position. A GPS receiver monitors multiple satellites and solves

equations to determine the exact position of the receiver and its deviation from true time.

At a minimum, four satellites must be in view of the receiver for it to compute four

unknown quantities (three position coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time).

For Receiver in continuous, most receivers have a track algorithm, sometimes

called a tracker, that combines sets of satellite measurements collected at different times

in effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver positions are usually

22

close to each other. After a set of measurements are processed, the tracker predicts the

receiver location corresponding to the next set of satellite measurements. When the new

measurements are collected, the receiver uses a weighting scheme to combine the new

measurements with the tracker prediction. In general, a tracker can (a) improve receiver

position and time accuracy, (b) reject bad measurements, and (c) estimate receiver speed

and direction.

The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can only be

computed with a delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance

traveled between two position measurements drops below or near the random error of

position measurement. GPS units can use measurements of the Doppler shift of the

signals received to compute velocity accurately. More advanced navigation systems use

additional sensors like a compass or an inertial navigation system to complement GPS.

GPS is important to plotting the depth data and make the bathymetric map. It is a

horizontal positioning while the vertical data captured by bathymetric surveying.

23

CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS

4.1

Survey Planning

The figure below is result from processing the tidal data. The red line is main survey line,

the blue on is cross check line, and the yellow one is dredging line.

4.2

The depth correction is calculated by interpolate method to get the exact correction, and

then after that we can get real z by using this formula:

24

25

4.3

Length (m)

= 3464.56 meters

Width 1 (m)

= 3328.54 meters

Width 2 (m)

= 2188 meters

Max. interval

= 25 meters

Amount of line

= 200

Total length

26

Survey duration (hours)

Because that condition, to make efficient so it will take 3 days by using 2 boats at the

same time.

Main survey line

lenght

Assumption

Survey area is

calculated as a

lenght

rectangle

1 boat contain 1 team

lenght

and 2 surveyor

1 boat included 1 echo

Boat speed

304132

meter

24068

meter

328200

meter

7408

m/h

44.303

hour

5.5379

day

Survey duration

(using 1 boat)

boat velocity

7408

m/hour

1 day = 8 work hour(s)

1 hotel room for 2

person

1 boat contain 1 accu

and Data

and 1 gen-set

car and gasoline

counted as 1

4.4

Budget Calculation

Budget Allocation

Unit

Team Leader

Unit price

(rupiah)

1,500,0

00

1,000,0

00

Work

duration

(days)

Multiply

Cost

factor

(rupiah)

9,000,0

00

6,000,0

00

27

Surveyor

Boats

Echo Sounder

DGPS

Accumulator

Genset

Daily Accomodation

Car + gas

750,0

00

2,500,0

00

1,500,0

00

1,500,0

00

700,0

00

3,500,0

00

300,0

00

1,500,0

00

1,000,0

00

1.5

1.2

TOTAL

9,000,0

00

22,500,0

00

9,000,0

00

9,000,0

00

1,400,0

00

7,000,0

00

1,800,0

00

5,400,0

00

1,000,0

00

81,100,0

00

So, the total budget that used to pay the survey planning is Rp81,000,000,-

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

5.1 Conclusion

As we obtain and analyze the data, finally this project come to conclusion

based on the project aim. The conclusions for this project are:

28

The survey took 3 days to obtain the bathymetric data. It costs Rp 81.100.000,

uses 2 boats, and 8 personels as the table explain below:

Budget Allocation

Unit

Team Leader

Surveyor

Boats

Echo Sounder

DGPS

Accumulator

Genset

Daily Accomodation

Car + gas

Unit price

(rupiah)

1,500,0

00

1,000,0

00

750,0

00

2,500,0

00

1,500,0

00

1,500,0

00

700,0

00

3,500,0

00

300,0

00

1,500,0

00

1,000,0

00

TOTAL

Work

duration

(days)

Multiply

Cost

factor

(rupiah)

1.5

1.2

9,000,0

00

6,000,0

00

9,000,0

00

22,500,0

00

9,000,0

00

9,000,0

00

1,400,0

00

7,000,0

00

1,800,0

00

5,400,0

00

1,000,0

00

81,100,0

00

29

304132

meter

Total survey line lenght

Boat speed

24068

328200

7408

44.303

5.5379

meter

meter

m/h

hour

day

After the survey was done and the data was obtained, we analyze the data and

obtain the countour and map:

30

31

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.tageo.com/index-e-id-v-11-d-m3711226.htm

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Ketapang+Regency,+West+Kalimantan,

+Indonesia/@-1.807287,109.919985,37928m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!

1s0x2e044cf6da61153f:0x201126c1f8e4178!6m1!1e1?hl=en-US

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alur_pelayaran

https://dennipasca.blogspot.co.id/2010/09/konsep-dasar-survei-batimetri.html

https://www.academia.edu/9145440/laporan_praktikum_osefis_batimetri

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathymetry

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_sounding

32

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