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KL 3103

FIELD DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS

Final Assignment

Lecturer:
Ahmad Mukhlis Firdaus, S.T., M.T.

By:

Group 8
Achmad Hasan

15513066

Kharisma Jayatra

15513074

Dany Aryanzah

15513080

Hari Kurniawan

15512069

Ocean Engineering Program


Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Bandung Institute of Technology
2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................2
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................4
LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................5
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................6
1.1

Background................................................................................... 6

1.2

Aim and Purposes...........................................................................6

1.3

Project Coverage............................................................................ 6

CHAPTER II: BASIC THEORY.......................................................................................8


2.1

Bathymetry................................................................................... 8

2.2

Echo Sounding............................................................................... 8

2.3

GPS System............................................................................... 9

2.4

Method of Mapping.......................................................................10

CHAPTER III: WORK SCOPE.......................................................................................11


3.1

Survey Planning........................................................................... 11

3.2

Benchmark.................................................................................. 11

3.3
Sounding Line Plan
12
3.4

Tidal Observation..........................................................................13

3.4.1 Least Square............................................................................. 13


3.4.2 Admiralty................................................................................ 15
3.4.3 NAOtide.................................................................................. 17
3.4.4 ERGtide.................................................................................. 19
3.5

Recoinassance.............................................................................. 19

3.6

Land Surveying............................................................................ 19

3.7

Current Measurement.....................................................................20

3.8

GPS System................................................................................ 22

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS...................................................................................24


4.1

Survey Planning.......................................................................24

4.2

Calibrating The Depth....................................................................25

4.3

Survey Line Calculation...........................................................25

4.4

Budget Calculation........................................................................27

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION........................................................................................28
5.1

Conclusion.................................................................................. 28

5.2

Contur and Bathymetric..................................................................30

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................31

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1.........................................................................................................................11
Figure 3.1.........................................................................................................................18
Figure 3.2.........................................................................................................................20
Figure 3.3.........................................................................................................................21
Figure 3.4.........................................................................................................................21
Figure 3.5.........................................................................................................................22
Figure 3.6.........................................................................................................................23
Figure 4.1.........................................................................................................................25
Figure 4.2.........................................................................................................................26
Figure 5.1.........................................................................................................................30
Figure 5.2.........................................................................................................................30

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1..........................................................................................................................27
Table 4.2..........................................................................................................................27
Table 4.3..........................................................................................................................28
Table 5.1..........................................................................................................................30
Table 5.2...........................................................................................................................30

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background
Indonesia is a maritime country with an area of the oceans by two thirds of the
total area of Indonesia. This condition has a lot of potentials that should be used
maximally for country development. Furthermore, Indonesia has a lot of islands, that
separated by sea. Therefore, the most effective and efficient way to connect the islands is
by using sea transport, certainly for economic purpose. Because of that condition, this
facility must need some infrastructure to put in, port or harbor.
Beside that, the condition of water and the sea floor is needed so the ship could
sail and dock safely. For that reason, the information of the bathymetry and the
characteristic of current and bathymetry in the water are very important for the ship and
the construction of the port. In addition, other factors that must be considered is the
sediment that settles at the bottom of the sea. This situation can lead to silting so the ship
cannot pass the area. Therefore, it is necessary to do dredging shipping channel. The
purpose of dredging is the ship could sail safely.
To get those information, we must do the bathymetric survey. The purposes of
this survey are to get the water depth and seabed topography, and to find the the potential
danger for the sailing ship. Bathymetric surveys conducted along the corridor include
surveys with varying width. By knowing this term, we can do understand the field
condition and start processing the situation.

1.2 Aim and Purpose


Project aim:
1. Planning the survey lane and calculate the total time and budget for surveying
2. Obtaining the contur and the bathymetric map of Ketapang area

1.3

Project Coverage
We plan to do this project in Ketapang, which is located Kalimantan. Ketapang is
one of the regencies of West Kalimantan province on the Borneo Island in Indonesia.

Ketapang city is located at 1o51S 109o59E. This data is needed for dredging of
shipping lane survey purposes. This project report discusses about planning a sounding
line for bathymetric survey purposes and calculate the budget that needed to get the data
of the depth and the topography of bathymetry. Then we can get the conclusion about the
areas that need to be dredged.

Figure 1.1 Location of Ketapang on the map

CHAPTER II
BASIC THEORY

2.1

Bathymetry
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. Bathymetry
involved the measurement of ocean depth through depth sounding. The data used to make
bathymetric maps today typically comes from an echo sounder (sonar) mounted beneath
or over the side of a boat, shot a beam of sound downward at the seafloor or from remote
sensing systems. The amount of time it takes for the sound or light to travel through the
water, bounce off the seafloor, and return to the sounder informs the equipment of the
distance to the seafloor.
In order to make a bathymetric maps, we need to do the bathymetric surveying.
Early techniques used for bathymetric surveying is using a rope to measure the depth.
This techniques is inefficient and not accurate because it only measure the depth in a
single point at a time and there is sea current and wave that could make the rope bend. As
the development of times, the technologies can be very helpful at situation like this.

2.2

Echo Sounding
Echo sounding is a type of SONAR used to determine the depth of water by
transmitting sound pulses into water. The time interval between emission and return of a
pulse is recorded, which is used to determine the depth of water along with the speed of
sound in water at the time. This information is then typically used for navigation purposes
or in order to obtain depths for charting purposes.
Echo sounding can also refer to hydro acoustic echo sounders defined as active
sound in water (sonar) used to study fish. Hydro acoustic assessments have traditionally
employed mobile surveys from boats to evaluate fish biomass and spatial distributions.
Conversely, fixed-location techniques use stationary transducers to monitor passing fish.

2.3

GPS System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that
provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the
Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The
system provides critical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the
world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely
accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
GPS concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks that
are synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. Any drift from true time maintained
on the ground is corrected daily. Likewise, the satellite locations are monitored precisely.
GPS receivers have clocks as wellhowever, they are not synchronized with true time,
and are less stable. GPS satellites continuously transmit their current time and position. A
GPS receiver monitors multiple satellites and solves equations to determine the exact
position of the receiver for it to compute four unknown quantities (three position
coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time).
For receiver in continuous, most receivers have a track algorithm, sometimes
called a tracker, that combines sets of satellite measurements collected at a different
timesin effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver positions are usually
close to each other. After a set of measurement are processed, the tracker predicts the
receiver location corresponding are usually close to each other. After a set of
measurements are processed, the tracker predicts the receiver location corresponding to
the next set of satellite measurements. When the new measurements with the tracker
prediction. In general, a tracker can (a) improve receiver position and time accuracy, (b)
reject bad measurements, (c) estimate receiver speed and direction.
The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can only be
computed with a delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance
traveled between two position measurements drop below or near the random error of
position measurement. GPS units can use measurements of the Doppler shift of the
signals received to compute velocity accurately. More advanced navigation system use
additional sensors like a compass or an inertial navigation system to complement GPS.
GPS is important to plotting the depth data and make the bathymetric map. It is a
horizontal positioning while the vertical data captured by bathymetric surveying.

2.4

Method of Mapping
The mapping method that we used for processing the survey data is Kriging
method. Kriging method, as known as Gaussian process regression, is a method of
interpolation for which the interpolated values are modeled by a Gaussian process
governed by prior covariances, as opposed to a piecewise-polynomial spline chosen to
optimize smoothness of the fitted values. Under suitable assumptions on the priors,
Kriging gives the best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values. This
interpolating methods based on the other criteria such as smoothness need not yield the
most likely intermediate values. The method is widely used in the domain of spatial
analysis and computer experiments. This technique is also known as WienerKolmogorov
prediction.

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CHAPTER III
WORK SCOPE
The scope of work for this particular survey was to create a detailed bathymetric
chart. In addition. Side slopes of Slack Point using a multi beam echo sounder method.
Furthermore, side scan sonar was used to provide additional seabed information,
particularly in near-shore shallow water which could not be imaged with the multi beam
transducer around the Slack Point shoreline. So we used single-beam echo sounder. Side
scan sonar imagery supplements the bathymetric survey, often providing more detail on
the nature and composition of the sea floor features.

3.1

Survey Planning
The first planning step to do is preparing base map, which is provided in various
source. What is a basemap? The term basemap has seen often in GIS and refers to a
collection of GIS data and/or orthorectified imagery that form the background setting for
a map. The function of the basemap is to provide background detail necessary to orient
the location of the map. Basemaps also add to the aesthetic appeal of a map.
Typical GIS data and imaginary that make up the layers for a basemap such as
streets, parcels, boundaries (country, county, city boundaries), shaded relief of a digital
elevation model, waterways, and aerial or satellite imagery. Depending on the type of
map, any combination of those layers can be used. For example, for a map showing
foreclosed properties, the basemap would consist of GIS data such as streets (with labels)
and parcel lines. A map showing hiking trails would benefit from a basemap containing a
digital elevation model or topo lines that shows elevation, thus allow viewers to
understand the rise and fall of a trails path.

3.2

Benchmark
Benchmark is a reference for processing the data. Benchmarks are the fixed
elevation markers against which the zero setting of the gauge is checked during its
operation, from which hydrographers may recover chart datum for future surveys, and
through which surveyors and engineers may relate their surveys and structures to chart
datum. Hydrographic benchmarks landmark the elevation of the benchmarks above
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chart datum and this procedure is basic to charting and gauging procedures. Only the
Hydrographic Service of Canada may assign or alter the elevation quoted for a
benchmark above chart datum.
As part of the installation procedure of any water level gauge, a minimum of
three benchmarks are established in the immediate vicinity ( km) of the gauge, with
no two in the same feature or structure. The elevation difference between the
preliminary gauge zero and each of the benchmarks is then determined by accurate
spirit levelling. When the elevation of chart datum is finally chosen with respect to the
preliminary gauge zero, the benchmark elevations are converted and recorded in the
benchmark descriptions as elevations above chart datum. If the water level gauge is to
continue in operation, its permanent zero would be set to chart datum. The benchmarks
provide for the recovery of chart datum in future surveys and for consistency in the
setting of gauge zero for all water level measurements at the same site. For our case BM
data acquired from Bakosurtanal.

3.3

Sounding Line Plan


In survey planning there are some technical preparation we need to do, including
preparing Based Map, Preparing supporting data such as benchmark point from
Bakosutanal, Ministry of Public Work and other Government Agencies. Benchmark will
be used as a reference point. After that, we make tidal observation station planning. Then
we need to make sounding line plan. Sounding line is a route plan where the ship that do
the surveying will travel and take data. Sounding line contain the main line and cross
check line. The main line is the route plan where the main data taken while the cross
check line is the route to take data as a correction and checking point for the main data.
The main line should be parallel and perpendicular to shore line while the cross check
line should be about 60o-90o angle to main line. The gap between each mainline should be
close enough so the bathymetric data that captured by the ship is good and from the data
we could make bathymetric map in better resolution . But for the cross check line the gap
dont have to be that close because we just take the data just for checking the main data.
Depth sounding refers to the act of measuring depth. It is often referred to simply
as sounding. Data taken from soundings are used in bathymetry to make maps of the floor
of a body of water, and were traditionally shown on nautical charts in fathoms and feet.

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The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the agency responsible
for bathymetric data in the United States, still uses fathoms and feet on nautical charts. In
other countries, the International System of Units (metres) has become the standard for
measuring depth.
Sounding" derives from the Old English sund, meaning swimming, water, sea; it
is not related to the word sound in the sense of noise or tones.
Traditional terms for soundings are a source for common expressions in the
English language, notably "deep six" (a sounding of 6 fathoms). On the Mississippi
River in the 1850s, the leadsmen also used old-fashioned words for some of the numbers;
for example instead of "two" they would say "twain". Thus when the depth was two
fathoms, they would call "by the mark twain!". The American writer Mark Twain, a
former river pilot, likely took his pen name from this cry. The term lives on in today's
world in echo sounding, the technique of using sonar to measure depth.

3.4

Tidal Observation
Tide are a rise and fall the surface of sea levels because of the moon gravitation,
sun gravitation, rotation and revolution of earth. Tide cause the depth of the sea vary
depends on when the depth are measured. This is because the moon gravitation and the
sun gravitation is strong enough to draw and urge the sea level. Because of this tide,
bathymetric is not accurate if the bathymetric data hasnt corrected by tidal data. So
bathymetric is actually connected to tidal. Tidal observation usually observed on 30 or 15
days. Tidal observation could be done manually and automatically. And for bathymetric
data correction, tidal data usually observe with dense `time interval during bathymetric
survey.
There is some tidal observation method. Least Square, Admiralty, and NAOTide

3.4.1

Least Square
The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis
to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in
which there are more equations than unknowns. "Least squares" means that the
overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in the
results of every single equation.

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The most important application is in data fitting. The best fit in the leastsquares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals, a residual being the
difference between an observed value and the fitted value provided by a model.
When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable (the
x variable), then simple regression and least squares methods have problems; in
such cases, the methodology required for fitting errors-in-variables models may
be considered instead of that for least squares.
Least squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least
squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals
are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical
regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. The non-linear problem is
usually solved by iterative refinement; at each iteration the system is
approximated by a linear one, and thus the core calculation is similar in both
cases.
Polynomial least squaresdescribe the variance in a prediction of the
dependent variable as a function of the independent variable and the deviations
from the fitted curve.When the observations come from an exponential family
and mild conditions are satisfied, least-squares estimates and maximumlikelihood estimates are identical. ] The method of least squares can also be
derived as a method of moments estimator.
The following discussion is mostly presented in terms of linear functions
but the use of least-squares is valid and practical for more general families of
functions. Also, by iteratively applying local quadratic approximation to the
likelihood (through the Fisher information), the least-squares method may be
used to fit a generalized linear model.
For the topic of approximating a function by a sum of others using an
objective function based on squared distances, see least squares (function
approximation).The least-squares method is usually credited to Carl Friedrich
Gauss (1795),but it was first published by Adrien-Marie Legendre.

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3.4.2

Admiralty
A new edition of the Admiralty Method of Tidal Prediction (N.P. 159)
was issued in January 1976, and it is felt that this is a suitable opportunity to
describe the method in some detail, with the reasons for the alterations that have
now been made.
The method is intended to supply a prediction of hourly heights for all
those ports for which Harmonic Constants are published in Admiralty Tide
Tables (A.T.T.), When used with the data given for Secondary Ports, this
provides the best available prediction of both hourly heights and High and Low
Waters. When used for Standard Ports, a very convenient method of providing
hourly height predictions is available, but account must be taken of the high and
low water predictions published in A.T.T.
These latter are based on a very large number of Harmonic Constants and
the use of very large electronic computers, and are thus of a much higher
standard than any prediction provided by the Admiralty Method. By plotting the
Standard Port predictions from Part I of A.T.T. on the Form B (N.P. 159) and
then drawing a curve to pass through these points while following the general
shape of the curve originally obtained on Form B, a prediction of a very high
standard can be obtained. For some Secondary Ports in A.T.T. there is no
suitable Standard Port available. In these circumstances, the letter p is given
instead of time differences, and the only way a prediction can be obtained is by
the use of N.P. 159.
The Method has been very carefully designed with the needs of the
mariner always borne in mind. Thus, simplicity has been kept to the forefront as
far as possible, without reducing the accuracy of the predictions to such a level
that they are no longer of any practical value. Thee quipment required has also
been kept to the minimum, so that the only tools needed in addition to the book
of forms and A.T.T. are a pencil, pair of dividers, and parallel rule. Other
equipment such as a pocket calculator or slide rule can be used to advantage if
available; however, a small table of logarithms is included inside the covers of
N.P. 159. The Method involves the combination of the Tidal Angles (A) and
Factors (F) for the day with the four main Harmonic Constituents M2, S2, K1

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and O1 for the place concerned. The vectorial sum of the two semidiurnal (S.D.)
constituents is obtained by plotting on Form A. Hourly heights for the S.D. tide
are extracted from Form A using the dividers and plotted on Form B referred to
the line of Mean Level which, after being corrected for known seasonal
variations, has been drawn across the form. An hourly speed of 29 per hour has
been assumed for the total S.D. tide.
The values of A and F are calculated for 0000 Zone Time on the day in
question and corrected to 1200 Zone Time by the addition of the angles a. Thus
the phases are correct at noon but become progressively in error due to the
assumption o f a single speed for all the S.D. constituents. The error involved in
using this simplified method of calculation is nil at 1200 and increases
progressively as the time increases or decreases, becoming a maximum in tidal
height of about 14 % of M2 at 0000 and 2400. However, due to the fact that this
error varies with the relative phases of the constituents concerned, this
maximum is not often attained.
The central time for these calculations was chosen to be noon as it was
considered that most navigation takes place during daylight hours and that
therefore a prediction with its greatest accuracy at mid-day would be most
useful. If the angles a are ignored in the calculation on Form A, the accuracy
then becomes greatest at 0000 on the day in question. An estimate of the errors
involved in a particular prediction from this cause can best be found by
predicting two consecutive days and obtaining the difference between the two
predictions at midnight. If the mean of these two predictions is accepted as the
best available for midnight, and the differences found are used to correct the
two curves progressively from midnight towards noon, the predicted curves so
obtained will evidently give a better result than that obtained from one days
calculations.
The Diurnal prediction is obtained in a similar way using the vectorial
sum of K, and O, and an assumed speed of 14i per hour. Again some
progressive error must arise from noon towards midnight in each direction. In
this case it is much more difficult to assess the magnitude of the errors that may
arise from this cause due to the considerable variations in the relationships
between Kt and O, from area to area. However experience has shown that the

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considerable additional computation necessary if the actual speeds of the


constituents are all to be used cannot be justified for this approximate method of
prediction particularly the meteorologically caused perturbations in the actual
tidal levels are considered.

Figure 3.1 Flowchart

3.4.3

NAOtide
Japan have developed new global ocean tide model and loading tide
model (NAO.99b model) for 16 major shortperiod constituents (M2, S2, N2,
K2, 2N2, 2, v2, L2, T2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, M1, OO1, and J1.) which are
developed by assimilating about five years of Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter
data into numerical hydrodynamical model. Japan also developed a regional
highresolution ocean tide model around Japan (NAO.99Jb model) which

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assimilates coastal tide gauge data as well as T/P data. The new models have
improved the accuracy of ocean tide estimation especially in shallow waters
compared with the other two existing tide models, CSR4.0 model and
GOT99.2b model. This has been achieved by the following methodologies
applied to the current study;
1. Estimation of altimetric tides in small bins.
2. Accurate tidal analysis by response method in which fine
structure of admittance due to FCN resonance and radiational
anomaly is taken into account.
3. Precise estimation of ocean-induced self-attraction/loading effects
4. Assimilating coastal tide gauge data into NAO.99Jb.
The residual sea surface heights are analyzed within each grid using the
response method (Munk and Cartwright, 1966). The notable feature of the
response method is that the method does not insist upon expressing the tides as
sums of harmonic functions of specified tidal spectral line, but expressing the
tides by smooth admittance functions of each tidal species.
The accuracy of the new ocean tide models has been examined using tide
gauge data and collinear residual reduction test. NAO.99b shows a comparable
agreement with 98 open-ocean tide gauge data as well as CSR4.0 and
GOT99.2b. The comparison with 58 shallow water tide gauges, on the other
hand, supports the better accuracy of NAO.99b model in shallow seas. The local
comparison with 80 coastal tide gauge data around Japan shows further
improvement by NAO.99Jb. It has been also shown that NAO.99b model gives
smaller collinear residuals in shallow waters than CSR4.0 and GOT99.2b. A
preliminary result has been introduced as to barotropic ocean tidal energy
dissipation around Japan.
The main sinks of M2 tidal energy are the Yellow Sea - the East China
Sea region and the Sea of Okhotsk region within which ocean tidal energy is
dissipated at the mean rate of 155 GW and 54 GW, respectively. The K1 tidal
energy is mainly dissipated in the Sea of Okhotsk at the mean rate of 89 GW.
The geographical plots of tidal dissipation suggest that the dissipation is a
highly localized phenomenon in shallow seas. However T/P detects broadly
distributed surface manifestation of internal tide even in deep ocean. More
complete description of tidal energy budget, which includes contribution from

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radial loading tide, internal tide, the energy converted into shallow-water
constituents, will be continued into our future work.

3.4.4

ERGtide

This method is using the application called ERG tide. This application can help us to
calculate the LWS, or Lowest Water Spring, automatically. This application can make our
planning easier.

3.5

Recoinassance
Reconnaissance survey is a social and a real condition survey for somewhere we
will start and do the survey. It contain the socialization to local community, government
and other stake holder in area of the survey location. It some kind of asking permission
formally and unformally. Reconnaissance survey also contain of understanding local
weather, orientation control point and benchmark location, orientation of tidal observation
station, current meter station, CTD, and other purposes such as local transportation.

Figure 3.2 Benchmark for Geodetic Survey

3.6

Land Surveying
Land surveying is a survey where we synchronize the land data, tidal data, and
shoreline data. The shoreline measurement is necessary for correlated bathymetric data to
land survey data. For getting data usually this survey need to be done by small boat that
sail in very shallow water. Some of the survey equipment is theodolit and waterpass. For
the tidal data, land surveying is important because it also contain the vertical datum

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whereas the reconnaissance and choosing the benchmark point is important for the
geographical position or the horizontal datum.

Figure 3.3 Water Pass

3.7

Current Measurement
Current measurement is a survey for measure the speed of the water current or an
observation of current flow velocity on survey location. Usually this observation and tidal
observation done simultaneously. But since numerical model are well developed, current
observation only need several days to be done.

Figure 3.4 Current Measurement

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Speed of Current in location are calculated as follow


V = 0.25 ( v0.2d + 2v0.6d + v0.8d)

Note:
V

: Average Current Speed

: Average current speed on several depth

: Depth of water

Water Sampling and Sediment


Water sampling and sediment sampling intend to know the sediment that water
contains. There are two kind of sediment sampling, seabed sampling and water
sampling. Some of the tools are

.
Figure 3.5 Clamshell Sediment Sampler

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Figure 3.6 Water Sampling Tool

3.8

GPS System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that
provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the
Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The
system provides critical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the
world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely
accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
The GPS concept is based on time. The satellites carry very stable atomic clocks
that are synchronized to each other and to ground clocks. Any drift from true time
maintained on the ground is corrected daily. Likewise, the satellite locations are
monitored precisely. GPS receivers have clocks as wellhowever, they are not
synchronized with true time, and are less stable. GPS satellites continuously transmit their
current time and position. A GPS receiver monitors multiple satellites and solves
equations to determine the exact position of the receiver and its deviation from true time.
At a minimum, four satellites must be in view of the receiver for it to compute four
unknown quantities (three position coordinates and clock deviation from satellite time).
For Receiver in continuous, most receivers have a track algorithm, sometimes
called a tracker, that combines sets of satellite measurements collected at different times
in effect, taking advantage of the fact that successive receiver positions are usually

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close to each other. After a set of measurements are processed, the tracker predicts the
receiver location corresponding to the next set of satellite measurements. When the new
measurements are collected, the receiver uses a weighting scheme to combine the new
measurements with the tracker prediction. In general, a tracker can (a) improve receiver
position and time accuracy, (b) reject bad measurements, and (c) estimate receiver speed
and direction.
The disadvantage of a tracker is that changes in speed or direction can only be
computed with a delay, and that derived direction becomes inaccurate when the distance
traveled between two position measurements drops below or near the random error of
position measurement. GPS units can use measurements of the Doppler shift of the
signals received to compute velocity accurately. More advanced navigation systems use
additional sensors like a compass or an inertial navigation system to complement GPS.
GPS is important to plotting the depth data and make the bathymetric map. It is a
horizontal positioning while the vertical data captured by bathymetric surveying.

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CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1

Survey Planning
The figure below is result from processing the tidal data. The red line is main survey line,
the blue on is cross check line, and the yellow one is dredging line.

Figure 4.1 survey line

Figure 4.2 combination between bathymetric and contur

4.2

Calibrating The Depth


The depth correction is calculated by interpolate method to get the exact correction, and
then after that we can get real z by using this formula:

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25

Z = depth + Transducer + Depth Correction + Barcheck - LWS

4.3

Survey Line Calculation


Length (m)

= 3464.56 meters

Width 1 (m)

= 3328.54 meters

Width 2 (m)

= 2188 meters

Max. interval

= 25 meters

Amount of line

= length / 25 = 138.5824 = 139 lines

Main survey line length

= 139 / 21188 = 304132 meters

Interval crosscheck line

= 200

Amount of Cross check line

= 2188 / 200 = 10.94 = 11 lines

Cross check line length

= 2188 / 11 = 24068 meters

Total length

= main survey line length + Cross check line length

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= 304132 + 24068 = 328200 meters


Survey duration (hours)

= total length / boat velocity = 44.304 hours = 45 hours

Survey work day

= 44.304 / 8 = 5.54 days = 6 days

Because that condition, to make efficient so it will take 3 days by using 2 boats at the
same time.
Main survey line
lenght

Assumption
Survey area is

Cross check line

calculated as a

lenght

rectangle
1 boat contain 1 team

Total survey line

leader, 1 operator SBP,

lenght

and 2 surveyor
1 boat included 1 echo

Boat speed

304132

meter

24068

meter

328200

meter

7408

m/h

44.303

hour

5.5379

day

sounder and 1 DGPS


Survey duration
(using 1 boat)

boat velocity
7408
m/hour
1 day = 8 work hour(s)
1 hotel room for 2
person
1 boat contain 1 accu

Table 4.1 and 4.2 Assumption


and Data

and 1 gen-set
car and gasoline
counted as 1

4.4

Budget Calculation
Budget Allocation

Unit

Team Leader

Operator Sub Bottom Profelling

Unit price
(rupiah)
1,500,0
00
1,000,0
00

Work
duration
(days)

Multiply

Cost

factor

(rupiah)

9,000,0
00
6,000,0
00

27

Surveyor

Boats

Echo Sounder

DGPS

Accumulator

Genset

Hotel, 2 rooms for 4 people

Daily Accomodation

Car + gas

750,0
00
2,500,0
00
1,500,0
00
1,500,0
00
700,0
00
3,500,0
00
300,0
00
1,500,0
00
1,000,0
00

1.5

1.2

TOTAL

9,000,0
00
22,500,0
00
9,000,0
00
9,000,0
00
1,400,0
00
7,000,0
00
1,800,0
00
5,400,0
00
1,000,0
00
81,100,0
00

Table 4.3 Budget Calculation


So, the total budget that used to pay the survey planning is Rp81,000,000,-

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclusion
As we obtain and analyze the data, finally this project come to conclusion
based on the project aim. The conclusions for this project are:

28

The survey took 3 days to obtain the bathymetric data. It costs Rp 81.100.000,
uses 2 boats, and 8 personels as the table explain below:

Budget Allocation

Unit

Team Leader

Operator Sub Bottom Profelling

Surveyor

Boats

Echo Sounder

DGPS

Accumulator

Genset

Hotel, 2 rooms for 4 people

Daily Accomodation

Car + gas

Unit price
(rupiah)
1,500,0
00
1,000,0
00
750,0
00
2,500,0
00
1,500,0
00
1,500,0
00
700,0
00
3,500,0
00
300,0
00
1,500,0
00
1,000,0
00

TOTAL

Work
duration
(days)

Multiply

Cost

factor

(rupiah)

1.5

1.2

9,000,0
00
6,000,0
00
9,000,0
00
22,500,0
00
9,000,0
00
9,000,0
00
1,400,0
00
7,000,0
00
1,800,0
00
5,400,0
00
1,000,0
00
81,100,0
00

Table 5.1 Budget Calculation

And the additional data as described below:


29

Main survey line lenght

304132

meter

Cross check line lenght


Total survey line lenght
Boat speed

24068
328200
7408
44.303
5.5379

meter
meter
m/h
hour
day

Survey duration (using 1 boat)

Table 5.2 Data Table

5.2 Contur and Bathymetric


After the survey was done and the data was obtained, we analyze the data and
obtain the countour and map:

30

Figure 5.1 Contur

Figure 5.2 Bathymetric

31

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.tageo.com/index-e-id-v-11-d-m3711226.htm
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Ketapang+Regency,+West+Kalimantan,
+Indonesia/@-1.807287,109.919985,37928m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!
1s0x2e044cf6da61153f:0x201126c1f8e4178!6m1!1e1?hl=en-US
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alur_pelayaran
https://dennipasca.blogspot.co.id/2010/09/konsep-dasar-survei-batimetri.html
https://www.academia.edu/9145440/laporan_praktikum_osefis_batimetri
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathymetry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_sounding

32