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# Advance Fluid Mechanics

Recommended Books:
1. Daugherty, R. L. Franzini B. & Finnemore E. J., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill Book Co.
2. Douglus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.
3. Jack P., Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics , McGraw-Hill Inc.
4. Merle Potter, Mechanics of Fluid, CL-Engineering (2011)

## Laminar Flow in Circular Pipe:

For laminar flow

(1)

where,
u = velocity at a distance y from the boundary
as,

= -
=
= constant for a particular pipe

## Now equation (1) becomes

=
-ve sign indicates that u decreases as increases.

To determine the velocity profile for laminar flow in a circular pipe = is substituted into expression =
Therefore,
2

= 2

(2)

## Integrating equation (2) and assuming that integration constant=

c is equal to

=

2
=0

2
2
=
+
2 2
2
=
+
2 2
2
= 2 2
=

= - k 2
where,

(3)

(4)

=
4

Substituting the boundary condition that u = 0 for = and noting that = , centerline velocity

= k 2

(4)

0 = k2
= k2

= 2

(5)

2
= 2

since
=
Therefore,
=
=

2
(1 2 )

## Comparing equations (3) and (6), we get

2 =

2
(1 2 )

= 2 2
4

(6)

2 = 2 2

2
= 4

As

and

2
4

Therefore
=

2
16

(7)

where,
= centerline velocity
Since,
mean velocity

i.e;

## Putting = 2V in equation (7), we get

= 2V
2
2V =
16
2
V=
32

As we know that

=g
g2
V=
32

(8)

V=

g2

32

since,

kinematic viscosity
g2
V=
32

32
g 2

(9)

## Equation (9) is Hagen Poiseuille law for Laminar Flow.

Recalling Darcy Weisbach equation of head loss
2

= 2g

(10)

## Comparing equations (9) and (10), we get

2
32

=
2g
g2

= 64

64
=

=
We can determine pipe friction if is less than 2000.

64

(11)

## Entrance Conditions in Laminar Flow:

In the case of a pipe leading from a reservoir, if the entrance is rounded so as to avoid any initial disturbance of the emerging
stream, all the particles will start to flow with the same velocity, except for a very thin film (layer) in contact with the wall.
Particles next to the wall will have zero velocity, but the velocity gradient here is extremely steep and with this slight exception,
velocity is uniform across the diameter as shown in figure.

As the fluid progresses along the pipe, the streamlines in the vicinity of the wall are slowed down by the friction emanating from
the wall, but as Q (discharge) is constant for successive sections, the velocity in the center must be accelerated, until the final
velocity profile is a parabola as shown in figure.
Theoretically an infinite distance is required for this but it has been established both by theory and by observation that the
maximum velocity in the center of the pipe will reach 99% of its ultimate value in the distance = 0.058 .

## = 2000 , the distance = 166 pipe diameters.

Unestablished Flow:
It is the region in the pipe where velocity profile is changing.
i.e; in the entry region of length , the flow is unestablished.
Mathematically,

= 0.058

Established Flow:
It is the region in the pipe where velocity profile does not change and it has attained a parabolic shape.

Boundary Layer:
The outer zone which is in contact with the wall and increases in thickness as flow moves along the wall. It increases its
thickness until the shear stress becomes maximum.

Problem1: Oil (S = 0.85) with a kinematic viscosity of 6 104 2 /s flows in a 15 cm pipe at a rate of 0.020
3 /s. What is the head loss per 100 m length of pipe?

## Solution: Given that

Discharge
Pipe diameter
Specific gravity of oil
kinematic viscosity
Head loss per 100 m

Q = 0.020 3 /s
D = 0.15 m.
S = 0.85
= 6 104 2 /s
=?

Step#1:
Mean velocity

v=
v=

2 4

0.020
2
0.15 4
m
v = 1.13
v=

Step#2:
Reynolds number

..

6 104

= 283
Step#3:

## Since < 2000 the flow is laminar.

Step#4:

32
g 2
321.13100of 6
9.810.152

104

= 9.83m

Problem#2: An oil with a kinematic viscosity of 0.135 stokes flows through a pipe of diameter 15cm. Below what
velocity will be the laminar flow?

## Solution: Given that

Pipe diameter
Specific gravity of oil
1 stoke
Kinematic viscosity

D = 0.15 m.
S = 0.85
=1 c2 = 1 104 2 /s
= 0.135 104 2 /s

Reynolds number

The flow is laminar with the Reynolds number less than 2000. i.e;

.

0.135 104

Therefore, for the velocity of flow below 0.18 m/s, the flow will be laminar.

Problem#3: An oil with a kinematic viscosity of 0.0052 /s flow through a 7.5cm diameter pipe with a velocity of 3m/s.
Is the flow is laminar or turbulent?

## Solution: Given that

kinematic viscosity

= 0.0052 /s

Pipe diameter

D = 7.5cm = 0.075 m

Velocity of flow

= 3 /

Nature of flow
As

=?
=

.
.

## Therefore the flow is laminar.

Problem#4: An oil (s = 0.8, =1.8105 2 /s) flow in a 10cm diameter pipe at 0.5L/s. Is the flow is laminar or
turbulent?

## Solution: Given that

kinematic viscosity

=1.8105 2 /s

Pipe diameter

D = 10cm = 0.1 m

Velocity of flow

= 0.5L/s

Nature of flow

= 5 104 3 /s

=?

v =
v=
v=

2 4
5 104
2

0.1

v = 0.0637

As

=
=

m
s

..
1.8105

## Therefore the flow is laminar.

Problem#5: For the case of problem#4, find the centerline velocity, the velocity at r = 2cm, the friction factor, the
shear stress at the pipe wall, and the head loss per meter pipe length.

Solution: Since we have come to know that the flow is laminar. Therefore,

When

Now,

= 2V
= 20.0638
=0.1274 m/s
= k 2
= =0.1274 m/s
= .1
= = 0.05m
u=0
0 = 0.1274 k 0.052
50.96
=
.

2 = k 2
2 = 0.1274 50.960.022
2 = 0.107m/s

## For laminar flow

64

64
354

=0.181
2
=
4 2g

=
=

4
2

0.181

0.06372
850
2
2

=0.78N/

1 2
=

2g

1 0.06372
= 0.181

0.1 29.81

=0.00374m/m

=/g

Problem: Prove that the centerline velocity is twice the average velocity when the laminar flow occurs in a circular pipe.
Proof: The velocity profile for the laminar flow in a circular pipe can be written as
2

= (1 2 )

(1)

(2)

where,
u = average velocity

= centerline velocity
= radius of the pipe at any point

## = maximum radius of the pipe.

The flow rate in a circular pipe can be calculated as,

=
Using equation (1) into (2), we get

2
(1 2 )

2
1 2

= 2

= 2

= 2

2
1 2

3
2

2 4
= 2

2 42
2 4
= 2

2 42
2 2
= 2

2 4
2
= 2
4
=

2
2

(3)

v =
v =

2
2

v =
2
=2V

## Therefore the centerline velocity is twice the average velocity.

proved

Problem: with laminar flow in a circular pipe, at what distance from the centerline does the average velocity occurs?
Proof: The velocity distribution in case of laminar flow in a circular pipe is
=

2
(1 2 )

(1)

where,
u = average velocity
= centerline velocity
= radius of the pipe at any point

Since,
= =
Or
= V = 0.5

(2)

## Put equation (2) into (1)

0.5 =

2
(1 2 )

0.5 = (1

2
= 10.5
2
2
= 0.5
2
2
= 0.5
2

= 0.707
0
= 0.7070
Therefore the distance from the centerline at which the average velocity occurs is
= 0.7070