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Course Material and

Supplements

For Academic Candidates

Ebrahim Tahasoni
Cert TESOL, Academic IELTS 9.0

www.tahasoni.com

Version 2.7.4 (18.20-6.10.13)


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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Understanding the Rubric


WRITING TASK 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts below give information about world spending and population.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,
and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

The Task
Tasks involve reporting the data in a visual item or a collection of data such as a table.
The task is to write a report:

Summarise the information in the visual or set of data:


o Select the main features
o Report the main features
Make comparisons were relevant
Spend about 20 minutes on the task
Minimum 150 words 165-170 words

Note: Finish task one during the first 20 minutes of your writing test and then move on to task 2. Do not swap!

The Answer Sheet


The first two pages of the IELTS writing answer sheet are dedicated to task one and have 30 lines. Although you
may ask for extra sheets to write your answer in, it is not likely to become necessary since the space you are
already provided with is way more than sufficient.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 1

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

You may be given a single visual or a combination of 2 or 3 different task types.

A. Line graphs
5

4.5
5

4
3.5

3
2.5

2
2

1.5
1

0.5
0

0
1960

1.

1980

2000

2020

1960

Single-variable line graph

1980

2000

2020

2. Multiple-variable line graph

B. Charts
5

4.5
5

4
3.5

3
2.5

2
2

1.5
1

0.5
0

0
1960

1.

1980

2000

2020

1960

Single-variable bar chart

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1980

2000

2020

2. Multiple-variable bar chart

Page 2

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals


6000
5000
4000
3000

Germany

2000

Maldives

1000

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr
3rd Qtr

Peru

4th Qtr

3. Comparison bar chart

4. Pie chart

C. Tables

D. Process, Flowchart or Cycle Diagrams

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

E. Maps

1.

Comparison map

2. Development map

F. Multiple Task Types

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Every report is read four times by an examiner and each time, it will be marked on one of the following criteria:

Task Achievement (TA)


Coherence and Cohesion (CC)
Lexical Resource (LR)
Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)

Task Achievement (TA)


This criterion assesses how appropriately, accurately and relevantly the response fulfils the requirements set out
in the task, using the minimum of 150 words.
Academic Writing Task 1 is a writing task which has a defined input and a largely predictable output. It is basically
an information-transfer task which relates narrowly to the factual content of the input data or diagram and NOT
to speculated explanations that lie outside the provided diagram or data.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.

Have you summarised the information appropriately by selecting and properly reporting the main
features?
2. Have you made comparisons properly and sufficiently?
3. Have you provided overviews of the main trends/comparisons/stages?
4. Have you written a clear overview or summary for the report?

Coherence and Cohesion (CC)


This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of the message: how the response organises and
links information, ideas and language. Coherence refers to the linking of ideas through logical sequencing.
Cohesion refers to the varied and appropriate use of cohesive devices (for example, logical connectors,
pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the conceptual and referential relationships between and within
sentences clear.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Have you organised your information logically?


Is there an overall flow or progression in your report?
Have you used linkers correctly, properly and sufficiently?
Have pronouns been used correctly and do they have clear references?
Have you organised the text in paragraphs logically and sufficiently?

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 5

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Lexical Resource (LR)


This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has used and the accuracy and appropriacy of that
use in terms of the specific task.
The examiner takes the following points into account when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.

Words
a. Range and flexibility
b. Level
c. Precision
d. Style
e. Collocation
2. Vocabulary mistakes
a. Spelling
b. Word choice
c. Word formation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your report is taken into
account.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)


This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the candidates grammatical resource as manifested in the
candidates writing at the sentence level.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1. Have you used a variety of sentence structures?
2. How often have you used compound structures?
3. Mistakes
a. Grammar
b. Punctuation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your report is taken into
account.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 6

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

IELTS Task 1 Writing band descriptors (public version)


Band Task Achievement

Coherence and
Cohesion

Lexical Resource

Grammatical Range and


Accuracy

uses a wide range of


vocabulary with very
natural
and
sophisticated control
of lexical features; rare
minor errors occur only
as slips
uses a wide range of
vocabulary fluently and
flexibly to convey
precise meanings
skilfully
uses
uncommon
lexical
items but there may be
occasional inaccuracies
in word choice and
collocation
produces rare errors in
spelling and/or word
formation
uses a sufficient range
of vocabulary to allow
some flexibility and
precision
uses less common
lexical items with some
awareness of style and
collocation
may
produce
occasional errors in
word choice, spelling
and/or word formation

uses a wide range of


structures with full
flexibility and accuracy;
rare minor errors occur
only as slips

uses an adequate
range of vocabulary
for the task
attempts to use less
common vocabulary
but
with
some
inaccuracy
makes some errors in
spelling and/or word
formation, but they do
not
impede
communication

uses a mix of simple


and complex sentence
forms
makes some errors in
grammar
and
punctuation but they
rarely
reduce
communication

fully satisfies all the


requirements of the
task
clearly presents a fully
developed response

uses cohesion in such


a way that it attracts
no attention
skilfully
manages
paragraphing

covers
all
requirements of the
task sufficiently
presents,
highlights
and illustrates key
features/ bullet points
clearly
and
appropriately

sequences
information and ideas
logically
manages all aspects
of cohesion well
uses
paragraphing
sufficiently
and
appropriately

covers
the
requirements of the
task
(Academic) presents a
clear overview of main
trends, differences or
stages
(General
Training)
presents
a
clear
purpose, with the tone
consistent
and
appropriate
clearly presents and
highlights
key
features/bullet points
but could be more
fully extended
addresses
the
6
requirements of the
task
(Academic) presents
an overview with
information
appropriately selected
(General
Training)
presents a purpose
that is generally clear;
there
may
be
inconsistencies in tone
presents
and
adequately highlights
key features/ bullet
points but details may
be
irrelevant,
inappropriate
or
inaccurate
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logically
organises
information and ideas;
there
is
clear
progression
throughout
uses a range of
cohesive
devices
appropriately
although there may
be some under-/overuse

arranges information
and ideas coherently
and there is a clear
overall progression
uses cohesive devices
effectively,
but
cohesion
within
and/or
between
sentences may be
faulty or mechanical
may not always use
referencing clearly or
appropriately

Page 7

uses a wide range of


structures
the
majority
of
sentences are errorfree
makes
only
very
occasional errors or
inappropriacies

uses a variety of
complex structures
produces
frequent
error-free sentences
has good control of
grammar
and
punctuation but may
make a few errors

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals


5

generally addresses the


task; the format may be
inappropriate in places
(Academic)
recounts
detail mechanically with
no clear overview; there
may be no data to
support the description
(General Training) may
present a purpose for the
letter that is unclear at
times; the tone may be
variable and sometimes
inappropriate
presents,
but
inadequately covers, key
features/ bullet points;
there may be a tendency
to focus on details
attempts to address the
task but does not cover
all key features/bullet
points; the format may be
inappropriate
(General Training) fails to
clearly
explain
the
purpose of the letter; the
tone
may
be
inappropriate
may
confuse
key
features/bullet
points
with detail; parts may be
unclear,
irrelevant,
repetitive or inaccurate
fails to address the task,
which may have been
completely
misunderstood
presents limited ideas
which may be largely
irrelevant/repetitive

presents information
with
some
organisation but there
may be a lack of
overall progression
makes
inadequate,
inaccurate or over-use
of cohesive devices

may be repetitive
because of lack of
referencing
and
substitution
uses a limited range of
vocabulary, but this is
minimally
adequate
for the task
may make noticeable
errors
in
spelling
and/or
word
formation that may
cause some difficulty
for the reader

uses only a limited


range of structures
attempts
complex
sentences but these
tend to be less
accurate than simple
sentences
may make frequent
grammatical
errors
and punctuation may
be faulty; errors can
cause some difficulty
for the reader

presents information
and ideas but these
are
not
arranged
coherently and there is
no clear progression in
the response
uses
some
basic
cohesive devices but
these
may
be
inaccurate
or
repetitive

uses
only
basic
vocabulary which may
be used repetitively or
which
may
be
inappropriate for the
task
has limited control of
word
formation
and/or spelling; errors
may cause strain for
the reader

uses only a very


limited
range
of
structures with only
rare
use
of
subordinate clauses
some structures are
accurate but errors
predominate,
and
punctuation is often
faulty

does not organise


ideas logically
may use a very limited
range of cohesive
devices, and those
used may not indicate
a logical relationship
between ideas
has very little control
of
organisational
features

uses only a very


limited range of words
and expressions with
very limited control of
word
formation
and/or spelling
errors may severely
distort the message
uses an extremely
limited
range
of
vocabulary; essentially
no control of word
formation
and/or
spelling
can only use a few
isolated words

attempts
sentence
forms but errors in
grammar
and
punctuation
predominate
and
distort the meaning

answer is barely related


to the task

answer is completely fails to communicate


unrelated to the task
any message
does not attend
does not attempt the task in any way
writes a totally memorised response
does not attempt the task in any way
writes a totally memorised response

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 8

cannot use sentence


forms
except
in
memorised phrases

cannot use sentence


forms at all

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Line Graphs

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

A) Verbs and nouns for describing trends and changes:

Trend

Position

Verbs

Nouns

rise (rose-risen) [to/by]


increase [to/by]
go (went-gone) up [to/by]
climb [to/by]
grow (grew-grown) [to/by]

double
treble/triple
boom
surge
soar
rocket [to/by]

fall (fell-fallen) [to/by]


decline [to/by]
decrease [to/by]
dip (dipped) [to/by]
drop (dropped) [to/by]
go (went-gone) down [to/by]

plummet [to/by]
plunge [to/by]
dive [to/by]
deteriorate
slump [to/by]

a plunge

a rise [of]
an increase [of]
a growth [of]
an upward trend

a doubling in + n.
a trebling in + n.
a boom
a surge

a fall [of]
a decline [of]
a decrease [of]
a drop [of]
a reduction

a slump

do (did) not change


remain/stay + stable/steady/static/unchanged [at]
maintain the same level

no change

stood at/was

a levelling off [at]


a plateau [at]

level (levelled) off [at]


plateau (plateaued) [at]
level (levelled) out [at]
stabilise [at]

reached a high/peak of
reached a low of

peaked [at]
reached

Constant
Change

a fluctuation

fluctuated [around]

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

B) Adjectives and adverbs for degree of change:

Degree

Very extensive change

Extensive change

Average change

Small change

Adjective

Adverb

dramatic

dramatically

huge

n/a

enormous

enormously

tremendous

tremendously

substantial

substantially

considerable

considerably

significant

significantly

remarkable

remarkably

noticeable

noticeably

marked

markedly

moderate

moderately

slight

slightly

small

n/a

minimal

minimally

C) Adjectives and adverbs for speed of change:

Speed

Quick change

Slow change

Unexpected change

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Adjective

Adverb

rapid

rapidly

quick

quickly

sharp

sharply

swift

swiftly

steep

steeply

steady

steadily

gradual

gradually

slow

slowly

sudden

suddenly

unexpected

unexpectedly

abrupt

abruptly

Page 11

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

1. Past:
Simple past (to report actions happening after each other)

2. Present:
a) If the task represents changes or actions which happen regularly (such as a process or
a chart displaying general average values):
Simple present (for graphs, charts and tables)
Simple present and present perfect (for processes and cycles)
b) If the trend starts in the past, reaches now and has a break point at the present time:
Present perfect for the trend that begins in the past

Simple present for reporting its present value


Example:

1983

1993

2003

2013

2023

It stood at 20 in 1983 and doubled over the next 10 years to level off at 40, after which it remained
constant until 2003. Since then, there has been a considerable increase and it now stands at 50.
However, there will probably be a rapid fall in the last 10 years and it is expected to reach 30.
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

c) If the trend start in the past, passes now into the future and has a breakpoint sometime
in the future
Present perfect for the trend that begins in the past

Future structures (look at number 3 below) to report the value it will reach in
the first future breakpoint

Example:

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

In 1985 it stood at 20 and doubled over the next 10 years to level off at 40 and remained constant
until 2005. Since then, it has experienced a considerable increase and is expected to reach 50 in
2020 (or: and predictions show that it will reach 50 in 2020). However, there will be a rapid fall in
the last 10 years and it will reach 30.

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

3. Future:

Will future and other academic structures for predicting the future

Generally, use will future for future events. Structures like should, be likely to, seem
likely to/that and the following can also be used:

Structure set 1:
Predictions
Expectations
Anticipations
Forecasts
Estimates
Evaluations
Calculations

show
reveal
indicate

[that] it will drop dramatically.

Structure set 2:

It is

predicted
expected
anticipated
forecast
estimated
evaluated
calculated

that gold prices will drop dramatically.

Structure set 3:

Gold prices are

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predicted
expected
anticipated
forecast
estimated
evaluated
calculated

to drop dramatically.

Page 14

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Notice how the verbs in the following paragraphs have been changed from past forms into
future forms:
In 1999, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA was about 20%.
The figures for Canada and Mexico were lower, at about 10% and 5%
respectively. In 2005, Internet usage in both the USA and Canada rose to
around 70% of the population, while the figure for Mexico reached just over
25%.

In 2015, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA is expected to
be about 20%. The figures for Canada and Mexico are likely to be lower, at
about 10% and 5% respectively. In 2025, it is predicted that Internet usage in
both the USA and Canada will rise to around 70% of the population, while the
figure for Mexico should reach just over 25%.

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Page 15

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

1. First event:
At/In the beginning,
At first,
In the first year,
In the first month,
In 1999,
In January,
In the first year, 1999,
In the first year (1999),

2. Middle events:
and
but
However, Nevertheless,
Then,
Next,
After this/that,
Following this/that,
Afterwards,
This is followed by + <n/n.p>
following which
after which
which is followed by + <n/n.p>
untilafter which
untilfollowing which
untilwhen
before + <sentence or n.p.>
during/over the nextyears
years later,

3. Final event:
Finally,
Ultimately,
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

1. x y
2. x
3. Proportional changes
4. Rounding
For Trends:
relatively
rather
almost
For Values:
Roughly
Almost
About
Approximately
Around
Just about
Well/just below
Well/just above
A little/slightly more than
A little/slightly less than

5. Referencing

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The graph below gives information about Dubai gold sales in 2002.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Sample answer by E. Tahasoni:


The diagram illustrates how gold sales in Dubai changed over a period of 12 months.
It is observed that in the first month of 2002, gold sales stood at 200 million dirhams and rose slightly
to reach about 225 million in February. This was followed by another increase, although much steeper,
in March when sales were almost 125 million dirhams higher than February. However, this upward
trend was suddenly broken and sales plummeted dramatically over the next 4 months to reach a little
over 100 million dirhams in July. August sales saw a significant rise back to January levels as figures
nearly doubled, but this was not to last since they dropped again in September to the same level as
they were in July. October came with a small increase of about 100 million dirhams in sales, after which
sales figures levelled off and remained relatively static over the last two months of 2002.
Overall, gold sales in Dubai remained relatively unchanged in 2002. Besides, they were at their highest
in March while the weakest sales figures could be observed in July and September.
(184 words)
Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 18

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The graph below gives information about the number of cases of diarrhea in Mashhad between
1983 and 1992.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 19

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The diagram below gives information about the number of parcels delivered by two major mail
services companies from 1920 to 2000.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Parcels delivered by Federal Express and TNT Mail Services


30000

25000

20000

FedEx

15000

TNT
10000

5000

1920

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1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

Page 20

1980

1990

2000

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below gives information about the number of books rented in a British local library in
2009.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons
where relevant.

Malton Town Library: Books Rented 2009

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 21

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The chart below gives information about birth and death rates in Switzerland from 1970 to 2020
according to United Nations statistics.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Switzerland birth and death rates 1970-2020


3.5
3

millions

2.5
2
Births
1.5

Deaths

1
0.5
0
1970

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1980

1990

2000

Page 22

2010

2020

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Comparison Bar
Charts

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

A. Introducing Differences
a significant difference between a and b.
Generally, there is
a wide disparity

in + n.

B. Comparative Structures
1

In contrast (to B),


In comparison (with B),

A is

A is [under/over]

A produces/consumes/

A is

A is [almost/roughly /]

A is larger/smaller

[just]+[under/over]
[approximately]

by a narrow margin.
by x.

x larger/smaller than B.

twice
two/three times

as large/great/high as B.

more/less + uncountable n.
than B.
more/fewer + countable n.

considerably/substantially
marginally/slightly

greater/higher/smaller than B.

As large/high as B.

C. Superlative Structures
1

A is the [second/third] largest/smallest/most significant/most productive/ + n.

A has the [second/third] greatest/widest/ most significant/most productive/ + n.

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uses
produces
consumes

the largest/highest/smallest/lowest

Page 24

proportion of + n.
quantity of + n.
amount of + uncountable n.
number of + countable n.

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The charts below give information about travel to and from the UK, and about the most popular
countries for UK residents to visit.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
The first diagram compares changes in the number of British tourists who travelled abroad with that of
foreign visitors to the United Kingdom over the last 20 years of the previous century. According to the
graph, the former initially stood at more than 12 million and grew six-fold at the end of the survey. In
comparison, the latter number was slightly less than that of the British tourists at the beginning of this
period and experienced similar yet less intensive trends, reaching approximately half as high by the end of
the century.
The bar chart reveals the top 5 countries visited by the British in the last year of the above survey. It can be
observed that while France and Spain absorbed the largest numbers of British tourists with about 11 and 9
million visits respectively, Turkey was the least popular among the five, visited by only about 30% as many
British as France.
Overall, tourism from and to the United Kingdom boomed in the 1980s and 90s. Moreover, most of the trips
made by the British abroad were to 5 countries only.
(185 words)

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 25

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Sample answer by E. Tahasoni:


The diagram compares the spending habits of shoppers in five European countries on six consumer
products, namely personal stereos, tennis racquets, colognes, compact disks, toys and photographic film.
It can be observed that in Britain, the highest amount of money was spent on photographic film (more than
170 million pounds), while similar amounts were spent on personal stereos and tennis racquets. The
French spent the second highest amount of money on the first three products while they stood last in the
latter three. It is also revealed that Italians spent more money on toys than on any other product (a bit less
than 160 million), but they also paid a lot for photographic film. Finally, Germans spent the least overall,
having similar spending figures for all 6 products compared in the chart.
Overall, more money was spent on toys and photographic film than on any other product. Also, the British
were the biggest spenders in all six categories among the nations compared in the bar chart while the
lowest spending levels were attributed to the residents of Germany.

(178 words)

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The chart below shows the different levels of post-school qualifications in Australia and the
proportion of men and women who held them in 1999.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Post-school qualifications in Australia according to gender 1999

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Pie Charts

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

The pie chart shows how electricity is used in an average English home.
(Cambridge IELTS 4, page 54)

What the electricity is used for


Vaccum cleaners, food
mixers, electric tools
15%

Heating rooms,
heating water
52%

Lighting, TV, radio


15%

Ovens, kettles,
washing machines
18%

Fill the gaps below using words from the following list.

appliances

remaining

account

In an average English home, the ______

proportion

for

largest

household

______ of electricity, 52.5%, is used for heating rooms

and water.
Three kitchen ______, namely ovens, kettles and washing machines, ______

______ 17.5% of

______ electricity use.


The ______ 30% of electricity is used for lighting, televisions and radios (15%), and vacuum
cleaners, food mixers and electric tools (15%).

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The charts below give information about world spending and population.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

World Spending

World Population
Other
5%

Food 24%
Other 40%

Americas
14%

Clothing
6%

Transport
18%

Europe
14%

Asia
57%

Housing
12%

Africa
10%

Sample answer by E. Tahasoni (166-182 words):


The first pie chart compares the shares of four major items in global expenditure. It is observed that the most
significant amounts are paid for food (almost a quarter of global expenditure) and transport (almost 20%), while
housing also accounts for a considerable proportion. The least among the four is spent on clothing (merely 6
percent) and the remaining 40% is spent on a variety of other items.
The second diagram illustrates how global population is distributed. According to this chart, there is a significant
difference between the population of Asia and that of other continents since 3 out of every 5 human beings live
in Asia. Europe and the Americas share similar proportions and together are host to roughly one-third of the
worlds population, while the inhabitants of Africa form a mere one-tenth.
To sum up, four items are responsible for three-fifths of the overall spending around the world, the most
prominent share being that of food. Moreover, the largest group of humans populates Asia, the population of
which outnumbers that of the rest of the world by 3 to 2.
Please note: The words in gray background have been added for a higher TA score; yet without them, the writing
would probably still score around 8.5-9.
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

(Source: Cambridge IELTS 8, Test 2, Writing Task 1)

Sample Answer by E. Tahasoni:


The charts compare changes in the shares of five different items which comprised the yearly expenses of a
British school between 1981 and 2001.
According to the diagrams, wages paid to the teaching staff accounted for the most significant proportion of
expenditure in 1981 (40%) and went up by a quarter before declining slightly. In comparison, the share of
furniture and equipment was initially as high as that of educational resources (15%), but while the former
dropped by 2/3 before rising fivefold, the latter experienced a marked rise after which it halved, reaching
just below 10%.
The salaries of non-academic employees were responsible for less than a third of all expenses in 1981 but
their share dipped substantially by 13% over the course of these 20 years. Lastly, the contribution of
insurance remained constant at an insignificant level (2%) until 2001 when it climbed fourfold.
Overall, while the shares of three items experienced rises, there were declines in the remaining two.
Moreover, academic staff salaries contributed the largest proportion of expenditure throughout the survey,
whereas insurance had the smallest share.
(180 words)
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Tables

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table below shows social and economic indicators for four countries in 1994, according to
United Nations statistics.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Indicators

Canada

Japan

Peru

Angola

Annual income per person (in


$US)

11100

15760

160

130

Life expectancy at birth

76

78

51

47

Daily calorie supply per person

3326

2846

1927

1749

Adult literacy rate (%)

99

99

68

34

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Process and
Cycle Diagrams

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Process:

Cycle:

and the process/procedure/cycle starts over again.

A. Tenses:
Generally, the present simple tense is used to report actions which regularly happen in a process.
Sometimes, the present perfect may also be used to signify the completion of a stage

B. Passive vs. Active form


I.

Natural events
For events which happen autonomously in nature, such as rain, formation of clouds or erosion o
f mountains, generally use the active form unless you need to shift focus from the subject to the
object of the stage.

II. Artificial events


In artificial stages, the human subjects are usually ignored so use the passive to focus on what is
being done. If the subject has also been mentioned in the diagram, add it as an "agent".
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

When you need to report the means or tool used to perform a stage, avoid using "by":
For tools: It is done using/through the use of a...
For methods: It is done through/via...

is used to <inf.>
The role of is to <inf.>
The prevents/stops/protects/avoids from <+ing/n>
The allows to <inf.>

A. The first stage


First,
Firstly,
First off,
First of all,
In the first stage,
At/In the beginning,
The first stage is when
The process begins/starts/commences when
The process begins with +<n./n.p.>

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

B. Middle stages:
Next,
Then
After this/that,
Following this/that,
Afterwards,
In the following stage,
In the stage after/following this,
In the stage that follows,
Over the course of/During the next/following/second/third stage,
This is followed by +<n./n.p.>
When/After/Once <stage A>, <stage B>
<stage A>. When/Once this stage is complete, <stage B>
<stage A> before <stage B as n./n.p. or clause>
Before <stage B>, <stage A>
<stage A> after/following which <stage B>
<stage A> which is followed by <stage B as n./n.p.>

C. Last stage:
Finally,
Ultimately,
Eventually,
The last/final stage is when
The process ends when
The process ends with
<stage A> before finally <stage B as n./n.p.>
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Model Answer by E. Tahasoni:


The first diagram illustrates the process through which cement is produced. The process begins when the initial
raw materials, namely limestone and clay, are crushed using two rotating drums to make a fine powder which is
then mixed in a cylindrical mixer. The next stage involves a tube-like rotating heater with a blowtorch mounted
at its bottom opening. The mixed powder is fed from the top and simultaneously heated and blended, after
which it is transferred to a grinder using a conveyor belt. There, it is milled to yield the final cement product
which is eventually packed in bags.
This cement is used as raw material in the production of concrete in a second, rather simpler process illustrated
in the second picture. An initial mixture comprising 15% cement, 10% water, one-quarter sand and half gravel is
fed into a rotating concrete mixer where they are stirred until the concrete mix is ready for construction
purposes.
To sum up, there are 5 stages in the production of cement. Moreover, cement and a few other simple
ingredients are used to produce concrete through a single-stage procedure.
(184 words)

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process of using water to produce electricity.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Model Answer by E. Tahasoni:


The picture explains the process through which water is used to produce electrical power.
The process begins when seawater is heated by the sun and evaporates to form small clouds in the sky. Next,
they merge into a storm could, which then rains over the mountain. This rainwater is gathered in the reservoir
behind a dam. To following steps involve a pipe which connects the reservoir to a turbine as well as a pump, and
is controlled using a valve. Once this valve is opened, water flows into the turbine and rotates it to produce
electrical current, following which it is pumped back into the reservoir. After this, the electricity produced by the
turbine is transferred to the transformer station though high voltage cables. The last stage is when the electrical
power being delivered to domestic and industrial consumers as well as educational and medical facilities.
Overall, hydroelectric power is generated using water from the sea through a relatively sophisticated procedure
which comprises over ten stages.
(169 words)
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the life cycle of the honey bee.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Nymph: immature form of an insect


Moult: shed or lose old feathers, hair or skin
to allow for new growth

Model Answer by E. Tahasoni:


The chart illustrates the stages in the life of honey bees. All in all, this life cycle is comprised of six stages from
egg to full maturity, and takes approximately five weeks (34 to 36 days to be exact) to complete.
The first stage is when the female bee lays up to a couple of oval eggs once every 72 hours. These eggs hatch
between nine and ten days later, and immature bees, called nymphs, emerge which lack the typical bee stripes.
Over the next 3 weeks nymphs experience three moulting stages, that is, they shed their skins to allow further
growth to occur: The first moulting happening 5 days after the eggs hatch, a week after which the second one
takes place. Nine days later nymphs moult for a third time and young adult honey bees emerge, identified by
their horizontally striped backs. These take four more days to mature into larger adult bees whose backs are
marked with bolder and darker stripes, and the cycle starts over again.
(170 words)
Ebrahim Tahasoni

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process of producing construction broicks.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Model Answer by A. Tootoonchi (TA: 9 | CC: 8 | LR: 7 | GRA: 8 | Overall: 8)


The picture illustrates how bricks are produced.
The process begins when clay is dug out through the use of a digger, which is followed by clay passing through a
metal grid. Fine clay is then carried by a roller after which sand and water are added to it. In the next stage,
either this mixture is pressed through a frame and cut into bricks using a wire cutter, or it is put into moulds and
formed into bricks. Following that, the bricks are dried in a drying oven for one to two days. The next three
stages involve two kilns connected to a cooling chamber. The dried bricks are first heated from 200 to 980
degrees centigrade, before being exposed to high temperature (870 to 1300 degrees). They are then cooled
within 48 to 72 hours. Eventually, they are packed and delivered to customers by trucks.
Overall, the procedure of producing bricks is comprised of ten stages which are rather simple.
(161 words)

Ebrahim Tahasoni

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process of producing construction broicks.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Model Answer by E. Tahasoni (Band 9):


The chart illustrates the procedure through which bricks are produced for construction work.
It commences when raw clay is dug using a digger machine following which it is sifted through a metal grid into
finer fragments which then fall onto a conveyor belt. In the next stage, water and sand are added and the
resulting mixture is either pushed through a frame and cut into simple bricks, or is moulded into specially-formed
bricks. These are then placed in a special oven for two to three days in order to minimise their moisture content.
The following three stages involve the use of a couple of kilns and a cooling chamber: bricks are first heated
moderately in the first kiln to reach a temperature of between 200 and 980 degrees centigrade before being
subjected to higher temperatures (870 to 1300 degrees) in the second one. Next, they are allowed to cool down
for two to three days in the cooling chamber. The process ends with the bricks being packed on palettes and
delivered to end users on trucks.
Overall, the process of producing bricks is comprised of ten relatively simple stages during which clay, sand and
water is used to produce baked bricks.
(201 words)
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Maps

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

at the top /bottom


on the right/left side
in the right/left hand corner
in the middle
Along
Across [from]
Opposite
Close to
Adjacent to
Next to
Beside
10 miles from
10 miles to the right of
10 miles north of
is situated/located/sited/positioned + around/above/below/inside/next to
is situated/located/sited/positioned + to the right of/to the north of
is covered with
is connected to via/through/by means of

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Residential area: an area that has lots of houses and some schools.
Industrial area: an area that has lots of factories
Commercial area: an area that has lots of stores
Hospital: a health facility where patients receive treatment
Zoo: a place where people can go and see many kinds of animals
Post office: a place where you can send mail (letters and packages)
Fire station: a station housing fire apparatus and firemen
Airport: an airfield equipped with control tower and hangers as well as accommodations for passengers and
cargo
Park: a recreational area where people can play football and have picnics
Skyscraper: very tall buildings

Warehouse: a building where things are kept until they are sold.
Parking lot: an area where people can park cars
Museum: a place that displays things of scientific or historical or artistic value
Supermarket: a large store that sells mostly food but sometimes other items such as clothes and furniture.
Factory: an industrial plant, a production facility,
Woodland: an area with lots of trees
River: a large natural stream of water (larger than a creek)
Street: the place where cars drive
Intersection: the point where several streets meet.
Remove: remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, taking off, etc.
Develop: to make
Change: modify
Construct: to build
Demolish: to destroy a building or other structure completely
Replace: to take the place of or substitute for somebody or something
Expand: to become or make something become larger

Recreation: an activity that is exciting, stimulating or relaxing. For example, bike riding and playing football are
recreational activities.
Proximity: closeness
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

The map below is of the town of Garlsdon and shows two possible sites for a new supermarket.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons
where relevant.

Model Answer by an Examiner (from Cambridge IELTS book 5):


The first potential location (S1) is outside the town itself, and is sited just off the main road to the town
of Hindon, lying 12 kilometres to the north-west. This site is in the countryside and so would be able to
accommodate a lot of car parking. This would make it accessible to shoppers from both Hindon and
Garlsdon who could travel by car. Since it is also close to the railway line linking the two towns to
Cransdon (25 km to the south-east), a potentially large number of shoppers would also be able to
travel by train.
In contrast, the suggested location, S2, is right in the town centre, which would be good for local
residents. Theoretically the store could be accessed by road or rail from the surrounding towns,
including Bransdon, but as the central area is a no-traffic zone, cars would be unable to park and access
would be difficult.
Overall, neither site is appropriate for all the towns, but for customers in Cransdon, Hindon and
Garlsdon, the out-of-town site (S1) would probably offer more advantages.
(179 words)
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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle of the
nineteenth century. The map below shows the development of the village.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Model Answer by E. Tahasoni (173-206 words):


The map shows how a village called Chorleywood developed over a period of 126 years.
From 1868 to 1883 there were only two main roads in the region with Chorleywood covering a small area along one of them.
Over the next 40 years, the village grew southward alongside the road and a railway was built in 1909 passing through this
part. Chorleywood station is also located in this area of the village.
Over the period between 1922 and 1970, the railway was the line along which Chorleywood expanded, both towards the
east and west. However, a motorway was constructed in 1970 parallel to one of the main roads and further development of
the village occurred around its intersections with the other main road and the railway between 1970 and 1994. Furthermore,
Chorleywood Park and Golf course is now located in an area enclosed by the two main roads, the railway and this
motorway.
Overall, the village saw considerable growth in the development of new inhabited areas during this period which increased
in volume as well as speed towards the end of the 20th century. Furthermore, the developments, both in the establishment
of new populated areas and transportation routes, occurred over four phases.

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IELTS Academic Writing Task One

Master IELTS Visuals

Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagrams below show the site of a school in 2004 and the plan for changes to the school site in 2024.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Model Answer (211 words):


The maps illustrate how a school site is planned to be developed over a 20-year period.
In 2004, there was only one car park to the west of the site where the main entrance to the school was located. There were
also two school buildings, accommodating 600 students altogether, separated by a path running from the main entrance to
the sports field in the east. The school was surrounded by woodland in the north, south and east.
There are plans to increase the number of students served by the school is by 400 in 2024. As a result, a new school building
will replace the old sports field, and the two original buildings are going to be joined together. The old path will then
connect these to the new building number 3, no longer running to the main entrance. Furthermore, a part of the woodland
in the east is planned to be deforested and replaced by a new car park as well as a new, smaller sports field. Finally, a new
road will be paved passing south of the school building, which will connect the two car parks.
Overall, there will be extensive developments with regards to construction of buildings, facilities and roads in the school
site during these 20 years.
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Course Material and


Supplements

For Academic & General


Training Candidates

Ebrahim Tahasoni
Cert TESOL, Academic IELTS 9.0

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Understanding the Rubric


WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Some people believe that television programmes are of no real value for children.
How far do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

The Task
Task 2 involves writing an essay on the given topic. You have to
answer the question(s) asked clearly and completely;
give reasons for your answer;
include relevant examples
o from your knowledge
o from your experience
spend about 40 minutes on the task
write at least 250 words 265-270 words
Note: Finish task 2 during the second part of your writing test after you have finished writing task 1. Do not
swap!

The Answer Sheet


The last two pages of the IELTS writing answer sheet are dedicated to task two and together have 40 lines.
Although you may ask for extra sheets to write your answer in, it is not likely to become necessary since the
space you are already provided with is way more than sufficient.

Focus on Academic Register

Use longer sentences (about 20-30 words)


Use subordinate clauses
Use formal linkers (subordinators and transitions)
Use academic words (see The Academic Words List at www.tahasoni.com/resources)
Avoid contractions
Avoid get phrases where possible
Avoid personal tone except when giving personal opinions or talking of personal experiences
Avoid phrasal verbs where possible
Avoid over-generalisation
o Non-absolute statements
o Introducing probability/possibility

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

A. Opinion-led:
Some people believe that television programmes are of no real value for children.
How far do you agree or disagree?

B. Argument-led:
Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are
taught to co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

C. Advantage/Disadvantage (Discussion Type):


In some countries, it is usual for young people who graduate from high school to spend a year working or travelling before
going to university.
What are the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this?

D. Advantage/Disadvantage (Opinion Type):


While some people prefer to live in apartments, others do not think an apartment is a suitable form of accommodation.
Do you think the advantages of living in an apartment outweigh the disadvantages?

E1. Problem/Issue (Causes + Solutions):


Housing and accommodation has become a major problem in many countries around the world.
What are some of the main factors that have contributed to this problem?
What can be done to help reduce the number of homeless people?

E2. Problem/Issue (Consequences + Solutions):


While mobile phones have many advantages, a number of problems have also resulted from them or the ways in which
they are used.
What are some of these problems?
What solutions can you suggest for solving these problems?

E3. Problem/Issue (Causes + Consequences):


In many countries today insufficient respect is shown to older people
What do you think may be the reasons for this?
What problems might this cause in society?

E4. Mixed:
Universities should provide students with the skills they will require in order to succeed at their future jobs.
How far do you agree or disagree with the above opinion?
What are some of the job skills that employers look for in new employees?

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Every report is read four times by an examiner and each time, it will be marked on one of the following criteria:

Task Response (TR)


Coherence and Cohesion (CC)
Lexical Resource (LR)
Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)

Task Response (TR)


In both Academic and General Training Writing tests, Task 2 requires the candidates to formulate and develop a
position in relation to a given prompt in the form of a question or statement. Ideas should be supported by
evidence, and examples may be drawn from the candidates own experience. Responses must be at least 250
words in length.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Have you sufficiently addressed all parts of the task?


Have you presented a clear response to the questions asked?
Have you presented well-developed ideas by presenting, extending and supporting them?
Have you avoided over-generalisation and absolute statements?
Have you avoided repetitive conclusions or vague/under-developed ideas?

Coherence and Cohesion (CC)


This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of the message: how the response organises and
links information, ideas and language. Coherence refers to the linking of ideas through logical sequencing.
Cohesion refers to the varied and appropriate use of cohesive devices (for example, logical connectors,
pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the conceptual and referential relationships between and within
sentences clear.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Have you organised your information logically?


Is there an overall flow or progression in your report?
Have you organised the text in paragraphs logically and sufficiently?
Have you used linkers correctly, properly and sufficiently?
Have pronouns been used correctly and do they have clear references?
Have you avoided linker over-use/under-use?

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Lexical Resource (LR)


This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has used and the accuracy and appropriacy of that
use in terms of the specific task.
The examiner takes the following points into account when assessing this aspect of your report:
1.

Words
a. Range and flexibility
b. Level
c. Precision
d. Style
e. Collocation
2. Vocabulary mistakes
a. Spelling
b. Word choice
c. Word formation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your report is taken into
account.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA)


This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the candidates grammatical resource as manifested in the
candidates writing at the sentence level.
The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your report:
1. Have you used a variety of sentence structures?
2. How often have you used compound structures?
3. Mistakes
a. Grammar
b. Punctuation
Note: when evaluating mistakes, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your report is taken into
account.

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Band Task Response

Coherence and
Cohesion

Lexical Resource

Grammatical Range and


Accuracy

fully addresses all parts


of the task
presents a fully
developed position in
answer to the question
with relevant, fully
extended and well
supported ideas
sufficiently addresses all
parts of the task
presents a welldeveloped response to
the question with
relevant, extended and
supported ideas

uses cohesion in such


a way that it attracts
no attention
skilfully manages
paragraphing

uses a wide range of


vocabulary with very
natural and
sophisticated control
of lexical features;
rare minor errors
occur only as slips

uses a wide range of


structures with full
flexibility and
accuracy; rare minor
errors occur only as
slips

sequences
information and ideas
logically
manages all aspects
of cohesion well
uses paragraphing
sufficiently and
appropriately

uses a wide range of


structures
the majority of
sentences are errorfree
makes only very
occasional errors or
inappropriacies

addresses all parts of


the task
presents a clear position
throughout the
response
presents, extends and
supports main ideas,
but there may be a
tendency to overgeneralise and/or
supporting ideas may
lack focus

addresses all parts of


the task although some
parts may be more fully
covered than others
presents a relevant
position although the
conclusions may
become unclear or
repetitive
presents relevant main
ideas but some may be
inadequately
developed/unclear

logically organises
information and
ideas; there is clear
progression
throughout
uses a range of
cohesive devices
appropriately
although there may
be some under-/overuse
presents a clear
central topic within
each paragraph
arranges information
and ideas coherently
and there is a clear
overall progression
uses cohesive devices
effectively, but
cohesion within
and/or between
sentences may be
faulty or mechanical
may not always use
referencing clearly or
appropriately
uses paragraphing,
but not always
logically

uses a wide range of


vocabulary fluently
and flexibly to convey
precise meanings
skilfully uses
uncommon lexical
items but there may
be occasional
inaccuracies in word
choice and collocation
produces rare errors in
spelling and/or word
formation
uses a sufficient range
of vocabulary to allow
some flexibility and
precision
uses less common
lexical items with
some awareness of
style and collocation
may produce
occasional errors in
word choice, spelling
and/or word
formation
uses an adequate
range of vocabulary
for the task
attempts to use less
common vocabulary
but with some
inaccuracy
makes some errors in
spelling and/or word
formation, but they do
not impede
communication

uses a mix of simple


and complex sentence
forms
makes some errors in
grammar and
punctuation but they
rarely reduce
communication

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 5

uses a variety of
complex structures
produces frequent
error-free sentences
has good control of
grammar and
punctuation but may
make a few errors

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays


5

1
0

addresses the task only presents information


partially; the format
with some organisation
may be inappropriate
but there may be a lack
in places
of overall progression
expresses a position makes
inadequate,
but the development is
inaccurate or over-use
not always clear and
of cohesive devices
there may be no may
be
repetitive
conclusions drawn
because of lack of
referencing
and
presents some main
ideas but these are
substitution
limited
and
not may not write in
sufficiently developed;
paragraphs,
or
there may be irrelevant
paragraphing may be
detail
inadequate
responds to the task presents information
only in a minimal way
and ideas but these are
or the answer is
not
arranged
tangential; the format
coherently and there is
may be inappropriate
no clear progression in
the response
presents a position but
this is unclear
uses
some
basic
cohesive devices but
presents some main
these
may
be
ideas but these are
inaccurate or repetitive
difficult to identify and
may be repetitive, may not write in
irrelevant or not well
paragraphs or their use
supported
may be confusing
does not adequately does not organise ideas
address any part of the
logically
task
may use a very limited
range
of
cohesive
does not express a
clear position
devices, and those used
may not indicate a
presents few ideas,
logical
relationship
which
are
largely
between ideas
undeveloped
or
irrelevant
barely responds to the has very little control of
task
organisational features
does not express a
position
may
attempt
to
present one or two
ideas but there is no
development
answer is completely fails to communicate
unrelated to the task
any message
does not attend
does not attempt the task in any way
writes a totally memorised response

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 6

uses a limited range of


vocabulary, but this is
minimally adequate for
the task
may make noticeable
errors
in
spelling
and/or word formation
that may cause some
difficulty for the reader

uses only a limited


range of structures
attempts
complex
sentences but these
tend to be less
accurate than simple
sentences
may make frequent
grammatical errors and
punctuation may be
faulty; errors can cause
some difficulty for the
reader

uses
only
basic
vocabulary which may
be used repetitively or
which
may
be
inappropriate for the
task
has limited control of
word formation and/or
spelling; errors may
cause strain for the
reader

uses only a very limited


range of structures
with only rare use of
subordinate clauses
some structures are
accurate but errors
predominate,
and
punctuation is often
faulty

uses only a very limited


range of words and
expressions with very
limited control of word
formation
and/or
spelling
errors may severely
distort the message

attempts
sentence
forms but errors in
grammar
and
punctuation
predominate
and
distort the meaning

uses an extremely
limited
range
of
vocabulary; essentially
no control of word
formation
and/or
spelling

cannot use sentence


forms
except
in
memorised phrases

can only use a few


isolated words

cannot use sentence


forms at all

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Sample IELTS
Writing Task 2
Topics

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 7

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Some people think newspaper is the most effective way to obtain the latest information because it
has more influence than other forms of media.
Do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 8

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
In some countries, it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age.
Is this a positive or negative development?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 9

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Some people argue that it is not wise for an industry to replace its experienced but old workers with
new and young yet inexperienced individuals.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
In the past people often worked in their businesses until they died or were no longer able to
continue, whereas today most industries have set a definite retirement age for their employees. I
personally disagree that replacing elderly staff with young recruits would be unwise.

(45 words)

First and foremost, a large majority of workers lose their strength as they become older. This is
mainly because the human body has limits and working for a long time, say, 30 or 35 years, can
affect it negatively. For example, young industrial workers tend to work for five to six hours
before they take breaks while older ones usually need to rest every one or two hours. This means
that productivity levels would certainly decline.

(76 words)

Furthermore, new employment opportunities for young people are very limited. Most companies do
not offer more than a few new jobs every year and try not to increase their staff members
dramatically to keep expenses low. Consequently, they should definitely lay off some of the older
personnel to make room for youths, especially those around 20 to 30 years old who are about to
form families and support them.

(69 words)

Finally, although some people might argue that the experience and skills of old workers would be
lost when they retire, they should remember that this experience is mostly with old or outdated
equipment and technologies. As a result, it is less likely that their employers will need their
abilities in the long run and younger workers can be trained to work with modern machines such
as computers and lasers.

(69 words)

In conclusion, I believe companies need to force their elderly workforce to retire and employ
younger workers to replace them.

(20 words)

Total: 279 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 10

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Some people think secondary school students should study international news as one of their subjects.
Other people say this is a waste of valuable school time.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 11

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Developing countries require international organizations help. Some people prefer financial aid while
others think practical aid and advice are better.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 12

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 13

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 14

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 15

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Some people think secondary school students should study international news as one of their subjects.
Other people say this is a waste of valuable school time.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
The world today has become quite dynamic and news stories develop almost every minute. Some
people think reviewing the news need to become a high school subject while another group
disagrees.

(31 words)

Reviewing global news could have a number of benefits for students. Firstly, this would definitely
improve their general knowledge in areas like geography, since the news come from around the
world and often include lots of details about different locations, their customs and manners.
Therefore, they would possibly gain a better understanding of the world and its features. Secondly,
studying the news can develop the students ability to analyse sophisticated situations because when
they follow a story, say, about a political rift between two countries, they could observe how it
develops or escalates, how the parties involved act and what consequences are.

(102 words)

Nevertheless, there are some arguments against teaching international news at high schools. Most
importantly, the violence portrayed in many of todays news stories could affect students conduct.
For instance, almost every newspaper and news website these days is filled with images and stories
of the Syrian civil war, which are likely to make youngsters feel insecure or make unreasonable
judgements about any Arab friends they might have. Furthermore, reading and analysing the news
would probably be a time consuming activity which could lead to less time remaining for more
important subjects and activities like sciences, math or physical education.

(99 words)

In conclusion, I personally believe it is wise for secondary school students to study global news at
school, but it would be wise if stories are chosen and adapted for the class by a group of
educational experts and psychologists to avoid the negative effects discussed above.

(47 words)

Total: 279 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 16

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Some people support modern developments in agriculture such as factory farming and creation of
new types of fruits and vegetables. However, other people oppose this view.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
Recently, there have been extensive developments and improvements in various aspects of agriculture,
including genetically modifying plants to create new types or factory farming. While a group of
people think these developments are reasonable, others reject them.

(37 words)

One advantage of modern farming improvements is that they can provide more food for the growing
populations, especially in the developing world, since many new types of plants can produce heavier
fruits or more seeds. For instance, I recently read that Iranian scientists had created a new kind
of wheat plant that yielded over two times as much wheat as ordinary types. Furthermore, new
methods like factory farming would certainly make many demanding agricultural tasks like milking
cows and feeding various farm animals easier since they rely on automatic machines for doing such
farm duties.

(95 words)

Nevertheless, some people argue that changing the genetic structure of plants is highly likely to be
dangerous, as it would be almost impossible for scientists to fully predict the results of such a
change. For instance, a new plant that is supposed to be more productive might become poisonous
for humans or animals. Also, many animal rights activists think factory farming and similar modern
agricultural methods are cruel to animals because they are usually kept in closed buildings, fed by
machines and sometimes even killed in painful ways using automatic slaughtering systems.

(92 words)

Personally, I think modern farming and agricultural methods are inevitable and necessary to meet
the urgent need for more food worldwide. Therefore, governments should invest in agricultural
research and development to increase farm yields and develop farming sufficiently to match the
needs of todays world.

(45 words)

Total: 269 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 17

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Some people think that strict punishments for driving offences are the key to reducing traffic
accidents. Others, however, believe that other measures would be more effective in improving road
safety.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
Road accidents claim the lives of large numbers of drivers and pedestrians every year and have
turned into a matter of distress in many countries, including my own. It has been argued that
drivers who ignore the law should be fined severely to reduce the number of accidents, whereas
some believe in other solutions.

(54 words)

One could hardly cast doubt on the effectiveness of penalties and fines in the reduction of
accidents. One reason is that many crashes are due to drivers driving carelessly and ignoring laws
like speed limits, threatening the lives of other, law-abiding citizens. If such drivers are
incarcerated or heavily fined, it is highly likely that they and others will observe driving regulations
more closely and fewer accidents would occur. Furthermore, the government could use the fines it
collects from noncompliant drivers to provide better transport facilities such as standard roads or
offer rewards to those who drive properly.

(98 words)

However, there are various other means of decreasing the number of traffic accidents. First of
all, driving license candidates could be required to sit courses aiming at educating them on the
virtues of heeding the law while on the road. As a result, they are more likely to realise why
driving carefully could benefit both themselves and the people around them. Moreover, new cars
could be built in such a way that they restrict the drivers ability to commit traffic offences
like illegal speeding or turns. For instance, the cars computer could decrease its maximum speed in
residential areas or near intersections. (102 words)
In conclusion, I personally think that both fines and other actions like educational schemes and
smart automobiles can have strong impacts on reducing driving accidents and need to be
implemented.

(30 words)

Total: 284 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 18

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
After graduating from high school, some young people decide to start working right away instead of
going to university.
What are the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 19

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
In some countries, governments are encouraging industries and businesses to move to regional areas
outside big cities.
Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 20

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Housing and accommodation has become a major problem in many countries around the world.
What are some of the main factors that have contributed to this problem?
What can be done to help reduce the number of homeless people?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 21

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Nowadays, we are producing more and more rubbish.


Why do you think this is happening?
What can government do to help reduce the amount of rubbish produced?

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
Today, many cities around the world face an increasing amount of garbage produced by citizens.
This essay aims to investigate the causes of this and also put forward a number of solutions.

(18

words)

There are many reasons why so much rubbish is produced. One important factor is the
consumerist lifestyle of many people today which has led to them buying and consuming more
products such as food, clothes and home appliances. As a result, more packaging is thrown away
everyday which creates a lot of rubbish. Furthermore, many families do not separate reusable
garbage like cans or glass jars from the rest since they are too tired or busy. The main reason
for this is that a majority of parents have to work long hours out of home to make enough
money for their families.

(102 words)

Governments can do various things to decrease the amount of garbage. Firstly, they can legislate
laws to limit the garbage produced by households to a certain level, say, a kilogram every day. As a
result, people would definitely try to buy only the things which they need to avoid throwing away
too much. This is likely to be very effective although it might not be so popular, especially in
large cities. Also, governments could invest in building recycling plants so that more garbage is
reused to produce new products. For example, they could use plastic bottles to make new plastic
balls or computer parts.

(104 words)

In conclusion, the reasons behind the rise in waste production include consumerism and people not
recycling, and possible solutions are laws to restrict household garbage as well as building recycling
centres.

(31 words)

Total: 269 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 22

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
While mobile phones have many advantages, a number of problems have also resulted from them or
the ways in which they are used.
What are some of these problems?
What solutions can you suggest for solving these problems?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 23

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Source: Official IELTS Practice Materials 2, page 29

Brainstorming:
Causes:
- Fast technological progress youngsters know more about everyday stuff than the
elderly they dont think they should learn from older people less respect
- The problems that old people have experience in solving are different from todays
issues old people no longer act as respectable problem solvers less respect
Effects:
- Less respect Young people may think old people are jobless parasites young
people think pensions are not justified
- Less respect Experience shared by the elderly will not be appreciated many
problems will no longer be easily solved through that experience

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 24

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Answer by E. Tahasoni:
In many modern communities, young people no longer appreciate old age as a symbol of reverence.
This essay will try to identify the factors contributing to this and also explain some of the
issues it is likely to create in modern communities.

(42 words)

One could think of various reasons why the youth of today do not respect the elderly much. First
and foremost, the rapid pace of technological progress in todays world has led to youngsters
knowing more about commonly used technologies such as email or internet television. Consequently,
they seldom feel the need to learn from the elderly whose knowledge and experience might seem
rather outdated so their respect for them would decline. Moreover, many youngsters do not view
old people as respectable and experienced problem solvers because the problems they face now tend
to be quite different from those experienced by the older generation.

(103 words)

The social problems this new attitude is likely to create cannot be ignored. Most importantly,
youths might start to question the justifiability of high pensions for old people because they would
think there is no reason for supporting those who stay at home watching the news rather than
work like younger people have to. In addition, the younger generation is likely to find issues like
effective and successful child rearing very difficult to handle since many may start to neglect the
advice and experience shared by the elderly.

(88 words)

To conclude, I think disrespect towards the elderly has been caused by advances in technology as
well as changes in social problems, and in turn could lead to reductions in pensions and challenges
for the youth.

(36 words)

Total: 269 words

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 25

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Universities should provide students with the skills they will require in order to succeed at their future
jobs.
How far do you agree or disagree with the above opinion?
What are some of the job skills that employers look for in new employees?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.

Example paragraph 3 (items body paragraph):

There are various abilities that new employees today are required to have. Firstly, they need
to have good communicative skills like letter writing so that they can communicate their
ideas while understanding what their colleagues or clients think. Secondly, employees should
be able to manage their time efficiently because they have to finish various tasks before
their respective deadlines. Finally, many companies seek workers who can use computers
effectively to handle office and business tasks. For instance, almost all modern construction
companies require new engineers to know how to design buildings or manage projects using
software like AutoCAD or Microsoft Project.
Ebrahim Tahasoni

(101 words)

Page 26

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Course
Hand-Outs

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 27

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

A Quick Guide to Punctuation in IELTS


Basically, the two punctuation marks you will need to use in IELTS reports, letters and essays are the
full stop and comma. Exclamation (!) and question marks (?) might also be used in General Training
letters, while parentheses could be used in Academic reports as well as in letters.
You are advised to avoid using the colon (:), semi-colon (;) and dashes () if you do not know where
they need to be used, since they are unnecessary.

Full Stop (.)


Full stops are generally used to mark the end of a sentence:
There has been a dramatic increase in the population of urban regions.

Comma (,)
Commas are used in longer sentences to separate information into readable units. They also often
separate clauses in a sentence and sometimes come before a coordinator (e.g. and, but, etc.)
-

A single comma ensures correct reading of a sentence which starts with a long introductory
element:
Following efforts by pioneering scientists in the field of ecology, it has now been generally
accepted that the world is gradually becoming warmer.

A single comma is used after many starting linkers like however, moreover, basically and
such:
In contrast, water levels in Africa and Australia declined to reach an all-time low.

Pairs of commas help in the middle of a sentence to set off any string of words which is either a
parenthesis, or in contrast, to whatever went before:
A student, whether at school or university, needs to receive guidance and instructions on how to
use resources effectively and efficiently.

Sets of comma act as a means of separating items in a list:


Workplaces like business offices, banks and schools would certainly require a more formal dress
code.

Note: do not add a comma after that at the beginning of a clause:


It has been known for some time that many flaws in childrens behavior have roots in their genes.
Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 28

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Giving an opinion
Use the following ideas to formulate sentences which represent your personal view on
a given subject. Please note that this is only a small portion of the possible structures,
as you may find a great deal more in vocabulary/grammar books written for the IELTS
as well as in sample essays and other authentic IELTS resources.
Agreeing/disagreeing with a view
With/without a background statement:

I [tend to/personally/strongly/firmly] agree/disagree with the view/opinion/point of


view/idea/viewpoint that
I [tend to/personally/strongly/firmly] agree/disagree that
I [tend to/personally/strongly/firmly] support/oppose the view/opinion/point of
view/idea/viewpoint that

Preferably without a background statement:

Agreeing:
I, like many others, think
My view, like many other people, is that
Disagreeing:
Whereas/While/Although/Even though some might believe that, I personally think
Whereas/While/Although/Even though some might believe that, I personally think
otherwise/disagree.
Despite many peoples view that, I tend to think

Giving an original view

I [tend to/personally/strongly/firmly] think/believe/feel that


I am [personally/strongly/firmly/fully] convinced that
I am [personally/strongly/firmly] of the opinion that
I [personally/strongly/firmly] hold the opinion that
To me,
As far as I am concerned,
From my [personal] point of view,

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 29

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Synonyms for Advantages & Disadvantages


advantages and disadvantages
benefits and drawbacks
upsides and downsides
pros and cons
strengths and weaknesses/shortcomings

positive and negative


welcome and unwelcome
favourable and unfavourable
desirable and undesirable
beneficial and detrimental

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Consequences
results
impacts
effects

Page 30

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Synonyms for Causes


the factors/issues responsible for
the reasons behind/for
the factors/issues which have contributed to
the causes of
the issues which have resulted in/led to

Synonyms for Effects


consequences/effects/impacts
the issues it has resulted in /which have resulted from
the problems which follow /have followed

the problems/issues that could/may/might/is likely to result in/lead to


the problems/issues which could/may/might/are likely to result from/follow/ensue
s possible/potential/probable/prospective consequences/effects/impacts

Synonyms for Solutions


Solutions for
means/ways to solve
means/ways to resolve/deal with/tackle/improve

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 31

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Discussing Causes
Cause 3

Cause 2

Cause 1

Issue

Approach A:
Presentation: Cause 1 Issue
Extension: Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3

Approach B:
Presentation: Cause 3 Issue
Extension: Cause 3 Cause 2 Cause 1
Note: = consequence linker

= cause linker

Example:
Hole in the ozone layer more heat less water fewer natural resources
Moreover, scientists have discovered that there is a hole in the ozone layer, as a result of which
there is increasing heat in the world. This means that we are losing huge quantities of water, especially
in oceans and lakes.

OR
Moreover, we are losing huge quantities of water, especially in oceans and lakes, because there is
increasing heat in the world. The reason for this is that scientists have discovered that there is a hole in
the ozone layer.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 32

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Discussing Effects
Approach A (Short):
Issue

Effect 1

Effect 2

Issue Effect 2 because Effect 1

Approach B (long):
Issue

Effect 1

Effect 2

Effect 3

Issue Effect 3 because issue effect 1 effect 2 [ effect 3]


Note: = consequence linker

= cause linker

Example:
Overpopulation more demand for food food shortages widespread hunger
Overpopulation can lead to widespread hunger in many parts of the world, particularly in countries like
India and China which have very large populations. This is because when there are more people in an
area, the demand for food is highly likely to rise as a result of which there may not be enough food
available for everyone.

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 33

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Discussing Solutions
Development
Include:

Mechanism
Advantages over other solutions
Any possible disadvantages

How to introduce advantage and disadvantage:


Approach A:
Although
-------- disadvantage (sentence) -------Even though

-------- advantage (sentence) --------

, -------- advantage (sentence) --------.

although
-------- disadvantage (sentence) --------.
even though

Approach B:
Despite
In spite of

-------- disadvantage (n./n.p.) --------

-------- advantage (sentence) --------

despite
in spite of

, -------- advantage (sentence) --------.

-------- disadvantage (n./n.p.) --------.

Some possible advantages and disadvantages

Advantage

Effective

Efficient

Cost-effective, economical, reasonable


Does not rely on/require many financial

Disadvantage

resources

Time-efficient

Popular

Does not rely on/require many resources

Easy to implement

Ebrahim Tahasoni

Page 34

Might not be very reasonable

Could be time-consuming
Might not be very time-efficient

Might not be very popular


Might not be favoured by the public

May rely on/require significant resources

Could be difficult to implement


Might not be very easy to implement

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Connectors: Usage and Meaning


To Add Another Idea
Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

and

furthermore
moreover
besides
also
in addition

To Restate, Explain or Emphasize an Idea


Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions
that is
in other words
in fact
actually
namely

To Give an Example
Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions
for example
for instance
to illustrate

To Show a Choice
Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

But

while

in contrast

whereas

on the contrary

though

on the other hand

or
nor

To Show a Difference

instead
however
still
otherwise

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

To Show the Opposite of What You Might Expect


Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

yet

although

nevertheless

though

admittedly

even though

even so
nonetheless

To Show a Similarity
Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

just as

similarly

as

likewise
in the same way

To Show a Cause or Reason


Coordinators

Subordinators

for

because

Transitions

since
as
now that
as long as

To Show a Result or Effect


Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

so

so + adjective + that

as a result

such + noun + that

consequently
as a consequence
therefore
thus
hence
accordingly

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

To Show a Time Relationship


Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

before

previously

after

subsequently

when

finally

whenever

afterward

while

meanwhile

as soon as

first, second, etc.

until

after that

as

next

since

since then

the moment that

then,

once

at first,

Coordinators

Subordinators

Transitions

or

if

To Show a Condition

even if
unless
when
whenever

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

The Academic Word List


Sublist 1
analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist constitute
context contract create data define derive distribute economy environment establish
estimate evident export factor finance formula function identify income indicate individual
interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method occur percent period policy
principle proceed process require research respond role section sector significant similar
source specific structure theory vary

Sublist 2
achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission
community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit
culture design distinct element equate evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute
invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential
previous primary purchase range region regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure
seek select site strategy survey text tradition transfer

Sublist 3
alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant
constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce
demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude framework fund illustrate
immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate
outcome partner philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme
sequence sex shift specify sufficient task technique technology valid volume

Sublist 4
access adequate annual apparent approximate attitude attribute civil code commit
communicate concentrate confer contrast cycle debate despite dimension domestic emerge
error ethnic goal grant hence hypothesis implement implicate impose integrate internal
investigate job label mechanism obvious occupy option output overall parallel parameter
phase predict principal prior professional project promote regime resolve retain series
statistic status stress subsequent sum summary undertake

Sublist 5
academy adjust alter amend aware capacity challenge clause compound conflict consult
contact decline discrete draft enable energy enforce entity equivalent evolve expand
expose external facilitate fundamental generate generation image liberal license logic
margin medical mental modify monitor network notion objective orient perspective precise
prime psychology pursue ratio reject revenue stable style substitute sustain symbol
target transit trend version welfare whereas

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Sublist 6
abstract accurate acknowledge aggregate allocate assign attach author bond brief capable
cite cooperate discriminate display diverse domain edit enhance estate exceed expert
explicit federal fee flexible furthermore gender ignorant incentive incidence incorporate
index inhibit initiate input instruct intelligence interval lecture migrate minimum ministry
motive neutral nevertheless overseas precede presume rational recover reveal scope
subsidy tape trace transform transport underlie utilize

Sublist 7
adapt adult advocate aid channel chemical classic comprehensive comprise confirm
contrary convert couple decade definite deny differentiate dispose dynamic eliminate
empirical equip extract file finite foundation globe grade guarantee hierarchy identical
ideology infer innovate insert intervene isolate media mode paradigm phenomenon priority
prohibit publication quote release reverse simulate sole somewhat submit successor
survive thesis topic transmit ultimate unique visible voluntary

Sublist 8
abandon accompany accumulate ambiguous append appreciate arbitrary automate bias chart
clarify commodity complement conform contemporary contradict crucial currency denote
detect deviate displace drama eventual exhibit exploit fluctuate guideline highlight implicit
induce inevitable infrastructure inspect intense manipulate minimize nuclear offset
paragraph plus practitioner predominant prospect radical random reinforce restore revise
schedule tense terminate theme thereby uniform vehicle via virtual visual widespread

Sublist 9
accommodate analogy anticipate assure attain behalf bulk cease coherent coincide
commence compatible concurrent confine controversy converse device devote diminish
distort duration erode ethic format founded inherent insight integral intermediate manual
mature mediate medium military minimal mutual norm overlap passive portion
preliminary protocol qualitative refine relax restrain revolution rigid route scenario sphere
subordinate supplement suspend team temporary trigger unify violate vision

Sublist 10
adjacent albeit assemble collapse colleague compile conceive convince depress encounter
enormous forthcoming incline integrity intrinsic invoke levy likewise nonetheless
notwithstanding odd ongoing panel persist pose reluctance so-called straightforward
undergo whereby

References:
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2): 213238.
http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist/information.aspx
Kinsella (2003). The academic word list: A list of 570 high-incidence and high-u

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Hand-outs from
IELTS Graduation
(Macmillan)

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Ebrahim Tahasoni

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Editing your writing Answer Key

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Suggested Answers:
1. a large number of
2. many people believe, often
3. would probably
4. certain, is highly likely to be
5. certain, the majority of accidents involve
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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

Synonyms for People Answer Key


Exercise 1:
People (in general)
everyone
the general public
individuals
human beings
entrepreneurs
workers
employers

People and work


the unemployed
employees
managers
manufacturers
representatives

People and power


politicians
national/religious leaders
consumers
voters
celebrities
home owners
teenagers

People (specific groups)


the old/young
senior citizens
students
the middle-aged
parents

Exercise 2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

voters
entrepreneurs
consumers
individuals
the unemployed
everyone (or similar)
manufacturers
politicians/national leaders
workers
celebrities

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Master IELTS Essays

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IELTS Academic & General Training Writing Task Two

Master IELTS Essays

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