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# Mapua Institute of Technology

School of EECE
Electrical Engineering Department

## Members: Ang, Peterson G.

Pua, Kenneth D.
Date submitted: September 24, 2013
GRADE

## Engr. Paulo Tindogan

Professor
The DC Shunt Generator
Ang, Peterson G.#1, Pua, Kenneth D. #2
School of EE-ECE-CpE, Mapa Institute of Technology
Muralla Street, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines
1
peterson_ang@yahoo.com
2
pua_kenz@yahoo.com

## Abstract the goal of this project is to

create a dc generator. Applying the
concepts of magnetism to produce
electricity and light a low voltage bulb.
And be able to determine the basic
concepts of a DC generator and the
principle behind its operation.
I. INTRODUCTION
An electrical Generator is a machine
which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy. A generator can be
specified as alternating current generator
(AC generator) and as direct current
generator (DC generator). AC generator
produces alternating power while DC
generator produces direct current power.
Both AC and DC generator produces
same fundamental principle of Faradays
law of electromagnetic induction.
Faradays law of electromagnetic where
any change in the magnetic environment
of a coil of wire will cause a voltage
(emf) to be "induced" in the coil. No
matter how the change is produced, the
voltage will be generated. The change
could be produced by changing the
magnetic field strength, moving a magnet
toward or away from the coil, moving the
coil into or out of the magnetic field,
rotating the coil relative to the magnet,
etc.

## machine rotates. This induced voltage is

inherently alternating in form since the
coil flux increases and then decreases,
with a zero average value. As seen in
Figure 1, a single-turn rectangular copper
coil abcd moving about its own axis in a
magnetic field provided by either
permanent magnets or electromagnets.
The two ends of the coil are joined to two
split-rings which are insulated from each
other and from the central shaft. Two
collecting brushes (of carbon or copper)
press against the slip rings. It produces
emf that is accordance to Faradays law of
Electromagnetic induction and this emf
causes a current to flow if the conductor
circuit is closed.

of Generator

## A direct-current (DC) generator is a

rotating machine that supplies an
electrical output with unidirectional
A DC generator has basic essential
voltage and current. The basic principles parts. These are magnetic field and
of operation are the same as those for conductor.
synchronous generators. Voltage is
DC motors work also through Faraday's
induced in coils by the rate of change of
the magnetic field through the coils as the Principle. When a magnetic field changes

## near a wire, it creates an electric current

inside the wire. Therefore, when the
rotating arm (called the armature) rotates,
it changes the magnetic field the coils are
exposed to, generating electricity in them.

## metal which serves as the slots. Most part

of the armature is then covered up with
electrical tape to avoid losses in the dc
generator. The slot of the armature must
not be shorted to the shaft. Shaft was only
used for rotating purposes. The brushes
II. METHODOLOGY
were done by using E-core. It connected
by the wires to serve as the terminal for
Our shunt generator was made by the output result to be taken. The
simple materials that can be found in commutator is an aluminium sheet from a
scrappy places where metals, iron and soda can, which is bonded using epoxy.
woods were can be found. These are the
materials helped us to made this simple
generator works; Shaft, permanent
magnet, metals (Aluminium & Iron),
electrical tape, magnetic wire (#24), Icore, soldering iron with lead, DMM,
solid wire, bulb, screw, nails, driller,
bearings and plywoods.
The requirements of this dc generator
are: (1) it can generate at least 3 volts DC,
(2) 5 slots, and (3) 4 poles of
electromagnet
The concept takes place where the
voltage of the DC generator is come from
the breakage of flux during the rotation of
the shaft inside the yoke which the
magnets are fixed. Breakage of flux
occurs when the attraction of the four
magnets (fluxes) , consist of north to
south and south to north poles, breaks by
the armature rotating inside.
The poles are electromagnetic running
at 15 volts DC. The pole composes 250
turns each of the four poles.
The armature was done by using a
metal rod welded with five pieces of box

Figure
windings

2:

Armature

with

## The bearing also has an important role

in the casing, because it smooths the
rotation of the armature through the
process.

Figure 4: Bearings

## III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The requirement of the project consists
of 5 slots, in minimum. The number of
winding used were 300 turns.
The
computation can be seen below.
Y B=

10+ 2
=3
4

Y F=

102
=2
4

TABLE I
WINDING TABLE
Commutato
Back
Front
r
1
1+3=4
4+3=7
10 + 3 =
2
7 + 3 = 10
13 10 = 3
3
3+3=6
6+3=9
9 + 3 = 12
4
2+3=5
10 = 2
8 + 3 = 11
5
5+3=8
10 = 1
LAGAY KA PICTURE DTO!!!!!

## Construct the base of the

generator,
attach
the
brushes to the side of the
commutator
Connect the wire to the
ends of the brush for the
output.
Test the generator using a
drill.
IV. CONCLUSION

## Figure 5: DC Generator full set up

Consider these steps in making a DC
generator:
Identify the number of
poles, slots, conductors,
commutators to be used.
Determine the type of
winding and number of
turns.
Produce a metallic shaft
and armature slots for
winding and insulate its
parts.
Wind the magnetic coil
using the wiring diagram.

## Energy can be converted from one form

to other form. A generator converts
mechanical energy to electrical energy.
Mechanical energy can be created by
using water turbines, steam turbines,
internal combustion engines etc. And a
generator converts this mechanical energy
to electrical energy. Generators can be
broadly classified as AC generators and
DC generators.
A DC Generator is a machine which
converts mechanical energy into electrical
energy. Three important characteristics
must be considered. TheseareOpen
Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.), Internal
or Total characteristic (E/Ia), and External
characteristic (V/IL). This characteristics
show curves that relates on the
characteristic of a DC Generator.

## The important characteristic is based on

their relationship, each voltage, load, and
At one end attach the current are dependent on each other. In a
commutator and solder DC generator, it can never meet the same
the magnetic coil to their level of voltage and current at the same
respective commutator.
time. There are only two possible
combination for the level of voltage and

## current. it can be high voltage and low

current, or low voltage and high current.
That is depend on the type of winding
used. For lap winding, the possible
output,is high current and low voltage
while for wave winding is high voltage
and low current. DC generator lowers the
costs to install and operate. It is smaller in
size and requires less site support.

## extending her patience and trust on her

students.
To our friends and classmates who helped
and support the members, when they are
in need for some tips or felt stress or
hopeless while doing this prototype.
To the members family members, who
are always there to show help in terms of
financially, mentally, and emotionally.
Finally, the members would like to
express their gratitude to God for guiding
them properly throughout the whole life
and helped them decide the correct
decision, giving them proper wisdom
throughout the study and safety of each
member.

VI. REFERENCES
1
2

V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The members would like to express their
gratitude to all those who helped them to 3
complete this prototype. The following
grants provided the partial support for this 4
work:
To our instructor, Engr. Tindogan, an
approachable Professor who attends to her
students queries regarding the course
despite her busy schedule and for

## C. Siskind, Electrical Machines:

Direct and Alternating Current,
Second Edition
http://electromechanicalenergyconver
sion.blogspot.com/2010/02/week7.html
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Applicatio
ns_of_a_dc_generator
http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/3
02l/lectures/node91.html