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1.1.

Electrically powered actuation system function and interfaces


2.1. The general scheme of hydraulic system
2.2. Demonstration Pascals law
2.3. Working circuit of hydraulic actuator
2.4. Pneumatic actuator
2.5. Ball screw
2.6. Rigid chain
2.7. Working principle of piezo-electric actuator
2.8. Linear electro mechanical actuator
2.9. Basic components of electro-hydraulic actuator
2.10. Ema block diagram
3.1. Operation of EMA
3.2. Components of an EMA
3.3. Simple gear train
3.5. Harmonic drive
3.4. Compound gear train
3.6. Epicycloid and hypocycloid profiles.
3.7. Expanded view of the HGT
3. 8. Cycloidal drive (Petteri Aimonen, 1986)
3.9. Gear dimensions (Alipiev, 1988)
3.10. Cycloid drive (Alipiev, 1988)
3.11. Working and theoretical profiles (Alipiev, 1988)
3.12. Forming process of a cycloid disc (Tsetserukou D., Basinukv.1995)
3. 13. Transmission forces (Alipiev, 1988)
3.14. Force distribution between the gear and the pins (Tsetserukou d., Basinukv. ,2012)
3.15. Corrected cycloid drive (Rao Zhengang, 1994)
3.16. Single row, deep groove, ball bearing
3.17. Single row ball bearing
3.18. Double row, deep-groove ball bearing
3.19. Angular contact ball bearing
3.20. Cylindrical roller bearing

3.21. Needle bearing


3.22. Spherical bearing
3.23. Tapered roller bearing
3.24. DC motor
3.25. AC motor
3.26. World of motors
3.27. Constructional view of BLDC
3.28. Trapezoidal back emf
3.29. Sinusoidal back emf
3.30. Below shows cross sections of different arrangements of magnets in a rotor
3.31. BLDC motor transverse section
3.38. Controller used in EMA
3.39. Pin diagram of MC33035 micro controller
4.1. Functional block diagram of ema
5.1. Solid model of the main rotor
5.2. Solid model of the output wheel
5.3. Solid model of the output shaft
5.4. Solid model of housing

1.1. Actuator
1.2. Types of actuators
1.2.1. Based on type of actuation
1.2.1.1. Linear actuators
1.2.1.2. Rotary actuators

1.2.2. Based on the technology used for actuation


1.2.2.1. Hydraulic actuators
1.2.2.2. Electric actuators
1.2.2.3. Pneumatic actuators
1.2.2.4. Mechanical actuators
1.2.2.5. Piezoelectric actuator

1.2.2.6. Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA)


1.2.2.7. Electro hydraulic actuators (EHA)
1.2.2.8. Comparison

1.3. Selection of actuator type


1.4. Applications of electromechanical actuators
1.5. Working principle
1.6. Operation of electromechanical actuator
1.7. Components
1.8. System requirements and constraints
1.9. System specifications:
1.10.

Actuator configuration

1.11.

Design of actuator

1.12.

Design of mechanical elements


1.12.1.

Gear systems

1.12.1.1.

Simple and compound gear trains

1.12.1.2.

Harmonic drive

1.12.1.3.

Hypocycloid gear transmissions

1.12.1.4.

Epicyclic gear train

1.12.1.5.

Cycloidal drive

1.12.2.

Selection of gear transmission

1.12.3.

Geometry design

1.13.

1.14.

Bearing selection
1.13.1.

Introduction

1.13.2.

Types of rolling contact bearings

1.13.2.1.

Single row, deep-groove ball bearing

1.13.2.2.

Angular contact ball bearing

1.13.2.3.

Cylindrical roller bearing

1.13.2.4.

Double row, deep-groove ball bearing

1.13.2.5.

Needle bearing

1.13.2.6.

Spherical roller bearing

1.13.2.7.

Tapered roller bearing

1.13.2.8.

Comparison of bearing types

1.13.3.

Selected bearing for electromechanical actuator

1.13.4.

Design of bearing

1.13.5.

Selection of bearing from manufacturers catalogue

Motor
1.14.1.

Motor selection

1.14.2.

Types of motors

1.14.3.

Brushless dc motor

1.14.3.1.

Introduction

1.15.

1.14.3.2.

Construction and operating principle

1.14.3.3.

Theory of operation:

1.14.3.4.

Applications

1.14.3.5.

Selected motor

Controller
1.15.1.

Controller selection

1.15.2.

Types of controllers available

1.15.2.1.

Analog and digital controller

1.15.2.2.

Microcontroller

1.15.2.3.

Programmable logic controllers

1.15.2.4.

Motion controllers

1.15.3.

Working of analog controller

1.15.3.1.

Power inverter stage

1.15.3.2.

Signal conditioning stage

1.15.3.3.

Motor controller stage

1.15.3.3.1. Introduction
1.15.3.3.2. MC33035
1.15.3.3.3. Functional description

2. ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATOR IN AEROSPACE


VEHICLE
2.1. Introduction
2.2. block diagram

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
a1 design details of hgt
a2 design details of cycloid drive
A3 comparison of hgt and cycloid drive
A4 software analysis of cycloid drive

3.8. Selection Of Motor


3.8.1. Brushless Dc Motor

3.8.1.2.
3.9.

Summary

Controller

3.9.1. Selected Motor


3.9.2. Controller Selection
3.9.3. Working Of Analog Controller
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Block Diagram
4.3. Working
5.1.Brief Summary
5.2.Model Of Gear Transmission System
6.1.Our Concern-Space Applications
6.2. Future Prospects

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LIST OF S
1.1. Electrically powered actuation system function and
2.1. The general scheme of hydraulic system
2.2. Demonstration Pascals law
2.3. Ema block diagram
3.1. Hydraulic actuator
3.2. Pneumatic actuator
3.3. Ball screw
3.4. Rigid chain

interfaces

3.5. Working principle of piezo-electric actuator


3.6. Linear electro mechanical actuator
3.7. Basic components of electro hydraulic actuator
3.8. Operation of electromechanical actuator
3.9. Components of an electromechanical actuator
3.10. Various sections of an electromechanical actuator
3.11. Simple gear train
3.12. Compound gear train
3.13. Harmonic drive
3.14. Epicycloid and hypocycloid profiles.
3.15. Epicyclic drive train
3.16. Expanded view of the hypocycloid gear train
3. 17. Cycloidal drive
3.18. Gear geometry nomenclature
3.19. Cycloid drive3.20. Working an theoretical profiles
3.21. Forming process of a cycloid disc
3.22. Single row, deep groove, ball bearing
3.23. Roller bearing
3.24. Double row, deep-groove ball bearing
3.25. Angular contact ball bearing
3.26. Cylindrical roller bearing

3.27. Needle bearing


3.28. Spherical bearing
3.29. Tapered roller bearing
3.30. Dc motor
3.31. Ac motor
3.32. World of motors
3.33. Constructional view of BLDC
3.34. Trapezoidal back emf
3.35. Sinusoidal back emf
3.36. Below shows cross sections of different arrangements of magnets in a rotor
3.37. BLDC motor transverse section
3.38. Controller used in ema
3.39. Pin diagram of MC33035 micro controller
4.1. Functional block diagram of electromechanical actuator
5.1. Solid model of the main rotor
5.2. Solid model of the output wheel
5.3. Solid model of the output shaft
5.4. Solid model of the pin wheel

LIST OF TABLES
1. Design specifications
2. Comparison of bearings
3. Comparison of brushed and brushless DC motors
4. Comparison of BLDC and AC induction motors
5. Specifications of BLDC motor
5. Pin description of MC33035

Appendix
Bldc INTRODUCTION:

Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors are one of the motor types rapidly
gaining popularity. BLDC motors are used in industries such as Appliances,
Automotive, Aerospace, Consumer, Medical, Industrial Automation Equipment and
Instrumentation.
As the name implies, BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation;
instead, they are electronically commutated.
BLDC motors have many advantages over brushed DC motors and induction
motors. A few of these are:
Better speed versus torque characteristics
High dynamic response
High efficiency
Long operating life

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Noiseless operation
Higher speed ranges

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List of Fig
1.1. ELECTRICALLY POWERED ACTUATION SYSTEM FUNCTION AND
INTERFACES

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2.1. THE GENERAL SCHEME OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


2.2. DEMONSTRATION PASCALS LAW

2.3. EMA BLOCK DIAGRAM


3.1. HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR
3.2. PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
3.3. BALL SCREW
3.4. RIGID CHAIN
3.5. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF PIEZO-ELECTRIC ACTUATOR
3.6. LINEAR ELECTRO MECHANICAL ACTUATOR
3.7. BASIC COMPONENTS OF ELECTROHYDRAULIC ACTUATOR
3.8. OPERATION OF EMA
3.9. COMPONENTS OF AN EMA
3.10. VARIOUS SECTIONS OF AN EMA
3.11. SIMPLE GEAR TRAIN
3.12. COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN
3.13. HARMONIC DRIVE
3.14. EPICYCLOID AND HYPOCYCLOID PROFILES.
3.15. EPICYCLIC DRIVE TRAIN
3.16. EXPANDED VIEW OF THE HGT
3. 17. CYCLOIDAL DRIVE
3.18. GEAR GEOMETRY NOMENCLATURE
3.19. CYCLOID DRIVE3.20. WORKING AN THEORITICAL PROFILES

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3.21. FORMING PROCESS OF A CYCLOID DISC


3.22. SINGLE ROW, DEEP GROOVE, BALL BEARING
3.23. ROLLER BEARING
3.24. DOUBLE ROW, DEEP-GROOVE BALL BEARING
3.25. ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARIN
3.26. CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING
3.27. NEEDLE BEARING
3.28. SPHERICAL BEARING
3.29. TAPERED ROLLER BEARING
3.30. DC MOTOR
3.31. AC MOTOR

LIST OF TABLES

1. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS+

2. COMPARISON OF BEARINGS

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Hydraulic actuators translate hydraulic fluid flow into linear mechanical motion.
A balanced linear actuator is shown in 2.1 below. The actuator is considered
balanced because the piston pressure areas in Chamber A and Chamber B are equal.
Balanced actuators are used on primary flight control surfaces and other locations where
loads are the same in both directions. The moving end is connected directly to the load,
such as a landing gear, or through a linkage to provide rotation movement, such as a
primary flight control surface.

Fig. 2.1 Schematic diagram of a Balanced Actuator


References
[1]Ganesh Krishnamurthy, Delbert Tesar Multi-Sensor Architecture for
Intelligent Electromechanical Actuators 12th IFToMM World Congress,
Besancon(France), june 18-21,2007.

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[2]Chun Tai, Tsui Tsao, Control of an electromechanical actuator for camless


engines. Department of mechanical and aerospace engineering University of California
at loss angeles,lossangles, CA90095.
[3]Dr. Ingolf ,Dr. Rolf Slatter, Precision pointing and actuation systems for
UAVS using harmonic drive gears. Hoenbergstrasse 14,65555 Limburg, germany.

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