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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information

Modeling

Master Thesis

Construction and Real Estate Management


University of Applied Sciences, Berlin
Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences

Submitted on 12.04.2011

Md.Afjalur Rahman
Student ID: 527076

First Supervisor: Prof.Dr.-Ing. Mrkus Kramer


Second Supervisor: Prof.Dr.-Ing. Dieter Bunte

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

International Master of Science in Construction and Real Estate Management


Joint study program of HTW Berlin and Metropolia Helsinki UAS

Conceptual Formulation

January 12, 2011

Of the Master Thesis for Md. Afjalur Rahman(0527076)


Title: Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information
Modeling.
Background:
Like every industrial sector building development sector also needs a prototype before going
on construction. Building or every type of construction job is new and more challenging with
new difficulties. The prototype is the best solution for this kind of challenging work. BIM or
Building information modeling first create a opportunity in building sectors to make such
kind of prototype for forecasting construction stages.
But the process is still now quite limited with the early construction phase or in design
phase. More precisely most of the people used BIM or think BIM, as a method to give better
coordination in design and visualization. While the construction phase and life cycle is the
most vital part of any construction. It is also possible to make construction management and
life cycle management through BIM. But it needs the right application in right way, because
still now BIM used in construction management is fragmented with different thoughts and
ideas.
The task:
The main objective is that, how to define a clear way or how to synchronize the construction
activities after design stage through BIM. Construction of a project is divided in different
layers and construction management evolved all the layers with different names and different
scope.
The author will focus on the technical relationship of construction project work through BIM
and identify a route to be applicable as BIM approach in the construction project
management phase.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Research problems:
1. What is the key concept of BIM and construction project management?
2. Where is the linkage on BIM and construction project management?
3. How BIM can support construction project management?
4. Which kinds of tools presently exist to support construction project management
through BIM?
5. Which way BIM can make collaboration of total construction phase and in the
facility management through the life cycle of the building?
6. What kind of contractual problem arise in the implementing of BIM workflow in
construction management phase or in later phase?
7. How can BIM support all kinds of infrastructure projects?
8. Why BIM is fragmentized in the implementation part of construction project
management?

Signature of the 1st Supervisor

ii

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Abstract
In last 30 years construction industry has been changed with other industry. The scope and
range of work increased enormously. But unfortunately the technological advancement is not
quite satisfactory compared with other manufacturing industry. With the advancement of
technological support manufacturing industry reduce their waste, improve quality and time.
While construction industry is unique in every project, thus due to lack of technological
support the waste in construction industry is quite higher than any other industry. As well as
often delayed due to faulty error prone calculations. CAD is the first technological
advancement in construction industry. But this advancement is not developed all over the
construction process. It means from the inception to execution it does not work. CAD has
limited effects until design phase. When design phase is just only the inception of
construction.
Later, in the end of last century Building Information Modeling concept came to the
construction world. The purpose of this new concept or technology is to increase efficiency
in construction industry. From the very beginning it focuses on the inception to execution
process of construction projects.
The aim of this thesis paper is to demonstrate a clear view to manage a construction project
in construction phase through BIM process. To make this paper, materials are used as BIM
software and construction management study experience, publications, AEC journals,
articles, software vendor brochure, online magazines and the most important practical
experience based books and regarding related topics.
The findings of this thesis will make a conceptual path of construction management through
Building Information Modeling or rather it can be better to say the whole process as
construction MIS. The main aspect is to define a view to make construction management
easier, less waste and increase efficiency with technology.
Key words: construction management, BIM, conceptual path, efficiency, construction MIS

iii

iv

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Table of Contents

Table of Figures

ix

List of Tables

xii

List of Abbreviations

xiii

1. Introduction

2. Construction Project Management

2.1 Construction Project Management Definition

2.2 Construction Project Management Phases

2.2.1

Pre Construction Phase

2.2.1.1 Design-Bid-Build

2.2.1.2 Design-Build

11

2.2.1.2.1 Designer and Contractor Relationship

12

2.2.1.2.2 Full Service Design Build Firm

12

2.2.1.2.3 Joint Venture

13

2.2.1.3 Integrated Project Delivery Method

13

2.2.1.4 Construction Management Method

14

2.2.2

2.2.1.4.1 Agency CM

14

2.2.1.4.2 At-Risk CM

15

Construction Phase

17

2.2.2.1 Managing Job site and Construction operation

17

2.2.2.2 Planning and Scheduling the project

18

2.2.2.3 Monitoring and Controlling the Project Performance

20

2.2.2.4 Managing Project Quality

22

2.2.2.5 Managing Project Safety

23

2.2.2.6 Assessing Project Risks

23

2.2.3

Project Delivery Phase

2.2.3.1 Project Punch Out

25
26

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.3.2 Substantial Completion

26

2.2.3.3 Certificate of Occupancy

27

2.2.3.4 Commissioning

27

2.2.3.5 Final Documentation

27

2.2.3.6 Warranties

28

2.2.3.7 Project Evaluation

28

2.3 Construction Project Management Framework

29

2.3.1

Construction Project Integration Management

30

2.3.2

Construction Project Scope Management

31

2.3.3

Construction Project Time Management

32

2.3.4

Construction Project Cost Management

33

2.3.5

Construction Project Quality Management

34

2.3.6

Construction Project Human Resource Management

35

2.3.7

Construction Project Communications Management

36

2.3.8

Construction Project Risk Management

37

2.3.9

Construction Project Procurement Management

38

2.3.10 Construction Project Safety Management

38

2.3.11 Construction Project Environmental Management

39

2.3.12 Construction Project Financial Management

40

2.3.13 Construction Project Claim Management

41

3. Building Information Modeling

42

3.1 Building Information Modeling Concept Definition

42

3.2 Building Information Modeling Principle

44

3.3 Building Information Modeling Scopes

47

3.3.1

Architectural Scope

47

3.3.2

Structural Engineering Scope

48

3.3.3

MEP Scope

49

3.3.4

Fabrication Scope

50

3.3.5

Construction Management Scope

53

3.3.6

Facility Management Scope

55

3.3.7

Sustainability and Life Cycle Scope

57

3.4 CAD Transformation in BIM

58

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

3.5 BIM Tools


3.5.1

60

Autodesk BIM Tools

60

3.5.1.1 Design and Documentation solution

60

3.5.1.1.1 Autodesk Revit Architecture

60

3.5.1.1.2 Autodesk Revit Structure

61

3.5.1.1.3 Autodesk Revit MEP

61

3.5.1.1.4 AutoCAD Civil 3D

61

3.5.1.2 Analysis and Visualization solutions


3.5.1.2.1

Autodesk Ecotect Analysis

61

3.5.1.2.2

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional

62

3.5.1.2.3

Autodesk 3Ds Max Design

62

3.5.1.2.4

Autodesk Navisworks

62

3.5.1.2.5

Autodesk Quantity Takeoff

62

3.5.1.3 Collaboration Solution


3.5.1.3.1
3.5.2

61

Autodesk Buzzsaw and Constructware

Graphisoft BIM Tools

62
62
63

3.5.2.1 ArchiCAD

63

3.5.2.2 ArchiCAD MEP Modeler

63

3.5.2.3 Eco Designer

64

3.5.2.4 Artlantis

64

3.5.2.5 Virtual Building Explorer

64

3.5.3

Tekla BIM Solution

66

3.5.4

Vico BIM Solution

68

3.5.5

Other BIM Solutions

70

3.5.5.1 Bentley BIM Solution

70

3.5.5.2 Solibri Model Checker

70

3.5.5.3 Nemetscheck BIM Solution

71

3.6 Data Exchange solutions

72

3.6.1

IFC

72

3.6.2

Other Data Exchange solutions

74

3.6.3

Comparison of Different Data Exchange Format

75

3.7 BIM based Construction Management Case study

75

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

3.7.1

Barton Malow Case Study

75

3.7.2

Construction Management in Bridge Case Study

77

3.7.3

Summary of Case Studies

78

4. BIM and Construction Project Management Linkage

79

4.1 Construction Project Management Development through BIM

79

4.2 BIM and Preconstruction

81

4.3 BIM and Construction

84

4.4 BIM and Post Construction

85

4.5 BIM and Facility Management

85

5. BIM Simulation in Construction Project Management


5.1 BIM Implementation in Preconstruction

88
88

5.1.1

Construction Project Integration Management in BIM

88

5.1.2

Construction Project Scope Management in BIM

95

5.1.3

Construction Project Cost Management in BIM

100

5.2 BIM Implementation in Construction

102

5.2.1

Construction Project Time Management in BIM

103

5.2.2

Construction Project Cost Control Management in BIM

107

5.2.3

Construction Project Quality Management in BIM

108

5.2.4

Construction Project Human Resource Management in BIM

112

5.2.5

Construction Project Communications Management in BIM

114

5.2.6

Construction Project Risk Management in BIM

118

5.2.7

Construction Project Safety Management in BIM

123

5.2.8

Construction Project Environmental Management in BIM

125

5.2.9

Construction Project Procurement Management in BIM

127

5.2.10 Construction Project Financial Management in BIM

129

5.2.11 Construction Project Claim Management in BIM

130

5.2.12 Construction Project Site and Logistics Management in BIM

131

5.3 BIM Implementation in Post Construction

133

5.3.1

Handover Management in BIM

133

5.3.2

Facility Management in BIM

134

6. Discussion and Conclusion


6.1 Future BIM Construction Management

136
136

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

6.2 Discussion and Results

140

6.3 Conclusion

144

List of Literature

148

Online Sources

150

ix

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Life cycles on construction projects

Figure 1.2 Preconstruction phase

Figure 1.3 Design -Bid-Build process

Figure 1.4 Design-Bid-Build structure

10

Figure 1.5 Agency CM approach

14

Figure 1.6 At-Risk CM process

15

Figure 1.7 Non residential designs and construction delivery method in U.S.A

16

Figure 1.8 Preconstruction phase cycle

16

Figure 1.9 Planning process

18

Figure 1.10 Planning and scheduling diagram

19

Figure 1.11 Basic cost/value S-curve

21

Figure 1.12 Project close out phase

25

Figure 1.13 Typical construction management team

29

Figure 2.1 Fabrication from design data to CNC

52

Figure 2.2 CAD transformations to BIM

59

Figure 2.3 Artlantis rendering

65

Figure 2.4 Exporting model in virtual environment

65

Figure 2.5 Tekla structure reinforcement bending model

67

Figure 2.6 Vico cost planner

69

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Figure 2.7 Solibri model checker rules check

71

Figure 2.8 IAI vision shared project model, IAI 1997

73

Figure 2.9 Barton Malow Project 3D structure in Tekla

76

Figure 3.1 Construction productivity index compared to nonfarm industries

79

Figure 3.2 BIM preconstruction phase cycle work

83

Figure 4.1 Schematic (simulation) design model in 3D by AutoCAD

90

Figure 4.2 Architectural (simulation) model for detailed design in ArchiCAD

90

Figure 4.3 Structural (simulation) model for detailed structural design by TEKLA 91
Figure 4.4 MEP(simulation) model for detailed design by Vico Constructor

92

Figure 4.5 Integration management (plan development) through BIM

93

Figure 4.6 BIM based Design-Bid-Build proposed model

97

Figure 4.7 Approach differences in integrated and traditional way

98

Figure 4.8 Quantity information takes off from Solibri model checker

101

Figure 4.9 Cost report in Microsoft Excel

101

Figure 4.10 Flow chart of cost (estimation) model through BIM

102

Figure 4.11 Process of scheduling through BIM support

104

Figure 4.12 BOQ in Vico control software

105

Figure 4.13 Scheduling in Vico control software

105

Figure 4.14 Scheduling control in Vico software without construction simulation 106
Figure 4.15 Location based time simulation for scheduling control

106

Figure 4.16 Clash detection check (simulated model) in Autodesk Navisworks

109

Figure 4.17 Total quality Management phases

111

xi

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Figure 4.18 Design communications through IFC data format

117

Figure 4.19 Field communications through BIM

117

Figure 4.20 Safety rule set and check in Naviswork

123

Figure 4.21 Safety net models through architect model

124

Figure 4.22 Transfer the model in Google earth for determine the env. Effect

126

Figure 4.23 Model in Google Sketch up Pro

126

Figure 4.24 Procurement material list from architect (simulated) model

128

Figure 4.25 Financial management processes in simulated model

130

Figure 4.26 Model placed at real site to make site management plan

132

Figure 4.27 Logistics placement model in the site

133

Figure 4.28 Facility Management Flowcharts in BIM

135

Fig 5.1 Composite model concept

137

Fig 5.2 BIM server data collection and transfer model

139

xii

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

List of Tables

Table 1.1 Risks allocation table

24

Table 2.1 IFC 2*3 support software

73

Table 2.2 Comparison of different data exchange format

75

Table 2.3 Summary of case studies

78

Table 3.1 BIM and preconstruction phase linkage

86

Table 3.2 BIM and construction phase linkage

87

Table 3.3 BIM and post construction phase linkage

87

Table 4.1 Summary of integration management in BIM

94

Table 4.2 Summary of scope management in BIM

99

Table 4.3 Summary of quality management in BIM

112

Table 4.4 Risk assessment and BIM support on prebid

119

Table 4.5 Risk assessment and BIM support on design risks

120

Table 4.6 Risk assessment and BIM support on construction risks

120

Table 4.7 Risk assessment and BIM support on political and legal issues

121

Table 4.8 Risk assessment and BIM support in financing risks

121

Table 4.9 Risk assessment and BIM support in environmental risks

122

Table 5.1 BIM support in overall construction management

145

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

List of Abbreviations

AEC

Architect, Engineering and Construction

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

BIM

Building Information Modeling

BOT

Build-Operate-Transfer

BOQ

Bill of Quantity

CAD

Computer Aided Drafting

CAFM

Computer Aided Facility Management

CMAA

Construction Management Association of America

CM

Construction Management

CNC

Computer Numerical Control

CityGML

City Geographic Markup Language

DBB

Design-Bid-Build

DB

Design-Build

DFX

Drawing Exchange Format

DWF

Drawing Web Format

ERP

Enterprise Resource Planning

GMP

Guaranteed maximum price

GIS

Geographic Information System

GPS

Global Positioning System

xiii

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

HR

Human Resource

HRM

Human Resource Management

IFC

Industry Foundation Classes object oriented file format

HVAC

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

IPD

Integrated Project Delivery

IFC

Industry Foundation Classes

IAI

International Alliance for Interoperability

LEED

Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design

MIS

Management Information System

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PM

Project Manager

PDF

Portable Document Format

QFD

Quality Function Deployment

RCC

Reinforced Cement Concrete

RFID

Radio-Frequency Identification

RFI

Request for Information

TQM

Total Quality Management

UK

United Kingdom

US

United States

VTT

Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus

WBS

Work Breakdown Structure

xiv

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

XML

Extensible Markup Language

3D

3 Dimensional

2D

2 Dimensional

4D

4 Dimensional

5D

5 Dimensional

xv

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

xvi

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

1. Introduction
Buildings and infrastructures are the symbol of civilization.
From the very beginning, mankinds are intended to make house for their basic shelter. Later
with time, the demand of people increase and according to their demand all kind of civil
facilities grown up. The history of this journey was glorious. Mankind built the giant
Pyramid, Great wall before making the BMW car. So people have knowledge from the
beginning of civilization to built infrastructure with traditional developing technologies.
With time the technology and knowledge developed and for that reason now on this age we
see mega structures, high rise skyscrapers and so on. The development of industrial sector
increases rapidly in the last century. This development also touches on the construction
industry. People need new spaces for work, for industrial work, for power and facilities that
can meet the ongoing demand of the society. With the increased and development of global
trade in manufacturing industry, poses a cold competition to make better products in desire
quality, reduce wastes and provide efficiency in every phase of the production management.
So that the product can be made in quality and meet the demand of the consumer.
Like any other manufacturing industry construction industry is also a big industry. Its a
unique production industry. Every construction project is different here. They are different in
size, in use, cost and so on. So it is clearly assumed that the complexity of this industry is
much more than any other manufacturing industry due to the uniqueness of each
construction project. The complexity starts with expectation of the owners and ends with the
life cycle process of the structure or infrastructure. As a result this industries productivity is
quite low than other manufacturing industries. They produce much more wastes in material,
time, money and obviously organizational value. In recent NIST report shows that, the
annual waste in construction industry in US alone is $15.8 billion1. From this it can clearly
assumable the world construction industry produce how much wastes in total construction
projects.
The forms of wastes are defined by Sir John Egan. A study conducted in USA, Scandinavia
and UK shows that, the problems are as follows
-

Up to 30% construction rework

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Labor is used at only 40-60% of potential efficiency

At least 10% of material are wasted 2

From the beginning manufacturing industries are concern about the productivity of the
process system, market development, new technologies and implementing efficient
management system. So that, now we can see so many new production theory or concept
that can reduce wastes, increase efficiency and so on. As an example, so many production
companies in USA and Japan applied Deming price philosophy.
Dr.W.Edwards Deming focus on manufacturing problems and then make some appropriate
principles on management, organization an increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs(
target set as reducing waste, rework, staff attrition and litigation with increasing customer
satisfaction.) Dr. Deming thinks it as a process of continual improvement and think of
manufacturing as a system, not as particular part.
In the beginning of 1990 there was a new manufacturing concept came named as Lean
manufacturing or simply termed as Lean. The main concept of this philosophy is to
increasing efficiency, decreasing waste and using empirical methods for making decision
rather than followed traditional ideas. Lean concept came from Toyota production system,
when they remove their 7 wastes to improve value.3 Later this principle is widely used in
manufacturing companies to improve quality and remove wastes

_________________________
1

Solibri magazine/ 1.2010/open BIM is here/by Heikki Kulusjrvi/CEO Solibri, http://www.solibri.com/documents/englishmaterial/solibri-magazine-1-2010/download.htm access 17.01.2011 time, 4.30 PM
2

BIM Journal. Issue 1; 2009, BIM Concept over budget, delays, rework, standing time, materials waste, poor
communication, conflict. Page -1, bimjournal.dev.asentechdev.com/index.php?option access 17.01.2011 time 5. 13 PM

Holweg, Matthias (2007). "The genealogy of lean production". Journal of Operations Management 25 (2): 420437.

doi:10.1016/j.jom.2006.04.001,access 1.28.2011, 6,17 PM

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Construction projects are fully occupied with various kinds of wastes. The type of waste can
be defined as waste in time, waste in money and waste in value. To reduce this wastes
construction or AEC industry also focused on to develop the management system and the
production process. While construction process are different from other projects in a fashion
that, in a single construction project the no. of stakeholders are quite large and even the
process is complicated than other industries. To minimize wastes construction industry also
followed Lean construction principles. The main principle is same to Lean manufacturing
process. The process came to known by Lauri Koskela in 1992 in construction.
From research it is found that traditional construction management system not able to
perform execution in project maintaining time, quality and budget. The reasons behind that
found by 6th annual survey of construction owners by CMAA, "While the cost of steel and
cement are making headlines, the less publicized failures in the management of construction
projects can be disastrous. Listen carefully to the message in this comment. We are not
talking about just materials, methods, equipment, or contract documents. We are talking
about how we work to deliver successful capital projects and how we manage the costs of
inefficiency."4
Hence construction industry also feels to make changes in their working way, to break the
traditional system and to adopt new process to reduce wastes. While the practice of Lean
construction in construction industry rises day by day as a process.
Computer aided drafting or CAD system changes the world from pencil drawing to computer
drafting. The development starts at 1970 and from that time the construction and production
world changing enormously day by day. The blessing of information technology or computer
technology makes the world faster. This change brings us the faster flight from Paris to New
York. The production industry also used it quite impressively with management information
system; computer numerical controlling system, automation, and prototype build up. This
technology makes the production industry more efficient with their process based system.
_________________________________
4

http://www.cmaanet.org/,access 1.28.2011,7.05 PM

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

But unfortunately the development in construction industry is not so impressive like


manufacturing industry. Perhaps at the beginning of new century a new technology or can be
specified as a system termed as BIM changes the construction world. It makes the door open
to developed construction industry with digital information. It makes the way to build
prototype before original construction takes place. It opens the door to provide better
information for better management and better process in practice. It opens the door to
implement its better information, inception to completion phase of construction.
To maintain success in construction industry it is essential to build up relation with process,
technology, organization and the most important thing is knowledge to combine this three
things.5
The process applicable in the construction projects are defined in project management body
of knowledge. Where cost, quality and time is most important factor. On the other hand
Lean Construction principle shows a new way from traditional way to bring success in
construction industry. By research, there is a synergy found between Lean as a process and
BIM as technology.6
At last in the part of conclusion of this introduction it can be said that, BIM provides support
as a technology that build the efficient and productive process of construction. In this thesis
the main idea is to make the practical way to support the process system or management
system through BIM in the construction phase of the project.

___________________________
5

Lean Construction, Construction blog, 2008, http://constructiondata.wordpress.com/2008/05/21/lean-construction/,


access 1/28/11 , 9.39 PM
6

Revised and submitted 11/2009 to the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 2009 Sacks, Koskela,
Dave and Owen,The Interaction of Lean and Building Information Modeling in Construction, page 1

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2. Construction Project Management


This chapter will discuss about the mean of construction management, the phases of
construction management and the framework to maintain a construction project.
2.1 Construction Project Management Definition
Construction project management is a broad meaningful word. Before giving any idea of
construction project management it would be better to know what is project and
management. Both words have very deep meaning on its context.
Project itself is a big term for explanation. In general, project means to perform some work
to achieve a desired goal or destination. From the beginning to end until the desired goal
achieved it can be termed as project or project period. A project can thus be defined in
terms of its distinctive characteristics-a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product or service. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning
and a definite end. Unique means that the product or service is different in some
distinguishing way from all other product or services.7
Management is the core heart of any industry, company or any process. A phrase given by
Mr. Thomas Rohweder Organization never moves itself, only in downhill.8 The key to
move organization is management. According toMary Parker Follett (18681933), who
wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting
things done through people". She described management as philosophy.9
Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling
an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of
accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human
resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.1
______________________________________
7

A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000), PMBOK GUIDE, Project Management Institute, page no-

4
8

Leadership course; PPT material by Mr. Thomas Rohweder.

Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. Page 51
10

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Now with combining project and management, project management can be defined as;
The overall planning, co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion,
aimed at meeting a clients requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially
viable project that will be completed on time, with in authorized cost and to the required
quality standards.11
With combining this meanings according to the book of Charles Patricks Construction
Project Planning and Scheduling the definition of construction project management or
construction management is that Construction Management(CM)entails the planning,
scheduling, evaluation and controlling of construction tasks or activities to accomplish
specific objectives by effectively allocating and utilizing appropriate labor, material and time
resources in a manner that minimizes costs and maximizes customer/owner satisfaction.12
Well, construction project management or we can simply term as construction management
is not as simple as definition. Cause it consists of enormous task to perform and organizing
these tasks is a big challenge for every construction management team. But the main aspect
is same for every construction management team to deliver project in time, with estimated
cost and in desired quality.13

_______________________________
11

CIOB(2002) Code of practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, 3 rd Edition. Blackwell
publishing, Oxford.
12

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana, page -40
13

Stanley E. Portny, 2007; Project Management for Dummies, 2nd Edition, Wiley Publishing,Inc, page-24

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2 Construction Project Management Phases


Every kind of Construction has its own life cycle. The life cycle starts from clients point of
view. Clients demand make the inception of the project and later through the successful
handover of clients desirable product, in general termed as completion or project delivery.14
Through the inception to completion in the life cycle of the project, it divides the total time
in some phases and every phase is managed by different people. The following figure
illustrate the general phases occurred in the life cycle of construction projects.

Figure 1.1 Life cycles on construction projects.

15

Well, for any project the most important factor is projects owner. The word owner is used in
a big context. Owner means the person who will initiate the project financially. Thus the
owner can be a group of people like stakeholders, developers or it might be government
project. Every project is the result of owners demand. The set begins in this way that, to
meet owners demand a group of people worked together in some stages to deliver the
project. The total period starting from owners idea, can be divide in three major stages or
phases.
_______________________
14

Peter Fewings, 2005, Construction Project Management, An Integrated Approach, Taylor and Francis, London And New
York ; page 7
15

Construction Project Management, An Integrated Approach; by Peter Fewings; page 8;Source CIOB; CIOB (2002) Code
of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, 3 rd Edition. Blackwell Publishing Oxford.(figure
3.1)

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

The phases are as below1. Preconstruction phase


2. Construction phase
3. Project delivery phase
The whole project life cycle majorly divided in these basic three stages. Where in every
stage construction management team find new personnel and new approach.
2.2.1 Pre Construction Phase
As earlier mentioned project starts with the idea of owner or end user. From owner the
concept of the project comes out and then it goes to architects drawing sheet. In general
every project inception phase is the same. After owner the second early participator in the
project is architect. From architect idea and drawings the next set begins in the field.
After the concept of project the owner think about the procurement way for completion the
project. In this case the first issue comes as the contract. It can be said that, design and
tendering are the most common preconstruction phase in every construction project.

Project Conception /
Predesign

Initial Design/Schematic
design

Detailed design/Design
development

Implementations
documents/Construction
documentation

Figure 1.2 Preconstruction phase

From preconstruction stage owner think about the procurement or the project delivery
method. Project delivery is another important and crucial part of the project. Because
depending on the project delivery method the construction process later goes on. Delivery
methods are form of contract with different parties who will take the responsibility to
completion of the project. There is several delivery methods exist in the construction
industry. These methods are important, cause according to this contract or delivery method

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

contractor or the construction management team has to perform their work. Often in
construction industry dispute arise with owner to contractor due to faulty contract agreement.
The main part of preconstruction phase is to select the delivery method and according to this
owner gives the working order to the contractor or related organization. The common
delivery methods are described below
2.2.1.1 Design-Bid-Build
The definition of DBB or Design-Bid-Build is that, A project delivery method in which the
owner holds two separate contracts for design and construction. This method is often
referred to as the traditional project delivery method.16

Owner

design

Contractor

Figure 1.3 Design -Bid-Build process

Design-Bid-Build is a linear concept of delivery process. In this method, three parties play
the major role in the total construction. At first, owner makes a contract with architect for the
total or partial schematic design. It depends on Owners interest. Feasibility study can also be
on this stage or owner can make it by different organization. But normally the feasibility
study is done before preliminary design stage. Architect at first make the preliminary design,
schematic design and in later the total final design. The final design will be the joint
collaboration of total design team where mechanical, electrical and plumbing engineers are
also take part in the design phase.
After the completion of design, design team focus on the documentation for general contract
bidding. They make the design document in digital PDF or in CAD files.
___________________________________
16

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana,page no-47

10

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Well there is an always complexity in sharing information of design in general bidding.


Contractually, however, the design team is not typically responsible for sharing digital files
and often doesnt to limit any involuntary editing or further possibility for misinterpretation
of information.17
In this method, there is no communication between the designer and design team with the
contractor. Because in this method they are not bounded with any legal agreement for data
share in construction phase. Its a linear approach and there is no involvement of general
contractor regarding design. The main responsibility for contractor is to perform work
according to the design document and accomplish the project in time with desired quality
and cost.18

Design

Bid

Build

Figure 1.4 Design-Bid-Build structure

Under the design-bid-build method, the owner warrants the sufficiency of the plans and
specs to the contractor. If there are gaps between the plans and specs and the owners
requirements or any errors and omissions in the design, the owner is responsible for paying
for those corrections.19

________________________
17

Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page no-09
18,19

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 48

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.1.2 Design-Build
Design build is quite flexible delivery method. According to Design-Build Institute of
America ( DBIA) the definition for design build method is,
The design-build form of project delivery is a system of contracting whereby one entity
performs both architectural/engineering and construction under one single contract. Under
this agreement, the design builder warrants to the contracting agency that it will produce
design documents that are complete and free from error(design builder takes the risk). The
selection process under design-build contracting can be in the form of a negotiated process
involving one or more contracts, or a competitive process involving one or more contracts,
or a competitive process based on some combination of price, duration, and proposer
qualifications. Portions of the overall design or construction work can be performed by the
design-build entity or subcontracted out to other companies that may or may not be part of
the design build team.20
The design-build concept is getting popular in the construction industry last 10 years. This
kind of delivery system widely termed as single-source project delivery method.21 In the
client point of view design-build is much more easier to monitor and reduce the risk from
client. In this method design-builder takes the responsibility or warrants of delivering proper
information to owner. Normally design- builder party takes liability for any lags in the plans
and specs according to owner requirements for the performance of the building.22
In design build method the main advantage is effective communication between designer
and contractor. There is an opportunity for general contractor participate in the project from
the conception of the project. Thus this creates a better understanding, co ordination and
planning in field construction. In this method all the participators of the project can get better
collaboration during all the phases of the project. Well its necessary to make a clarification
a relationship between architect and other people
________________________________
20

Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page no-11
21

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 50

22

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 5

11

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

In DBB method there are three different parties. In DB method perhaps players are same, but
they configured in a little different way. The three key player as early mentioned are, ownerdesigner-contractor. The Design-Build method demonstrate in three different ways, they are
as follows2.2.1.2.1 Designer and Contractor Relationship
In this type of relationship two company or firm, as one architectural and one general
contractor makes an agreement to work together in any project and the risk of the project
will beard by one of those players. Either the lead can be taken by architect company or by
general contractor company. In general case, the player who makes the contract with owner
takes the lead.
As an example if general contractor made contract with owner team than general contractor
has to provide for both design and construction service for the project. In this case general
contractor hired architect for design. Here is the difference from DBB method, where owner
has to hire the architect for design. In vice versa if the contract is designer led contract where
architect or engineer firm made contract with owner will hire general contractor for
construction.
In this case the second party will act as subcontractor for the first party and dont have any
relation with owner. Approximately 56% of all design-build projects are led by contractors.23
2.2.1.2.2 Full Service Design Build Firm
In this method everything goes under one roof. One company will provide architectural
drawing and construction support. Hence the communication is much better and reduces the
risk. The scenario is that this type of companies are fully serviced organization where
architect, engineers and other people worked together to accomplish a project and this one
liked by owners mostly due to less contractual and legal works.24
________________________________

23

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 51
24

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 51

12

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.1.2.3 Joint Venture


The joint venture configuration is similar to the designer and contractor partnership with
one exception: the design firm and the construction firm actually create a legal entity, the
joint venture, for the purpose of carrying out the design and construction of a specific
project. Under this agreement, both parties are at financial risk for delivery the project.25
2.2.1.3 Integrated Project Delivery Method
This is quite a new method of delivering project and it has gained popularity as an integrated
solution.26
According to American Institute of Architectures May 15, 2007, working definition version
1:Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people,
systems, business structures, and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the
talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner,
reduce waste and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication and
construction. IPD principles can be applied to a variety of contractual arrangements, and IPD
teams can include members well beyond the basic triad of owner, architect, and contractor.
In all cases, integrated projects are uniquely distinguished by highly effective collaboration
among the owner, the prime designer, and the prime constructor, commencing at early
design and continuing through to project handover.27
The main advantage of early involvement of contractor in the design is that, with his/her
view architect produce better design documents which can able to reduce time over run, cost
overrun and most important bring value engineering in construction.

____________________________
25

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana,Page no-52

26

Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page no-20
27

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 53

13

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.1.4 Construction Management Method


Construction management is also worked as a type of contract. In this method a construction
management company makes a contract with owner for the project. This kind of arrangement
worked in two different ways2.2.1.4.1 Agency CM
Its one of the contract methods where, A construction management option in which the
construction manager acts in the owners best interests at every stage of the project from
design through construction. The construction manager offers advice and project
management services to the owner but is not financially responsible for the construction.28
In this method there are three contracts. They are between owner and designer, owner and
contractor and the last one with a construction management company as a representative of
the owner in the project.

Figure 1.5 Agency CM approach29

_______________________
28

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 48

29

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 48

14

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.1.4.2 At-Risk CM
The CMAA defines the at-risk CM project delivery method as an option that entails a
commitment by the construction manager to deliver the project within a guaranteed
maximum price (GMP). The construction manager acts as consultant to the owner in the
development and design phases but does the work of a general contractor during the
construction phase.
In this scenario, there are only two contracts, one between the owner and designer and the
other between owner and at risk CM.30

Figure 1.6 At-Risk CM process31

After selecting the contract method owner gets relieved from the project. The next
responsibility will taken by contracted parties. To make clear about one thing in
preconstruction phase contract or bid is an important part. Because project budget and time
line is a big factor for the project. And these two crucial features set up at the preconstruction
phase.
In bid or negotiation contract procedure general contractor has to submit project cost and
time line. In some cases it might be come from the owner. The contract awarding procedure
is different in different methods. DBB is a public or open procedure, but for the others it
might not be open or public. Turnkey, BOT and some others contracting methods are also
available in construction industry
________________________
30

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 49

31

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no- 49

15

16

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Figure 1.7 Non residential design and construction delivery method in U.S.A32

Preconstruction works are finishes with selecting project delivery method, completing
design, make estimation budget of total project and decide the time line of the project. After
that make bid or contract with project cost and time, and reward the contract to general
contractor.

ProjectDelivery
method

Award Contarct
for Construction

selection

Bid/Negotiation

Design

Estimating cost
and time

Figure 1.8 Preconstruction phase cycle

_________________________
32

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-54

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.2 Construction Phase


After getting the job and design documents, now construction management job will start for
general contractor. While in this cases before making the contract with owner or after getting
the job general contractor has to made some contracts with subcontractors and initiate the
work. Construction management consist inception to completion time period of the project.
Where estimating, design and contract administration takes part at the pre construction phase
of the project. In construction phase the main construction management tasks can be
separated in the following ways-Managing job site and construction operation.
- Planning and scheduling the project
- Monitoring and controlling the project performance
-Managing project quality
- Managing project safety
- Assessing project risks.33
These are common construction management responsibilities at the field in construction
phase of the project.
2.2.2.1 Managing Job Site and Construction Operation
Construction will take on a certain place. So for the builder this place is important to set up
necessary infrastructure for the people who will work in the project. General contractor or
sub contractor has to provide necessary logistics such as construction tools,
equipment,traffic,parking,deliveries,storage,security,communications,signage,safety,trash,drinking water, job trailer, crane everything which is necessary for constructing the project. 34
To manage these issues and provide logistics support is the primary challenge for
construction at the beginning in the field construction.
_____________________________
33,34

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-56,57

17

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.2.2 Planning and Scheduling the Project


Planning and scheduling the project is the most vital part of construction phase. Because on
this plan and schedule, depends the project success to being on time and save cost and time
overrun. In general terms planning are the identification of the job activities and organize
them according to availability of resources.

Figure 1.9 Planning process35

Planning job is mainly done by planners and for that planner follows following techniques,
-

Gantt chart for normal construction work as master schedule

Line of balance for repetitive works.

Linear program or time chain age chart for linear work.

Network analysis for complex projects.36

______________________________
35
36

Richard H.Neale and David E. Neale, 1998; Construction planning, Thomas Telford, London, page no- 6
Richard H.Neale and David E. Neale, 1998; Construction planning, Thomas Telford, London, page no- 24

18

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Project planning has been defined as the process of choosing the one method and order
of work to be adopted for a project from all various ways and sequences in which it
could be done( Antill and woodhead 1990,p.8; Callahan, Quackenbush, and rowing
1992, p.2)37

Figure 1.10 Planning and scheduling diagram 38

Scheduling is the determination of the timing and sequence of operations in the project and
their assembly to give the overall completion time. Project planning answers the questions.
What is going to be done? How? Where? By whom? and when (in general terms, the
projects start and end)? Scheduling deals with when on a detailed level39

_________________________________________

37

SALEH MUBARAK, 2010; Construction Project Scheduling and Control; second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
Hoboken, New Jersy; page no-3
38

SALEH MUBARAK, 2010; Construction Project Scheduling and Control; second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
Hoboken, New Jersy; page no-4
39

SALEH MUBARAK, 2010; Construction Project Scheduling and Control; second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
Hoboken, New Jersy; page no-4

19

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.2.3 Monitoring and Controlling the Project Performance


Estimating cost is the part of preconstruction phase. To maintain this estimated cost and time
it is essential to monitor and control the project performance. Because if there is no
monitoring there will be no control on the project. This is the most sophisticated part for ay
construction management team. Project success depends largely on it. If a project is failed to
maintain schedule and cost, mostly poor controlling and monitoring is responsible more than
other issues.
Control is important for managing risks. Its possible to reduce risk in any project by
continuous monitoring of the project. The control and monitor issue also discuss at the
contract delivery method, that who has the authority to control and monitor project
performance. But in general, contractor has the authority to control the project.
Contractors or owner control and monitor are necessary to give payment to subcontractor or
the contractor. In construction the trend is to give money after completion of certain stage of
the project. Its not like that full money will be paid at the end of the project.
For project performance measurement there are several tools exists. Among them S curve is
famous. S curves are useful to measure performance for people, money, materials and other
resources. In S curve the overall progress of the project is possible to measure or monitored
in terms of project costs and values.40
To evaluate project condition, construction management team often uses different types of
curves. This curve shows the estimated and current situation of any time to the project.
These curves can be drawn for cost/value comparison, for cash flow, for labor, plant and
equipment.

_______________________
40

Richard H.Neale and David E. Neale, 1998; Construction planning, Thomas Telford, London, page-93

20

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

For monitoring, project team used daily report, completion data and later put it on parallel
line of balance or linear programs from where they get the difference between actual and
estimated progress of the project.

Figure 1.11 Basic cost/value S-curve41

In industrial world people used MIS or management information system for measure
performance and control their production. In construction industry the practice is not so
common. But besides this there is an opportunity to practice management information
system on construction to measure performance.

______________________________
41

Richard H.Neale and David E. Neale, 1998; Construction planning, Thomas Telford, London, page-93

21

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.2.4 Managing Project Quality

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), in its much-lauded Quality in the
Construction Project: A Guide for owners, Designers and constructors (American Society of
Civil Engineers, 2000) defines quality as the fulfillment of project responsibilities in the
delivery of products and services in a manner that meets or exceeds the stated requirements
and expectation of the owner, design professional and constructor. From this definition the
contractors task in managing quality is to assure compliance with the technical requirements
of the project, as described in the contract documents, through a series of steps that plan,
execute, monitor and control the physical aspects of the work.42
Quality brings value in the project. If the quality is not properly maintained than during the
warranty phase contractor has to spent money again for those faulty construction which
diminish the value of work. More over most of the cases it seen that problem occurred for
quality issues with owner.
Owner always careful about the quality of the project, thus during the design phase quality
of the material or quality criteria are included in the design document by designer. The
requirements included dimensions, tolerances, test results, temperatures and other technical
specifications. To make it implementable in the field, builder or contractor has to make
quality control plan. In some cases during the bid process contractor can be asked to submit
a quality plan also. These plans are taken care by procurement or logistics part of the
management team that they can manage it during procurement period. More over inspection,
field tests and observations are necessary to maintain quality in the project.43

_____________________________________________________
42

F. Lawrence Bennet, 2003; The Management of Construction: A Project Life Cycle Approach; ISBN 0 7506 5254 3,
Page no-218
43

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-58

22

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.2.5 Managing Project Safety


Construction industry jobs are often termed as one of the risky profession for the workers,
who involved in the construction. For over all accidental rates, construction industry is the
second worst industry after mining and agriculture. The rate is an accident per 1000 of
workforce, where it is four times worse than manufacturing industry. In 1992 EU makes a
survey of workers in construction and according to their report the work safety in
construction was 10-20% worse comparing with others. Moreover Egan shows that this
accident makes 3.6% of project costs. By providing safety, maintaining health and the
environment of the construction site this amount of money can be possible to save. 44 Job site
safety is the most important construction management goal. As an example in Finland
construction industries follow the rule that, safety is first. For that in their construction job
site death rate is 0%, which is a milestone achievement for Finnish construction industry.
They achieve this rate just only providing better safety rules, regulations and maintain them
properly in the job site.45
Job site safety is also required for reducing the risk of construction delay and additional cost
in accidental or in injury cases. More over human life is important than any other things. So
that safety and health of workers are the prime important factor for any industry. By making
a proper safety plan and regulation it can be possible to provide safer working environment
which is necessary for every construction job site.
Construction project success also depends on the safety of the construction site.
2.2.2.6 Assessing Project Risks
Risk arises out of uncertainty. Risk in the context of project management is a realistic
approach to things that may go wrong on the site and it is used in the context of decision
making and in answer to the question, What happens if...? Once a risk has been identified
and defined, it ceases to be a risk and becomes a management problem.
______________________________
44

Peter Fewings, 2005, Construction Project Management, An Integrated Approach, Taylor and Francis, London And
New York; page no- 239
45

Mika Lindholm; International Site Management Lecturer; ConREM 09; Helsinki Metropolia UAS

23

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

In this context, it needs to be analyzed and a response made usually to accept the risk,
mitigate it, reduce it or transfer it. People reactions are important and the response to the
same risk varies according to who is effected, how many and who is responsible for it. This
may also lead to the ethical question of acceptable risk. It is important then to classify risks
so that appropriate action is taken.46
Construction projects are very risky project in terms of profit. In most of the construction
project brings marginable profit considering the risks. Hence one simple error can bring
catastrophe in the project. Risks are in every phase of the project. These risks are both for
owner and contractor. Owner has risk about the profitability of the project and contractor has
risk for cost and time overrun which will bring penalty. Thus assessing risks is the important
part of construction management team. Continuous monitoring and controlling, proper
quality control followed planned activities and schedule, job site safety reduces the risk in
the project. Following table shows which risks are taken by whom-

Table 1.1 Risks allocation table 47


_____________________________
46

Peter Fewings, 2005, Construction Project Management, An Integrated Approach, Taylor and Francis, London And
New York; page no- 195
47

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-59

24

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.3 Project Delivery Phase


Construction projects are often complex in every phase. From inception to completion of the
project construction management team has to do lots of planning how to organize this
enormous workload. For that, in construction management team people have to be ironic and
construction manager has the ability to take decision instantly to move the construction in
right track.
After finishing the field construction, its not wise to think that responsibilities are done. The
project close out phase is also complicated. In construction, project start up is difficult due to
lots of paper work. Like that before project close out or handover to owner some sequential
final touch has to performed by the contractor. The construction management team has to
figure out those steps and complete them with standard procedure before celebrating
handover party. These steps are as follows-

Project punch out


Substantial completion
Final inspection
Certificate of occupancy
Commissioning
Final documentation
Final completion48

Figure 1.12 Project close out phase49

_________________________
48,49

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-132,133

25

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.3.1 Project Punch Out


In every project there are minor defects found after the completion of the project. Before
handover the project, construction management team has to review the total project again to
sort out these kind of minor defects which will not acceptable by the owner. For this work
construction management team make a punch list. Punch list can be termed as a fault report
after inspection done by owner, designer, and contractor in a formal project element
checking period. The fault found on this report has to replace again by the contractor before
handover the project. This is often a complex job to manage. Cause for these minor works
again contractor has to arrange people or may be asked for subcontractor while they are
moving already in a new project. Thus it often delays the project handover. These punch list
work is important for construction management team or contractor for completion to get the
final payment from the owner.50
2.2.3.2 Substantial Completion
Every project has definite start and end. But project ending is more complex compared with
starting. Every project has two ending periods they are termed as substantial and final
completion.
When all the work or task accomplished written in the punch list and approved by the
architect is termed as substantial completion of the project. In this case architect make
inspection through punch list and if the facility is ready to use, issued a formal substantial
completion certificate and from that the official warranty period starts. On basis of this
contractor get the final payment but still a small amount of money retained by the owner
which is termed as retainage. Final completion related with final paper work and
documentation such as warranties, product manuals etc. In this step when all paper works are
done and given to facility management team, architect again certify for final completion and
basis of this contractor get the retainage money.51
___________________
50

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-133
51

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-134

26

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.2.3.3 Certificate of Occupancy


After substantial completion and getting architect certificate, contractor and architect invites
official authority to check the project safety and other issues to provide occupancy
certificate. These processes might be different in different countries. But there must be some
authority who issued the occupancy certificate. After getting this certificate owner is able use
the facility.

2.2.3.4 Commissioning
Before using any new product, at first its necessary to know the working principle and
about the maintenance of that product. Like that in construction, after finished the project it
is important to explain the functions of different machineries installed in the facility. This
process is called commissioning. Commissioning can be arranged by general contractor or
by subcontractor in each area of the project compiling with architect and engineers involved
in the project.
Commissioning takes part in two phases. In first phase equipments or facility machineries
are checked by running them that, they are working properly or not?
In the second part of commissioning is related with training of facility management
personnel to maintain and operate different instruments in the facility premises. This part is
important in this sense that in the warranty period contractor takes the responsibility of
functioning equipments properly.

2.2.3.5 Final Documentation


In this stage construction management team have to made necessary handover documents
which is necessary run the facility in its entire life cycle. After giving this contractor has the
responsibility for the warranty period to make repair in the facility. Following documents
have to necessary to hand over at the final documentation stage.
-Warranties

27

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

-Operational manuals
-Inspections and testing reports
-As built drawings or record drawings52
2.2.3.6 Warranties
Warranties are important in construction management. Because in this period contractor has
to take care of the facilities problem and any other construction work for which contractor
are responsible. Warranties can be two types. In one type it is written in the contract and
another type can be set by the local rules or code.
2.2.3.7 Project Evaluation
This is important for general contractor or construction management team to evaluate their
performance, their lacking, success and so on regarding the project. Every project is unique
in construction and every project scenario is different. Thus from every project construction
management team learns new techniques to bring success in the future projects.
After this stage officially construction management team ended the project.

_____________________________
52

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-135

28

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.3 Construction Project Management Framework


Construction project are divided in some particular management areas. Construction
management team is a big team where every person has separate responsibility. According to
their work in the management team the total management hierarchy divided in some
particular management areas. Following figure shows a typical construction management
team.

Figure 1.13 Typical construction management team53

In construction management a management team has to perform lots of work. Its not
possible to manage the whole work in an indiscipline way. Thus Project Management
Body of knowledge divides the whole management framework in some small
manageable frames. This framework processes quite practiced well in all over the
construction world. In next page these framework processes will be discussed to
understand the management responsibilities in construction work.

___________________________
53

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-122

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

2.3.1 Construction Project Integration Management

Construction project integration management means the combination and co ordination of all
the processes which are required to complete the project. Project integration management
focuses in three major areas.54
Project plan development is the first integration approach. Integration management is quite
an official thinking work where project manager takes the lead of this integration. Project
plan development work relates to integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a
consistent, coherent document. Project plan development takes place in the preconstruction
phase of the project life cycle.55
In the second stage of integration management, needs to execution of the project plan. For
construction it can be defined as the total planning of the whole construction work based on
project development plan. Where the plan revised in the executable mode which shows the
result and forecasts executable approaches.56
In the third stage, shows the integrated change control in the total project constructability. It
can be used as project plan updates, measuring the corrective action of the total plan.57
As a summary, construction project integration management deals with the coordinating
project processes, which make a clear view of the project plan, excitability and related
forecasting which mostly takes place at the preconstruction phase of the construction
management.

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41
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2.3.2 Construction Project Scope Management


According to PMBOK 2000 edition, Project Scope Management includes the processes
required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required,
to complete the project successfully.58 Project scope management process related with
scope planning, scope definition, create work breakdown structure, scope verification and
scope control.
Scope planning process is to creating a project scope management plan, that documents
how the project scope will be defined, verified, controlled, and how the work breakdown
structure (WBS) will be created and defined. In scope definition it develops a detailed
project scope statement as the basis for future project decision. In creating WBS part,
management team subdivides the major deliverables and project work into smaller, more
manageable components. Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables take
place in scope verification stage. While controlling changes to the project scopes are the
main part of scope control stage.59
Well, construction project management system varies people to people, organization to
organization. But everybody follows the general stages or the general procedure. In project
management body of knowledge book, project management institute defines a general
guideline or procedure for project management. But construction and manufacturing
management procedures are quite different in many cases. Instead of this the general
management principles can be applicable for both industries. Scope management is a wide
term in the point of view of project management institute. In general its a guideline for the
industries to manage the project scope. But its not mandatory to focus the entire step. It
depends on organization value and management system how they treat this guideline. May
be some construction company has their own philosophy to manage this scope management.
May be they dont follow the PM guideline at all, but they define their scope in a different
way. The main thing is to emphasize here that, processing way is not the main factor. The
main factor is the processing step. And scope management is a step for well construction
management practice.
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2.3.3 Construction Project Time Management


Time is a limited and important resource in construction management. The proper utilization
of this resource brings success in project. PM BOK, 2000 edition gives the definition that,
Project Time Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of
the project. In further to manage this time properly they divide it in 5 major areas. They
defined this time management in terms of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity
duration estimating, schedule development and schedule control.60
Time management is the part of construction management phase. Because in preconstruction
phase general contractor submit a time limit to accomplish this job and the time limit starts
in construction phase. Besides that, for owner point of view in addition with this time, owner
adds the time for design, bidding and contracting period. With combining this total time,
total construction time found for owner purpose. It is important to define it from the
beginning for owner because time means money and money comes from bank. More over
profitability also depends on time period. However for construction management team time
is important because they have to accomplish this job in a certain period and for that they
need proper planning and scheduling. More elaborately time management done by planner in
planning and scheduling phase of the construction. In this phase planner define the activities
with the help of BOQ, or collaborating with estimator or following project management
institute guidelines. After that planner makes the sequencing on basis of available resource
in general and also define the activity duration. These activities can also be found from the
WBS structure. In later planner or time management people make the schedule with help of
any method describes in construction phase. After that they monitor the project schedule and
control it, which also describes at the project control and monitoring phase.
One thing has to mention again here that, PM institute guidelines are helpful for planners to
manage the time but they can also use their own methodology and experience to manage
time. Again the main philosophy is, time management is important and it might be followed
in different ways in different organization.
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2.3.4 Construction Project Cost Management


Time, quality and cost are the three angle of project triangle. These three factors are
interdependent on each other. To change in one factor made changes in the other factors and
overall the project. The perfect balance of this three factors leads to a successful project
completion. Thus cost management is an important issue for construction management team.
PM Institute defines that Project Cost Management includes the processes required to
ensure that the project is completed with in the approved budget. They make a link of cost
management with resource planning,cost estimating,cost budgeting and cost control.61
Cost comes after design of the construction. As earlier mentioned after design owner invite
tender or proposal to accomplish the project. On that proposal the main criteria is the cost of
the project for giving the contract. So that cost management starts from the preconstruction
phase. Contrators cost management team or estimator made a cost proposal according to the
architectural drawing, profit of contractor, construction costs and keep in mind other costs.
While making this estimation estimator has to made a BOQ or resource planning by which
estimator find out the exact cost estimating for project. Often subcontractors also helps to
make this with providing their individual work costs.
After that, if the contractor get the contract, the role of cost management team changed
immediately. Now they made cost budgeting for every phase of work and control the cost
according to the budget. Cost over run is one of the main factor for many unsuccessful
projects. Only cost control is the main key to make the project in estimated cost and budget.
For this, in the control phase cost management team used several types of cash flowcurve,s
curve, reports and other methods to control the cost in order to complete the project in
estimated budget.

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2.3.5 Construction Project Quality Management

Quality brings value in the project and also reputation for contractor.
According to PM BOK Guide -2000 Edition, Project Quality Management includes the
processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was
undertaken. These means ensuring project specifications in terms of product and process.
PM institute in further broadly define it in three stages as quality planning, quality assurance
and quality control.62
This quality management part will occurred in the construction phase of the project. Where
quality management team has to make a quality planning for identifying designer and project
quality requirements and according this accomplish the procurement stage.
Quality management team also has to focus on the quality assurance. Quality assurance can
be done by regular inspection of work, based on field engineer report, testing of material
before used, perfect workmanship, specified materials and so on. The main purpose of the
quality assurance is that project is going on quality that in later warranty or punch out period
they dont have to spend money for that.
Quality control and assurance are quite similar tasks. Both are linked together. To give
proper quality assurance quality management team has to control the quality of work in
every phases. Its only possible by strictly follow the quality plan which made by the quality
management team by the specification of the contract.

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2.3.6 Construction Project Human Resource Management


In construction basic resources are often termed as four Ms: men, machines, materials and
money. Besides this time is an important resource for construction.63
Among these resource men or human resource management is vital in nature. Because these
humans are able to move, they have stress and power limit to work. As an example, a human
cannot work more than 8-10 hours in normal cases, but for a machine is possible to operate
24 hours by 3 men. In this aspect human resource management is important in construction
management.
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make the most
effective use of the people involved with the project. It includes all the stakeholderssponsors, customers, partners, individual contributors and others. Project human resource
management related with organizational hierarchy planning, staff acquisition and team
development.64
In a single project there are lots of people worked together in the management team and also
in the field construction. To manage this huge workforce project human resource
management is necessary. Human resource management work related with identifying,
documentary and assigning project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships.
Moreover it is essential to develop individual a group competencies to enhance project
performance.65
Human resource management can be separated in two parts. One part is related to the
organizational management work and another part related to the field construction human
resource. While field construction workforce are pre planned by the planner at the time of
planning and scheduling. They need the logistics support at right place in right time. So that
it can be wise to say that human resource management is important to enhance the project
communication, managed and organized people at the right place and right moment.
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63

Richard H.Neale and David E. Neale, 1998; Construction planning, Thomas Telford, London, page no-74

64

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no- 107
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2.3.7 Construction Project Communications Management

Communications management is a vital issue for any project. One of the project success key
is to make effective communication between various participators inside the project.
The definition of project communications management comes from PMBOK Guide2000
Edition that, Project Communications Management includes the processes required to
ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate
disposition of project information. It provides the critical links among people, ideas, and
information that are necessary for success. Everyone involved in the project must be
prepared to send and receive communications, and must understand how the communication
in which they are involved as individuals affect the project as a whole.66
For better coordination in every project communication planning is necessary. In a single
project, lots of new people involved in every new phases of the project. Thats why this
workforce needs information. The information distribution is the main idea of
communication management. Moreover stakeholders information demand varies on person,
time and place. So that the aim of project communication management also to send
information or make effective communication based on stakeholders need.
Communications management is important from the beginning of the project. Information
flows every phase in the project. In project control and monitor reporting, data collection and
sending to the control administrator is important. By effective communication management
it is possible to bring better control in the project. More over communication management is
important that it works as a data warehouse for the project. It receives data, collect, store and
gather. After that it sends data to appropriate person in right place and time.

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2.3.8 Construction Project Risk Management


Every construction project has risks. Its not possible to start any project without risk but
possible to reduce the level of risk by forecasting.
The way through risk can be reduced is called Risk Management. PMBOK Guide-2000
Edition, gives the definition more clearly, Risk Management is the systematic process of
identifying, analyzing and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the probability
and consequences of adverse events to project objectives.67
Risk management involved from the preconstruction phase. Before taking the project
contractor has to analyze the risk issues related with project. Early identification reduces the
risk level or gives time to face or take preventive measure. For that the main job is to create a
risk management plan, which will demonstrate the approach of the risk management team. In
the risk management plan there will be risk identification criteria, which will identify the
activities or events which are relatively risky in the project. After that risk analysis is
necessary to determine the level of risk. Analysis can be done either qualitative or in
quantitative way. Next job is to develop criteria for take action, for reduce or diminish the
risk from that particular activity.
To reduce risk level its not enough just to make plan and take action. Continuous
measurement is necessary because every new day can able to generate a new risk. So that
monitoring is the best way to control risk, which is the main job for a risk management team.

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2.3.9 Construction Project Procurement Management


Procurement is a stage where management team has to be careful, because procurement is
directly linked with project budget, quality and time.
Project Procurement Management includes the processes required to acquire goods and
services, to attain project scope, from outside the performing organization. For simplicity
goods and services whether, one or many will generally be referred as a product.68
Like other management procedure procurement management team also have to make a plan,
which will show the procure items. This plan is based on project cost estimate material sheet.
Well in the cost estimation period half of the procurement job will be done. In procurement
stage project team has to procure these items with project specification. To purchase or
procure these goods, procurement management team has to organize bid, quotations, offers
or tender from the vendors. After that they have to choose appropriate source, make contract
and procure the goods.
In that period they have to make a lots of paper work related with seller or vendors. They
have to maintain purchasing documents properly. Because at the closing time of the project
when there will be an audit about project costs, on that time it will be necessary.
Well procurement is not important for purchasing goods; procurement management team
also has to place the goods at the right place. Otherwise it will make delay on the total
construction. Moreover it is closely linked with project budget and time. So that to keep
project in pace procurement management team has to perform efficiently.
2.3.10 Construction Project Safety Management
About safety it already discussed in the earlier construction phase, where it shows the
importance of safety in construction. To manage safety properly it is necessary to include
safety as a management frame, where management team will focus only the safety issues of
the construction.
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Safety Management includes the processes required to assure that the construction project
is executed with appropriate care to prevent accidents that cause or have the potential to
cause personal injury or property damage. Accidents and personal injuries and deaths that
result, have been, a one still a major concern in the construction industry both in terms of
humanitarian losses and the direct and indirect costs to the industry. In the United States
alone construction accidents cost approximately 6.5% of constructed value or in the order of
$50 billion annually. Studies have shown that every dollar spent on a good safety program
can result in a four to eight dollar reduction in losses from accidents.69
To manage safety properly safety management team has to make a safety plan and according
to this plan they have to take preventive action to keep the construction safety. For that
guidelines, safety instructions, compulsory safety guard, danger zone marking, precaution
during danger works can reduce the accident risks. Monitoring and reporting regarding
safety is also important to keep this in order. Safety is linked with project risk. So that a
good safety management approaches can able to lead to a safer and risk free construction.
2.3.11 Construction Project Environmental Management
Construction project environmental management is also a crucial issue in the construction.
Because to destroy the environment can bring catastrophe in the project, may be the project
can be closed for ever. So the main job for environmental management team is to keep the
environment in the limit approved by law.
The important thing to understand here that, constructions is a monster job, its not possible
do this job without cutting tree, making road or make some changes in the environment. But
this impact should be in this range that it does not change the ecology and its permitted by
the law of local authority. So the best way for environmental management team is to make a
plan that what should be happen in the environment through this construction and what kind
of impact should be occurred in the environment. They have to make a plan that how to
reduce the impact of this in the nature. For that they need to make collaboration with local
environmental authority, make communication with surrounding neighbors and after that
make a plan that how to keep the environment in good condition.
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They have to contact with the neighbors and authority to approve this plan. This is the best
way to make everything in legal way. Its not only that the plan is enough for environmental
management; the plan should be executed in the field also.
Environmental management is an important issue from the beginning of the project. Before
taking the project it might be wise for contractor or owner to make an assessment for this
how to control the job without impacting the nature.
The implementation of environmental management plan in the field is not enough;
management team has to control this also. It might be happen by tasting of air, water and soil
quality or in some other ways according to the plan. Because in the plan they identified what
kind of impact can be possible in which areas. On the construction moment, management
team has to control the environment according to the plan and after that if its necessary they
have to improve the environment also by their own money and might be its wise to include a
small amount of money in the estimation time to develop environment in the time of
construction.
2.3.12 Construction Project Financial Management
Financial management includes the processes to acquire and manage the financial resources
for the project and is more concerned with revenue source and analyzing/updating net cash
flows for the construction project than is cost management70
Cost management and financial management are different. The main difference is that in cost
management the estimated cost will control related with material, bills etc. But beyond this
project have lots of other issues related with finance. For every project contractor has to
finance the work at the initial period. He/she has to pay the bill, pay salaries and make
project on going. So that from the first day contractor needs money. Owner usually pays not
in advance any money. Owner pays the money after completion of certain phase of
construction. Thus initially contractor has to run the project by his/her own money. When
the question comes about money or finance secondly it comes about the management of this
finance or money.
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So that in construction management a group of people or may be a financial analyst can


manage this finance management for the construction work. Financial works often deals with
bank, tax system, money inflation and so on. The main job for financial management team is
to keep project running by always supply money and deals about finance with other
stakeholders in the project.
For making a good financial management the best tool again to build a financial plan
coordinating with other stakeholders and solve the issues before construction. Keep control
of finance in the construction period make the construction process smooth, which leads to a
successful completion.
2.3.13 Construction Project Claim Management
Claim management describes the processes required to eliminate or prevent construction
claims from arising and for the expeditious handling of claim when they do occur.
Claim management is an important process in construction. Claims can be viewed from two
perspectives: the party making the claim and the one defending against it. Websters
dictionary defines a claim as A demand for something due or believed to be due, usually
the result of an action or direction. In construction something is usually additional
compensation for work claimed to be extra to the contract or an extension of time for
completion or both. What distinguishes a claim from a change is the element of
disagreement between the parties as to what is due or whether not anything is done. If
agreement is reached, then the claim disappears and becomes a change. If not, the claim may
proceed to negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and finally to litigation before it is ultimately
resolved. Often claims are thought of in terms of the contractor making claim against the
owner or other prime party and by subcontractors against the contractor; but claim can also
originate with the owner who believes that some requirement of the contract is not being
performed by the contractor. Claim management is done by claim identifying, quantification,
prevention and resolution.71
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3. Building Information Modeling


Building Information modeling is the new technology in construction Industry. In these
sections Building Information modelings definition, mechanism, scope of work,
development, usages and tools will be described elaborately. More over the purpose of this
section is to give a clear concept about BIM and its features that would be useful in
construction industry.
3.1 Building Information Modeling Concept Definition
In general definition building information model means a 3D model of construction project
which contains intelligent building information inside it and makes proper information
understandability with project stakeholders.
In a definition of BIM Charles Eastman puts it in Building Product Models: Computer
Environments Supporting Design and Construction (CRC Press,1999), BIM is a digital
representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of
information in digital format. For a contractor, BIM is the virtual construction of a facility
or structure that contains intelligent objects in a single source file that, when shared among
team members, intends to increase the amount of communication and collaboration.72
In definition of BIM technology M.A. Mortenson Company says, An intelligent
simulation of architecture. They also define its six characteristics, as:
- Digital
- Spatial(3D)
- Measurable (quantifiable, dimension-able, and query-able), Comprehensive (encapsulating
and communicating design intent, building performance, constructability, and include
sequential and financial aspects of means and methods),
-Accessible (to the entire AEC/ owner team through an interoperable and intuitive interface),
and
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-Durable (usable through all phases of a facilitys life).73


As earlier mentioned that, construction industry dont use any simulation that can reflect the
constructions pros and cons. While manufacturing industry used this simulation decades.
BIM can be simply defined that, its the tool of simulation of a construction project. From a
single simulation project stakeholders can derive their necessary information.
So the definition of BIM can be, A building information model is a project simulation
consisting of the 3D models of the project components with links to all the required
information connected with the projects planning, construction or operation, and
decommissioning.74
Or BIM can be identified as a modeling technology which can be able to produce,
communicate, and analyze building models.75
The definition or idea provide at last it squeeze the BIM definition in terms of building only.
While some companies used the same technology for making infrastructure such as Luanda
Stadium or Iron horse bridge in San Francisco, USA. They used BIM modeling concept in
the construction of this projects. So that it might be wise to say, BIM is not just for building
the concept is applicable for all kinds of construction.76

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73

Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building
Information Modeling; John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersy; page-13

74

Willem kymmell, Building Information Modeling: Planning and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and
Simulations, McGRAW HILL CONSTRUTION, page-28
75

Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building
Information Modeling; John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersy,page-13

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3.2 Building Information Modeling Principle


As earlier mentioned Building information modeling is a system of simulating the facility
before going on construction. The general concept for building information modeling is to
make database model which will give total life cycle information through model. But
normally architect and other people of AEC sectors just use it as a 3D graphical
representation of their project, while this is just a partial function of BIM.
In previous section the concept definition of BIM was focused. In this section the model
principle or the mechanism of working system will be discussed.
At first have to look at what is BIM means functionally? Building Information Model or
Modeling? Well both can be explained with BIM and both have the functionality with the
definition.
Building Information model means, A model of information about a building (or building
project) that comprises complete and sufficient information to support all life cycle
processes, and which can be interpreted directly by computer application. It comprises
information about the building itself as well as its components, and comprises information
about properties such as function, shape, material and processes for the building life
cycle.77
The ideology of BIM is that, it will create information, store information and works as an
intelligent model, where one replacement of data can be viewed in other phases of the
design.
Now the question comes what type of intelligence has inside BIM? Before describe it, it is
necessary to say something about product modeling. BIM comes directly from the idea of
product modeling of buildings.

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Jason Underwood and Umit Isikdag, 2010; Handbook of Research on Building Information Modeling and Construction
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The definition of product modeling is that, a digital model of a product comprises all
relevant information of a product.78 The term product modeling is extensively used in the
manufacturing industry.
From this definition its clear that, BIM and product modeling are quite similar and to say
more precisely BIM is the application of product modeling in the construction industry
sector.
BIM is a process to generate information and information will be intelligent or the model has
itself intelligence. As an example of this intelligence, previously in CAD drawing people
have to make changes all the drawings if there were any mistake found in the drawing. That
means if architect make a wrong dimension in the plan than he/she has to again redraw it and
hence mechanical, electrical, estimating, structural every drawing also have to be changed
with the new drawings. It is assumable that man is not a machine, so error is a normal
approach. But for that error they have to spend lots of time and money.
BIM brings solution by providing intelligent data or intelligence in the model. If architect
made a change in the drawing it will reflect in the other parts of the model automatically and
with this, other drawing documents can be changed more easily and accurately.
In this section the aim is to provide basic idea about BIM working principle or mechanism,
not the software architecture details. BIM model software provider used object parametric
modeling concept.79 This is the main difference of BIM and CAD tools, that this object
oriented parametric objects have intelligence itself.

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Jason Underwood and Umit Isikdag, 2010; Handbook of Research on Building Information Modeling and Construction
Informatics, Concepts and Technologies; Published in United States of America by Information Science reference, 701.E
Chocolate avenue, Hershey PA 1733, page-2
79

Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building
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In parametric design, instead of designing an instance of a building element like a wall or


door, a designer defines a model family or element class, which is a set of relation and rules
to control the parameters by which element instances can be generated but will each very
according to their context. Object are defined using parameters involving distances, angles,
and rules like attached to, parallel to, and distance from. These relations allow each instance
of an element class to vary according to its own parameter settings and contextual
relations.80
Another important aspect to discuss about BIM is that, BIM is a process, not a single
software based approach. A process, that can able to generate information and able to
interpretable by other BIM software. Thats why data exchange tool is an important issue in
Building Information Modeling. IFC and other data exchange tools solve this problem. IFC
is a type of data exchange tool that makes one model data extractable to other model
software, that can extract the information from the model.
As an example, Architect build the model in ArchiCAD( a BIM architectural software)and
now the job is for structural engineers to make the structural design. But ArchiCAD cannot
do structural model design. Thus structural engineers have to choose another BIM software
like TEKLA Structure (a BIM model software). Again the problem in TEKLA software is
that it cannot read ArchiCAD file or extract data. In this case the total BIM idea will be lost
if the model cannot be exchanged by other stakeholders of the project. IFC brings solution
for this.
IFC make the data interoperate able by converting it as an IFC file or other method are exist
to make this data exchanges, but IFC exchange is quite common in such issues. Hence Tekla
software can extract data from ArchiCAD model and make the structural model, based on
architect model information. In this way one model information is shared or used by other
stakeholders and build particular model and simulate the concerning issues before
construction takes place.
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3.3 Building Information Modeling Scopes


Again to remember about BIM is that, BIM is not a single tool. BIM is a process to make
collaboration, understanding, communication and visualization. In this aspect, BIM has
particular scopes for implementation. This section will briefly discuss about that scopes
which are required to perform construction project through BIM.
3.3.1 Architectural Scope
Architecture is the key player for any construction. The starting of project start with
architects schematic drawing. In terms of construction process flow, design is the beginning
of project phase, where architect take the role of designer. It might be possible architect has a
full functional design team collaborating with structural, MEP models. But in normal cases
architect provide the basic architectural design document. The scope of architectural work
fully depends on the contract.
BIM start contribution in any project by architectural scope in design phase. As early
mentioned BIM provides visualization and intelligent data, that provides architect better
design efficiency, better visualization, understandability and errorless design document.
Architects drawing are the basis of construction. Depends on architectural drawing rest of
drawings like structural, MEP drawings are made. In projects the communication and
collaborating problems start with design drawings. Where for a single error whole
documentation time increased. The first success of BIM is collaborating and communication,
where all the design team get the model based drawing from architect and they worked
together under one platform which makes the work smoother, faster and reliable. Previously
architects used 2D paper based hand drawing. There is only pictorial data, which dont have
any intelligence itself. Later 3D model comes for visualization, but still now they are not
able to build the real virtual environment.
Building information modeling can be considered revolutionary in the way it transforms
architectural thinking by replacing drawings with a new foundation for representing design
and for aiding communication, construction, and archiving based on 3D digital models.81
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Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building Information
Modeling; John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersy,page-151

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Architects are the major user of BIM in design. According to McGRW Hill Construction,
2010 report architects are the project participants who are perceived to experience the most
value and its 71%.
The question is how BIM provide architectural scope through its component? From user
experience the answer is that, BIM is the process that gives more detailed, virtual and
intelligent drawing information in a minimum time. More detail means it give architects
more option, more choice for drawing which provides the maximum level of detailed
information like the type of the brick of a wall or the material of the ceiling and so on.
Virtual means it gives the real life accessibility in the project and explores different area and
modifies them according to clients choice and other project participators recommendation.
Intelligent in this sense that it provides parametric objects with intelligent behavior of that
object models. As an example a window placed in a wall. Now architect wants to change the
position of the wall. For normal CAD system architect can move the wall, not the window.
But BIM 3D models have own intelligence. It changes the window position with changing
the wall position. A single change in the model automatically adjusted in every documents
and phase of the drawing which saves time if there is any mistake in the drawing. More over
it gives the more detailed design document with high level of detailed information and
different perspective drawing at a time.
3.3.2 Structural Engineering Scope
Structural design is the second part of any design document. On the basis of that document
the structure will be cast in place. The process is like that, after completing the architectural
design architect sends the design document to structural engineers. On the basis of
architectural drawing and dimension structural engineers make the structural component
analysis and drawing. Structural drawings or models are important for field construction
understanding and for fabrication of component
BIM plays a significance role on this structural engineering. Through BIM software
according to architectural model the structural model can be made easily. The advantages are
same as BIM gives in architectural scope. Better communication, collaboration,
understanding and better visualization. The total process is similar to other industrial

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process. Like manufacturing plants has separate section for separate work and after one
phase complete the product comes to another section. Like this way, design is also a product
and BIM is the process that combines the processes. After finishing architectural model,
design model send to structural model section and then structural engineers made their own
model or merge components on that model. Right this moment the legacy for BIM is that,
there is no one composite model that can carry every information for every aspect of work.
But the design models are quite same and they can merge through IFC one software to
another.
As a simple example architect made the plan in ArchiCAD or Autodesk Revit and convert it
as an IFC file which is readable to structural model software TEKLA. After that structural
engineers made the structural model in TEKLA, on that IFC model and later merge it to
original ArchiCAD architect model. Hence from that, a single model has both structural and
architectural information.
In procedure BIM gives the same advantages as like architectural scope. In general BIM
working principle is for every aspect is same. Intelligent data, better design in short time,
real time realization and level of details in documents are better.
3.3.3 MEP Scope
MEP means mechanical, electrical and plumbing work. This work also needs a design
drawing and following those design drawings main contractor or subcontractor performed
their job. In construction these works need coordination with the architectural drawing.
Because with coordinating architectural drawing the rest of drawing documents are made.
The design documents are complete with architectural, structural and MEP drawings. In
broader way these parts are all belongs to design part or the preconstruction part.
BIM plays the same role here for MEP drawings, like structural and architectural drawing.
Make effective communication system between all the drawings. MEP drawings are also
based on architectural drawing or model. So that the concept is same, at first have to made
the architectural model and make it interpretable with other MEP design software with IFC
or other data exchange format like CS2 and so on. Later phase the same model is used for
MEP design model and merges it to the original architecture model.

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

So that a single model file contains the both MEP and architectural information. But for
MEP subcontractor design documents with MEP data are more required than architectural
data. The key concept of BIM is also same here. Make visualization, collaboration, effective
communication and better design documents.
BIM make coordination with all design works. This was not possible previously in paper
based drawing or in 3D drawings. But BIM makes integration on the drawing documents, so
that if there is any error found on the architectural drawing architect can change it easily and
communicate with other parts designer effectively.
As a simple working process, while architect made the architectural model than transfer it
into IFC format and share this model with MEP design team to make the MEP model. MEP
designer grab the information inside the architectural model and make the design and later
transfer the model or merge the model with the main architectural drawing. Now a single
model have both architectural and MEP information. As an example, if architect make the
architecture model in Revit Architecture a BIM product of Autodesk and later transfer it to
MEP designers. MEP designers made the design thorough Revit MEP, another software
from Autodesk mostly used for MEP design. In this way they can able to build the MEP
model with architectural information.
3.3.4 Fabrication Scope
In now construction world precast is a famous method to construct infrastructure due to
control quality, reduced risk and doing work more efficiently. Construction can be done
either precast method or in cast in situ method. Where precast method means made the
components in the industry like slab, beam, column, sandwich concrete panel and so on. In
cast in situ method everything is done on site. Like make the framework, make mesh of
reinforcement and then placed concrete. Basically these things are mostly happened for
concrete structures. Its also possible to build concrete precast structure. But for steel
structure precast method is widely accepted. Because its not wise to make frame and then
pour liquid steel inside the mould for make a steel column. Steel construction is similar to
timber construction. Where steel columns, beams are made in industry and later join them
with bolts or welding according to the structural design.

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Fabricator issue in construction comes if any part of the construction component has to make
in industry. More simply in precast method fabrication is an important part and fabricator is
a part of design team mostly related with structural design. Structural designers dont
produce shop drawing; they just make the structural drawing and general component
drawing. Later fabricator has to make drawing according to structural drawing information
and made shop drawings for fabrication purpose. After that structural engineer or designer
matches these drawings with the structural drawing and if everything matches than
fabricators go for fabrication for the elements. Fabrication works and no. of shop drawings
are much more than structural drawings. For a 1000 ton steel structure building generally 7080 construction drawing needed while the no. for shop drawing goes more than 1000.82
For that instance fabrication work need more digitalization or model based system to create
the exact component for the structure. BIM gives the fabricator to made better shop drawing
and combining the model data with CNC to increase productivity.
As early mentioned BIM is a virtual model based digital database system that brings
visualization, understanding, collaboration and communication. These things are much more
needed in fabrication and structural detailing drawing of construction. While structural
drawing can be used as a fabrication drawing. As an example Tekla structure is a software
that provides structural model with fabrication. It means one model has the information for
both structural work and for fabricator. Thus these models are widely used by steel
fabricators for complex project. According to James Sutcliffe (Sutcliffe Construction U.S)
said, As our structural design broadens, so do our business opportunities. Tekla Structures
allows us to assess our clients individual requirements so that accurate drawings are
produced accordingly. This ensures a smooth and continuous fabrication process.

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Revit BIM and Digital Fabrication, http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/revit_bim_and_digital_fabrication_mar08.pdf


access 1.3.2011, 16.45 pm

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The process is simple like other scope of using BIM. In this case the structural model and
fabrication model or shop model are quite similar. The main difference is in the useable BIM
software. Some software provide structural model with digital shop drawing like Tekla
structure. On the other hand some softwares like Revit Structure the design model later
adjusted or make more informative with the help of Robobat RCAD a steel detailing
solution.83 With the help of this two software more accurate shop drawing can be made and
can be executed digitally with CNC machines which is using in some steel fabrication
firms.84 The main purpose of this BIM based fabrication is that to understand the complex
fabrication procedure in real virtual environment, generate more information that helps to
fabricate with collaborating structural model or designers for better productivity.

Figure 2.1 Fabrication from design data to CNC85

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Revit BIM and Digital Fabrication, http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/revit_bim_and_digital_fabrication_mar08.pdf


access 1.3.2011, 16.45 pm
84
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www.bimoutsourcing.com/bim-for-fabrication.htm, access 1.3.2011, 17.00 pm


BIMcurriculumn12,Lecture10Co.Pdf http://www.graphisoft.com/education/curriculum/ access 6.3.2011, 3.11 P.M

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3.3.5 Construction Management Scope


Construction Management has a broad meaning in sense. Even every job in construction is
related with construction management. In previous section construction management pattern
it discussed, that construction is a three stage management system where the role of
construction management team is different in every phases. For some people construction
management might be the management of field construction or related with cost, schedule
and control that system.
But the real scenario is that management is an essential tool from the very beginning of the
project. The mode of management can be changed in different phases, like in preconstruction
phase the management system has to focus on design documents and contractual issues. In
construction phase the focus should be more on field construction related task like cost
control, scheduling, quality control and other issues related with construction. In the post
construction phase the management role again changed and they focused on commissioning
and project delivery documentation etc.
In case of BIM, BIM has no direct construction management approach. BIM is a
technological development in process which makes management task more productive. But
BIM individually is not a management system. Currently BIM solutions are mainly provided
supports on construction management process into cost estimation, scheduling and
simulation of the project. But BIM has the potentiality to synchronize the management work
from inception to the life cycle of the project. The main objective of this thesis is to
demonstrate a path or discover the new ways to implement BIM in construction management
stages.
Currently BIM is enabling to do scheduling through the model data. For that many software
has integrity with the model. Like Tekla structure make schedule according to model
component and according to scheduling made simulation. In Tekla bar chart is used for
scheduling, while bar chart is not the only solution for scheduling.
Vico is pioneer in scheduling with BIM model data. Vico get the data from Vico cost
planner as bill of quantity and according to this scheduling can be done in Vico control. Vico
constructor gives the 5D represent as cost and time simulation of the building. In this way

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BIM work process flow through architectural model to schedule model. It might be wise to
say it as a time model of building. It simulates the construction in terms of time.
Cost is an important part of construction. In project management triangle cost is one of the
angles. Cost is related with cost estimation, cost monitor and control that bring the success to
do the project in estimated approach. Cost estimation is the part of preconstruction phase,
during the contract awarding moment cost is an important criterion. Even for some contract
method like DBB method cost is the main criteria to give contract award.
Cost is the most important parameter for successful project. Cost estimation is also having
vital significance due to dependency of contract award. For cost estimation or cost
management, estimator need s quantity and the accuracy of the estimation is fully depend on
grab the exact quantity from the project drawing or from the project model. Quantity is
nothing but a kind of information or data. Design models like structural models, architectural
models, MEP models, fabricator models are giving that quantity or intelligent information.
By using that quantities estimators make the total cost estimation with material price and
labor consumption. In traditional way, estimators takes the quantity manually from the
drawings provided by architects, which is more time consumable and have chance to make
error. Estimators also can use digitizer which makes the estimation process little easier than
manual quantity take off. But still the problem of efficiency remains in the total estimation.
More over it is more time consuming due to manual quantification, 50-80% time of
estimation is just used for quantification.86
BIM provides support in quantification or information take off. The process is that, BIM
support model contains all the necessary quantity based information and a suitable software
grab all the quantities from the model and transfer it on a excel cost sheet and estimator put
the material price and from that get the exact cost estimation of the total project. Due to take
quantity from the model the quantity information are as same as the model has. The
intelligence is here that, a single change in the model can be replaced on the quantity also.87
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The procedure for the information takes off or quantification is the same like other ways.
Separate models are used to quantify separate objects. Like architectural, structural, MEP,
fabrication each model has different sorts of material or component. So that estimator has to
take the quantity from each of the model. The lack of this system is that, still now BIM is not
able to manage a composite model that can hold all the quantity information. Some BIM
software has integrated quantity giving system. But most of the cases the following system is
that, transfer the model into quantity software readable format and grab the information from
that particular quantity software. Like application programming interface system Revit
model file exported to Innovaya or U.S cost to grab the quantity.86 More over Autodesk has
Autodesk quantity take off software which also do the same job by grabbing quantity from
the model. Solibri model checker is also a solution to collect quantity take off information
directly from the model. The control and monitor system of cost can also supported by BIM.
Like BIM model cost information can be transferrable to Vico control software as a bill of
quantity and later Vico control will generate the schedule along with cash flow diagram and
also check the cash flow control. Perhaps for controlling BIM or Vico will provide necessary
information. On this way the cost estimation, monitor and control can be done through BIM
process.
3.3.6 Facility Management Scope
Now in construction process facility management part also joined together from the very
beginning of the project. Facility management process will start after construction phase
when contractor will hand over the project with commissioning of the facility. BIM brings
the idea to include facility management involvement in the preconstruction phase. In this
phase or until completion the construction, facility manager has not to do anything. But
facility management team has to gain a clear idea about the facility and makes plans for
future facility management. The main role of the facility management team is that, to
maintain the facility within minimum cost on the desired time period of the facility. So that
they need information about the whole facility that they can calculate the energy demand, air
demand and other stuffs related with facility management system.
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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Without BIM the system is, after construction general contractor make the commissioning of
the facility. After that they hand over all the drawing documents and all the installed
equipment manuals and so on. But the process again comes in paper based drawing system.
Where there is a chance to misinterpret data. In these days facility management team used
computer aided facility management system or CAFM, where they stored the facility data
from the design drawing by scanning. By using polyline method facility management team
get the necessary data from the CAD file or paper based drawing file. Where it takes a week
for a building and the process is labor intensive and manual.89
BIM makes the process smooth and easy and more accurate by making model based
information system. The process is that, BIM software like Revit architectural drawing
model can be able to transfer in DWF format files which can be readable by FMDesktop an
Autodesk solution for facility management. By using this data share method facility
management team hold necessary information regarding facility management like space,
occupancy and so on.90
These FM software systems are make a database for the total facility which will provide
necessary information in later phases. The implementation of BIM process in facility
management is that, through BIM model based information; facility management team can
get all the information which is needed for the database of the facility.
U.S Coast Guard is using BIM based facility or asset management system and they found
98% time savings through BIM to manage their facility management database. More over
this BIM approach make reduction in their labor cost also to enter the spatial information.91

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BIMandFacilitiesManagement;bim_and_fm_jan07_1_.pdf,http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/bim_and_fm_jan07_1_.
pdf access 2.3.2011 4.14 PM
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BIMandFacilitiesManagement;bim_and_fm_jan07_1_.pdf,http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/bim_and_fm_jan07_1_.
pdf access 2.3.2011 4.14 PM
91

Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building Information
Modeling; John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersy ,page-109

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The advantage of BIM based construction system is that, facility management team gets the
idea of the facility at the beginning of the project and they can share their experience to
make the design more sustainable or can reduce the life cycle cost. More over facility
management team has different real visualized informative 3D models for structural,
architectural, cost and MEP system. Through that they can develop their database system
and can easily maintain the facility through model based analysis. In this way facility
management team take the advantages of BIM in facility management.
3.3.7 Sustainability and Life cycle Scope
Sustainability is a concerning issue in construction world. Construction industry is a major
source for green house gas emission. In U.S residential and commercial buildings consume
40% of total energy and responsible for 30% greenhouse gas emission. More over producing
136 millions of construction and demolition wastes.92
These data reflects the sustainability demand in construction industry. Not only in U.S all
over the world sustainability is a concerning issue. With sustainability life cycle of building
is closely related. Sustainability depends on the energy consumption, utility consumption
and emission of green house gas. In VTT research centre Finland, they defined some
indicators for life cycle assessment of a building, in another sense which also defines the
sustainable parameters of the building. Sustainability or green building or echo building
main concept is to preserve the living condition through reducing green house gases by
reducing energy consumption. For that, like passive house so many design concepts are
come to building design. LEED is famous in the worldwide as a national standard for
sustainable design. They have a rating system in five major categories: site design, indoor
environmental quality, efficiency use of energy, materials and water.93

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92

U.S Department of energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network(EREN).Centre of Excellence for
Sustainable Development 2003, access 2.3.1011, 6. 00 P.M
93

Building Information Modeling for sustainable design, Autodesk Revit white paper
http://www.federalnewsradio.com/pdfs/BuildingInformationModelingforSubstainableDesign-white%20paper.pdf, access
2.3.2011 6.15 P.M

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Now in architecture or construction world sustainability is an important issue for


environmental aspect and also for life cycle costing. In life cycle costing sustainable
elements such as energy efficiency reduces the life cycle cost. In this aspect these two issues
are certainly related with each other. More over in integrated life cycle design sustainability
is the major concerning issue. For life cycle costing or sustainability, design period is an
important phase. On that phase architect can make analysis on energy consumption,
prediction of life cycle, demolition waste and so on. BIM has significance on sustainable
design. Most of the BIM software are now equipped with sustainable or life cycle analysis
tools. Like Graphisoft BIM software has interoperability with Ecotect, green building,
Riuska and other software for make analysis on sustainable elements like energy analysis.94
More over Autodesk Revit Building also provides sustainable and life cycle cost information
regarding LEED points. Revit building works with Green Building studio for energy
analysis.95
3.4 CAD Transformation in BIM
CAD means Computer Aided Design or (CADD) Computer Aided Design and Drafting.
This is a common term for manufacturing and construction industry. There were a revolution
occurred when CAD came to in spotlight. The first CAD software was sketchpad with
graphical interface developed by Evan Sutherland in 1963. It was a 2D presentation of lines
where it never used as a commercial product, but it has an impact on CAD development.
Hanratty develop 2D CAD system in the 1960 period and used it for General Motors
research work. In 1970 the transformation from 2D to 3D began.96At the beginning CAD
software used FORTRAN as program language and in later the CAD developed with C
programming language and the process goes on for development of CAD.97

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www.graphisoft.com/products/archicad/interoperability/energy/ access 2.3.2011, 6.30 P.M

95

Building Information Modeling for sustainable design, Autodesk Revit white paper,
http://www.federalnewsradio.com/pdfs/BuildingInformationModelingforSubstainableDesign-white%20paper.pdf access
2.3.2011 6.20 P.M
96
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http://www.cad-addict.com/2010/02/from-cad-to-bim-part-i-history-of-cad.html, access 2.3.2011 7.50 PM


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Building modeling based on 3D solid modeling was first developed in the late 1970s and
early 1980s. Solid modeling CAD systems were functionally powerful but often
overwhelmed the available computing power. Some aspects of production, such as drawing
and report generation, were not well developed. BIM idea came from the object based
parametric modeling. In parametric design, instead of designing an instance of a building
element like a wall or door, a designer defines a model family or element class, which is a
set of relations and rules to control the parameters by which element instances can be
generated but will each vary according to their context. In traditional 3D CAD every aspect
of an elements geometry must be edited manually by users, the shape and assembly
geometry in a parametric modeler automatically adjusts to changes in context and to high
level user controls.98

Figure 2.2 CAD transformations to BIM

Through in this way CAD was transformed in BIM, where the data has intelligence itself.
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Chuck Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, Kathleen Liston,2008; BIM HANDBOOK, A Guide to Building Information
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3.5 BIM Tools


Building information modeling is not particular software; it is a system of process. In this
process different participators make effective collaboration and communication by sharing
design data to all the project participators to reduce errors and increase productivity. Thus
BIM is a combination of different software. These software or software group termed as
BIM tools.
3.5.1 Autodesk BIM Tools
Autodesk is a leading BIM software vendor in AEC industry, founded in 1982. Autodesk
focuses on 2D and 3D design and animation software for media also. Autodesk makes a
pioneer movement in BIM from 3D CAD to intelligent design systems. Autodesk provides
design software which is also used widely in manufacturing industry. AutoCAD is the
product of Autodesk widely used all over architectural and design industry. Autodesk has
different software which supports the total BIM process. Their BIM solution software
informations are provide below3.5.1.1 Design and Documentation Solution
Autodesk has different software for design and documentation. Each software is different in
work approach but the basic structures of the software are quite in the same frame. Each of
them has the ability to make BIM process itself. Design and documentation softwares name
and their function shortly briefed below3.5.1.1.1 Autodesk Revit Architecture
Autodesk Revit Architecture has the BIM functionality and widely used in architecture and
design community due to better collaborative and integrated building design system. It has
all the BIM functionality that makes it better in design with maintaining documentation and
construction. It has data interoperability with other BIM solutions and has unique features on
sustainable design analysis, clash detection, construction planning, and material
fabrication.99
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3.5.1.1.2 Autodesk Revit Structure


Provides structural BIM model contains information for structural design and analysis. Also
provides structural design drawings with real visualization and makes a bridge on data share
between architect and structural design team. Fabrication has the another important feature
of this solution also.100
3.5.1.1.3 Autodesk Revit MEP
A Building Information modeling solutions for mechanical, electrical and plumbing
designers. Revit MEP has interoperability with other BIM design software like with Revit
Architecture for collect the architectural model data and so on. Revit MEP is used for MEP
system design and analysis. Also has better coordination with sustainable and cost effective
MEP design.101
3.5.1.1.4 AutoCAD Civil 3D
A BIM solution for civil engineers to facilitate civil engineering related tasks as
transportation system developed, land development and environment build projects. Provide
civil 3D model data for geospatial and storm water analysis, general quantity take offs, and
also provide automated machine guidance during construction work.102
3.5.1.2 Analysis and Visualization Solutions
Following solutions are widely used as BIM tools for analysis and visualization3.5.1.2.1 Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software is a tool used for energy analysis, thermal performance,
water use and cost evaluation, solar radiation, daylight analysis, shadows and reflections
analysis. Visualization and simulation is the key concept of this sustainable building design
tool.103
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100
101
102
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http://usa.autodesk.com/revit-structure/, access 3.3.2011, 12.00 A.M


http://usa.autodesk.com/revit-mep/ access 3.3.2011, 2.45 P.M
http://usa.autodesk.com/civil-3d/ access 3.3.2011, 3.10 P.M
http://usa.autodesk.com/building-information-modeling/products/ access 3.3.2011, 3.40 P.M

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3.5.1.2.2 Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional


Enhance the BIM structural engineering model with advanced structural analysis capabilities
for buildings, bridges and other infrastructure facilities. Also used for more detailed
fabrication scope. Interoperability exists with Autodesk Revit Structure for better exchange
in analysis result.104
3.5.1.2.3 Autodesk 3Ds Max Design
Used for better visualization and generate real case scenario of different BIM models in built
environment. Generate a single platform for explore, evaluation and make decision by design
team. Also have more effective lighting analysis, advanced rendering capability and digital
continuity with other BIM solutions.105
3.5.1.2.4 Autodesk Navisworks
Autodesk Navisworks software is used for advanced analysis process like clash detection
and project simulation. Also used for combining and reviewing the design datas which are
created through different BIM software.106
3.5.1.2.5 Autodesk Quantity Takeoff
Advanced cost estimating software. Interpretable with other BIM solutions and grab the
quantity from different model and make exact model based quantity takeoff.107
3.5.1.3 Collaboration Solution
3.5.1.3.1 Autodesk Buzzsaw and Constructware
Both softwares are providing web based collaboration related with project documentation.

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105
106
107

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http://usa.autodesk.com/3ds-max/ access 3.3.2011, 4.40 P.M
http://usa.autodesk.com/navisworks/ access 3.3.2011, 5.10 P.M
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3.5.2 Graphisoft BIM Tools


Graphisoft is the leading BIM software vendor all over the world. Last 25 years Graphisoft
maintained a pioneer role in virtual building solutions. Since 2007 Graphisoft is the part of
Nemetscheck group. They are mainly developing in sustainable architectural solution and
provide architectural BIM support all over the world. They have also various BIM based
design products, which are shortly described below3.5.2.1 ArchiCAD
ArchiCAD is an architectural BIM solution provide by Graphisoft. All over the world
ArchiCAD is a famous BIM solution due to its user friendly interface. ArchiCAD provides
more focus on design, manage changes easily, evaluate design alternatives, make
collaboration with other BIM solutions and has team based coordination approach.
In ArchiCAD, Building Information Authoring tools create a central database of 3D model
data. From there complete plans, sections and elevation, architectural and construction
details, Bills of quantities, schedules, renderings animation and virtual reality scenes can be
generated.108
ArchiCAD is a real BIM solution where all the information stored in a central database
system and changes in any data reflects all the other datas. Also has open design
collaboration that allows other designers to work with ArchiCAD model through their
particular BIM solution. ArchiCAD produce intelligent objects, hassle free lay outing and
clear communication inside the design team.109
3.5.2.2 ArchiCAD MEP Modeler
ArchiCAD MEP modeler is an extension tool to import, edit or create MEP models in the
architectural drawing. MEP modeler makes the collaboration between architectural and MEP
drawings. More over it has data interoperability with other MEP software vendors.110

_______________________________________
108
109
110

http://www.graphisoft.com/products/mep-modeler/ access, 3.3.2011; time 7.10 P.M


http://www.graphisoft.com/products/mep-modeler/ access, 3.3.2011; time 7.30 P.M
http://www.graphisoft.com/products/mep-modeler/ access, 3.3.2011; time 7.45 P.M

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3.5.2.3 Eco Designer


Graphisoft has sustainable building design analysis software named as Eco Designer. Eco
Designer helps the architect to make sustainable design solution providing energy analysis.
From that the total energy consumption or energy savings is possible through the detailed
analysis. With this software analysis, architect enables to make sustainable design and able
to provide life cycle information.111
3.5.2.4 Artlantis
Rendering software commonly used for Graphisoft solutions. It provides real time
visualization, light effects of the facility. Through data exchange ArchiCAD architectural
model can possible to import in Artlantis and is possible to make more realistic view of the
project.112
3.5.2.5 Virtual Building Explorer
A unique solution for architects to explore the 3D BIM model. It has the power of
visualization inside the project, which makes a better view for both owner and architect.
More over by that its easy to make decision related with building or facility modification. It
makes easy for project participators and for owner to understand the project and make
decision. Virtual Building Explorer brings real visualization in BIM.113

___________________________________
111
112
113

http://www.graphisoft.com/products/ecodesigner/ access, 3.3.2011, 8.10 P.M


http://www.graphisoft.com/products/artlantis/ access 3.3.2011, 8.40 P.M
http://www.graphisoft.com/products/virtual-building-explorer/ access 3.3.2011, 9.10 P.M

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Figure 2.3 Artlantis rendering114

Figure 2.4 Exporting model in virtual environment 115


_______________________________________________________
114
115

ArchiCAD model made by author for simulation of BIM and rendered by Artlantis
ArchiCAD model made by author for simulation of BIM and exporting in virtual environment through virtual explorer

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3.5.3 Tekla BIM Solution


Tekla is one of the major BIM software vendors in construction world. Tekla founded in
1966 in Finland. Tekla has several software solutions for construction industry. Among them
Tekla structure is the famous BIM process based software. Tekla Corporation is the official
provider of Tekla structure software. From the very beginning this software maintains BIM
process itself. Tekla has improved its software quality by releasing several versions. Every
version is modified by some new tools or new advantages. Currently in construction world
Tekla 16.0 is widely accepted specially for steel construction modeling.
Tekla structure has some unique BIM features itself. It has all the steel structure elements,
through that designer can able to make any kind of steel structure by assembling that parts,
can bale to make connections with different connector, detailed connection, create welds and
so on. It means that Tekla has the all components regarding with steel structure. So that in
steel structure modeling Tekla makes a pioneer movement.
Tekla is not just only able to do steel work. Tekla has also the functionality to make concrete
structure as well. Tekla has both concrete and steel component. Through that component a
concrete model structure can also be possible to make in BIM process. Thus Tekla is widely
accepted for structural model also. It has grid options and able to load analysis. Moreover,
its also possible to make the model reinforcement in the concrete beam, column, slab or
footing. It gives a model of skeleton of the building.
Tekla is also famous for fabrication scope. In steel structure or precast concrete structure
fabrication is an important part of construction. Tekla gives the fabrication model also.
Through that fabricator get the clear idea of the element and make it perfectly as required by
the model. Tekla has BIM based data interoperability like, Tekla data can be exchangeable
with CIS/2, IFC, CNC , DSTV and so on. Tekla has also unique reporting option. Through
that its easy to create reinforcement reports, plot drawings and reports, precast cast unit
drawings, general plan, section, elevation arrangement drawings and so on.116
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116

http://www.tekla.com/INTERNATIONAL/PRODUCTS/TEKLA-STRUCTURES/FULL/Pages/Default.aspx,access
4.3.2011 time 12.34 P.M

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Tekla is a BIM solution that, it has the 2D, 3D, 4D and partially 5D options. Tekla can
generate scheduling and schedule based construction simulation, also able to provide cost
information related elements. Tekla structure is used as structural modeling detailing
software. As an example in Budapest the Microsft office near river Daniub, architectural
model is done by ArchiCAD and later this model transferred in Tekla structure to make the
structural model. In this way a single project can be used in different aspects in different
BIM software and Tekla is one of the major solutions of them.117

Figure 2.5 Tekla structure reinforcement bending model 118

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117
118

http://www.graphisoft.com/community/press_zone/global-open-bim-demo.html access 4.3.2011 , 12.50 P.M


http://www.tekla.com/us/solutions/reinforced-concrete-designers/Pages/Default.aspx access 4.3.2011, 1.00 P.M

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3.5.4 Vico BIM Solution


Vico software is another important BIM solution for cost, schedule and construction
management. As early mentioned that BIM is not single software and a single model does
not hold the all information. BIM is a process and the BIM vendor software makes
collaboration with each other as required to this process. As an example for architectural
model ArchiCAD can be used and than that model go to Tekla structure for structural and
fabrication model. After that, these models come to Autodesk quantity take off or Vico
estimator for cost estimation. Then the same model comes to Vico control for make the
scheduling and goes to constructor for construction simulation. So the total path is a process
where BIM is a technology of that process, that makes effective communication among all
the stakeholders of the project through different BIM software. Vico software focuses on
the 4D and 5D part of construction. These Ds are quite fragmented in nature. But in general
Vico focuses on construction management part, more precisely in construction estimation,
scheduling, construction simulation and construction documentation work.
Clash detection is an important part in construction documents. Vico constructability
software focuses on clash detection in BIM models. For quantity take off Vico has Vico
Takeoff manager which grab the quantities from the BIM model and place it for cost
estimation. These data are then transferred to Vico Cost Planner for cost calculation,
estimation and value engineering. In construction management cost estimation is the primary
phase of the cost related task, the main task is to control the cost, that project will complete
in estimated budget. Thus Vico has Vico Cost Explorer which focus on the cost control
part of the construction
When cost is estimated than the major task for construction is to make the schedule and
control the schedule. For that Vico has Vico Control which provides cost scheduling in
different modes and its an impressive solution for planning engineers. More over Vico Doc
Set Manager used for documentation review which is an important job in construction.
Additionally Vico Constructor 5D representer is a famous solution for virtual building
simulation with scheduled cost and time.119
_______________________________
119

http://www.vicosoftware.com/ access 4.3.2011, 2.28 P.M

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Vico has integration with other BIM solutions. The main approach is that, from other models
Vico get the information and make visualization for better understanding and collaboration.
As an example the cost model information can be take through other BIM models and the
data transferred to other Vico software for make schedule , documentation and for 5D
simulation of the construction work with schedule and cost.

Figure 2.6 Vico cost planner120

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

3.5.5 Other BIM solutions


In construction world there are so many software vendors are providing CAD solution. CAD
solution providers are now turned into providing BIM solution due to the increase demand of
BIM based construction approach. Among them most famous are Autodesk, Graphisoft,
Tekla, Vico. Besides them there are also BIM vendors exist in the construction industry. A
short brief about them demonstrated below3.5.5.1 Bentley BIM Solution
Bentley is a famous CAD solution provider in different aspect of construction industry
Previously Bently provides CAD solutions for AEC industry. Bently provides solution for
every sector of construction and even manufacturing industry also. Bently has wide solution
for bridge, industry, building, infrastructure, communications, mining and metals, power
generation, utilities, water and so on. Bently provides BIM solution in architecture, structural
engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering. For architectural work Bentley
Architecture V8i, for structural Structural modeler V8i, Bentley Building Mechanical
Systems V8i for mechanical engineering, Bentley Electrical Systems V8i for electrical
work is used in BIM approach. More over MicroSation V8i is an improved solution for
design model, visualize, and documentation.121
3.5.5.2 Solibri Model Checker
Solibri model checker is analyzing software. The function of this software is to check the
predetermined rules in the BIM models for integrity, quality and physical safety. Solibri
model checker brings new technological development in building rules. In every country has
some specific building code. For owners, AEC people and government these rules are
important for safety and other environmental issues. In some countries like Denmark,
Sweden, Finland they made some building model rules and those rules should be maintained
in the model. Senate properties in Finland also doing the same thing, each model of building
has to follow that rules.122
______________________
121
122

http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Products/Bentley+Architecture/ access 4.3.2011 3.20 P.M


http://www.senaatti.fi/document.asp?siteID=2&docID=517 access 4.3.2011 3.45 P.M

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Solibri model checker provides architectural, structural, MEP and other rule checking
benefits. The system is that these rules will be set in Solibri and the model will export in
Solibri model checker, than model checker will check the model against that rules. Besides
that, model checker gives clash detection and information take off which is also can be used
in cost estimation.123

Figure 2.7 Solibri model checker rules check124

3.5.5.3 Nemetscheck BIM Solution


Nemetscheck also provides BIM solution for Architects. Vectorworks Architect is the
BIM solution which is used by architects.125

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123
124
125

http://www.solibri.com/solibri-model-checker.html access 4.3.2011 3.51P.M


http://www.digitalalchemypro.com/DA_Products_Solibri_files/DA_Products_Solibri.htm 4.3.2011,3.51P.M
http://www.nemetschek.net/architect/index.php access 4.3.2011,4.10 P.M

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3.6 Data Exchange Solutions


Data exchange has significance in BIM. Without data exchange or interoperability it will not
possible to establish BIM work flow. BIM is a combination of different software. Each
software programming language is different. So that a common format is necessary that can
bring the solution of interoperability. Now in the construction world for BIM workflow data
exchange solutions are make the BIM process more understandable and more precise.
3.6.1 IFC
IFC is a data exchange format provided by building Smart International to smooth the BIM
work flow and to bring interoperability in the combined work process. IFC is a neutral data
format to exchange data from one vendor software to another. Now in every BIM software
vendor take this advantage. Through that they make more easy communication through the
data transfer with IFC. As an example the working principle of IFC is that IFC change the
data inside the model in a common neutral format and then BIM software again get access
that data and make changes. After that, merge it to the previous model.126
As earlier mentioned IFC data exchange format comes from IAI or International Alliance
for Interoperability. They at first think about a common platform to make comprehensive
collaboration and interoperability in AEC sector. For that they make IFC format which is
almost compatible with all famous BIM solution. For that they think make their vision to
make a shared model through IFC which is a burning demand in todays construction
industry.

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126

http://www.ifcwiki.org/index.php/Main_Page access 4.3.2011 4.31 P.M

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Figure 2.8 IAI vision shared project model, IAI 1997 127

IFC is currently used by all famous softwares. But for that they need IFC certification and
Building SMART or former IAI provides that certification. Following BIM software are now
able to generate IFC data for interoperability with other software vendor.
Product
ACTIVe3D
ALLPLAN
ArchiCAD
AutoCAD Architecture
Bentley Architecture
DDS-CAD
Facility Online
IFC for Oracle
CADView-3D
MagiCAD
Revit Architecture
SCIA ESA-PT
Solibri Model Checker
Tekla Structures
Vector Works

Discipline
Architectural design
Architectural design
Architectural design
Architectural design
Architectural design
Architectural
design,HVAC
Facility Management
Architectural design

Company
Archimen Groupe
Nemetschek
Graphisoft
Autodesk
Bentley Systems
DDS

Exchange direction
Import
Import/Export
Import/Export
Import/Export
Import/Export
Import/Export

Vizelia
Norconsult

Import
Import

HVAC
Architectural design
All
All
Structural design
All

Progman
Autodesk
Nemetscheck
Solibri
TEKLA Corporation
Nemetschek NA

Export
Import/Export
Import
Import
Import/Export
Import/Export

Table 2.1 IFC 2*3 support software128

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127
128

http://buildingsmart-tech.org/news

Janne Salin, product Modeling-IFC ConREM M2.3,


http://moodle.metropolia.fi/file.php/1975/conrem_2010/week_15/BIM_week15_IFC.pdf

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

IFC is a current solution for the interoperability problem. But still now IFC is not reachable
on that stage where data interoperability is perfect. IFC associated with following problem in
current stage which is also a big problem for data interoperability
-

Information lost while exporting the model. Means not able to extract all the
information in a model.

Specification problem related with parameterized data

Complex specification129

These are common problems associated with IFC in current stage. Although IFC has
problem related lost of information but still now exists as a reliable format to exchange data
which contains maximum information. For IFC file, IFC has open viewer which can be used
anyone and can be judge the model without parent software.
3.6.2 Other data Exchange Solutions
Besides this there are so many different data exchange formats are exist like DWG, DFX,
XML and so on. But all of them are not interpretable by all the BIM solutions. Each software
vendor has their own solutions. Like Autodesk has DWG, DFX, XML,PDF and other
formats. Some of these formats are compatible with other software but not with every
software. As an example DWG is a common format for data exchange at the beginning.
Graphisoft has also the function to read the DWG or DFX file from Autodesk. But normally
for 2D drawing documents these formats are useful not for BIM based solution where there
are lots of information on a single model. Hence these formats are not able to keep or store
or transform every information with their exchange format. XML is a web based format
which has also the same problem. In generally it can be said that, interoperability is a
concerning issues in AEC sector and obviously in the implementation issues of BIM. The
current formats are not able to transform information in a common format which can be
extractable by all the other vendor solutions. Current other solutions are good for traditional
work but for collaborative BIM approach, information proper transformation is an important
parameter. On this case, current exchange solutions are not able to meet that demand.
_______________________
129

Janne Salin, product Modeling-IFC ConREM M2.3,


http://moodle.metropolia.fi/file.php/1975/conrem_2010/week_15/BIM_week15_IFC.pdf

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3.6.3 Comparison of Different Data Exchange Format


IFC is the most widely and accepted format used in BIM solution. Although it has also the
problems with information lost. Following table shows the difference between IFC and other
solutions in a short way
Format

Provider

IFC

Building Smart

DWG

Autodesk

XML

W3C

PDF
Others

Adobe systems
Various software
format according to
their data language

2D documentation
and transfer
IFC include model
basd 2D and 3D
information
Well and defined

BIM data
exchange
Currently best
solution

Interoperability

Information
missing

Model based 2D
data interpretation
Well and defined
Varies according to
software support

Information
missing
Not able
Varies with other
software integration
with that format

Maximum
BIM
solutions
interpretable
Tekla and few other
softwares
Not able
Depends
on
integration
with
other software

Interpretable with
BIM solutions

Table 2.2 Comparison of different data exchange format

3.7 BIM based Construction Management Case study:


BIM is implemented all over the construction world in different areas. In some construction
site AEC people used BIM as an improving design tool, as a construction management
supporting tool and so on. In this section some implemented case study will be discussed.
3.7.1 Barton Malow Case Study
Barton Malow, a well reputed general contractor in U.S. They are used to with BIM
technology in construction management area in their projects. They are using Tekla (BIM)
solution. They assigned Tekla BIM solution to support cost control and reduce the risk level
associated with construction. They make an outstanding result in the Lynchburg General
Hospital expansion project through using BIM technology. They used Tekla BIM solution
on that project due to high collaborative approach, design coordination and communication
with everyone in a virtual real time environment. On this way they minimize their design
cost and reduced risks. They used Tekla BIM technology to maximize the benefit in
planning and make collaboration

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.
Figure 2.9 Barton Malow Project 3D structure in Tekla130

In this construction project Barton Malow company project manager divide the whole
project in three phases. These are utilities phase, structural phase and architectural/HVAC
phase. In together they set the GMP for the project. They used Tekla structure in three
phases due to high interoperability and manage the total construction management process
which brings sufficient savings in their project cost. They saved $20,000 due to early MEP
detailing in 3D environment. Thus they dont have to pay this money to the subcontractor to
do the same job. They take the collaborative advantage from BIM which saves their time and
reduced error. Hence through using Tekla BIM solution, Barton Malow Company increase
their productivity in work and saves a good amount of money which is one of general
blessing of technology in the form of BIM.131

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BIM Journal. Issue 1; 2009, BIM Concept over budget, delays, rework, standing time, materials waste, poor
communication, conflict. Page-1, bimjournal.dev.asentechdev.com/index.php?option
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BIM Journal. Issue 1; 2009, BIM Concept over budget, delays, rework, standing time, materials waste, poor
communication, conflict. Page-1, bimjournal.dev.asentechdev.com/index.php?option

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

3.7.2 Construction Management in Bridge Case Study


BIM technology is not applied on the building. BIM is applying all over the total
infrastructure sector. Such as famous German general contractor Max Bgl used BIM in
their projects. Currently they used BIM modeling technology in a Stadium in Bucharest.
That is also a significant contribution of BIM that, it is not only applicable in building. BIM
can use all types of infrastructure project. Like that in U.S Oakland Bay Bridge (SFOBB) in
San Francisco. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) makes the renovation of
this bridge.
Parsons Brinckerhoff makes the 3D model for the bridge span which shows the completed
design. At the beginning the bridge documents were completed in 2D CAD applications. On
the basis of that data they build the 3D digital model and use Autodesk 3ds MAX software
for getting the real view by rendering. After that, they take the 3D model in Naviswork and
build 4D project model and linked it with Primavera based contract schedule. As a result
they have now a clear visualized look about the project according to schedule. The BIM
involvement in this project brings benefit in design collaboration, about construction
processes, bring effective communication and it gives visual representation of the total
project to the people through virtual model.
The bridge construction authority used BIM technology to make effective scheduling and
perform work according to scheduling. They used BIM simulation as the measurement of the
project performance. They also used 3D BIM model for structural and MEP components for
the total project.
The total process is complicated due to so many contracts, but BIM model brings
collaboration on the works. They used their 4D model for the prefabricated component.
They used BIM simulation to identify potential clashes in the different phases of the project
which gives early forecast and reduced the total risk. More over BIM based rendering and
import it on the Google earth make a clear view which enables to understand different
constructability issues. In this way the total project get benefited by using BIM.132
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132

Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page -139

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Thus this case study is the answer of one of the question of this thesis paper, that BIM can
able to contribute infrastructure also. More over to make a clear understanding of BIM is
that, BIM is a technological advancement not only for buildings. It can be used all over civil
works. May be for some complex projects its need some extra plug in tools to facilitate the
the total project.
3.7.3 Summary of Case Studies
BIM is used in construction industry discretely. Most people used these technological
blessings at the design phase. But overall construction management through BIM still now is
a myth. Overall construction management means from the beginning to the end phase of
construction is doing by BIM. In Barton Malow and San Francisco bridge case studies they
are using BIM as a partial tool to support construction management. Although they take the
advantage of BIM in reduction of cost and synchronizing their work. But they are limited in
some areas like cost scheduling with visualization and early collaborative documental
approach. The total BIM construction management is not take place still now due to the lack
of appropriate solution. Besides that, in these two case study projects they take the maximum
advantage of BIM in their work through utilize it with different other tools. Following table
will summarize the BIM influence in their work.

Category

Barton Malow case study

Used BIM solution

Tekla structure

Design phase

MEP modeling and coordination


other designs
Tekla construction management
used collaborating time

Time scheduling

Collaboration
Other software

Through Tekla visualization


-

San Francisko Bridge case


study
Naviswork, Autodesk different
BIM solution
Existing design remodeled and
rendered
4D time scheduling through
Naviswork with combining
Primavera database
Visualization through different
BIM solutio
Google Earth compiled with
BIM

Table 2.3 Summary of case studies

Through this way these two construction projects are taking advantage of BIM in
collaborating and visualization of project phase. But this management cannot be termed as
total construction management. Even there is no such kind of construction take place which

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

is done through complete BIM technology. The reason for that is still now BIM is not so
much developed to support the full construction management. But with combining other
software support it can be manageable at this stage. The main aspect of this paper is to
demonstrate that.
4. BIM and Construction Project Management Linkage
Construction project management is a systemic approach or path to achieve a certain goal or
product as a building. And Building Information Modeling is a technological support to
make construction works more collaborative, understandable and productive. From the
previous two chapters or sections the purpose of construction management and building
information modeling is now clearly assumable. In this section the relation or linkage of
construction project management and BIM will be discussed.
4.1 Construction Project Management Development through BIM
Construction project management is a diverse way of management. The management tasks
are defined differently in different places or different conditions. But overall the
management criterion is to achieve a certain goal with desired cost, time and quality.

Figure 3.1 Construction productivity index compared to nonfarm industries. 133


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Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page -3

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These are common fundamental objectives of construction management philosophy. Within


time the development of construction increased enormously. So that construction is defined
as an industry due to its involvement in national economy. Unfortunately, the productivity of
this industry is now getting lower day by day.
In project management body of knowledge they focused on more documented work, where it
takes much time and has chance of error. This judgment is based on authors understanding
and experience.
So what might be the solution, for bring productivity in construction? One answer is that to
reduce the problems associated with construction. To remove these constraints there is a new
system of project delivery named as IPD. Integrated project delivery discussed in
construction management section. IPD is a BIM based approach where it is a combined
effort of architects, engineers, contractors, sub-contractors, owners. In this project delivery
method three major parts are involved. First one, as an integrated practice which means a
collaborative process with technological support as building information modeling. Secondly
essential principles where every stakeholder are committed to this principles and last one
project workflow that begins building in an integrated team and concluding with integrated
close out.134More about integrated project delivery will be discussed on chapter four. The
main reason to bring it in this section is to make clear that building information modeling
has close linked for development of construction management approach.
Traditional management systems have poor technological involvement, so that it might be
one reason for less productivity with those systems. BIM is a technological support to bring
quality, cost efficiency and time efficiency in construction. Well if any one said that, for
construction management there is no need to use BIM, the comment will not be wrong. The
argument for that is, people make building before CAD and BIM by pen and paper, make
estimation manually, manage construction with paper based documentation. But the question
comes about efficiency. And the efficiency is now better when people used BIM or CAD for
drawing, estimation and management
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134

ipd_definition_doc_final_with_supplimental_info.pdf,http://www.ipdca.net/images/Integrated%20Project%20Delivery
%20Definition.pdf, access 5.3.2011 1.21 P.M

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The main aspects of this section is not too discussed about construction management
productivity, the aspect is to find the link with BIM and construction management. IPD
gives the answer, where they show new management philosophy with BIM. Construction
management system needs collaboration, communication, understandability and realization
of the project and only BIM linking to management is able to meet that demand.
4.2 BIM and Preconstruction

Preconstruction is the phase where construction documentation work takes place. The phase
starts with feasibility study by the owner. After that design documentation is the key job in
this stage. This phase has deep relation with BIM. In the previous section where BIM scope
has been described, it seen that BIM has architectural, structural and MEP scope. By using
BIM these designs can be done in a collaborative way which brings efficiency and
productivity in the work.
Design documentation is the main job in preconstruction phase. Where design team consists
of architect, structural designer and MEP designer. Well BIM makes collaboration in the
total design work as earlier described. Thus it makes sense to say that, BIM makes the
preconstruction design work more productive and more accurate by making a work flow
between the design teams.
BIM is able to manage the preconstruction stage through collaboration and communication
with the total design team in the design phase. After that, design documentation is necessary
to make contract document. Through BIM the documentation can be done also effectively
and errorless. When the design document is complete than the job is to invite bid from
general contractor for the work. The BIM implementation can be possible in all types of
contract with adding some clause. But the main fact is that, on that time there might be
dispute arise due to lack of collaborative workflow. In this sense contract is a very important
tool to link the total construction work with BIM. Integrated project delivery system
provides a system of work flow which is based on BIM.

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Construction management is a job where various stakeholders take part in different phases.
For the design team, design is the main aspect and for the general contractor construction
with estimated time, cost and quality is the main job. So that in respect of general contractor
estimation is an important task to complete in the preconstruction phase. Through different
BIM software general contractor can do that accurately according to the model provide by
the design team. So here is also a link of BIM with preconstruction work phase management.
When the project starts, from that time the management will start. But management patterns
depend on various systems of construction project delivery method. Like considering DBB
method owner has initial management task for feasibility study and finding architect for
design work. In this way the management paradigm shifts on architect to complete the
design and documentation for bid. After getting the bid general contractor takes the role for
construction management. After finishing the project facility manager takes the role for life
cycle management role. In this method one thing is clear that, DBB is not a collaborative
management or project delivery work. Again if we think about integrated project delivery
system where from the design phase all the stake holders work together has close
collaboration on management in the project from the very beginning with BIM.
It can be possible by assigning a project manager or construction manager from the very
beginning of the project to the end of the project to make coordination in the project. But it
also depends on the contract pattern.
From this discussion one thing is clear that, in preconstruction management work BIM is an
important tool that makes the work easier, comprehensive, collaborative and productive
through make effective communication in different stakeholders.

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architectural
design

structural
design

Bid

BIM and
Preconstruction

Cost
estimation

MEP design

Combined
Design
documentation

Figure 3.2 BIM Preconstruction phase cycle work

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

4.3 BIM and Construction


Construction phase is the second phase of the project. This phase is most vital phase because
in this phase the real construction will take place from virtual to reality. General contractor
will be the main responsible person in this stage. General contractor has his/her construction
management team who will manage the whole work with all the stakeholders, in this stage
like individual sub contractors. As it seen in the previous sections that BIM has significance
on design, documentation, and cost estimation. The question is that, how BIM will make a
work link in the construction phase? Well the answer is not so easy to give. In the next
chapter the exploration of BIM in construction phase will provide more briefly. In this
section before giving the answer it might be wise to discuss at first which things are
important in construction phase. Obviously time, quality, cost, safety, procurement, risk,
environmental management and job site management are the main task for construction
work.
As earlier described BIM is a visual intelligent data based representation of the project. So
that BIM can able to make visual representation of the project phase in field construction.
Like planning and scheduling is a part of construction job. BIM can able to do this planning
and scheduling with combining model data from architectural model and make construction
simulation. Through this way BIM makes time management more effective and visualize the
real scenario of the project at different time. Cost control and monitor is the second
important task in construction. In this regard BIM provides model based cost control and
monitor through different BIM solution. Using this technological support, management team
efficiently manage the cost monitor and control.
Site management or co ordination is also possible through BIM various models. Because
through BIM model site manager has virtual on site access before construction and can able
to design the site infrastructure like workers trailer, crane position, material placement and
so on. Risk management has close relation with every aspect of construction. Perhaps BIM
softwares are reducing the probability of risk by providing virtual access and
communication between all the stakeholders. Safety management can be done by providing
safety model of construction job site. Still now this kind of operational management does not
exist. But in this paper author will demonstrate some new discoveries regarding management

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like safety, quality, environmental, procurement and claim management. In current practice,
cost control, site planning, scheduling control and monitor can be done through BIM in
construction phase. BIM provides visual data based monitoring and control. Through this
management team get the better control to the total project.
4.4 BIM and Post Construction
After construction stage completion, time is to handover the project, but before handover the
project management team has to check everything more detailed to get the certificate from
architect. On that time BIM can make an effective role to discover project incomplete issues.
The procedure can start from making the punch list. By BIM model 3D visualization
architect or owner can detect the minor defects on the project which can be later solved by
contractor. For getting the substantial certificate architect and contractor both can use the
model data and check the total project according to model information. So that, in this way
the total checking will be done through model based data. For getting occupancy certificate
architect and owner might use BIM model and analysis data for submission that government
authority gets a clear idea about project quality and scope. From this point of view BIM
makes clear and defined role by provide the project virtual model and real construction
scenario. More over contractor has to provide manuals of the equipment and warranty
period. Contractor can make this documentation through support of BIM. According to the
contract defined law it would be helpful for future maintenance if the contractor gives the
entire construction model and information database of total project to the facility manager.
Finally its now time to check the project evaluation in terms of contractor point of view.
Contractor can make this evaluation through BIM model database, where they can get the
day to day data for project success evaluation.
4.5 BIM and Facility Management
After completion the handover, the management of the facility will transferred to facility
management team. In section 2.3.6 the facility management scope described that how BIM
data can support the facility management team.

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Facility management team need the building plans, manuals of equipments, different
component warranty period that they can maintained the facility in calculated life cycle
costs.
For that instance BIM model can give very clear idea to facility management team about the
consumption of energy, utility, maintenance schedule and so on. For facility management
BIM model will work as a building digital database, from which facility management team
can reorganize the facility and make future renovation and reconstruction. In this way until
the end of demolition of the facility it will generate valuable planning data. The process will
be depending on the contract type, if the contract has clause that general contractor has to
provide all the models than same model can be used also for facility management purpose.
BIM models make facility management easier than before. Because with BIM, facility
management team dont need to look so many 2D drawings, they can analysis the facility
situation through the raw data get from construction model, which makes more effective
maintenance and reduce life cycle costs.
Precosntruction
stage
Feasibility stage

Design stage

Documentation

Bid

Cost estimating

Main
information
needed
Site location
and other
factors
Architectural
model

BIM support

BIM tools

No direct support

Not applicable

BIM based model

Structural
model
MEP model
Single
document

BIM based model

ArchiCAD, Revit
architect,Nemetsccheck
Vectorwork
Tekla Structure

BIM based model


Individual model
documentation

Autodesk MEP and others


Every software has own
documents

Designs and
specs

BIM design
documents
according to
contract

Different design solutions

No composite
model or
document
Model transfer
depends on
contract or bid
procedure

Design
documents to
take quantity

BIM model based


quantity or
information take
off

Autodesk quantity take off,


Solibri Model checker

No direct cost
estimation

Table 3.1 BIM and preconstruction phase linkage

Remarks

Only
model

structure

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Construction
phase
Time schedule

Main information
needed
Activity data with
material and
equipment

BIM support

BIM tools

Remarks

BIM model based


scheduling

Vico Control

Cost control

Cost data and


monitoring data
Specs document
and quality
guideline

Model based data


input and measure
Direct measure not
possible

Vico Control

Simulation
possible
with
location
based
schedule
Insufficient
controlling in cost
Model based 3D
laser scanning with
BIM bring solution

Cost estimating

Cost of material,
labor,
identify
material
and
quantification

Identify model
material and exact
quantification

Vico cost planner,


Solibri model
checker for
information take
off

Site management

Coordination
design data

Coordination
through different
model

Revit, Google
Earth, Sketch up

Quality control

Different model
software

Cost of
material,labor and
total component
construction cost is
not reflect on the
model
Plug-in tool used
with BIM software
as Google sketch
up or Google earth

Table 3.2 BIM and construction phase linkage


PostConstruction
Substantial
completion

Main information
needed
Punch out list,
inspection

Documentation

Drawings, models

Facility
management
Maintenance
Renovation

All design and


spec data
All design and
specs data

and

BIM support

BIM tools

Remarks

Laser scanning
check with BIM
model
All model based
drawing
All model based
intelligent data
Model based data

Different model

Photography
scanning

Different model
Different
tools
Different
tools

model

Convert in CAFM

model

Table 3.3 BIM and post construction phase linkage

These tables shows general data requirement in different phases of construction project. All
the aspects of construction project, BIM has influence through visualizing the project and by
providing intelligent data information. Perhaps now BIM has no composite model that
contains all the data like a central database. In next chapter BIM implementation in various

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

phases will describe by simulating practical model. At a summary of BIM and construction
management is that, BIM can be used as an auxiliary tool to manage the construction project
throughout its life cycle. BIM current position is not so strong that it can posses all the steps
of construction management through digital model. While now the system is well enough to
increase productivity but the automation or fully digitalization is not possible in current
stage.
5. BIM Simulation in Construction Project Management
In the previous three chapter construction project management definition, activities,
management procedure, building information modeling, building information modeling
scopes, building information modeling tools and link with construction management
described. In this section the main intention is to show the pathway of synchronizing of
construction project management through BIM. For that reason a separate simulation model
made by author. That will simulate in various phases of construction management through
BIM. More over in this section author will identify some new approaches, some new issues
related construction management and BIM which will lead to a perfect construction
management through BIM.
5.1 BIM Implementation in Preconstruction
Construction project management is a vast area of management with different scopes at
different stages. It depends on owner, the contract method and also to the project
stakeholders. In the construction world, project management body of knowledge is a widely
used project management guideline. More over traditional project management scopes are
also exist. The basic core jobs are same in both management systems. The difference is in
implementation. In this thesis the combination of this two management philosophy are used
with BIM. These approaches are described with a simulation model in below5.1.1 Construction Project Integration Management in BIM
As earlier mentioned project management core issues are same for every project but the
system defined in various ways. Like in project management body of knowledge defines the
total project processes in five major stages. The stages are project initiating, project planning
processes, executing processes, and project closeout processes. These processes works are

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also distributed in preconstruction, construction and post construction phases. The main idea
to speak about it that, project management tasks are common for every project where the
following approaches are different for different persons or project team.
Integration means combining different parts or elements. Where integration management
according to PMBOK 2000 is that, the processes required to ensure that the various elements
of the project are properly coordinated. Where the key inputs are project plan development,
project plan execution and integrated change control.135
Project plan development means integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a
consistent, coherent document.136 In preconstruction phase this is the most important phase
which is also termed as design phase. Project plan development phase and design phase are
common in task. The main task is to make the feasibility study of the project, make
schematic design, design development, detailed design and make design documentation.
The tools and techniques are used for this step is BIM tools. At first, talk about feasibility
study. Feasibility study is done by the owner at the very beginning of the project to judge the
suitability of the project in various terms like location basis, business basis, and scope basis.
For feasibility study BIM cannot make any direct effort. This job is quite methodological
and it depends on the owner determination either the site is viable or the scope of this project
is viable or not. In this simulation feasibility is done by owner requirement basis.
The simulation model for this entire section is a two storied building according to owner
demand, where the owner is a virtual person. After the feasibility study the next job is to do
the schematic design. The contract method for this project will be discussed in later phases

________________________________
135

A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000), PMBOK GUIDE, Project Management Institute; page-

41
136

41

A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (2000), PMBOK GUIDE, Project Management Institute; page-

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For the simulation author draw the building in AutoCAD 2D and than modeled it in 3D
for schematic design.

Figure 4.1 Schematic (simulation) design model in 3D by AutoCAD

After drawing the schematic model the next phase is to transfer it on BIM architectural
model. For this ArchiCAD BIM architectural solution is used to make architectural model in
design development phase. The process is that, the 2D drawing is transferred to Archicad in
DWG file format and on that 2D design drawing, the 3D BIM model made. This BIM model
has intelligence itself

Figure 4.2 Architectural (Simulation) model for detailed design in ArchiCAD

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After making the architectural drawing in detailed design phase, the next job is to transfer
the model for structural model and for structural documentation, which is the systematic
approach for BIM. For structural model Tekla structure is used to make the 3D model.
Architectural model transferred in Tekla structure through IFC data exchange, as early
described which is a data tool used for data exchange.
After doing the structural drawing model with details, model can be possible to merge with
architectural model or also be possible to make it as an independent model. In this
simulation independent model system applied because on that time it can be used in the
fabrication scope also. Here one thing should mention that, this structural model is not
containing any structural analysis data. This model contains the reinforcement mashing and
other design drawings for understanding field structural work and fabrication scope more
clearly and visually.

Figure 4.3 Structural (Simulation) model for detailed structural design by TEKLA Structure

Next job is to make the MEP model which is a part of total design. MEP design is done by
Vico constructor MEP solution. Hence it is also possible to do the MEP design through other

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BIM solution like Benley MEP solution and AutoCAD MEP solution. It depends on MEP
designer to choose BIM solution for MEP design.

Figure 4.4 MEP( Simulation) model for detailed design by Vico Constructor

Now the design documents are ready through architectural, structural and MEP model
designs. In generally these models are made by different designers under BIM process. After
that the model and model data are combined together for design documentation. In
integration management, plan development means the management of combining all the
design data together. That can used for detailed documentation and run the bidding process.
The main thing to focus here that, BIM makes integration in all the designs by transferring
the schematic and architectural models to different designers and integrates the total design
procedure. So that, in this regard BIM has suitable feature to make integration in the design
documentation.

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MEP design

IFC data
exchange

Structural design

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

Integration management
through BIM
(plan development) and design
documentation

IFC data
exchange

DWG data
exchange

Architectural design

Figure 4.5 Integration management (plan development) through BIM

Integration in design is required because with this design document the construction takes
place. On the basis of this design documents bid will done, general contractor will select and
also project plan will done.
BIM provides effective communication and collaboration in this integration. By using BIM
collaboration project management team create integration on the work. Through that, project
plan execution and integrated change control can be done by management team. When the
design documents are ready, plan execution and integrated change control will manage
systematically considering the design document.
The idea of this management through BIM is that, integration means coordination in the
various elements of the work. And the coordination starts from design part. According to
design documentation rest of coordination will be done. In this aspect author emphasize on
the design part at integration management. Because for the later stages individual element
management are exists like time, quality, cost and so on. So that author identifies integration
management as the initial integration among the designers and design documents. From that
later integration will be achieved in cost, quality, time, and risk. Lastly for this integration in

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this simulation model BIM is used successfully that shows different design integration
together for producing better design data and better integration in management.
Through BIM one person or design team can integrate the total design stage. As an example,
in this simulation model three different models are made by author through IFC data
exchange and in later all the model drawings and models are combined together by author.
And BIM makes the link of data to every model. So that, by BIM author makes a design
database which has all the design data like architectural, structural and MEP. Thus in later
these drawings are used for cost estimation, time estimation, bidding and for further
management. One thing should be noticed here that, BIM is a process of doing work. The
same thing can be done by CAD or 2D drawing. On that case the digital integration will not
be there. Because through BIM one single model data used for all the design works. So one
single change can easily identify and makes that change on every model easily. Its the form
of a digital integration. It will not right to speak that, without BIM integration will not
possible. But the fact is, with BIM it makes digital integration among the designs and also
the management works. Where particular people like chief architect or designer gets all the
drawings and integrate them in design documents. In this case he/she or their design team
makes the role of integration management in design through BIM, which done by author in
this simulated model.
The summary of the integration management, shortly briefed in the following tableIntegration
management
phases
Feasibility study

Information
required

BIM scope

Simulation used
BIM tool

Remarks

Initial site study for


feasibility

Schematic
model
placement
in
Google earth and
site analysis

ArchiCAD

Design

Coordination in
architectural,
structural and MEP
design

Maximum
Coordination
documentation
through IFC

ArchiCAD,
structure,
Constructor

Google sketch up
or AutoCAD 3D is
suitable
for
schematic design
where data detail is
not so high
Design integration
improves
productivity

in

Tekla
Vico

Table 4.1 Summary of integration management in BIM

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

5.1.2 Construction Project Scope Management in BIM


In terms of project management body of knowledge PMBOK 2000 edition, scope
management means the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work
required, and only the work required, to complete the work successfully. It consists of
initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification and scope change control.
In previous integration management author described about integration of all the design
works in pre construction phase, by which later tasks will integrate. Like that, scope
management is the job after integration of design drawing. After integration of all the
designs now someone has to construct it in the field. But before that its necessary to ensure
that project includes all the necessary work to accomplish the job. And the systematic way is
to ensure this thing by proper documentation, invite bidding and make contract. Contract
document is the source to check or manage the scope of the work which consists only the
project related work.
In PMBOK 2000, project management body of knowledge said that scope management
consists of initiation which means authorizing the construction project. Well authorizing of
the project is occurred initially after the feasibility study and finally the bidding phase, where
the contract made with particular contractor. As earlier mention in this thesis author makes a
combination of traditional construction management approach and project management body
of knowledge guidelines. By combining them with BIM author synchronized the
construction management simulation for this thesis.
The main reason to do this is to check the viability of traditional and project management
body of knowledge guidelines with BIM. Author found that, project management body of
knowledge guidelines stages are same as in traditional construction management approach.
The difference is in implementation procedure as early discussed. Thus author takes the
management framework from project management body of knowledge, the key concepts and
merges it in traditional way with BIM. For that the combination of this management
philosophy can be managed with BIM.
PMBOK 2000, also describes the scope planning which means documentation of project
work, scope definition means subdividing the major tasks in some manageable deliverables,

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scope verification to get the acceptance from owner or stakeholders, and finally scope
control for controlling in other phases of project. These total issues are discusses in contract
stage of the traditional management approach.
The question is how BIM make contribution on this stage. On this stage BIM process has not
any direct involvement with scope management. But this phase is important in this fact that
on the basis of contract BIM can be implemented on the later stages. So that contract is an
important issue. As early mentioned there are several types of contract like DBB, DB, CM at
risk, IPD and so on. Among this IPD has direct relation of implementing BIM. On the other
contracts there are no such kinds of involvement of BIM.
In DBB approaches owner makes separate contract with architect and general contractor. At
first author makes contract with architect and after that on the basis of architect design
documents author invites bid from general contractor. So in this contract method there is no
involvement of general contractor in the early stages of design, where it is one of condition
to get the usefulness of BIM. Due to the contract structure it is not possible to involve
general contractor at the beginning of the design phase. To make it BIM viable there is need
to make changes in the contract method. There might be some clauses included, that all the
design models should be transferred to the general contractor and make collaboration after
the bid stage and before the construction takes place. Also makes effective collaboration
during construction phase and finally they will hand over their individual design and
construction models together to the facility management team. By making this clauses BIM
can be efficiently used in total construction to life cycle period.

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Owner

Design team

General contractor

Design team BIM


model

Genaral contractor

Genaral
contractor BIM
model

Combined
model and
transfer to FM
Figure 4.6 BIM based Design-Bid-Build proposed model

In DB or Design- Build method comparatively its easy to implement BIM. In this approach
Owner has to make a single contract with design firm who will also take care the
construction. Or construction team who will also take the design responsibility. In this case,
this method provides collaboration between design team and general contractor with a
separate contract which has no relation with owner. As earlier mentioned BIM brings
collaboration in all aspects of construction work. Thus design build approach partially set the
stage for BIM application in the construction process. To make this contract suitable for
BIM implementation owner has to make a contract with design or general contractor to make
this project through BIM implementation and make collaboration with facility manager
either in the design period or after the construction period. On that agreement it will defined
who will take the responsibility or pay the money for additional BIM cost. According to that
contract, the main leading team done the job by implementing BIM and later transfer it to the
facility management team after completing the construction.
Integrated project delivery method is a BIM technology supported project delivery method.
In this method, the main theme is to create collaboration or integration among people,

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systems, and business structures to reduce the waste and optimize efficiency. In terms of
BIM, also focus the same collaboration in BIM process. Thus IPD is the best present
contract method for BIM practice in construction. In IPD process due to early collaboration
to all the stakeholders, in later phases it reduces the coordination and changing issues in
design document. For that it brings successful results in the total project. The aim of IPD
goal can be achieved without implementing BIM also, but it recommended practicing BIM
for better result.137 Thus IPD makes the stage to practice BIM in construction without
changing the contract pattern or without any modification in the contract. BIM
implementation phase starts with project documentation as design document where the
involvement of all stakeholders brings coordination. The same principle applied in IPD
where it combined the documentaries works of AEC group and provides combining BIM
documentation. Later stage this model based documents used for estimating, constructability
issues, clash detection, site coordination and makes bridge on other coordination
responsibilities.138

Figure 4.7 Approach differences in integrated and traditional way 139

BIM is a system of art to imply in construction for get the maximum benefit. But it does not
have own potentiality to run by itself. For this it is necessary to set a platform by which BIM
can contribute itself on the total construction. Contract method will create this platform.
_______________________________
137,138

http://www.ipd-ca.net/images/Integrated%20Project%20Delivery%20Definition.pdf access 9.3.2011;9.00 PM

139

Brad Hardin, 2009; BIM and Construction Management; Proven tools, methods, and workflows, Wiley Publishing Inc.,
Indianapolis, Indiana; page -22

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Without IPD rest of contractual methods are now not able to make this platform. But it can
possible to add by some additional clauses which will reduce the dispute arises regarding
BIM cost. Now a day in BIM construction process there is a new term besides project
manager. Its called BIM manager. The role of BIM manager is to make collaboration of all
the BIM models or files and transfer necessary information to individual stakeholders.
Probably an architect or BIM expert can take the role of a BIM manager. In some
construction companies now a days they have this separate BIM manager position. Like in
Norway, Multiconsult a leading engineering company has BIM manager for their
projects.140
In the summary of scope management can be said that scope management is the stage to
define the scope of the projects through proper documentation and documentation legally
bound on the contract. Thus contract is the main issue of scope management as well as
preconstruction stage and BIM implementation also depends on the form of contract
otherwise it will arise dispute regarding BIM costs and other issues. In the following table
total scope management is summarized shortly
Scope
management stage
Contract

Information
required
Design document,
architectural quality
guidelines

BIM scope
Integration in
documentation and
involving contractor
and other
stakeholders at the
beginning of the
project

Simulation BIM
tools
ArchiCAD,
TEKLA, VICO is
used for document
integration which is
used later for
Contract

Remarks
Contract is a legal
process. BIM has
no direct effect on
it. But Contract
methods should be
changed to make it
viable for BIM.
Currently only IPD
is best solution for
BIM. Author
suggest some
modification in the
current contract
method to make it
suitable for BIM
implement

Table 4.2 Summary of scope management in BIM

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5.1.3 Construction Project Cost Management in BIM


Cost is an important issue in construction. The project success or project taking decision also
depends on cost. Design documents are always changed due to reduce cost as owner
requirements. In this regard, costs are always a vital factor to determine the project initiation
or project success. So cost management is an important issue from the very beginning of the
project. Cost management consists of two parts. On the preconstruction part cost estimation
and in construction phase cost control is the basic function of cost management.
For cost estimation BIM has unique functionality which will give the estimator accurate
model based costing with minimum time. Author makes a simulation for this cost estimation
process through BIM. Before making details it should be clear that, BIM provides the
necessary quantities needed to make the cost estimation. After taking that quantity based
information, transferred that quantity in another estimating software or make it easily on the
excel sheet by adding labor cost and material cost. It should be mentioned here that, this cost
data will not provide from any BIM solution. This cost comes from material suppliers and
also from labor supplier or from the subcontractors.
In some management philosophy it distinguished separately as resource planning. In this
case the main task is to define the resource requirements. Todays BIM technological
solutions are widely used for taking the quantities or information from various models and
transfer it to cost estimating BIM solutions for make cost estimating. But for resource
planning there is no such kind of effort come from BIM. In this case estimator has to do the
resource planning by traditional information and put that data on the cost estimating sheet or
in the cost estimating softwares.
As earlier mentioned author build the architecture model in ArchiCAD, Build the MEP
model in Vico constructor and build the structural model in Tekla structure. Now the
architecture model transfer through IFC in an IFC format file. This IFC format file can be
uploaded to Solibri model checker for taking the quantity or take the information from that
model.
From that model different information can be grabbed like volume of wall, slab, thickness,
no. of other materials, doors etc. One thing has to mention here that, in architecture model

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

101

also generate some quantities as door, window size etc. With combining this two reports
estimation can be done in a separate software or in the excel sheet.

Figure 4.8 Quantity information takes off from Solibri model checker

Figure 4.9 Cost report in Microsoft Excel

In cost report now material price, labor and including other prices estimating can be done. In
this simulation of cost management author shows the relation of model based data to

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

102

estimation. There is other vendors software like AutoCAD quantity take off, Vico cost
planner for quantity takes off. Though the process is same in all software to grab the model
information or quantity and then make cost report or cost estimation. In BIM 5D means
model based cost simulation. To make this at first the model has to upload in Vico cost
planner and then grab the quantity, after that that quantity will transfer to Vico estimating
software. After that Vico estimator will make cost database and make a link to Vico
constructor to show the 5D representation with cost data. The fact is that, the simulation
shows different location costs in the simulation. From that its easy to manage cost control.
But for estimation there is no need for simulation, just only quantity information are enough
to make cost estimation and BIM provides model based quantity take off for estimation.

Architect, structural, MEP


BIM model

Data
translation

Quantity take off


from model

Transfer quantity
to model based
estimation solution

Location based
cost model
simulation

Figure 4.10 Flow chart of cost (estimation) model through BIM

5.2 BIM Implementation in Construction


Construction phase is the implementation phase of construction design documents or the
drawings in the field. These phase is consists of various work regarding control, monitor,
procurement, implement, site management and so on. On this stage BIM is used as to
monitor and forecasting.

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5.2.1 Construction Project Time Management in BIM


Time is one of important resource to manage in construction project. At the preconstruction
phase time is not a concerning matter in terms of control. On that moment project is in
initiating phase and after making contract time management issues come according to the
estimated time schedule. In general time is an issue which affects the total project from the
very beginning. As an example for government projects such as a school building has to
deliver in a certain time. So the total time spending duration count from the feasibility study.
Time management mode changes according to the desire of owner or according to the type
of project.
Time management definition given by project management body of knowledge is that,
management of the processes to complete the project in estimated time. They define activity,
activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, schedule control are
the major tasks in time management.
Management of time includes two major parts. One part estimate the total duration to
complete the project and second complete the project according to estimated time. This two
major part combining the terms described in project management body of knowledge. Time
management issue comes from the preconstruction contract phase. On that time contractor
submit a time frame to complete the project. It can be well scheduled or can be lump sum
estimated. But its the major management part in construction phase. On this phase planner
has to make schedule according to that time limit and also control the project to complete in
time. Time management begins at the last of preconstruction phase and ends after handover
the project. This management is an important issue in construction management because
time overrun made the project failed or brings financial disaster in to general contractor by
paying penalty money.
BIM makes pioneer development in time management. This management is also possible
from the early phase of the project like as described for government project where time is a
concerning issue from the feasibility study. To make this analysis of time management with
BIM at first has to determined which issues are concerning and which tasks are related with
time management. Scheduling or time estimating in activities should be concerned at first.

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For scheduling planner need the idea of activities, resources related activities, activity
sequencing, activity time estimation according to resources and form scheduling. For
planning planner can use various techniques according to type of the project. So for
scheduling or time estimating the major need is to define the data. Now the question is which
kind of data? And from where they will get this data? The answer is that, data will come
from cost estimating as BOQ means bill of quantity. From that BOQ planner make an idea
about his activity, form activities, define resources, calculate time estimation and then make
scheduling.
BIM provides support planning in scheduling and in controlling in both stages. BIM
provides intelligent quantity data from model. Cost estimating BIM solutions grab that data
from the model and make BOQ. After that planner used that BOQ to make scheduling.
Scheduling and estimating has quite good relation. Planner needs resources to complete the
project and estimator add that resources in cost estimating. Thus both job are interlinked
each other. In this way BIM solutions also linked with scheduling through cost estimating.

Model based BOQ


by BIM cost
estimation software

Model based
activity in BIM
supported planing
software

activity sequencing

form scheduling

activity duration
estimation

Figure 4.11 Process of scheduling through BIM support

Author also determines the scheduling through this way and simulating the model for
scheduling. For this the first step is to form the bill of quantity. The bill of quantity forms
from the excel sheet where all the quantities are available. Also author check the

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architectural, structural and MEP model to define the activities and put them on excel sheet
and determine the resources like consumption, hours, resources and quantities. After that
transfer that BOQ to Vico Control software and by using that data make the scheduling.

Figure 4.12 BOQ in Vico control software

Figure 4.13 Scheduling in Vico control software

The second stage for time management is time control and monitor. This means to monitor
or track the activities and resources according to the scheduling. BIM provides support to
check this monitor visually. In projects to control time, planner used general techniques like
s curve, linear curve or other methods to monitor or control the project. Scheduling related
BIM solutions provide model based simulation in terms of time. It means it shows the

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progress of model or performing work done on timely basis. More elaborately it combines
the time and activity in the simulation. It simulates the project completion in each day. To
control the project by visual representation author used Tekla software which has integrated
solution of simulation of activities. More over for time control author used Vico control view
which shows the activity condition and marking them in different colors. Though its the
structural model simulated here but its also possible to simulate the whole model according
to the schedule. For that, Vico 5D representer or Navisworks can be used to simulate the
project situation according to scheduling.

Figure 4.14 Scheduling control in Vico software without construction simulation.

Figure 4.15 Location based time simulation for scheduling control

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Through this way BIM provides controlling and scheduling by providing model based
information. The use of BIM in time management can be done in two ways. One way in time
estimate where BIM model provides location based quantity. Another way in control shows
the location based time simulation with activities.
5.2.2 Construction Project Cost Control Management in BIM
In construction cost estimation is the part of preconstruction phase. General contractor has to
submit the cost estimation in the bid. Like that cost control is the important factor in
construction phase. To bring success in project and make the project in desired cost, cost
control is the only tool.
Cost control is the similar kind of job like schedule monitor and control. BIM provides
simulation based time control in time management but not able to do that for cost control.
But its also possible through BIM.

BIM software vendors have to make the similar

simulation model for cost control as like schedule model. In current BIM technology there
are few practices regarding cost control. Some BIM solutions like Vico cost planner
compare the cost with actual, but the process is not so strong that it can be termed as BIM
based cost control system or management. The first condition to be termed as BIM is that, it
should be visualized. Thus for cost control one way is that BIM vendors make the model and
generate a database linked with the model. Where every cost information should be
displayed. In real time construction cost control team put the data on that database and
measured the situation. In Vico control there are some option to include cost information like
cash flow but its not sufficient to be termed as BIM based cost control management system.
For cost control there are different tools exist. Some of them are computer software program
and some of them are manual process. Like S curve, different types of cash flow curves can
be generated through manual process or with some individual process. But the system is not
related with direct model. This process can be termed as semi BIM process, where the
quantity information grabbed from BIM model to estimate the cost and after that used
different software to monitor that cost which has no visualization related cost.
In cost control management BIM vendors has not get any big success still now. For this
simulation author also choose the way of semi BIM process. Where the cost report generated

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in excel sheet and besides that cost report make every single cost entity and input the actual
datas. According to that actual data, make manual s curve analysis to monitor or to measure
the cost control situation.
But the recommendation is that, to make it as BIM process BIM vendor should provide
costing software which has a database according to model data. On that database there
should be two steps where one side the actual and one side budgeted and should have some
color coding if the budgeted goes wrong compared with actual. More over there should be
integrated s curve and other cash flow curves which can be possible to generate through
estimated and measured data from the model.
5.2.3 Construction Project Quality Management in BIM
Quality is an important issue to bring value in the project. Quality management involves
from the design phase of the project until get the substantial complete certificate from the
architect. Quality management issues are more physical than other issues. Physical can be
interpreted as the appearance of the project that shows the projects value.
In the definition of quality management project management body of knowledge defined it
as the processes which are necessary to make sure that project will satisfy the needs of its
initiation. Quality is not just reflecting on material or appearance. Quality reflects on the
total processes from design to handover documentation. PMBOK 2000, sub divides the
quality management in three major terms as quality planning, quality assurance and quality
control.141
Quality planning is the beginning stage of quality management. This stage defines the
standards of the project and makes way to complete it as desired. Quality assurance is an
evaluating process of the project quality to ensure that project will completed in quality.
Monitor the quality standards and bring project value is the main task in quality control.142
Quality management is a large process where every construction step should have to go
through this process to bring value in project. BIM supports the quality management
activities through various ways in various steps. In every project the quality is defined by the
architect. It also depends on the owner budget and requirements. General contractor has to
perform according to that quality guidelines or follow that quality measurements. BIM takes

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part in quality from the design phase by making the design more collaborative and accurate.
The whole construction depends on design drawing, so the quality of the design drawing
should be on high level and only BIM improves design quality by arranging collaboration
and data exchange through different designers. BIM solutions have unique clash detection
technology which checks the total project design quality. This way BIM brings or improve
design documentation quality which also affects the later stage quality issues.
Quality depends on specifications. Through BIM its not totally possible to make quality
specifications in the model. Because BIM models have not enough material content in their
library, that can give the specification of the material quality. But from BIM model it can
possible to find out the specification on size of the material such as door, window, floor tiles
etc.
Quality is a job of supervision. Always supervision improves quality, and through BIM
model it can be easy to understand the expected construction and real construction. More
over control the time and cost in project also brings quality and improve value of the project.
As earlier described for quality management quality plan is an essential tool. On the basis of
quality plan management team will implemented the quality settings by architect. To make a
quality plan BIM models provide sufficient spatial information to make quality plan.

Figure 4.16 Clash detection check (simulated model) in Autodesk Navisworks

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For quality management plan major issues are careful constructions at the first time, control
on activities that should be in right way and continue improvement.143
Careful construction at the first time means to reduce the risk of faulty work and rework.
Through this quality comes to every stage of the construction. So many factors are related
with careful construction. It depends on the skill of the craftsman, material quality and also
field test of material. In this regard BIM cannot make any contribution. Just only provides
design information from various models.
Quality assurance and quality control are also two important functions in quality
management. Quality assurance depends on hiring skilled people, training program for
people, safety, quality check in the procurement or choose high quality vendor.144 This issues
are quite physical process based rather than model data based. BIM model can only provide
construction design data continuously. But dont make any direct contribution in quality
assurance of project.
Another aspect has to describe to maintain quality in precast work. In precast work
construction elements are made in factory by fabricator. Where the quality of product can
controlled better than the site. By providing accurate shop drawing BIM contribute to make
the element in desired quality.
For quality control it also has relation with the material quality check, testing standards,
inspection and tightly followed the architect quality standards where the scope of BIM is less
than physical inspection. BIM can provide general information which can be useable on this
quality control stages but BIM cannot monitor or control the quality through its own
working process.

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143

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Indiana; page no-286
144

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-286

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TQM or Total quality management is a widely accepted philosophy in manufacturing


industry. The same philosophy can also be applicable for construction industry to get zero
defect on construction. So many construction companies are also focusing on TQM to bring
quality and reduce defects in construction job site.

Figure 4.17 Total quality management phases145

Well Total Quality Management is a process to improve the quality in the project through
continuous inspection in different phases. For that this process also depends on design and
other phases data that can be accurately provide by BIM model solutions. Perhaps it might
be possible in future on BIM solutions to integrate TQM process in BIM software.
In quality management some other philosophy are also used like QFD, Kaizans consequent
client orientation and so on. But these processes are not yet completely linked with BIM still
now. Thus in summary it might be wise to say that Quality management is a continuous
process to improve in every stage and BIM can be used as a source of information to bring
desired quality.

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In a short summary quality management can be viewed through following table


Quality
management
stages
Quality planning

Information
required

BIM support

Simulation
tools

Design quality
information(material
specification,
dimension and so
on), Construction
quality maintain
approach through
various field test

Visualization,
reliable
documentation and
clash detection
support to maintain
quality in
documents and in
field work

Navisworks

Quality assurance

Information on
quality in every
aspect.

Navisworks

Quality control

Quality information
to control

Visualization to
check the real and
virtual model
quality
Visualization and
monitoring support
through quality
database

BIM

Navisworks
or
different
models
software

Remarks

BIM acts as a
partial supportive
tool for quality
planning cause
quality
management needs
inspection and the
inspection should
be in real and
virtual BIM helps
to compare judge
the real and virtual
quality
BIM acts as a
supporting tool

Continuous
monitoring control
quality.

Table 4.3 Summary of quality management in BIM

5.2.4 Construction Project Human Resources Management in BIM


Construction project are involved with several types of resources. Among them human is
one of the important resource contrasts to other resources like machine, material and money.
Humans are dynamic resource. Dynamic in this reason those other resources cannot move
without this resource. Rests of resources are being static. Thus to manage this resource is a
vital and important job in construction management. More over project has different phase
and in every phase new human resources are joined in the project.
The main aspect of setting this human resource management is to ensure the optimal use of
people involved in the project that project get success. Project management body of
knowledge defines this management consisting with organizational planning, staff
acquisition and team development. In organizational planning they sets the project roles to

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different person, in staff acquisition assigned skilled people and in team development to
enhance project performance.146
Well besides this, human resource management can be more elaborately divide in two
sections. One section represents the management desk job and another section represents the
field work job consisting with different sub contractors human resource also. Human
resource management task in desk job starts from the beginning of the project. On behalf of
owner a project manager or construction manager assigned and organize design team, sets
the bid and organize the contract with general contractor. In this stage he/she has to assigned
different people and has to make coordination in their work. This step is termed as
management desk job and preconstruction human resource management phase. Where a
project manager can act as a HR manager and make coordination all the preconstruction
works.
In construction phase field human resource management is the main job to the management
team. A construction manager takes the HR manager role in this phase and coordinate the
works come from different subcontractors. This stage is more vital and crucial in project.
Because of maximum human resource is used in this stage. Key responsibility of human
resource management is to assign their work, meet their requirements and organize
necessary supports to perform their work. In construction stage scheduling defines the role
of human resources according to location and activity. Superintendent or site manager takes
the lead to manage these resources and architects; project manager takes the leader role of
office human resource management that everyone in the project gets coordinated all the time.
BIM is a source of appropriate project information for all the project stakeholders. BIM
cannot support human management team by assigning or appointing humans. BIM gives the
advantage of human resource management team that they can get exact project information
that makes them to assign people and to manage people. As an example for field
construction scheduling derives the human resource needs, numbers, mode of work and
placement according to location. BIM provides scheduling team necessary information
regarding project that helps them to assign people and define their role.
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So that in this way BIM doesnt take any direct participation in human resource
management. But model based BIM data acts as a helping tool for human resource
management team to manage this resource in an efficient manner that brings project success.
Human resource management is more physical work than technical and BIM provides
technical assistance through different model to assign human and to manage human
resource. But BIM has the opportunity to increase the productivity of this resource by
visualizing model based work and to optimize the work force. In future it might be possible
to make the human resource management system more efficient through including MIS and
BIM together. Where BIM will provide information regarding humans and MIS database
will query that information, filtered it and sends it to higher management personnel that they
can identify needs and take action. More over MIS based dashboard, reporting system with
BIM information makes this system more dynamic and efficient.
BIM development only occurs in design stage and some stages of construction phase like
model based estimating, model based scheduling and simulation. But rests of other issues
solutions are not available right this moment. Like BIM base HRM system is not exist right
now. In future BIM and MIS software can be make this thing together.
5.2.5 Construction Project Communications Management in BIM
Communications means contact with other people in order to get information. In
construction there are several stakeholders who are working in different stages. But their
jobs are linked with each other. They need information, updated information and shared
project status through communication. Project management body of knowledge defines the
communication management as the process which ensures collection, storage and supply the
project information to various stakeholders. Communication management includes
communication planning, information distribution, performance reporting and administrative
closure.147
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Communication is a demand of all phases of the project. To bring project success


communication is also another important criteria. Communication starts from the beginning
of the project when design phase starts. On the design phase designer has to keep
communication with other designers. As an example architect has to communicate with MEP
and structural designer to solve design related issues. Communication is more vital in the
field construction. When there is a lack of understandability of design drawing or any error
occurred in the construction field people has to communicate with different people to
mitigate the issue and keep pace on the project.
BIM provides effective communication in all stages. BIM communication contribution starts
from the design phases. In architectural drawing also several people do different section
drawing in the same model. They are not working in the same model or the same computer.
Different architectural BIM solutions have BIM server. From that server a single model is
possible to develop through different people from different computers. In authors simulated
model the same principle can be applicable. Through that the entire designers have effective
communication by sharing their model.
In this regard BIM brings effective communication in the design phase through BIM server.
BIM brings the visual communication which brings efficiency in work. But for voice
communication designers should use telephone, fax, and telephone or video conferencing.
BIM server or BIM models are using as a supportive tools to enhance the communication
inside the design team. Thus the construction dispute can avoid from design phase.
Communication management is most important in the construction phase of the project. On
that time there might be no architect or other engineers present for construction. Field
engineers or subcontractors have the drawing to build. In traditional or without BIM
technology the way is each trade foreman or site supervisor has the drawing and schedule.
According to that drawing and schedule they have to construct. If there is any problem arise
they have to inform it to site supervisor or manager. Site manager will meet with other stuffs
in the job trailer to solve this issue. They will review the drawing to identify the problem.
Due to 2D drawing sheet where informations are not intelligent it might not be easy to
understand or to realize the problem. They have to contact with design team or demand for
RFI.

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Though they have voice or videoconferencing system with architects or design team, the
situation will not change that brings instance solution or solution in a short time.
Visualization is an important fact for identifying and resolving problem. 2D document based
communication is not able to support instant solution of problems.
BIM provides solution of field construction disputes instantly or within a short time. For that
the full process should be run on BIM. That means designer has to provide BIM design
models to site manager or team that they can understand the design drawing in real 3D with
intelligent information.

Even it might be also possible to have this software on field

engineers tablet PC or in their laptops, that on site they can identify the problem and send it
to the site engineer with voice communication. And data transfer can be possible through
wireless network connection or wireless internet. At first the design mistake or construction
mistake should be send to the site manager. After that site manager will discuss the issue
with other persons in job trailer where there should be a big screen to visualize the problem.
If they can identify the problem and find out the solution, instantly they can send it to the
field engineer to maintain the project schedule. If the problem is not solved by field engineer
they can contact with architect or design team and send the model file with problem instantly
through internet.
After that architect or design team can review the whole thing and make update drawing for
solution and send it through internet again. On this case for effective data communication
they used BIM and for voice communication they used video conferencing. Through this
way BIM makes an effective role in communication management inside the project.
The voice communication, reporting or dashboard communication system does not exist in
BIM model. But in future it might be possible to create these features inside the BIM tools to
make effective communications through BIM solutions. It might be also possible to create
link between various MIS software solution and BIM together, that will also bring effective
communication inside the project which will reduce the risk of project time and cost overrun.
The main philosophy to use BIM in communication management is that project stakeholders
need information to perform work and to identify work. 2D or 3D documents are not capable
to generate real idea about the project or to make any solution in the project problems. BIM

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based 3D information make clear about all the issues which brings effective results in
communication and in design understanding in all phases of the project.

Figure 4.18 Design communications through IFC data format

Figure 4.19 Field communications through BIM

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5.2.6 Construction Project Risk Management in BIM


Construction profession is one of the highly risked professions. Risks are in every phase of
the construction process. Thus risk management is a crucial part of construction project
management. For a good risk management approach risk management divided into three
major terms. These terms are risk identification, risk quantification and risk mitigation.148
Risk can come from any phase of the project. Though those risks can predict to come from
some major stages and the stages are,
-Prebid risks
-Design risks
-Construction risks
-Political/legal/regulatory risks
-Financing risks
-Environmental risks149

BIM can support to reduce all the risks in some level. Because BIM is a virtual tool to
explore the model, it has no risk reducing technique itself. Thus risk management team can
take the advantage of visualization of the project to mitigate the risk in some level.

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Indiana; page no-310
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Prebid risks, their causes and influence of BIM are showing in the following tableRisk
Prebid

Risk type
Contract Risks

Prebid

Owner Risks

Prebid

Price Risks

Prebid

Time Risks

Prebid

Work/Labor risks

Prebid

Location Risks

Prebid

Estimating Risks

Risk pattern
Changes in work
Force majeure
Payment process
Retain age requirements
Warranty requirements
Reputation
Ability to fund project
Payment history
Company culture
Cost of self performed work
Cost of subcontractor labor
Cost of overhead
Cost of equipment
Cost of materials
High price materials/ equipment
Total project cost
Overall contract time
Subcontractor reliability
Time of year
Regulatory bureaucracy
Familiar work process
Major demolition of site work
Insufficient ground investigation
Proximity to office
Familiar with area
Difficult/remote access
Site congestion
Adequacy of pricing data
Excessive prep cost

BIM support
Model analysis reduce risk
No support
No support
No support
No support
No support
No support
No support
No support
Cost model analysis
Cost model analysis
Cost model analysis
Cost model
No support
Cost model
Cost model analysis
Model schedule
No support
Cost model analysis
No support
No support
Model analysis
No support
Site analysis
Site analysis
Site analysis
Site analysis
Cost model analysis
Cost model analysis

Table 4.4 Risk assessment and BIM support on prebid 150

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150

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Indiana; page no-311,312

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Design risks pattern, causes and BIM support are showing in the following tableDesign Risks
Poor quality in design drawings
Noncompliance with design
drawings
Owner directed changes
Excessive design review by owner,
architect
Inaccurate information sharing
Latent design defects

Description
Information and detailed for
construction is missing
Design does not met the
requirements by code
Owner change his mind during the
construction
Longer time to make review

BIM support
BIM drawings have quality and
reduce this risks
Model checker reduce this risk.

Information is not sufficient or


inaccurate
Quality problem due to poor
design

Model based information reduced


inaccuracy
Simulation reduce that risk

Adjusted easily everything through


design change
Model review takes shorter time

Table 4.5 Risk assessment and BIM support on design risks151

In construction procedure are also exist different types of risks. Those risks and BIM effect
to reduce those risks are given belowConstruction risks
Labor availability and quality of
labor pool
Differing site conditions
Site access, traffic and parking
issues
Property damage or theft issues
Coordination with utilities,
adjoining neighbors, and so on
Adverse weather

Description
Inadequate labor, lack of skilled
labor
Not according to plans and specs
of design drawing
Highly dense area can cause
significant delay
Security is an big issue
Coordination in utilities

BIM support
Location based scheduling model
determines labor workforce
Through Google earth and BIM
model early analysis
BIM model placement at the real
site reduced that risk.
Model and site analysis helpful to
make good security plan
Not supported in BIM

Unpredictable issue

Not supported through BIM

Table 4.6 Risk assessment and BIM support on construction risks 152

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152

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Political and legal rules are also a big risk factor for construction project. In the following
table risk pattern and BIM support showsPolitical/Legal risks
Changes in law
Changes in tax structure
Public concern disputes
Community issues
Harassment issues

Description
Changes in local, state and federal
laws
Changes in tax structure or
inflation
Public protest due to different
aspect
Dust, noise, mud and different
community issues
Breaches by employees

BIM support
No support
No support
Site analysis through model reduce
that risk
Site analysis through model reduce
that risk
No support

Table 4.7 Risk assessment and BIM support on political and legal issues153

Financing risks pattern and BIM effort are in following tableFinancing Risks
Economic climate
Contractor cash flow

description
Economic disaster
Unavailability of credit

Interest rate increases

Bank or other financial institute


decision
Delay in payment from client
Subcontractor financial crisis

In sufficient funds
Subcontractor/supplier bankruptcy

BIM support
No direct support
Cost model give prediction of
location and timely based cost
No support
No support
No support

Table 4.8 Risk assessment and BIM support in financing risks154

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The last stage of risks related with environmental and BIM supports are in the following
tableEnvironmental Risks
Environmental permits
Hazardous material or site
contamination
Archeological findings
Endangered spieces
Wetlands, coastal protection or
flood plain issues

Description
Environmental permit delays affect
the construction time
In construction this issues if
discovered
Unknown artifacts discovered
Spieces protection and special care
in construction
Special protection

BIM support
No direct support
No direct support
No direct support
Site analysis support
Site analysis support

Table 4.9 Risk assessment and BIM support in environmental risks 155

These are common risks are associated in construction project. Thus by early evaluation
construction management team makes decision about the project. BIM is a helping tool to
quantify and mitigate the risk. Perhaps it is not fully possible to mitigate or make analysis of
all kinds of risks through BIM. Some certain stages BIM reduced the level of risk and make
forecasting. Like in scheduling Monte Carlo simulation reduced the scheduling risks. In
that way BIM plays efficient role at the design risks also. Where BIM collaborate all the
project designers and make coordination on the documentation. This design related risks are
mitigating a lot through BIM.
In general the process is risk management team identifies the risks and then quantifies it
according to numbers. After that they tried to mitigate those risks through different ways.
They can use risk retention, risk avoidance, risk abatement, risk transfer or risk allocation
method to remove the level of risk from the project. BIM plays the role as an analysis tool to
quantify the pattern of risk. BIM also evaluate the process best for mitigate that risks.

____________________________
155

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-318

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5.2.7 Construction Project Safety Management in BIM


Safety is related with construction procedure quality. It also affects the completion of project
in estimated time and cost. Life is much worth than anything. Thus in every project safety
management is an important task to perform. Site managers or the senior hierarchy in the
field construction has to ensure the construction safety. For that in every project safety plan
is important. It mentioned about the safety importance and casualties in construction in the
first chapter of this thesis. As usual safety professionals are using concepts like safety plan,
hazardous material information, unsafe zone marking, safety instructions, equipment
handling procedure and so on.
BIM makes an important contribution to make safety plan by determining the unsafe zone in
the project. It should be keeping in mind that, BIM based software are the visualizing tools
for safety planners. It does not have any safety measurement by itself. But it can be possible
through the rule set checking. If a rule can be set like safety zone determination and check it
through model check software than those model check results can determine the unsafe zone
in the project. Like Naviswork and through Solibri model checker this can be possible. It is
helpful to determine the risky zone for the workers and according to that, safety planner can
made their safety plan.

Figure 4.20 Safety rule set and check in Naviswork

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Model checking rule set can give solution to identify risky zones for workers. Besides this
by virtual exploring the model safety planner can able to take safety measures. Like by
virtual exploring safety team can able to determine the unsafe zone and even if they want
they can install some video cam that provides safety and also help to monitor the work also.
For safety management OSHA Jobsite handbook provides some guidelines. Among them the
four primary components are management commitment, jobsite analysis, hazardous
prevention and control, safety and health training.
In these four components BIM can provide support only on jobsite analysis as previously
discussed. BIM provide support by model check and virtual inspection for determine unsafe
zone. As we know on each jobsite they have some nets and other safety features which
provide safety on behalf of fall in, from the top of structure. The placement of this net in
right position is also a big task for the safety management team. Through BIM it can
possible. In BIM model after identifying the unsafe zone this net can be possible to set up by
adding some object like net or other safety tools in the model. Even its also possible to
make the model of the framework on which worker will work.

Figure 4.21 Safety net models in through architect model

Through virtual visualization BIM support the safety management in the project which
brings better safety plan and safety measurement. But for other safety measurements like
safety training, instrument manual, safety according to machine work is more physical task

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and hence BIM based model is not effective on this issues. But the major issue, falls around
33% of total job site accident can be possible to prevent through BIM based visual safety
plan.156
5.2.8 Construction Project Environmental Management in BIM
Environmental issues are now a days big issue in construction industry. Due to
environmental impact so many construction works stopped at the mid stage of the project.
Over all in ethics it will not good to disturbed the environment for construction.
Environmental management is also important with other issues in construction. As discussed
in the first chapter environmental management is important due to building legislation,
environmental legislation, neighbor concern, ecological concern and so on. The
environmental impact also depends on project size, project place, working method,
machineries used for construction and over all the involvement of people. These
management issues are physical issues to take decision regarding environmental
management. The general problems in environment due to construction are noise,
construction dust and mud, storm water pollution, endangered species, wetland protection,
vegetation; historical and cultural artifacts clean up and trash removal, recycling the
wastes.157
BIM cannot provide total solution for environmental protection or environmental
management. BIM model provides support to make necessary decision related
environmental management. Through BIM model importing in the real site, environmental
management team can decide the issues like how to minimize the effect on vegetation, how
to reduce the storm water pollution by providing drainage, where to put up the trash and
debris, where to set up the trash removal plant and so on. In this simulation author place the
model in real situation and explore the surroundings which should be a matter of concern
about environment and according to these take necessary actions.
___________________________
156

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-318; page no-303
157

Barbara J. Jackson, 2010; Construction Management Jump start 2 nd Edition, Wiley Publications Inc. Indianapolis,
Indiana; page no-318; page no-214

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Figure 4.22 Transfer the model in Google earth for determine the environmental effect

The main role of BIM model is to visualize the project situation with respect to the real site
condition. Google sketch up gives the opportunity to transfer the model in the real position
by providing co ordinate in the Google earth software. In present situation BIM can provide
the real condition scenario before construction and through help Google earth it is possible
to get the idea about surroundings. Obviously this visualization can help to make an effective
environmental management plan. At last about environmental management through BIM is
that, this job is very physical decision based and BIM can be a supporting tool for analyzing
and visualizing the situation through virtual real time placement.

Figure 4.23 Model in Google Sketch up pro

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5.2.9 Construction Project Procurement Management in BIM


Procurement is a step related with design, cost estimating and quality. In procurement the
first thing to understand that what should procure, how to procure and also concerning the
related cost and quality. In this regard procurement management is divided in procurement
planning; documenting product requirements, solicitation, source selection, contract
administration and contract close out with seller, according to project management body of
knowledge.
For procurement, planning is necessary. Procurement in construction means procure
material, labor, and machineries etc. This procurement can be done either by tender
procedure or by previous work relationship. To procure material and other things the main
important aspect is to take care about the quality of the product. The main reason for that is,
on that product the total project will build. In this regard during procurement stage
procurement team has to take care architect specification on individual material for quality
maintain and to procure timely that workers get their materials in the right time.
For procurement BIM can contribute largely. Procurement is largely involved with design.
From the design estimator calculates the material needs. Now a days designer used different
types of material object which comes from different vendors. Vendors make the object
model and make their own library and architect by using that library design the model. So
that procurement list already comes from the design model. But about for material like stone,
cement, labor for that manual calculation is needed. These quantities are based on RCC
design.
In procurement BIM can contribute more. Its also possible to make a database through BIM
for procurement. But right this moment BIM procurement is exist only in design elements. If
architect used the material from the vendor object library, on that case BIM software
provides a procurement list. But to procure things such as contract, price negotiation, quality
checking etc, are quite manual work. In this simulated model author used such curtain wall,
door and windows from a vendor object library and thus on later stage procurement team has
not to waste time to decide where to procure and how to procure on this step. But there still
quality issues and pricing issues are important which cannot be solved by BIM.

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Figure 4.24 Procurement material list from architect (simulated) model

By digital fabrication BIM is not only helped the fabricator it also helped the procurement
team to define the material and procured it with quality. More over BIM based time
simulation shows the construction stage. By using that, procurement team can define the
material needs and according to that they can make their plan like the latest time to procure
the material which can also brings save in project and make coordination in the works. RFID
tags, GPS technologies, laser scanning technologies support the procurement through BIM
database. Like if the procured material has RFID tags and on that tag the informations such
material quality, where to place and how to place this informations can be found. Thus it
ensure the procured material security and their placement information.
As a summary of procurement stage, the involvement of BIM is depends largely on the
object library. If there are enough objects from vendors on that time it helps the engineers
and others to design and also procurement team. But in rest of formalities like purchase
order, cost, tender on this cases BIM still now not make any contribution.

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5.2.10 Construction Project Financial Management in BIM


Financial management and cost management have very deep relation in nature. The idea of
financial management is that, in the very beginning of any project general contractor has to
carry the initial costs for couple of months. Owner always pays money after completion of
certain stage. But project is an ongoing process. Money is needed for paying subcontractor,
material costs, labor cost, salary and in other aspects also.
Recently financial management gets more importance due to some new project contract
system such as Design-build-own-operate or design-build-operate-maintain. In this project
delivery method for this aspect financial management has more importance. Financial
management is different from cost management in this way that, it has more concerned about
revenue, cash flows. Moreover its relating with day to day expense or cash flow
management of project labor and materials. For a good financial management financial
planning and financial control is both important along with administrative financial data
record.158
For financial management financial analyst is an important person who has might be no
knowledge about BIM. So for a financial analyst he/she will use his tools for making
financial analysis, financial plan, financial control and administrative data. But the important
fact is that financial plan is closely linked with cost estimation and can be said that it will be
a more updated version of cost control sheet. As earlier mention by using BIM software cost
estimation can be done easily. So in this way cost control, cost estimation and financial
management are linked together. From cost estimation data both cost control and financial
control can get more accuracy in cost information. Thus BIM software might be not able to
generate direct financial management contribution but partially through cost model it makes
the way to collaborate both financial management team and cost management team. The cost
control techniques can be applicable for financial control also. Besides this financial analyst
has their own techniques to control and forecast about financial control.
__________________________________
158

Construction Extension to A Guide to the PROJECT Management Body of Knowledge; PMBOK Guide-2000 Edition,
page no- 117

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Finance plan

Cost estimation from


model
BIM process

Financial plan and control


Cost control

Cost identify

Total project finance and


cost control
BIM initial process, cost
control techniques,
financial analysis
techniques

collaboration
techniques

Figure 4.25 Financial management process in simulated model

In this simulated model author made the financial management by combining cost estimation
data, cost control method and implement financial day to day data as a cash flow in excel
sheet. In this case BIM provides the initial information for project cost. According to that
cost, financial management team make financial plan and make combined application of cost
control and financial control. At last they input the data in excel sheet along side with cost
data. In this way BIM contribution can be possible in financial management that can make
collaboration together cost management and financial management work.
5.2.11 Construction Project Claim Management in BIM
Construction projects are vital. So many stakeholders are bounded in a certain project
through different legal contracts or legal entities. In the first chapter, construction claim
management discussed earlier. In this section the contribution of claim management in BIM
will focused.
Claim can be arise from any side of the project. It might be possible to come out from owner
due to poor work by general contractor or may be from general contractor due to give some
misinformation. It also possible that claim comes from another party like from
neighborhood. Project management body of knowledge divides this claim management in
claim identification, claim quantification, claim prevention and claim resolution.

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BIM is a virtual view of the construction project. BIM also has an intelligent model database
which contains all the necessary data regarding project. So if there is any claim regarding
project construction, BIM can be a useful tool for both claim identification and
quantification. Claim prevention and resolution are more physical negotiation process.
Hence it has no relation with BIM. If the claim comes from neighborhood on that case BIM
can also provide necessary information in maximum aspects.
In this simulated model author makes a claim and identify it and quantify it with BIM. After
that, prevention and resolution are done by negotiation. The claim comes from owner after
completion the project. According to owner identification project certain part is not meet the
model requirements. To solve this claim general contractor discussed with architect how to
identify and quantify this claim. They take a decision that both manual process and
photography or laser scanning model compared with BIM model and solve this problem. So
that, General contractor take the physical dimension of the project and compare it with
model dimension. The result shows that 99% accuracy with model. Later they also take
photography and laser scanning model data and compared it with the model and found also
98% accuracy. In this way both owner and general contractor through the BIM model data
solved this issue.
In summary of claim management it might be wise to say that, BIM gives more advantages
in claim management issues by technological support but cannot provide full solution.
Because its not like an automated process, human interaction is needed to prevent and
resolve claim issues
5.2.12 Construction Project Site and Logistics Management in BIM
Site coordination and logistics setting are also important in field construction. The
construction work pace also depends on site planning and logistics support. In construction
job site in a single moment so many works take place. Workers need materials and other
stuffs close to their hand. Crane position is also an important factor on job site to get the
maximum output from that.
Through BIM and Google earth site coordination and management are now faster and
reliable. Site coordination job is related to the job trailer set up, material placement, crane

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placement, different types of equipment set up, toilet trailer and other necessary facility.
BIM software models provide visual analysis to place these things according to location
based schedule work. Even through using Google earth and Google sketch up it also possible
to set the model in the real place and analyze the site situation.159 In this simulated model
author also place the model in the real site to analyze the site condition and according to that,
set the site material and other equipments. For site planning model based analysis is create
forecasting regarding project different works coordination.

Figure 4.26 Model placed at real site to make site management plan

For logistics, BIM provides support on logistics placement. Like the best or suitable place
from which workers get maximum benefit. Through Google earth logistics plan can make
according to judge the distance from the site and this information makes effective role on
scheduling and material procurement. BIM model are helping tool to set the logistics support
like crane and other equipments. For material transport such as readymade concrete and
other materials which are not possible to store in site, on that case material radius
measurement through Google earth makes difference in productivity.
______________________
159

Daniel Tal, 2009 ;Google Sketch Up For Site Design, A guide for Modeling, Site Plans, Terrains and Architecture,
John Wiley and Sons,Inc. Page no-67

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Through this way BIM based model analysis and other tools such as Google earth makes
more efficient site and logistics plan.

Figure 4.27 Logistics placement model in the site

5.3 BIM Implementation in Post Construction


After completing the construction stage general contractor has to hand over the project to the
owner for occupancy. But before that, general contractor has to perform some documentation
and final inspection regarding check out and so on. BIM has also identical role on project
handover and facility management team take off the facility.

5.3.1 Handover Management in BIM


After finishing the construction general contractor has to handover the project to the owner.
But before handover general contractor has to inspect everything that must meet the design
quality and specification requirement. On that time if they found some minor defects it
called as punch-out. Every project has such kind of minor errors. After repairing or changing
that places architect inspect everything and if that goes right architect issues a substantial
completion certificate. But the final completion certificate provide by architect when the
entire contract related paperwork has done.

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BIM makes a well organized documentation handover in this stage. Because facility is
construct according to the design drawing, thus already model has all the documents. It
depends on contract that general contractor has to provide the model or just only document.
Through BIM this process takes less time and makes a digital documentation.
Punch-out list comes from physical inspection and its related with quality control of the
project. Hence the contribution of BIM in punch-out phase is negligible, can be used as an
auxiliary tool to review the model. But for inspection of the project for both architect and
general contractor, can take the advantage from BIM. Because BIM model data and laser
scanning model data can help to find out the specification requirement problem and for
quality also.
Commissioning is also an important stage in the handover period where general contractor
has to show how to run the total facility equipment system. BIM based MEP models can
make a good visual representation that helps people to understand about the facility
equipment system. More over if the model has database itself through different equipments
name and function than it will make a digital location based facility equipment information.
Certificate of occupancy is an important job before using the facility. To get this BIM model
representation, makes a clear idea to the government officials about the facility and
according to their visit they can ensure about the model and real construction safety for
occupancy. Thus BIM makes a well representation of facility to understand the safety
requirements meet or not.
As earlier mentioned BIM provides well documentation about drawings. But for warranties,
testing reports, operation manual right this moment is not possible to make such kind of
database through BIM software. But for that, in addition excel based database can be made,
where all the information will be written according to model location. Through this way
author defines the documentation and handover phase in this simulated project.
5.3.2 Facility Management in BIM
Facility management starts after hand over the project. On that time project team hand over
all the documents, drawings, models, equipment manual, equipment warranty list etc. In the
chapter no. two how BIM contribute in facility management describe briefly. In this section

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author will demonstrate how BIM can provide facility management support in the simulated
model. The simulated building model is a 2 storey building. After finishing the construction
general contractor arranged all the drawings, models and other documents together and
transfers it to the facility management team. Besides that, general contractor provides a
database of information regarding MEP. General Contractor arranges a commissioning and
provides training support to facility management team that they can take care of the facility.
After getting the model design and specs, facility management team will make their own
model or make a database through CAFM. On the other hand they can use the construction
model also. But on that case the main problem is that, they have to own the software on that
time which is a big issue and it will increase the expense to maintain the facility. The easy
solution for that, early involvement of facility management team in the beginning of
construction design, that they can take the necessary data from design model and make their
own database. After completion the project they will add some additional information and by
that they will make maintenance and further renovation if necessary. In this simulated model
author makes the early involvement of facility management team in the design phase and
solved this issue at the beginning phase of the project. Author followed the following pattern
to get assistance from BIM to do the facility management.
Design team and
facility management
team

Facility documents
in CAFM database

Manual input
construction
data

Facility
Database

Figure 4.28 Facility management flowcharts in BIM

Facility
Manage.
ment..

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6. Discussion and Conclusion


Last four chapters demonstrate the relationship between construction project management
and Building Information Modeling. But the fact is, this relation sometimes not generic,
sometimes are superimposed. BIM is a present technological advancement in construction
industry. It gives the opportunity to make the simulation of the building. But it does not a
complete solution for construction automation in every phase. In these sections some lacking
of BIM and future of BIM discussed.
6.1 Future BIM Construction Management
The modification of construction industry is needed due to increase the productivity and
keep pace with manufacturing industry. To make these changes BIM is an effective tool. But
the tool is not yet developed properly that AEC people can get the benefit in all the sector of
construction industry. The major fact is the development limitation of BIM. BIM is not yet
developed properly as theoretically it termed. But there is a big prospect through BIM to
make automation in construction industry. BIM is now getting the basic skeleton. Now the
BIM developer needs to make this skeleton as a full structure. Through this thesis work,
there are some identical proposals made by author for the future prospects of BIM. Future
BIM should develop like this.
First of all, its true that BIM makes a good visualization. But visualization is not enough
now. With visualization construction people need data, which datas are intelligent and have
the ability to change linked data through changing one data. Now BIM models are individual
model. Like for architectural work architect model, for structural engineer structural model,
for MEP engineers MEP model. These models are different from each other in functions.
But the basic design data is same. Its true that there is better coordination in data exchange
that makes the collaboration in design team. Thus BIM is widely used by designers. But this
process can be developed by making a composite model
The future BIM model should be composite model. That one single model contains all the
information. One single model has separate database for structural, architectural, MEP
model. Thus it can work as a complete design model. Through one change in design by any
designer it can generate rest of changes very easily in the rest of design drawings. But the
process in todays BIM technology is that, it can make change in a single model and then

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again has to transfer the modified model data to the rest of models to make changes. Its also
a tedious job. But if there is a single design model that have all the data, than one single
change can change the whole model. Composite model means not just only contain the
design data. It contains the entire data related project. It has the total database of the project.
It has cost data, procurement data, safety data, risk data, environmental data and all the
aspect related to construction. But for that there should be separate model for every aspect.
Or it might be that, one software have different window to make individual model and later
merge it in a single model. That model works as a composite or master model. Besides that,
separate models are also existing in that window, when people need to go through they can
see that model.

Construction
model
Pre
construction
model

Post
Construction
model

Composite
model

Figure 5.1 Composite model concept

The preconstruction model will be consist of design (architect, structural and MEP), and cost
model. Construction model will be combination of time, safety, procurement, environmental,
risk, financial, claim and site logistics model. The idea is that, there should be a server of
models where the skeleton of structure made at first and then different people will make it as
a complete structure and it will work as a database. Through filtering that data different
designer will make their individual model and send data on the main server. In this way the
whole process will go on a single platform. Post construction model will consist of all the
design documents in a single file and helps to make punch out list through comparing the

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original model and checking through laser scanning data. After that all the information will
be transferred to facility manager that, facility manager take it on their server or CAFM
system. It might be wise if facility manager can involved earlier and through all the model
information they make their own model and merge it to the composite model.
The concepts of BIM server is that, either it will be an open source of platform where
architect will made the model or the frame of the model and than in later stages rest of
designers or users will reach that database with adding information. Its not only just adding
information. It will also possible to get the data access from that server. The complete BIM
server platform will be worked as a composite model. BIM server will be the system of
enriching or extracting model information that can be used in various stages of the project.
The second concept of BIM server is that, it will act as a central database where all the data
will store and after that it will filter that data and provide in next stages. It will determine the
data need for the next stage by query that information and after that flow information to
make that certain model. When the model will complete, BIM server collect that model and
grab all the information inside it and stored it on the database or it can be worked as a data
warehouse. Through this way BIM server provides necessary information or data throughout
the full construction process. This BIM server also linked with the composite model. But the
composite model will build after getting all the datas.
The future BIM should have connection with GIS like Google Earth software and 3D laser
scanning data that any real time information can put in the model. Through using that model,
can make the view of real scenario and reduce different risks.
There should be a question how to make the database of BIM. There is a solution to include
MIS system with BIM. ERP or enterprise resource planning probably brings the solution.
ERP system has own interface to query and extract data and make data flow in necessary
areas. So if the BIM 3D intelligent data model and ERP can combine together it will make
efficient result through BIM server which will make the real automation in the construction
management approach. This one is a big subject to illustrate the view how to combine both
ERP and BIM. But it is possible to combine this by changing their architecture. By using
ERP and BIM its possible to provide information in all the stages with combining some

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other plug-in tools like Google earth, CityGML data. On that time there will be real
interoperability with different software.

Facility
management
model data

Pre construction data


Query and
filter data

BIM server/ BIM


datawarehouse

Post
construction
documentation
model data

Query
and
filter
data

Query and
filter data

Design data
model
Query and
filter data

Construction
management
data model

Figure 5.2 BIM server data collection and transfer model

Construction automation can be another future aspect of BIM. Through BIM construction
automation can be possible. The idea by author for that is, if the structure is precast concrete
than with this BIM support construction automation can be possible. There are matching
toys for child. Childrens are matching that toy to make different structure, like house. As a
simple example so called Lego toys where there are different parts of this toy and they
have to make the toy like a house by combining different parts of that house. Like this if the
model made by BIM and the whole model is divided into some manageable parts for precast
into factory. After that each element has a RFID tag according to the model data like a
number. Than an automated crane select the elements, read the RFID tag and put it on the

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right place. This should be future automation in construction industry with the support of
BIM.
3D laser scanning data and BIM can be used together for quality or design checking of the
building. This technology is not used today but author suggests it as a future technology by
using BIM. The idea for that is, after making the building or facility now has to check the
quality of the building in materials or in dimension. This is possible through laser scanning
of the building. By scanning the total data of the building and by some kind of ray quality
can also be judged. After that both data will transfer in CityGML format and make the 3D
model through laser scanning. Then both models can be checked together in a model checker
and easily figure out the actual construction and the deserved construction.
These are some ideas from author as an optimistic user of BIM. It is a matter of researches
that how to combine BIM technology with others to get a visualized intelligent support.
Hopefully through that the productivity of construction industry will increase much more
than todays progress.
6.2 Discussions and Results
The main objective of this thesis paper is to demonstrate the way of using BIM in
construction management. The starting time of construction management is differed to
people. Some people thought construction management will start at the construction stage.
But author has different opinion. Construction management starts from the idea of the
construction. Because without proper management from that time it will not possible to
bring optimize result. Its not wise to spend 1 year for design and bid and later make hurry to
make it in just 2 years. The concept is that optimization should be from the very beginning.
BIM brings that idea, optimization or collaboration from the very beginning of the project.
Thus here is a link construction management and BIM. As earlier mentioned BIM is a
supporting tool process. Its not a complete automated process. AEC people have to take the
maximum advantage of this technology with some other helping tools. As a simple example
in the site management author used Google Sketch and Google Earth software. Both are not
BIM solution but they are worked as helping tools for BIM model. It should be remember

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that, the model of building or infrastructure is the basic element to judge the construction.
Site condition softwares are working as auxiliary tools.
Current BIM solutions are not perfect to support the total construction management, these
solutions need additional supports from other software like Google Earth, Microsoft excel
and so on. Its not a big fact that current BIM solutions have no every features itself which
required for total construction management. With using other tools in required format the
process can be done. But the fact is interoperability. Some BIM solutions have limited
interoperability. As an example author made IFC file as a common format but in Google
earth or sketch up its not possible to upload IFC file. Thus author has to take it on Revit
architecture make it as DWG file format and then transfer it to the Google sketch up for
uploading it on the real environment.
There are limitations and problems in BIM current technology. Some are technical, some are
financial and some of them are process based. Before making any criticism on BIM its wise
to look at the research questions and their answers.
First question was about the concept of BIM and construction management. The answer is
spread throughout the work. But in a simple sentence the answer can be given as, visual
collaboration is the key concept of BIM and optimize the project from the beginning phase is
the key concept of construction project management.
Chapter no. three has the answer of linkage of BIM and construction project management. In
a summary of this can be said that, BIM worked as a model based visual tool to increase the
productivity of construction through using it in various construction management phases.
The answer of question three and four are also in chapter three and chapter four.
BIM make collaboration in this concept that it brings the entire stakeholder in one platform
from the very beginning. Through this way BIM brings continuous data exchange and
information flow from inception to facility management of the construction. Contract is a
vital issue for implement of BIM. Only IPD is defined as a BIM based contract. Where AEC
people have the knowledge of BIM and the whole construction work should be done in BIM
approach through collaboration. But rest of other contract method has to modify for BIM
implementable in construction. The main problem arise in the contract that who will bear the

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142

cost of BIM technology and exactly what should be the data details in the contract. In
chapter four author give some solutions about this how to modify the general contracts by
adding some clause and make it friendly for BIM implementable.
BIM is not implementable only for building projects. Currently infrastructure projects are
also using BIM as a technological advancement support. Like described in this paper horse
shoe bridge in USA, Bucharest stadium by Max Bgl etc. are the big advanced use of BIM
in infrastructure projects.
The answer of last question by analyzing the total construction process through BIM it found
that, BIM is not yet developed to support the total construction management right this
moment. The softwares are capable to do some part of construction management by itself
and by taking help from other plug-in tool. The main reason for this fragmentizes is that,
construction project management is a vast area to manage where visualization and intelligent
information provides support to manage this but there are so many lacking still now exist
which should have to develop to bring total construction management through BIM. In
chapter four these lacking and brief recommendation are given by author about this research
question.
BIM is a new technology with lots of potentiality itself. The concept is theoretically strong.
Its a matter of time to get the full success from BIM. BIM provides benefit at the design
stage of the construction by making collaboration with all kind of stakeholder of the project
for better understanding and productivity in work. But in construction management BIM is
not a complete technology. Its not a single software or database that holds all the
information. But the idea of BIM is to make it as an intelligent database for the facility
which can be used by project stakeholders from the very beginning to the end of the facility.
Current BIM solutions are partially capable to do this but not exactly provide full support.
More over BIM is an expensive technology. The total BIM solution is a combination of
several software solutions and each of them are highly cost able. So that interoperability of
this software is also a big question. Its not productive for any contractor to change BIM
software for every new contract. Thus BIM also needs a management. This can be termed as
virtual management or BIM management. The practical application of this virtual
management will be the field construction management. Virtual management team and

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

practical management team can be run by same people. So that it also a matter of give proper
education to understand BIM. Its also a big reason, not to welcome this technology in
construction management fully. These tables demonstrate the demand and support of BIM
after analyzing the total construction management by BIM
Management
approach
Integration
Management

Requirement
support
1.Feasibilty study
2.Design integration

BIM support

Scope Management

1.Contract method
2.Bid

1.IPD
provides
BIM
based
contract.
2. Provide digital
design
information for
bid

Cost management

1.Model based cost


estimation

Information and
quantity take off
from the model
and make cost
estimation

Cost Control

1.Cost estimation
based cost control

No support on
cost
control,
manual control is
needed
with
different
other
software

Time management

Scheduling

Model
based
scheduling
and
simulation

Quality
management

1.Zero defect
2.Architectural
requirement fulfill
3.Total quality
control

1.Visualization
support

1.Through
Google earth and
sketck up
2.Full support on
design integrtaion

Challenge to
BIM
1.Google earth
and sketch up are
not
intelligent
BIM software
2.Integration
depends on
owner
requirements and
also ability of the
design firm
1.Other contract
method are not
suitable for BIM.
No clear
statement about
BIM costs and
responsibilities

Visualization is
not perfect,
model cannot
identify every
element. Manual
input is needed.
More over cost
data not reflect
on the model
No model based
cost control

1.Quality
measurement
database
unavailable
2.Not able to
determine zero
defect

Recommendation
1. plug-in with BIM
software that
schematic design can
analysis roughly at
the feasibility stage
2. BIM work
procedure should be
continuous, so that
BIM based design
firm should be choose
1. Adding some
additional legal
clauses is possible to
make BIM based
contract where it
should written who
will bear the software
cost and additional
other expenses
Up gradation on
costing models that
shows the cost and
should have some
plug-in tools with cost
estimating software
that one change on
that software reflect
on the model
Cost estimation
software should be
model and data based.
They have linked with
other software and
that data change must
be reflect on the total
model
Time
should
be
measured from the
inception
of
the
project
1.Make separate
quality database
2.Model based
element quality data.
3. Laser scanning
model build up for
measure quality and
compare with BIM

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Management
approach
Human
resource
management

Requirement
support
1.Skilled human
assigned
2. Project role
determined

BIM support

Communication
management

1.Communication
planning
2. Information share
3. Reporting

1.Intelligent
information share
2. Data exchange
support
3. Effective
collaboration by
sharing
information

Risk management

Risk measurement
in every stage of
construction

Model
based
simulation
and
analysis support

Safety management

Safety data

Model
based
visualization to
determine unsafe
zone

Environmental
management

Determine the
impact of
construction on
surrounding
environment

Visualized
construction site
analysis through
help of Google
earth

Procurement
management

1.Procured element
list

1. Model based
procured element
support through
BOQ

Financial
management

1.Financial control
2. Financial data
record

1. Support
through cost
model

1.Through cost
and time
estimating human
requirement
measurement
2. Data share to
assign role of the
human resource
3.Data
management
support for desk
management

Challenge to
BIM
1.No template
available to
assign people
2. Not able to
query data
3.Manual data
share support
4. No monitoring
and reporting
process on
project activities

Recommendation

1.Manual process
2. Not able to
filter data
3.No database to
store all the
design
information in a
single model
3. No voice
communication
Not able to
assign risk
assessment in
different stage
Not
able
to
provide
total
safety support

1. Composite model
2.BIM open server
3.BIM and MIS
linked together
4. Should provide
voice communication
support

No database
related
environmental
impact, like noise
measurement,
dust control etc
1. No automatic
data entry

1.No detail
information
related project
financial
condition.

1. MIS and BIM


should be together to
manage human
resource more
effectively

1.Separtae risk
analysis model

1.Naviswork safety
rule check
2. Element safety data
3. Instrument manual
4. safety information
database and share
1.Should be checked
at the design stage by
different analysis
BIM solution

1. RFID tag or bar


code to entry the
procured model in the
database of the model
2. Qulaity checking in
the procurement stage
1. Financial software
should merge with
BIM cost model to
make efficient report
to determine financial
condition of the
project.

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Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

Management
approach
Claim management

BIM support

Site and logistics


management

Requirement
support
1.Claim from owner
2.Claim from
general contractor
3.Claim from third
party
1.Site planning
2.Logistics planning

1. Model place in
the real
construction site

1. No separate
tools for design
site and logistics

Handover
management

1.Documentation
2.Punchout list

Model based
complete
documentation

Facility
management

1.Facility over all


data

Model based
design data

Construction
management
incomplete
documentation
Facility
management
model

1.Visualized
model based
claim analysis

Challenge to
BIM
1. No decision
support

Recommendation
Its a physical
judgment procedure
and BIM helps to
make a good
judgment
Google earth and
BIM work together to
assign a real site and
logistic plan
Composite
model
documentation

CAFM and BIM


model can combine
together

Table 5.1 BIM support in overall construction management

In previous table the total strength of BIM in construction management is came out. Through
this analysis it found that BIM is enough good to increase the productivity of construction
industry by providing collaboration. This thesis paper demonstrates that the synchronization
of construction management is possible through BIM but it needs some additional software
support. Currently the situation of BIM in total construction industry is that BIM is the
solution of construction problems but need to make it more advanced with diminishing the
implementable physical and technical problems like contractual, interoperability,
advancement with new tools and all over on combining MIS and BIM together to make a
central database.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

146

6.3 Conclusion

BIM or Building Information Modeling is the technological demand of present construction


industry. But unfortunately it is used in some particular areas of construction. Such as
design, cost and time management and little bit in facility management.
Meanwhile the prospect of BIM is much wider. For that the first thing necessary is to
understand the possibilities where it can be applicable. Right this moment its true that BIM
cannot able to manage the total construction management itself. But it should be remember
that BIM is a technological support tool to bring productivity. It does not itself as a
systematic process. BIM brings efficiency with a systematic process and it also depends on
the user creativity. At this moment BIM is in an initial stage. Thus it needs help from other
software such as Google earth for real time visualization.
BIM or Building Information Modeling is a visualization and collaboration technique which
has the prospect to bring automation in construction from the design to completion phase of
the project. Currently all over the world BIM is used in construction process but not with full
utilization power.
The aspect of this paper is to demonstrate the way of using BIM in construction
management. Well BIM has limitation or is developing itself. Besides that its possible to
use BIM in the construction management phases with the help of some other software. It
might not bring total automation management in construction but it can show the future
construction automation. Construction management process is a complicated process where
lots of personnel are involved. To maintain or synchronize construction project work exact
data or information in a short time is mandatory. Through this work its now clear that BIM
can meet the demand of exact information in a short time. More over data transfer or share is
also a big aspect in management. BIM brings efficiency on it with IFC also. Still now
interoperability is a concerning matter but its developing. Manufacturing industries
productivity increased due to use of technological support where construction industries are
now intending to take this support. BIM is a technique or supporting process which increase
productivity like manufacturing industries.

Synchronization of Construction Project Management in Building Information Modeling

147

At the end to say about BIM is that, BIM is the future of construction but the beginning
should start from now. It will not be wise to wait until the full automation technology
discovered. Construction industries have to use this technology with the help of other
technologies to synchronize construction management work from now and should have to
contribute developing this technology. The way showed this paper is a way to use BIM in
construction management while its a urge that research work are more necessary on it to
bring automated construction. Because BIM will take the lead on that automation process.

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148

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