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Jaws (lm)

1 Plot

Jaws is a 1975 American lm directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchley's 1974 novel of the
same name. The prototypical summer blockbuster, its
release is regarded as a watershed moment in motion picture history. In the story, a giant man-eating great white
shark attacks beachgoers on Amity Island, a ctional New
England summer resort town, prompting the local police
chief to hunt it with the help of a marine biologist and a
professional shark hunter. The lm stars Roy Scheider as
police chief Martin Brody, Richard Dreyfuss as oceanographer Matt Hooper, Robert Shaw as shark hunter Quint,
Murray Hamilton as Larry Vaughn, the mayor of Amity
Island, and Lorraine Gary as Brodys wife, Ellen. The
screenplay is credited to both Benchley, who wrote the
rst drafts, and actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote
the script during principal photography.

A group of teenagers are having an evening beach party

on Amity Island and Chrissie Watkins (Susan Backlinie)
decides to swim in the ocean. While treading, she is
pulled underwater. The next morning, Deputy Hendricks
(Jerey Kramer) nds her remains on the beach. Upon
hearing from the medical examiner that the cause of death
was a possible shark attack, Police Chief Martin Brody
(Roy Scheider) proceeds to close the beaches, but Mayor
Larry Vaughn (Murray Hamilton) overrules him, fearing
news of a shark attack will ruin the summer tourist season, the towns primary revenue source. He rationalizes
that there have been no prior shark problems in the area,
and theorizes the girl was killed in a boating accident.
The coroner concurs and Brody reluctantly accepts their
Shot mostly on location on Marthas Vineyard in conclusion.
Massachusetts, the lm had a troubled production, go- When another fatal shark attack occurs shortly aftering over budget and past schedule. As the art depart- wards, several actions are taken to handle the situation.
ments mechanical sharks suered many malfunctions, Amid an amateur shark-hunting frenzy, local professional
Spielberg decided to mostly suggest the animals pres- shark hunter Quint (Robert Shaw) oers his services for
ence, employing an ominous, minimalistic theme created $10,000. Matt Hooper (Richard Dreyfuss), a consulting
by composer John Williams to indicate the sharks im- oceanographer, arrives and examines Chrissies remains.
pending appearances. Spielberg and others have com- He concludes that the cause of death was denitely a
pared this suggestive approach to that of classic thriller shark attack.
director Alfred Hitchcock. Universal Pictures gave the
lm what was then an exceptionally wide release for a The local shermen catch a large tiger shark, but Hooper
major studio picture, over 450 screens, accompanied by isn't so sure it is the same predator, conrming this afan extensive marketing campaign with a heavy emphasis ter nding no human remains inside its stomach. While
Hooper and Brody search the local waters at night, they
on television spots and tie-in merchandise.
discover local sherman Ben Gardners half-sunken boat.
Now considered one of the greatest lms ever made,[2] Hooper examines the vessel underwater and retrieves a
Jaws became the highest-grossing lm of all time until sizable great white shark's tooth embedded in the hull.
Star Wars. It won several awards for its soundtrack and Startled by nding Gardners partial remains, Hooper
editing. Along with Star Wars, Jaws was pivotal in es- drops the tooth. Brody and Hooper tell Vaughn that a
tablishing the modern Hollywood business model, which humongous great white shark is the real culprit, but he
revolves around high box-oce returns from action and discounts their warnings and refuses to close the beaches,
adventure pictures with simple "high-concept" premises allowing only added safety precautions. On the Fourth of
that are released during the summer in thousands of the- July weekend, the beaches are packed with tourists. Folaters and supported by heavy advertising. It was followed lowing a practical joke, the shark enters a nearby estuary,
by three sequels, none with the participation of Spielberg hitting Brodys kids and killing a boater. Brody pushes
or Benchley, and many imitative thrillers. In 2001, Jaws a devastated Vaughn, whose kids were also there, to hire
was selected by the Library of Congress for preserva- Quint.
tion in the United States National Film Registry, being
deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically signi- Quint, Brody, and Hooper set out on Quints boat, the
Orca, to hunt the shark. While Brody lays down a chum
line, Quint waits for an opportunity to hook the shark.
Without warning, it appears behind the boat. Quint, estimating its length at 25', harpoons it with a line attached
to a otation barrel, but the shark pulls the barrel underwater and disappears.

By nightfall, the men retire to the boats cabin where

Quint and Hooper compare scars and share how they received them. Quint recounts how he survived the shark
attacks that followed the sinking of the warship USS Indianapolis during the War in the Pacic in 1945. The
great white returns, ramming the boats hull and killing
the power. The men work through the night repairing the
engine. In the morning, Brody attempts to call the Coast
Guard, but Quint smashes the radio, enraging Brody. After a long chase, Quint harpoons another barrel into the
shark. The men tie the line to the stern, but the shark
drags the boat backwards, swamping the deck and ooding the engine compartment with seawater and forcing
Quint to cut the line to prevent the transom from being
pulled out. He then heads toward shore to draw his quarry
into shallow waters and suocate it, but overtaxes and
stalls the damaged engine.
With the boat immobilized, the trio attempt a riskier approach: Hooper dons scuba gear and enters the water in
a shark-proof cage, intending to lethally inject the shark
with strychnine using a hypodermic spear. The shark demolishes the cage, causing Hooper to drop the spear before escaping to the seabed. Seconds later, the shark attacks the boat directly, killing Quint. Brody, trapped on
the sinking vessel, shoves a pressurized scuba tank into
the sharks mouth, and, climbing the mast, shoots the
tank with Quints rie. The resulting explosion obliterates
the shark. Hooper surfaces, and he and Brody paddle to
Amity Island on boat wreckage.


rial debut, The Culpepper Cattle Co. had come out the previous year.[8] However, they grew irritated by Richardss
habit of describing the shark as a whale and soon dropped
him from the project.[8] Meanwhile, Steven Spielberg
very much wanted the job. The 26-year-old had just directed his rst theatrical lm, The Sugarland Express, for
Zanuck and Brown. At the end of a meeting in their ofce, Spielberg noticed their copy of the still-unpublished
Benchley novel, and after reading it was immediately
captivated.[6] He later observed that it was similar to his
1971 television lm Duel in that both deal with these
leviathans targeting everymen.[5] After Richardss departure, the producers signed Spielberg to direct in June
1973, before the release of The Sugarland Express.[8]
Before production began, however, Spielberg grew reluctant to continue with Jaws, in fear of becoming typecast
as the truck and shark director.[9] He wanted to move
over to 20th Century Fox's Lucky Lady instead, but Universal exercised its right under its contract with the director to veto his departure.[10] Brown helped convince
Spielberg to stick with the project, saying that after
[Jaws], you can make all the lms you want.[9] The
lm was given an estimated budget of $3.5 million and a
shooting schedule of 55 days. Principal photography was
set to begin in May 1974. Universal wanted the shoot to
nish by the end of June, when the major studios contract with the Screen Actors Guild was due to expire, to
avoid any disruptions due to a potential strike.[11]

2.2 Writing



Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown, producers at

Universal Pictures, independently heard about Peter
Benchleys novel Jaws. Brown came across it in the literature section of lifestyle magazine Cosmopolitan, then
edited by his wife, Helen Gurley Brown. A small card
written by the magazines book editor gave a detailed
description of the plot, concluding with the comment
might make a good movie.[3][4] The producers each
read the book over the course of a single night and agreed
the next morning that it was the most exciting thing that
they had ever read and that they wanted to produce a
lm version, although they were unsure how it would
be accomplished.[5] They purchased the movie rights in
1973, before the books publication, for approximately
$175,000.[6] Brown claimed that had they read the book
twice, they would never have made the lm because they
would have realized how dicult it would be to execute
certain sequences.[7]
To direct, Zanuck and Brown rst considered veteran
lmmaker John Sturgeswhose rsum included another maritime adventure, The Old Man and the Sea
before oering the job to Dick Richards, whose directo-

For the screen adaptation, Spielberg wanted to stay with

the novels basic plot, while omitting Benchleys many
subplots.[6] He declared that his favorite part of the book
was the shark hunt on the last 120 pages, and told Zanuck
when he accepted the job, I'd like to do the picture if I
could change the rst two acts and base the rst two acts
on original screenplay material, and then be very true to
the book for the last third.[12] When the producers purchased the rights to his novel, they promised Benchley
that he could write the rst draft of the screenplay.[6] The
intent was to make sure a script could be done despite an
impending threat of a Writers Guild strike, given Benchley was not unionized.[13] Overall, he wrote three drafts
before the script was turned over to other writers;[6] delivering his nal version to Spielberg, he declared, I'm written out on this, and thats the best I can do.[14] Benchley
would later describe his contribution to the nished lm
as the storyline and the ocean stu basically, the mechanics, given he didn't know how to put the character
texture into a screenplay.[13] One of his changes was to
remove the novels adulterous aair between Ellen Brody
and Matt Hooper, at the suggestion of Spielberg, who
feared it would compromise the camaraderie between the
men on the Orca.[15] During the lms production, Benchley agreed to return and play a small onscreen role as a



Spielberg, who felt that the characters in Benchleys script

were still unlikable, invited the young screenwriter John
Byrum to do a rewrite, but he declined the oer.[9]
Columbo creators William Link and Richard Levinson
also declined Spielbergs invitation.[17] Tony and Pulitzer
Prizewinning playwright Howard Sackler was in Los
Angeles when the lmmakers began looking for another
writer and oered to do an uncredited rewrite; since the
producers and Spielberg were unhappy with Benchleys
drafts, they quickly agreed.[5] At the suggestion of Spielberg, Brodys characterization made him afraid of water,
coming from an urban jungle to nd something more
terrifying o this placid island near Massachusetts.[13]
Spielberg wanted some levity in Jaws, humor that
would avoid making it a dark sea hunt, so he turned
to his friend Carl Gottlieb, a comedy writer-actor then
working on the sitcom The Odd Couple.[14] Spielberg
sent Gottlieb a script, asking what the writer would
change and if there was a role he would be interested
in performing.[18] Gottlieb sent Spielberg three pages of
notes, and picked the part of Meadows, the politically
connected editor of the local paper. He passed the audition one week before Spielberg took him to meet the
producers regarding a writing job.[19]
While the deal was initially for a one-week dialogue
polish, Gottlieb eventually became the primary screenwriter, rewriting the entire script during a nine-week period of principal photography.[19] The script for each
scene was typically nished the night before it was shot,
after Gottlieb had dinner with Spielberg and members
of the cast and crew to decide what would go into the
lm. Many pieces of dialogue originated from the actors improvisations during these meals; a few were created on set, most notably Roy Scheiders ad-lib of the
line You're gonna need a bigger boat.[20] John Milius
contributed dialogue polishes,[21] and Sugarland Express
writers Matthew Robbins and Hal Barwood also made uncredited contributions.[22] Spielberg has claimed that he
prepared his own draft, although it is unclear to what degree the other screenwriters drew on his material.[21] One
specic alteration he called for in the story was to change
the cause of the sharks death from extensive wounds to
a scuba tank explosion, as he felt audiences would respond better to a big rousing ending.[23] The director
estimated the nal script had a total of 27 scenes that were
not in the book.[15]

rector, Milius turned Sacklers three-quarters of a page
speech into a monologue, and that was then rewritten by
Shaw.[25] Gottlieb gives primary credit to Shaw, downplaying Miliuss contribution.[26]

2.3 Casting
Though Spielberg complied with a request from Zanuck
and Brown to cast known actors,[16] he wanted to avoid
hiring any big stars. He felt that somewhat anonymous
performers would help the audience believe this was
happening to people like you and me, whereas stars
bring a lot of memories along with them, and those memories can sometimes ... corrupt the story.[22] The director added that in his plans the superstar was gonna be
the shark.[14] The rst actors cast were Lorraine Gary,
the wife of then-president of Universal Sid Sheinberg,
as Ellen Brody,[16] and Murray Hamilton as the mayor
of Amity Island.[27] Stuntwoman-turned-actress Susan
Backlinie was cast as Chrissie as she knew how to swim
and was willing to perform nude.[14] Most minor roles
were played by residents of Marthas Vineyard, where
the lm was shot. One example was Deputy Hendricks,
played by future television producer Jerey Kramer.[28]
The role of Brody was oered to Robert Duvall, but the
actor was interested only in portraying Quint.[29] Charlton
Heston expressed a desire for the role, but Spielberg felt
that Heston would bring a screen persona too grand for
the part of a police chief of a modest community.[30] Roy
Scheider became interested in the project after overhearing Spielberg at a party talk with a screenwriter about
having the shark jump up onto a boat.[16] Spielberg was
initially apprehensive about hiring Scheider, fearing he
would portray a tough guy, similar to his role in The
French Connection.[29]
Nine days before the start of production, neither Quint
nor Hooper had been cast.[31] The role of Quint was originally oered to actors Lee Marvin and Sterling Hayden, both of whom passed.[16][29] Zanuck and Brown had
just nished working with Robert Shaw on The Sting,
and suggested him to Spielberg.[32] Shaw was reluctant
to take the role since he did not like the book, but decided to accept at the urging of both his wife, actress
Mary Ure, and his secretary"The last time they were
that enthusiastic was From Russia with Love. And they
were right.[33] Shaw based his performance on fellow
cast member Craig Kingsbury, a local sherman, farmer,
and legendary eccentric, who was playing sherman Ben
Gardner.[34] Spielberg described Kingsbury as the purest
version of who, in my mind, Quint was, and some of his
oscreen utterances were incorporated into the script as
lines of Gardner and Quint.[35] Another source for some
of Quints dialogue and mannerisms, especially in the
third act at sea, was Vineyard mechanic and boat-owner
Lynn Murphy.[36][37]

Benchley had written Jaws after reading about sport sherman Frank Mundus's capture of an enormous shark in
1964. According to Gottlieb, Quint was loosely based
on Mundus, whose book Sportshing for Sharks he read
for research.[24] Sackler came up with the backstory of
Quint as a survivor of the World War II USS Indianapolis
disaster.[25] The question of who deserves the most credit
for writing Quints monologue about the Indianapolis has
caused substantial controversy. Spielberg described it as
a collaboration between Sackler, Milius, and actor Robert
Shaw, who was also a playwright.[21] According to the di- For the role of Hooper, Spielberg initially wanted Jon


Voight.[32] Timothy Bottoms, Joel Grey, and Je Bridges

were also considered for the part.[38] Spielbergs friend
George Lucas suggested Richard Dreyfuss, whom he
had directed in American Grati.[16] The actor initially
passed, but changed his decision after he attended a prerelease screening of The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz,
which he had just completed. Disappointed in his performance and fearing that no one would want to hire him
once Kravitz was released, he immediately called Spielberg and accepted the role in Jaws. Because the lm
the director envisioned was so dissimilar to Benchleys
novel, Spielberg asked Dreyfuss not to read it.[39] As a
result of the casting, Hooper was rewritten to better suit
the actor,[31] as well as to be more representative of Spielberg, who came to view Dreyfuss as my alter ego.[38]
The shing village of Menemsha, Marthas Vineyard, was the
primary location.[45]



We started the lm without a script, without a cast and

without a shark.
actor Richard Dreyfuss on the lms troubled
Principal photography began May 2, 1974,[41] on the island of Marthas Vineyard, Massachusetts, selected after
consideration was given to eastern Long Island. Brown
explained later that the production needed a vacation
area that was lower middle class enough so that an appearance of a shark would destroy the tourist business.[42]
Marthas Vineyard was also chosen because the surrounding ocean had a sandy bottom that never dropped below
35 feet (11 m) for 12 miles (19 km) out from shore, which
allowed the mechanical sharks to operate while also beyond sight of land.[43] As Spielberg wanted to lm the
aquatic sequences relatively close-up to resemble what
people see while swimming, cinematographer Bill Butler devised new equipment to facilitate marine and underwater shooting, including a rig to keep the camera stable regardless of tide and a sealed submersible camera
box.[44] Spielberg asked the art department to avoid red
in both scenery and wardrobe, so that the blood from the
attacks would be the only red element and cause a bigger
Three full-size pneumatically powered prop sharks
which the lm crew nicknamed Bruce after Spielbergs
lawyer, Bruce Ramerwere made for the production:[46]
a sea-sled shark, a full-body prop with its belly missing that was towed with a 300-foot (roughly 100-m) line,
and two platform sharks, one that moved from cameraleft to -right (with its hidden left side exposing an array
of pneumatic hoses), and an opposite model with its right
ank uncovered.[6] The sharks were designed by art director Joe Alves during the third quarter of 1973. Between November 1973 and April 1974, the sharks were
fabricated at Rolly Harpers Motion Picture & Equipment
Rental in Sun Valley, California. Their construction in-

volved a team of as many as 40 eects technicians, supervised by mechanical eects supervisor Bob Mattey, best
known for creating the giant squid in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. After the sharks were completed, they were
trucked to the shooting location.[47] In early July, the platform used to tow the two side-view sharks capsized as it
was being lowered to the ocean oor, forcing a team of
divers to retrieve it.[48] The model required 14 operators
to control all of the moving parts.[39]
The lm had a troubled shoot and went far over budget. David Brown said that the budget was $4 million
and the picture wound up costing $9 million";[49] the effects outlays alone grew to $3 million due to the problems
with the mechanical sharks.[50] Disgruntled crew members gave the lm the nickname Flaws.[39][46] Spielberg
attributed many problems to his perfectionism and his inexperience. The former was epitomized by his insistence
on shooting at sea with a life-sized shark; I could have
shot the movie in the tank or even in a protected lake
somewhere, but it would not have looked the same, he
said.[33] As for his lack of experience: I was naive about
the ocean, basically. I was pretty naive about mother nature and the hubris of a lmmaker who thinks he can conquer the elements was foolhardy, but I was too young to
know I was being foolhardy when I demanded that we
shoot the lm in the Atlantic Ocean and not in a North
Hollywood tank.[25] Gottlieb said that there was nothing to do except make the movie, so everyone kept overworking, and while as a writer he did not have to attend
the ocean set every day, once the crewmen returned they
arrived ravaged and sunburnt, windblown and covered
with salt water.[13]
Shooting at sea led to many delays: unwanted sailboats
drifted into frame, cameras got soaked,[35] and the Orca
once began to sink with the actors on board.[51] The
prop sharks frequently malfunctioned owing to a series of
problems including bad weather, pneumatic hoses taking
on salt water, frames fracturing due to water resistance,
corroding skin, and electrolysis. From the rst water test
onward, the non-absorbent neoprene foam that made



up the sharks skin soaked up liquid, causing the sharks

to balloon, and the sea-sled model frequently got entangled among forests of seaweed.[33][48] Spielberg later calculated that during the 12-hour daily work schedule, on
average only four hours were actually spent lming.[52]
Gottlieb was nearly decapitated by the boats propellers,
and Dreyfuss was almost imprisoned in the steel cage.[33]
The actors were frequently seasick. Shaw also ed to
Canada whenever he could due to tax problems,[53] engaged in binge drinking, and developed a grudge against
Dreyfuss, who was getting rave reviews for his performance in Duddy Kravitz.[14][54] Editor Verna Fields rarely
had material to work with during principal photography,
as according to Spielberg we would shoot ve scenes in
a good day, three in an average day, and none in a bad

attacked the boat and cage. The footage of the cage attack
was so stunning that Spielberg was eager to incorporate it
in the lm. No one had been in the cage at the time, however, and the script, following the novel, originally had the
shark killing Hooper in it. The storyline was consequently
altered to have Hooper escape from the cage, which allowed the footage to be used.[57][58] As production executive Bill Gilmore put it, The shark down in Australia
rewrote the script and saved Dreyfusss character.[59]

Although principal photography was scheduled to take 55

days, it did not wrap until October 6, 1974, after 159
days.[39][41] Spielberg, reecting on the protracted shoot,
stated, I thought my career as a lmmaker was over. I
heard rumors ... that I would never work again because
no one had ever taken a lm 100 days over schedule.[39]
Spielberg himself was not present for the shooting of the
nal scene in which the shark explodes, as he believed
that the crew were planning to throw him in the water
when the scene was done.[23] It has since become a tradition for Spielberg to be absent when the nal scene of
one of his lms is being shot.[60] Afterward, underwater scenes were shot at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer water tank in Culver City, with stuntmen Dick Warlock and
Frank James Sparks as stand-ins for Dreyfuss in the scene
where the shark attacks the cage,[61] as well as near Santa
Catalina Island, California. Fields, who had completed
a rough cut of the rst two-thirds of the lm, up until
the shark hunt, nished the editing and reworked some of
the material. According to Zanuck, She actually came
in and reconstructed some scenes that Steven had constructed for comedy and made them terrifying, and some
The mechanical shark, attached to the tower
scenes he shot to be terrifying and made them comedy
scenes.[62] The ship used for the Orca was brought to Los
The delays proved serendipitous in some regards. The Angeles so the sound eects team could record sounds for
script was rened during production, and the unreli- both the ship and the underwater scenes.[63]
able mechanical sharks forced Spielberg to shoot many
scenes so that the shark was only hinted at. For ex- Two scenes were altered following test screenings. As
ample, for much of the shark hunt, its location is indi- the audiences screams had covered up Scheiders bigger
cated by the oating yellow barrels.[56] The opening had boat one-liner, Brodys reaction after the shark jumps
him was extended, and the volume of the line was
the shark devouring Chrissie,[14] but it was rewritten so behind[64][65]
Spielberg also decided that he was greedy
that it would be shot with Backlinie being dragged and
scream, and reshot the scene in which
yanked by cables to simulate an attack. Spielberg also
Ben Gardners body, using $3,000 of
included multiple shots of just the dorsal n. This forced
Universal refused to pay for the
restraint is widely thought to have added to the lms
scene was shot in Fieldss swimAs Spielberg put it years later, The lm
using a lifecast latex
went from a Japanese Saturday matinee horror ick to
to a fake body,
more of a Hitchcock, the less-you-see-the-more-you-get
To simwhich
In another interview, he similarly declared,
The shark not working was a godsend. It made me
into the pool, which was then covered
become more like Alfred Hitchcock than like Ray Har- milk was poured
ryhausen. The acting became crucial for making audiences believe in such a big shark: The more fake the
shark looked in the water, the more my anxiety told me
to heighten the naturalism of the performances.[25]
Footage of real sharks was shot by Ron and Valerie Taylor 2.5 Music
in the waters o Australia, with a smaller-framed actor in
a miniature shark cage to create the illusion that the sharks Main article: Jaws (soundtrack)
were enormous. During the Taylors shoot, a great white

John Williams composed the lms score, which earned
him an Academy Award and was later ranked the sixthgreatest score by the American Film Institute.[68][69] The
main shark theme, a simple alternating pattern of two
notesvariously identied as E and F[70] or F and
F sharp[71] became a classic piece of suspense music, synonymous with approaching danger (see leadingtone). Williams described the theme as grinding away
at you, just as a shark would do, instinctual, relentless, unstoppable.[72] The piece was performed by tuba
player Tommy Johnson. When asked by Johnson why
the melody was written in such a high register and not
played by the more appropriate French horn, Williams
responded that he wanted it to sound a little more
threatening.[73] When Williams rst demonstrated his
idea to Spielberg, playing just the two notes on a piano, Spielberg was said to have laughed, thinking that
it was a joke. As Williams saw similarities between
Jaws and pirate movies, at other points in the score
he evoked pirate music, which he called primal, but
fun and entertaining.[67] Calling for rapid, percussive
string playing, the score contains echoes of La mer by
Claude Debussy as well of Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of


3 Inspirations and themes

Herman Melville's Moby-Dick is the most notable artistic antecedent to Jaws. The character of Quint strongly
resembles Captain Ahab, the obsessed captain of the
Pequod who devotes his life to hunting a sperm whale.
Quints monologue reveals a similar obsession with
sharks; even his boat, the Orca, is named after the only
natural enemy of the white shark. In the novel and original screenplay, Quint dies after being dragged under
the ocean by a harpoon tied to his leg, similar to the
death of Ahab in Melvilles novel.[80] A direct reference
to these similarities may be found in Spielbergs draft of
the screenplay, which introduces Quint watching the lm
version of Moby-Dick; his continuous laughter prompts
other audience members to get up and leave the theater
(Wesley Strick's screenplay for the 1991 remake of Cape
Fear features a similar scene). However, the scene from
Moby-Dick could not be licensed from the lms star,
Gregory Peck, its copyright holder.[5] Screenwriter Carl
Gottlieb also drew comparisons to Ernest Hemingway's
The Old Man and the Sea: "Jaws is ... a titanic struggle,
like Melville or Hemingway.[24]

The underwater scenes shot from the sharks point of

view have been compared with passages in two 1950s
horror lms, The Creature from the Black Lagoon and
The Monster That Challenged the World.[81][82] Gottlieb
named two science ction productions from the same era
as inuences on how the shark was depicted, or not: The
Thing from Another World, which Gottlieb described as
a great horror lm where you only see the monster in
the last reel";[83] and It Came From Outer Space, where
the suspense was built up because the creature was always o-camera. Those precedents helped Spielberg
and Gottlieb to concentrate on showing the 'eects of
the shark rather than the shark itself.[20] Scholars such
as Thomas Schatz noted how Jaws melds various genres while essentially being an action lm and a thriller.
Most is taken from horror, with the core of a naturebased monster movie while adding elements of a slasher
Spielberg later said that without Williamss score the lm lm. The second half of the movie provides a buddy lm
would have been only half as successful, and according in the interaction between the crew of the Orca, and a
to Williams it jumpstarted his career.[67] He had previ- supernatural horror based on the sharks depiction of a
ously scored Spielbergs debut feature, The Sugarland Ex- nearly Satanic menace.[84]
press, and went on to collaborate with the director on alto
most all of his lms.[72] The original soundtrack for Jaws Critics such as Neil Sinyard have noticed similarities
was released by MCA Records on LP in 1975, and as a
to Jaws as "MobyCD in 1992, including roughly a half hour of music that himself said he and Spielberg referred
Ibsen work feaWilliams redid for the album.
In 2000, two versions
towns medicof the score were released: Decca/Universal reissued the
and revenue
soundtrack album to coincide with the release of the
25th-anniversary DVD, featuring the entire 51 minutes of
and Varse Sarabande put out a
the original score,
rerecording of the score performed by the Royal Scottish
by Brodys conict with Mayor Vaughn, who refuses to
National Orchestra, conducted by Joel McNeely.[79]
acknowledge the presence of a shark that may dissuade
summer beachgoers from coming to Amity. Brody is vindicated when more shark attacks occur at the crowded
There are various interpretations of the meaning and effectiveness of the primary music theme, which is widely
described as one of the most recognizable cinematic
themes of all time.[75] Music scholar Joseph Cancellaro
proposes that the two-note expression mimics the sharks
heartbeat.[76] According to Alexandre Tylski, like themes
Bernard Herrmann wrote for Taxi Driver, North by Northwest, and particularly Mysterious Island, it suggests human respiration. He further argues that the scores
strongest motif is actually the split, the rupturewhen
it dramatically cuts o, as after Chrissies death.[71] The
relationship between sound and silence is also taken advantage of in the way the audience is conditioned to associate the shark with its theme,[72] which is exploited toward the lms climax when the shark suddenly appears
with no musical introduction.[75]

beach in broad daylight. Sinyard calls the lm a deft it can be and has been readfrom representing alien
combination of Watergate and Ibsens play.[85]
menaces such as communism or the Third World
to more intimate dreads concerning the unreality of
contemporary American life and the vain eorts to
sanitize and suppress the knowledge of death. He
3.1 Scholarly criticism
asserts that its symbolic function is to be found in this
Jaws has received attention from academic critics. very polysemousness which is profoundly ideological,
Stephen Heath relates the lms ideological meanings to insofar as it allows essentially social and historical
the then-recent Watergate scandal. He argues that Brody anxieties to be folded back into apparently 'natural'
a conict
represents the white male middle class[there is] not ones ... to be recontained in what looks like
a single black and, very quickly, not a single woman in
the lm, who restores public order with an ordinary[87]
guy kind of heroism born of fear-and-decency.
Heath moves beyond ideological content analysis to ex- partnership as an allegory of an alliance between the
amine Jaws as a signal example of the lm as industrial forces of law-and-order and the new technocracy of
product that sells on the basis of the pleasure of cinema, the multinational corporations ... in which the viewer
understanding that he or she is excluded
thus yielding the perpetuation of the industry (which is rejoices without
why part of the meaning of Jaws is to be the most profitable movie)".[88]
Andrew Britton contrasts the lm to the novels postWatergate cynicism, suggesting that its narrative alterations from the book (Hoopers survival, the sharks explosive death) help make it a communal exorcism, a ceremony for the restoration of ideological condence. He
suggests that the experience of the lm is inconceivable without the mass audiences jubilation when the
shark is annihilated, signifying the obliteration of evil
itself.[89] In his view, Brody serves to demonstrate that
individual action by the one just man is still a viable
source for social change.[90] Peter Biskind argues that
the lm does maintain post-Watergate cynicism concerning politics and politicians insofar as the sole villain beside the shark is the towns venal mayor. Yet he observes
that, far from the narrative formulas so often employed
by New Hollywood lmmakers of the erainvolving Us
vs. Them, hip counterculture gures vs. "The Man"
the overarching conict in Jaws does not pit the heroes
against authority gures, but against a menace that targets
everyone regardless of socioeconomic position.[91]
Whereas Britton states that the lm avoids the novels
theme of social class conicts on Amity Island,[90]
Biskind detects class divisions in the screen version and
argues for their signicance. Authority must be restored, he writes, but not by Quint. The seamans
working class toughness and bourgeois independence is
alien and frightening ... irrational and out of control.
Hooper, meanwhile, is associated with technology rather
than experience, inherited wealth rather than self-made
suciency"; he is marginalized from the conclusive action, if less terminally than Quint.[92] Britton sees the lm
more as concerned with the vulnerability of children and
the need to protect and guard them, which in turn helps
generate a pervasive sense of the supreme value of family life: a value clearly related to [ideological] stability
and cultural continuity.[93]

Neal Gabler analyzed the lm as showing three dierent

approaches to solving an obstacle: science (represented
by Hooper), spiritualism (represented by Quint), and the
common man (represented by Brody). The last of the
three is the one which succeeds and is in that way endorsed by the lm.[96]

4 Release
4.1 Promotion
Universal spent $1.8 million promoting Jaws, including an unprecedented $700,000 on national television
spot advertising.[40][97] The media blitz included about
two dozen 30-second advertisements airing each night
on prime-time network TV between June 18, 1975, and
the lms opening two days later.[98] Beyond that, in
the description of lm industry scholar Searle Kochberg,
Universal devised and co-ordinated a highly innovative
plan for the pictures marketing.[98] As early as October 1974, Zanuck, Brown, and Benchley hit the television and radio talk show circuit to promote the paperback edition of the novel and the forthcoming lm.[99]
The studio and publisher Bantam agreed on a title logo
that would appear on both the paperback and in all of
the advertising for the lm.[98] The centerpieces of the
joint promotion strategy were John Williams theme and
the poster image featuring the shark approaching a lone
female swimmer.[50] The poster was based on the paperbacks cover, and had the same artist, Bantam employee
Roger Kastel.[100] The Seiniger Advertising agency spent
six months designing the poster; principal Tony Seiniger
explained that no matter what we did, it didn't look scary
enough. Seiniger ultimately decided that you had to
actually go underneath the shark so you could see his

Fredric Jameson's Marxist analysis highlights the More merchandise was created to take advantage of the
polysemy of the shark and the multiple ways in which lms release. In 1999, Graeme Turner wrote that Jaws


was accompanied by what was still probably the most

elaborate array of tie-ins of any lm to date: This included a sound-track album, T-shirts, plastic tumblers, a
book about the making of the movie, the book the movie
was based on, beach towels, blankets, shark costumes, toy
sharks, hobby kits, iron-transfers, games, posters, sharks
tooth necklaces, sleepwear, water pistols, and more.[102]
The Ideal Toy Company, for instance, produced a game
in which the player had to use a hook to sh out items
from the sharks mouth before the jaws closed.[103]

an extended run were much slimmer.)[113][114] Universal

president Sid Sheinberg reasoned that nationwide marketing costs would be amortized at a more favorable rate per
print relative to a slow, scaled release.[112][115][116] Building on the lms success, the release was subsequently
expanded on July 25 to nearly 700 theaters, and on August 15 to more than 950.[117] Overseas distribution followed the same pattern, with intensive television campaigns and wide releasesin Great Britain, for instance,
Jaws opened in December at more than 100 theaters.[118]


For its fortieth anniversary, the lm was released in selected theaters (across approximately 500 theaters) in the
United States on Sunday, June 21 and Wednesday, June
24, 2015.[119][120]

Theatrical run

The glowing audience response to a rough cut of the lm

at two test screenings in Dallas on March 26, 1975, and
one in Long Beach, on March 28, along with the success
of Benchleys novel and the early stages of Universals
marketing campaign, generated great interest among theater owners, facilitating the studios plan to debut Jaws at
hundreds of cinemas simultaneously.[104][105] A third and
nal preview screening, of a cut incorporating changes
inspired by the previous presentations, was held in Hollywood on April 24.[106] After Universal chairman Lew
Wasserman attended one of the screenings, he ordered
the lms initial releaseplanned for a massive total of
as many as 900 theatersto be cut down, declaring, I
want this picture to run all summer long. I don't want
people in Palm Springs to see the picture in Palm Springs.
I want them to have to get in their cars and drive to see it
in Hollywood.[107] Nonetheless, the several hundred theaters that were still booked for the opening represented
what was then an unusually wide release. At the time,
wide openings were associated with movies of doubtful
quality; not uncommon on the exploitation side of the industry, they were customarily employed to diminish the
eect of negative reviews and word of mouth. There had
been some recent exceptions, precedents that included
the rerelease of Billy Jack and the original release of its
sequel The Trial of Billy Jack, the Dirty Harry sequel
Magnum Force, and the latest installments in the James
Bond series.[108][109] Still, the typical major studio lm
release at the time involved opening at a few big-city theaters, which allowed for a series of premieres. Distributors would then slowly forward prints to additional locales
across the country, capitalizing on any positive critical or
audience response. The outsized success of The Godfather in 1972 had sparked a trend toward wider releases,
but even that lm had debuted in just ve theaters, before
going wide in its second weekend.[110]
On June 20, Jaws opened across North America on
464 screens409 in the United States, the remainder in
Canada.[111] The coupling of this broad distribution pattern with the movies then even rarer national television
marketing campaign yielded a release method virtually
unheard-of at the time.[112] (A month earlier, Columbia
Pictures had done something similar with a Charles Bronson thriller, Breakout, though that lms prospects for

5 Reception
5.1 Box oce performance
Jaws opened with a $7 million weekend[121] and recouped
its production costs in two weeks.[122] In just 78 days, it
overtook The Godfather as the highest-grossing lm at
the North American box oce,[110] sailing past that pictures earnings of $86 million[123] to become the rst lm
to reach $100 million in rentals.[124] Its initial release ultimately brought in $123.1 million in rentals.[122] Theatrical re-releases in 1976 and 1979 brought its total rentals
to $133.4 million.[123]
The picture entered overseas release in December
1975,[125] and its international business mirrored its domestic performance. It broke records in Singapore,[126]
New Zealand, Japan,[127] Spain,[128] and Mexico.[129] By
1977, Jaws was the highest-grossing international release
with worldwide rentals of $193 million, equating to about
$400 million of gross revenue;[130] it supplanted The Godfather, which had earned $145 million in rentals.[131]
Jaws was the highest-grossing lm of all time until Star
Wars, which debuted two years later. Star Wars surpassed Jaws for the U.S. record six months after its release and set a new global record in 1978.[132][133] As of
June 2013, it is the 127th-highest-grossing lm of all time
with $470.7 million worldwide,[134] and the 66th highest
domestically with a total North American gross of $260
million.[121] Adjusted for ination, Jaws has earned almost $2 billion worldwide at 2011 prices and is the second most successful franchise lm after Star Wars.[135] In
North America, it is the seventh-highest-grossing movie
of all time, with a total of $1.017 billion at current
prices,[136] based on an estimated 128,078,800 tickets
sold.[137] In the United Kingdom, it is the seventh-highestgrossing lm to be released since 1975, earning the equivalent of over 70 million in 2009/10 currency,[138] with
admissions estimated at 16.2 million.[139] Jaws has also
sold 13 million tickets in Brazil, the second-highest attendance ever in the country behind Titanic.[140]



On television, the American Broadcasting Company

aired it for the rst time right after its 1979 re-release.[141]
The rst U.S. broadcast attracted 57 percent of the total
audience, the second highest televised movie share at the
time behind Gone with the Wind.[142] In the United Kingdom, 23 million people watched its inaugural broadcast
in October 1981, the second biggest TV audience ever for
a feature lm behind Live and Let Die.[143]


Critical response

Jaws received mostly positive reviews upon

release.[144][145] Roger Ebert of the Chicago SunTimes called it a sensationally eective action picture,
a scary thriller that works all the better because its
populated with characters that have been developed
into human beings.[146] Variety's A.D. Murphy praised
Spielbergs directorial skills, and called Robert Shaws
performance absolutely magnicent.[147] According
to The New Yorker 's Pauline Kael, it was the most
cheerfully perverse scare movie ever made ... [with]
more zest than an early Woody Allen picture, a lot
more electricity, [and] its funny in a Woody Allen sort
of way.[148] For New Times magazine, Frank Rich
wrote, Spielberg is blessed with a talent that is absurdly
absent from most American lmmakers these days: this
man actually knows how to tell a story on screen. ...
It speaks well of this directors gifts that some of the
most frightening sequences in Jaws are those where we
don't even see the shark.[149] Writing for New York
magazine, Judith Crist described the lm as an exhilarating adventure entertainment of the highest order and
complimented its acting and extraordinary technical
achievements.[150] Rex Reed praised the nerve-frying
action scenes and concluded that for the most part, Jaws
is a gripping horror lm that works beautifully in every
The lm was not without its detractors. Vincent Canby
of The New York Times wrote, Its a measure of how the
lm operates that not once do we feel particular sympathy for any of the sharks victims. ... In the best lms,
characters are revealed in terms of the action. In movies
like Jaws, characters are simply functions of the action
... like stage hands who move props around and deliver
information when its necessary. He did, however, describe it as the sort of nonsense that can be a good deal
of fun.[152] Los Angeles Times critic Charles Champlin
disagreed with the lms PG rating, saying that "Jaws is
too gruesome for children, and likely to turn the stomach
of the impressionable at any age. ... It is a coarse-grained
and exploitative work which depends on excess for its impact. Ashore it is a bore, awkwardly staged and lumpily
written.[153] Marcia Magill of Films in Review said that
while Jaws is eminently worth seeing for its second half,
she felt that before the protagonists pursuit of the shark
the lm was often awed by its busyness.[154] William
S. Pechter of Commentary described Jaws as a mind-

numbing repast for sense-sated gluttons and lmmaking of this essentially manipulative sort"; Molly Haskell
of The Village Voice similarly characterized it as a scare
machine that works with computer-like precision. ... You
feel like a rat, being given shock therapy.[149] The most
frequently criticized aspect of the lm has been the articiality of its mechanical antagonist: Magill declared
that the programmed shark has one truly phony closeup,[154] and in 2002, online reviewer James Berardinelli
said that if not for Spielbergs deftly suspenseful direction, we would be doubled over with laughter at the
cheesiness of the animatronic creature.[75] Halliwells
Film Guide claimed despite genuinely suspenseful and
frightening sequences, it is a slackly narrated and sometimes atly handled thriller with an over-abundance of dialogue and, when it nally appears, a pretty unconvincing

5.3 Accolades
Jaws won three Academy Awards for Best Film Editing, Best Original Dramatic Score, and Best Sound
(Robert Hoyt, Roger Heman, Earl Madery and John
Carter).[68][156] It was also nominated for Best Picture,
losing to One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest.[157] Spielberg greatly resented the fact that he was not nominated for Best Director.[149] Along with the Oscar,
John Williamss score won the Grammy Award,[158] the
BAFTA Award for Best Film Music,[159] and the Golden
Globe Award.[160] To her Academy Award, Verna Fields
added the American Cinema Editors' Eddie Award for
Best Edited Feature Film.[161]
Jaws was chosen Favorite Movie at the Peoples Choice
Awards.[162] It was also nominated for best Film, Director, Actor (Richard Dreyfuss), Editing, and Sound at
the 29th British Academy Film Awards,[159] and Best
FilmDrama, Director, and Screenplay at the 33rd
Golden Globe Awards.[160] Spielberg was nominated by
the Directors Guild of America for a DGA Award,[163]
and the Writers Guild of America nominated Peter
Benchley and Carl Gottliebs script for Best Adapted
In the years since its release, Jaws has frequently been
cited by lm critics and industry professionals as one of
the greatest movies of all time. It was number 48 on
American Film Institutes 100 Years... 100 Movies, a list
of the greatest American lms of all time compiled in
1998; it dropped to number 56 on the 10 Year Anniversary list.[165][166] AFI also ranked the shark at number 18
on its list of the 50 Best Villains,[167] Roy Scheiders line
You're gonna need a bigger boat 35th on a list of top
100 movie quotes,[168] Williamss score at sixth on a list
of 100 Years of Film Scores,[69] and the lm as second on
a list of 100 most thrilling lms, behind only Psycho.[169]
In 2003, The New York Times included the lm on its list
of the best 1,000 movies ever made.[170] The following
year, Jaws placed at the top of the Bravo networks ve-

hour miniseries The 100 Scariest Movie Moments.[171] The
Chicago Film Critics Association named it the sixth scariest lm ever made in 2006.[172] In 2008, Jaws was ranked
the fth greatest lm in history by Empire magazine,[173]
which also placed Quint at number 50 on its list of the
100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.[174] The lm
has been cited in many other lists of 50 and 100 greatest
lms, including ones compiled by Leonard Maltin,[175]
Entertainment Weekly,[176] Film4,[177] Rolling Stone,[178]
Total Film,[179] TV Guide,[180] and Vanity Fair.[181]


rate appetites for big prots quickly, which is to say, studios wanted every lm to be Jaws.[185] Scholar Thomas
Schatz writes that it recalibrated the prot potential of
the Hollywood hit, and redened its status as a marketable
commodity and cultural phenomenon as well. The lm
brought an emphatic end to Hollywoods ve-year recession, while ushering in an era of high-cost, high-tech,
high-speed thrillers.[186]

Jaws also played a major part in establishing summer as

the prime season for the release of studios biggest boxIn 2001, the United States Library of Congress selected oce contenders, their intended blockbusters;[110][187]
it for preservation in the National Film Registry as a winter had long been the time when most hoped-for hits
culturally signicant motion picture.[182] In 2006, its were distributed, while summer was largely reserved for
screenplay was ranked the 63rd best of all time by the dumping lms thought likely to be poor performers.[186]
Writers Guild of America.[183]
Jaws and Star Wars are regarded as marking the beginning of the new U.S. lm industry business model dominated by "high-concept" pictureswith premises that
can be easily described and marketedas well as the
6 Legacy
beginning of the end of the New Hollywood period,
which saw auteur lms increasingly disregarded in favor
of protable big-budget pictures.[110][188] The New Hollywood era was dened by the relative autonomy lmmakers were able to attain within the major studio system; in Biskinds description, Spielberg was the Trojan
horse through which the studios began to reassert their
The lm had broader cultural repercussions, as well. Similar to the way the pivotal scene in 1960s Psycho made
showers a new source of anxiety, Jaws led many viewers
to fear going into the ocean.[189][190] Reduced beach attendance in 1975 was attributed to it,[191] as well as an increased number of reported shark sightings.[192] It is still
seen as responsible for perpetuating negative stereotypes
about sharks and their behavior,[193] and for producing the
so-called "Jaws eect, which allegedly inspired legions
of shermen [who] piled into boats and killed thousands
of the ocean predators in shark-shing tournaments.[194]
Benchley stated that he would not have written the original novel had he known what sharks are really like in the
wild.[195] Conservation groups have bemoaned the fact
that the lm has made it considerably harder to convince
the public that sharks should be protected.[196]

The entrance of the now closed Jaws ride at Universal Studios


Jaws was key in establishing the benets of a wide national release backed by heavy television advertising,
rather than the traditional progressive release in which a
lm slowly entered new markets and built support over
time.[98][110] Saturation booking, in which a lm opens simultaneously at thousands of cinemas, and massive media
buys are now commonplace for the major Hollywood studios.[184] According to Peter Biskind, Jaws diminish[ed]
the importance of print reviews, making it virtually impossible for a lm to build slowly, nding its audience
by dint of mere quality. ... Moreover, Jaws whet corpo-

Jaws set the template for many subsequent horror lms,

to the extent that the script for Ridley Scott's 1979 science ction lm Alien was pitched to studio executives
as "Jaws in space.[197][198] Many lms based on maneating animals, usually aquatic, were released through
the 1970s and 1980s, such as Orca, Grizzly, Mako: The
Jaws of Death, Barracuda, Alligator, Day of the Animals, Aatank, Tintorera and Eaten Alive. Spielberg declared Piranha, directed by Joe Dante and written by John
Sayles, the best of the Jaws ripos.[157] Among the various mockbusters based on Jaws American or foreign,
three came from Italy: Great White,[199] which inspired
a plagiarism lawsuit by Universal and was even marketed
in some countries as a part of the Jaws franchise;[200]
Monster Shark,[199] featured in Mystery Science Theater



3000 under the title Devil Fish;[201] and Deep Blood, that
blends in a supernatural element.[202] The 1995 thriller
lm Cruel Jaws even has the alternate title Jaws 5: Cruel
Jaws,[203] and the 2009 Japanese horror lm Psycho Shark
was released in the United States as Jaws in Japan.[204]
Marthas Vineyard celebrated the lms 30th anniversary
in 2005 with a JawsFest festival,[205] which had a second edition in 2012.[206] An independent group of fans
produced the feature-length documentary The Shark is
Still Working, featuring interviews with the lms cast and
crew. Narrated by Roy Scheider and dedicated to Peter
Benchley, who died in 2006, it debuted at the 2009 Los
Angeles United Film Festival.[207][208]


Home video releases

The rst ever LaserDisc title marketed in North America

was the MCA DiscoVision release of Jaws in 1978.[209] A
second LaserDisc was released in 1992,[210] before a third
and nal version came out under MCA/Universal Home
Videos Signature Collection imprint in 1995. This release was an elaborate boxset that included deleted scenes
and outtakes, a new two-hour documentary on the making
of the lm directed and produced by Laurent Bouzereau,
a copy of the novel Jaws, and a CD of John Williamss
MCA Home Video rst released Jaws on VHS in
1980.[212][213] For the lms 20th anniversary in 1995,
MCA Universal Home Video issued a new Collectors
Edition tape featuring a making-of retrospective.[214]
This release sold 800,000 units in North America.[215]
Another, nal VHS release, marking the lms 25th anniversary in 2000, came with a companion tape containing a documentary, deleted scenes, outtakes, and a
Jaws was rst released on DVD in 2000 for the lms
25th anniversary, accompanied by a massive publicity
campaign.[215] It featured a 50-minute documentary on
the making of the lm (an edited version of the one
featured on the 1995 LaserDisc release), with interviews with Spielberg, Scheider, Dreyfuss, Benchley, and
other cast and crew members. Other extras included
deleted scenes, outtakes, trailers, production photos, and
storyboards.[217] The DVD shipped one million copies
in just one month.[218] In June 2005, a 30th-anniversary
edition was released at the JawsFest festival in Marthas
Vineyard.[205] The new DVD had many extras seen in
previous home video releases, including the full two-hour
Bouzereau documentary, and a previously unavailable interview with Spielberg conducted on the set of Jaws in
1974.[219] On the second JawsFest in August 2012, the
Blu-ray Disc of Jaws was released,[206] with over four
hours of extras, including The Shark Is Still Working.[220]
The Blu-ray release was part of the celebrations of Universals 100th anniversary, and debuted at fourth place in
the charts, with over 362,000 units sold.[221]


6.2 Sequels
Jaws spawned three sequels, none of which approached
the success of the original. Their combined domestic
grosses amount to barely half of the rst lms.[222] In
October 1975, Spielberg declared to a lm festival audience that making a sequel to anything is just a cheap
carny trick.[157] Nonetheless, he did consider taking on
the rst sequel when its original director, John D. Hancock, was red a few days into the shoot; ultimately, his
obligations to Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which
he was working on with Dreyfuss, made it impossible.[223]
Jaws 2 (1978) was eventually directed by Jeannot Szwarc;
Scheider, Gary, Hamilton, and Jerey Kramer (who portrayed Deputy Hendricks) reprised their roles. It is generally regarded as the best of the sequels.[224] The next lm,
Jaws 3-D (1983), was directed by Joe Alves, who had
served as art director and production designer, respectively, on the two preceding lms.[225] Starring Dennis
Quaid and Louis Gossett, Jr., it was released in the 3-D
format, although the eect did not transfer to television
or home video, where it was renamed Jaws 3.[226] Jaws:
The Revenge (1987), directed by Joseph Sargent, starring
Michael Caine, and featuring the return of Gary, is considered one of the worst sequels ever made.[227][228] While
all three sequels made a prot at the box oce (Jaws 2
and Jaws 3-D were among the top 20 highest-grossing
lms of their respective years), critics and audiences alike
were generally dissatised with the lms.[229]

6.3 Adaptations and merchandise

The lm has inspired two theme park rides: one at
Universal Studios Florida,[230] which closed in January
2012,[231] and one at Universal Studios Japan.[232] There
is also an animatronic version of a scene from the lm
on the Studio Tour at Universal Studios Hollywood.[233]
There have been at least two musical adaptations: JAWS
The Musical!, which premiered in 2004 at the Minnesota
Fringe Festival, and Giant Killer Shark: The Musical,
which premiered in 2006 at the Toronto Fringe Festival.[234] Three video games based on the lm were released: 1987s Jaws, developed by LJN for the Nintendo
Entertainment System;[235] 2006s Jaws Unleashed by
Majesco Entertainment for the Xbox, PlayStation 2, and
PC;[236] and 2011s Jaws: Ultimate Predator, also by
Majesco, for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii.[237] A mobile
game was released in 2010 for the iPhone.[238] Aristocrat made an ocially licensed slot machine based on the

7 See also
List of American lms of 1975
List of killer shark lms



[1] "JAWS (A)". British Board of Film Classication. June

12, 1975. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
[2] http://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/
[3] Prigg 2004, p. 6
[4] Scanlon 2009, p. 197
[5] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [From
Novel to Script]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD
(2005): Universal Home Video.
[6] Brode 1995, p. 50
[7] McBride 1999, p. 231
[8] McBride 1999, p. 232
[9] Biskind 1998, p. 264


[28] Nadler 2006, p. 35.

[29] McBride 1999, p. 237
[30] McBride 1999, pp. 236237
[31] Baer 2008, p. 206
[32] Jackson 2007, p. 20
[33] Summer of the Shark. Time. June 23, 1975. Archived
from the original on November 30, 2009. Retrieved
November 9, 2011.
[34] Nadler 2006, p. 36.
[35] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Production Stories]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD
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[36] Brannen, Peter (May 26, 2011). Once Bitten: Islanders
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[10] McBride 1999, p. 240

[37] Taylor 2012, pp. 250251

[11] Gottlieb 2005, p. 52

[38] McBride 1999, p. 236

[12] Friedman & Notbohm 2000, p. 8.

[39] Harvey, Neil (June 13, 2005). 30 years of 'Jaws". The

Roanoke Times. Retrieved March 12, 2010.

[13] Mark Salisbury and Ian Nathan. Jaws: The Oral History. Empire. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
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[40] Smith, Neil (June 3, 2005). Shark tale that changed Hollywood. BBC News. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
[41] McBride 1999, p. 233

[15] Friedman & Notbohm 2000, pp. 1112

[42] Prigg 2004, p. 7

[16] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Casting

"]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD (2005): Universal Home Video.

[43] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Location]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD (2005):
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[17] McBride 1999, p. 238

[44] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Photographing Jaws]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD
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[18] Fischbach, Bob (May 20, 2010). Bobs Take: 'Jaws

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[19] Baer 2008, p. 198
[20] Baer 2008, pp. 201202
[21] Friedman 2006, p. 167
[22] Biskind 1998, p. 265
[23] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Climax]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD (2005):
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[45] Gottlieb 2005, p. 92

[46] McBride 1999, p. 241
[47] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [The
Shark]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD (2005):
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[48] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [The
Shark Is Not Working]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition
DVD (2005): Universal Home Video.
[49] Prigg 2004, p. 8

[24] Baer 2008, p. 209

[50] Collins & Radner 1993, p. 18
[25] Vespe, Eric (Quint) (June 6, 2011). Steven Spielberg and
Quint have an epic chat all about JAWS as it approaches
its 36th Anniversary!". Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved
January 2, 2012.

[51] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [The

Orca"]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition DVD (2005):
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[26] Gottlieb 2005, p. 208

[52] Sinyard 1989, p. 31

[27] Gottlieb 2005, p. 56

[53] Nadler 2006, p. 36-37.


[54] Dreyfuss, Richard (December 6, 2012). Tension Between

Richard Dreyfuss and Robert Shaw in JAWS. Interview
with Steven Bratter. University of Copenhagen. Retrieved
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[75] Berardinelli, James (2002). Jaws. Reelviews. Retrieved

August 6, 2006.

[55] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [Verna

Field 'Mother Cutter'"]. Jaws: 30th Anniversary Edition
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[77] Freer, Ian. Empires Jaws Soundtrack Review. Empire.

Retrieved January 5, 2012.

[56] Sinyard 1989, p. 36

[57] Bouzereau, Laurent (1995). A Look Inside Jaws [The
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10 External links
Jaws at DMOZ
Jaws at Filmsite.org
Jaws at the Internet Movie Database

Petersen, Clarence (1975). The Bantam Story:

Thirty Years of Paperback Publishing. Bantam
Books. OCLC 1937339.

Jaws at the TCM Movie Database

Prigg, Steven (2004). Movie Moguls Speak: Interviews with Top Film Producers. Jeerson, North
Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1929-6.

Jaws at Box Oce Mojo

Scanlon, Jennifer (2009). Bad Girls Go Everywhere:

The Life of Helen Gurley Brown. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-534205-4.
Shone, Tom (2004). Blockbuster: How Hollywood
Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Summer.
New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-74323568-1.
Sinyard, Neil (1989). The Films of Steven Spielberg.
London: Hamlyn Bison. ISBN 0-600-55226-8.
Siska, William Charles (1980). Toward a Semiotic Theory of Visual Communication in the Cinema. Manchester, New Hampshire: Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-12900-9.
Stanley, John (1988). Revenge of the Creature Features Movie Guide: An A to Z Encyclopedia to the
Cinema of the Fantastic, or, Is There a Mad Doctor in the House?. Pacica, California: Creatures at
Large Press. ISBN 0-940064-08-1.

Jaws at AllMovie

Jaws at Metacritic
Jaws at Rotten Tomatoes



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