Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

1

Irrigation
Irrigation is an artificial application of water for rain deficit area for
the crop production. It is usually used to assist the growing of crops in dry areas
and during periods of inadequate rainfall.

History
Archaeological investigation has identified evidence of irrigation in
Mesopotamia, Egypt and Iran as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where
barley was grown in areas where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support
such a crop.
Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the
Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at
Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE.
Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was
used for the purpose of irrigation.
There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in
the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis
as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, as the
lake swelled annually as caused by the annual flooding of the Nile.

Types of irrigation
Various types of irrigation techniques differ in how the water
obtained from the source is distributed within the field. In general, the goal is to
supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of
water it needs, neither too much nor too little.

Surface irrigation
In surface irrigation systems water moves over
and across the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it
and to infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be
subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is
often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in
flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land. Historically,
this has been the most common method of irrigating
agricultural land.

Localized irrigation
Localized irrigation is a system where water is
distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in
a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge
to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or
micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to
this category of irrigation methods.

Drip Irrigation
Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name
suggests. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This
method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if managed
properly, since evaporation and runoff are minimized. In modern agriculture, drip
irrigation is often combined with plastic mulch, further reducing evaporation, and

Irrigation Engineering

is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. The process is


known as fustigation.

Sprinkler irrigation
In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is
piped to one or more central locations within the field
and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or
guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns
mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is
often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher
pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are
driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed
to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Center pivot irrigation


Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler
irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe (usually
galvanized steel or aluminum) joined together and
supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with
sprinklers positioned along its length. The system moves in
a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point
at the center of the arc. These systems are common in
parts of the United States where terrain is flat. Newer irrigations have drops as
shown in the image that follows.

Sub-irrigation
Sub-irrigation also sometimes called seepage irrigation has been
used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables. It is a method
of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below
the plants' root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands
in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system
of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the
water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table.

Manual irrigation using buckets or watering cans


These systems have low requirements for infrastructure and
technical equipment but need high labor inputs. Irrigation using watering cans is
to be found for example in peri-urban agriculture around large cities in some
African countries.

Automatic, non-electric irrigation using buckets and ropes


Besides the common manual watering by bucket, an automated,
natural version of this also exist. Using plain polyester ropes combined with a
prepared ground mixture can be used to water plants from a vessel filled with
water.

Irrigation using stones to catch water from humid air


In countries where at night, humid air sweeps the countryside,
stones are used to catch water from the humid air by condensation. This is for
example practiced in the vineyards at Lanzarote.

Dry terraces for irrigation and water distribution

Irrigation Engineering

In subtropical countries as Mali and Senegal, a special type of


terracing (without flood irrigation or intent to flatten farming ground) is used.
Here, a 'stairs' is made through the use of ground level differences which helps
to decrease water evaporation and also distributes the water to all patches (sort
of irrigation).

Problems in irrigation
Competition for surface water rights.
Depletion of underground aquifers.
Ground subsidence (e.g. New Orleans, Louisiana)
Under-irrigation or irrigation giving only just enough water for the plant (eg
in drip line irrigation) gives poor soil salinity control which leads to
increased soil salinity with consequent build up of toxic salts on soil
surface in areas with high evaporation. This requires either leaching to
remove these salts and a method of drainage to carry the salts away.
When using drip lines, the leaching is best done regularly at certain
intervals (with only a slight excess of water), so that the salt is flushed
back under the plant's roots. [22][23]
Over-irrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management
wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.
Deep drainage (from over-irrigation) may result in rising water tables
which in some instances will lead to problems of irrigation salinity.
Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure.

Irrigation Engineering

Indus Basin Irrigation System


Development of Indus Basin Historic Perspective
The Indus River which irrigates the Indus Basin has seven major
tributaries, five on the east and two on the west in addition to numerous small
rivers which also join the main Indus on the west. The integrated water resources
management is not a new concept as far as Indus Basin is concerned. The upper
Punjab was the first to conceive and practice it. The triple canal project was
designed to integrate the three eastern rivers by constructing control works and
link canals in 1905-7 and operating the link canals as an integrated system. It
was a marvel of innovative engineering which heralded a new era of efficient and
equitable use of water resources and made Punjab the granary of the sub
continent. However the partition of the sub continent in August 1947 cut across
this irrigation network whereby control structures on eastern canals fell within
the territory of India and canals remained within Pakistan. Soon after the
partition, India conveyed its intention of diverting the waters of eastern rivers.
This would have meant strangulating the agro-based economy of a newly
created Pakistan whose 75% of GDP was solely dependent on agriculture as
other sectors of the economy were non-existent.

Irrigation Engineering

Indus Basin Waters Treaty of 1960


With stoppage of water from the three eastern rivers by India,
Pakistans 3 million hectare of fertile land of West Punjab, the food basket of
Pakistan would have gone barren. This created a serious water dispute between
India and Pakistan. However, over a period of 8 years of exhaustive negotiations
under the auspices of the World Bank from 1952 to 1960 the famous Indus
Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan was signed in September 1960. The
World Bank was also a signatory to this transboundary water allocation. Under
the Treaty, India was given exclusive rights to the uses of water of three (3)
eastern rivers with limited uses of waters of western rivers and Pakistan got
exclusive rights on the waters of three (3) western rivers. Pakistan was given a
grace period of 10 years to complete its Indus Basin Replacement Works. This
Treaty though extensively lauded internationally as an example of resolving
transboundary water issues between two sovereign states, created some serious
hydrological shocks and challenges for Pakistan. The first challenge as stated
earlier arose because the lines of partition of the Indo-Pak subcontinent
separated the irrigated heart land of Punjab from the life-giving waters of the
three eastern rivers.
The second challenge was that there was a serious mismatch
between the location of Pakistans water (in the western rivers) and the major
irrigated areas in the east.

Indus Basin Replacement Works


To overcome major water challenges, Pakistan had to undertake
major engineering works within a fixed time period of 10 years. The initial works
included construction of mega rock and earth fill dam on one of the western
rivers i.e. Jhelum River at Mangla, construction of inter-river link canals to
transfer the waters of western rivers to eastern rivers with a number of
Headworks and Barrages and later the world largest volume rock and earth fill
dam i.e. Tarbela Dam was also built on River Indus, the largest river of the Indus
Basin Rivers System. With additional storage water available at Tarbela,
additional canals and control structures were constructed in all the four Provinces
of Pakistan. With the construction of Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma Multipurposes storage dams, storing close to 20 billion cubic meters of water and
water distribution network consisting of 19 barrages, 60,000 km of main canals
and 1.60 million km of secondary and distributary canals, the Indus Irrigation
System became the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world.
To further resolve internal contentious issues of water rights and
water distribution within the country, Inter-Provincial Water Apportionment
Accord was signed in 1991 among all the four Provinces which determined the
10-daily historic shares of each of 43 canal commands. To ensure equitable
distribution of waters among the Provinces, Indus River System Authority known
as IRSA was created under the Act of Parliament to act as a watchdog in ensuring
accord implementation.
With transboundary water sharing Treaty of 1960 and InterProvincial Water Apportionment Accord of 1991 and 10-daily historic water share

Irrigation Engineering

of each canal command and rotational water sharing within each canal command
area, Pakistan has now well-developed water distribution system with proper
check and balance mechanism in place.

Irrigation and Canal System:


The Indus River forms the axis of Pakistan, and its tributaries drain
whole of the country, except sparsely populated province of Balochistan. The
Indus River and its tributaries provide the largest irrigation system in the world.
This is the largest network of canal system in the world, serving 34.5 million
acres of contiguous cultivated land and a novel underground water system
(karez) in Balochistan. The break up is given below.
Irrigation Network

Main Rivers

Inter-river Link Canals


Major Dams (Tarbela, Mangla, Warsak)
Barrages

Indus
Jehlum
Chenab
Ravi
Sutlej

2896
825
1242
901
1551
12
3
19

km
km
km
km
km

Irrigation Engineering

Independent Canals

43

Length of Main Canals

58,500 Km

Tubewells
Sr.
River
#

680,477 (P)

Sutlej

Heads/Barrages

Dams

Pakpattan Canal
Fordwah Canal
Eastern Sadiqia Canal
Qaim Canal
Mailsi Canal
Bahawal Canal
Panjnad Canal
Abbassia Canal
Lower Bari Doab Canal
Balloki-Sulemanki Link Lower
Depalpur Canal
Sidhnai Mailsi Link Canal
Sidhnai Canal
Marala RaviLink
U.C.C.(Upper chenab canal)
BRBD(Bambawala-Ravi-BedianDipalpur Canal)
CBDC(Central bari doab canal)
UDC(Upper Depalpur Canal)
LCC(Lower chenab canal) Upper
Gogera Lower Gogera
Burala
Main LCC Jhang Branch.
Rakh Branch.
Qadirabad .Baloki Link
Rangpur Canal
Havali Canal
Trimmu Sidhni Link

Sulemanki
Islam
Punjnad

Ravi

Balloki
Sidhnai

Marala

Chena
b

Canals

Khanki
Qadirabad
Trimmu
Panjnad Barrage
Mangla

Jehlu
m

Indus

Rasul
Jinnah
Chashma
Taunsa
Guddu

Upper Jehlum Canal up stream


Khanki Headworks
Rasul Qadirabad Link Canal
Lower Jehlum Canal
Thal canal
Chashma Jhelum link
Chashma reservoir bank canal
Kachhi Canal
D.G. Khan Canal
Muzaffargarah Canal
Taunsa Panjnad Link Canal
Pat feeder
Desert Feeder
Begari Sindh Feeder
Ghotki canal

Irrigation Engineering
Nara Canal
Mirwah Canal
Rohri Canal
Abul Wah
& right side canals are
Dadu Canal
Rice Canal
Khirthar Canal

Sukkur

Kotri
(Ghulam
Muhammad
Barrage)

Kotri Baghar feeder


Phuleli
Pinjari
Akram Wah

Terbela
Warsak
Kalabagh dam
(proposed)
Thal reservoir
Sehwan reservoir
(proposed)

Right Bank canal


Left Bank Canal
Right Bank Canal
Left Bank Canal.

Irrigation Engineering

Schematic Diagram of Indus Basin Irrigation System

Structures Over Rivers


River Indus
Tarbela 4th Extension Project
Location

Tarbela Dam

Existing Installed Capacity

3470 MW

Tunnel-4 (Already constructed)


Purpose Irrigation

Irrigation Engineering

Type Concrete/Steel Lined


Diameter 45 ft to 36 ft
Length 2997 ft
Dam (Already constructed)
Height

485 ft (147.82 m)

Length

9000 ft (27434 m)

Spillway (Already constructed)


installed Capacity

960 MW

Tentative Project Cost (Million US$)

500

Ghazi Gariala (Proposed Active Barrage)


The barrage across the Indus River, located near Ghazi, downstream
from Tarbela, consists of several major components: gated head regulator,
skimming platform, undersluices, open flume standard bays, dividing island, right
and left guide banks, fuse plug embankment, separation dyke, cunette, road
bridge over the barrage, control building, workshops, offices, and M&E
installations. A taking over certificate (TOC) for works essential for impounding
was issued on 16 June 2003, and the TOC for works not essential for impounding
was issued in November 2003 (effective from 22 August 2003). Impounding of
the barrage pond commenced in February 2003, and the maximum level was
reached on 20 May 2003.
The power channel is 52 km long and lined with reinforced concrete.
The capacity is 1,600 cubic meters per second. Seventy-nine structures of
different categories are on the channel, including bridges, superpassages,
culverts, inlets, and escapes.
Location and river
Design discharge (cusecs)
Water way Including water
Sluices (ft)

6-miles D/S of Terbella Dam near Ghazi /


Khalu Village, on River Indus.
35,000 to
No. Of under
60,000
sluices
Crest level

Number of bays

No-of off-taking
canals

Kalabagh Barrage (Jinnah Barrage)


The Kalabagh dam was a mega water reservoir that the
Government of Pakistan was planning to develop across the Indus River, one of
the world's largest rivers. The proposed site for the dam was situated at

Irrigation Engineering

Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the north-west Punjab province, bordering the


Province. The proposal is halted due to political reasons. However there is a
barrage at the same location which is also known as Jinnah barrage. Details of
which are mentioned here.

Thal Canal
The amount of water that it carries is 2.534 MAF. It is divided into
2 different divisions.

Thal canal main line lower


It is a main canal located in bhakkar. And length in miles is
100.50.Its authorized head discharge is 4100 .Its authorized tail discharge
is 228 .Its Gross command area is 3534. Its Culturable command area is
2966.

Thal canal main line upper


It is a main canal located in kalabagh. It is categorized in the
zone of sarghodha. It is a perennial canal. And length in miles is
31.532.Its authorized head discharge is 9000. Its authorized tail discharge
is 9000.00. Its Gross command area is 2460861. Its Culturable command
area is 2115931.

Chashma Barrage
Chashma Barrage is located on the Indus River near the village
Chashma in Mianwali district. The project was built between 1967 and 1971. It is
one of the many major engineering works that form a part of Indus basin treaty
of 1960 between India and Pakistan.
According to the project reports, 34 villages were displaced with the
population of 22,400 people during the mid 60s. The installed capacity of power
station is 184MW. Chashma Barrage is the 3rd largest water reservoir of Pakistan.
Location and river
Year of Completion

Maximum Intensity of
Discharge
Length between abutments

Indus
25th March,
1971

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

52
11

No-of off-taking
canals

300Cs. Per ft.


3556 ft.

Chashma Jhelum link


Chashma reservoir bank canal

Taunsa Barrage
This barrage is situated on Indus River near Taunsa at a distance of
180 miles from the Jinnah barrage. The project was designed to ensure irrigation
of the cultivated lands in the area of the Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan
canals, and through the Taunsa-Panjnad Link Canal that supplements the water
supply to Panjnad headworks canals.
Location and river
Year of Completion

Indus
1959

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices

53
12

Irrigation Engineering

Design discharge
7,50,000
Crest level
6
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
4346
No-of off-taking
4
(ft)
canals
The canals which originate from this barrage and their details is
given here under;

Kachhi Canal
D.G. Khan Canal
It is a main canal located in D.G Khan. It is categorized in the
zone of D.G Khan. It is a nonperennial canal.
Zone
(Bund) D G
Gross Command Area
947874
Khan
Head discharge
8900
Culturable Command
901981
(cusecs)
Area
Tail discharge
5514
Length in miles
69.046
(cusecs)

Muzaffargarah Canal
It is a main canal located in D.G Khan. It is categorized in the
zone of D.G Khan. It is a nonperennial canal.
Zone
Muzaffargar Gross Command Area
906490
h
Head discharge
8901
Culturable Command
838380
(cusecs)
Area
Tail discharge (cusecs)
2776
Length in miles
74.14

Taunsa Panjnad Link Canal


It is a main canal located in D.G Khan. It is categorized in the
zone of D.G Khan. It is a nonperennial canal.
Zone
(Lashari) D G
Gross Command Area
2150000
Khan
Head discharge
12000
Culturable Command
2000000
(cusecs)
Area
Tail discharge
Length in miles
38.20
(cusecs)

Guddu Barrage
It has been constructed on Indus River at Guddu, 90 miles upstream
from Sukkur and ten miles from Kashmor. The canals that branch out from here
irrigate about 31 lakh acres of land in Sukkur, Jacobabad and Shikarpur areas. It
is located near Sukkur in Pakistan. The maximum flood level height of this
barrage is 26ft (8meters). Guddu Barrage supplies water for irrigation to
2.9million acres of agricultural lands in the Districts of Jacobabad, Larkana and
Sukkur of Sindh and the Nasirabad District of Balouchistan.
Location and river

Indus

Year of Completion

1962

Design discharge (cusecs)

12,00,00

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

64
236

Irrigation Engineering

0
Water way Including water
Sluices (ft)

S.P.D

3900

No-of off-taking
canals

Pat feeder
Desert Feeder
Begari Sindh Feeder
Ghotki canal

Sukkur Barrage
The Sukkur barrage is a barrage across the Indus river near the city
of Sukkur, Pakistan. The barrage enables water to flow through what was
originally a 6166 mile long network of canals, feeding the largest irrigation
system in the world, with more than 5 million acres (20,000 km) of irrigated
land.
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

(Sukkur)
Indus
1932
15,00,000
4725

Number of bays

54

No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

12

No-of off-taking
canals

177.00
S.P.D
7

Left Side Canals

Nara Canal
Mirwah Canal
Rohri Canal
Abul Wah
Right Side Canals are

Dadu Canal
Rice Canal
Khirthar Canal

Kotri Barrage (Ghulam Muhammad Barrage)


The Ghulm Muammad (Kotri) Barrage (1955), 4.5 miles (7 km)
above Kotri, controls the Indus floods, generates hydroelectricity, and irrigates
about 2.8 million acres (1.1 million hectares) in the region. Wheat, cotton, and
rice are cultivated.

Irrigation Engineering

Location and river


Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Indus
March, 1955
8,75,000
2984

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

44
48 S.P.D.
5

Kotri Baghar feeder


Phuleli
Pinjari
Akram Wah
S.M.B.L (Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link) Canal
Zone
Gross Command Area
Culturable Command
Area

(Baghdad)
Bahawalpur
1229174

Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)
Length in miles

1048805

533
8
512
3
30.4
0

River Jehlum
Mangla Dam

Dam Type:
Height:
Length:
Lake Area:
Catchment Area:
Gross Storage Capacity:
Live Storage Capacity:
Main Spillway Capacity:
Year of Completion:

Hydropower Generation:
No. of people to be
displaced by raising of
dam:

Earth fill
380 ft. (above riverbed
10,300 feet
97.7 sq. miles
12,870 Sq miles
5.88 MAF
5.34 MAF
1.01 million cusecs
1967
1,000 MW from 10 units
of 100 MW each

40,000

Upper Jehlum Canal up stream Khanki Headworks

Rasul Barrage
This barrage is located on the River Jehlum at Rasul ( Mandi
Bahauddin). This barrage has flood capacity of 24070m 3/sec. Water is diverted
from this point to the 538-cumec Rasul-Qadirabad Link (RQ-Link) Canal for
ultimate transfer to the Sulemanki Barrage on the Sutlej River.
Location and river

Jehlum

Number of bays

42

Irrigation Engineering

Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

1967
8,50,000
3209

No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

6
703 S.P.D.
2

Rasul Qadirabad Link Canal


It is a main canal located in Rasul Division. It is
categorized in the zone of Sargodha. It is a perennial canal. Its reduced
distance is 145256.00. And length in miles is 29.051.Its authorized head
discharge is 19000.00.Its authorized tail discharge is 19000.00.

Lower Jehlum Canal


It is a main canal located in Rasul Division. It is
categorized in the zone of Sargodha. It is a perennial canal. Its reduced
distance is 196830.00. And length in miles is 39.366.Its authorized head
discharge is 5500.00.Its authorized tail discharge is 3705.00.Its Gross
command area is 1728349.00.Its Culturable command area is 1485776.00.

River Chenab
Maralla Barrage
The Marala headwork is situated at the Chenab River near the city
of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Two major water channels originate at the Marala
headworks, the Marala-Ravi Link Canal and the Upper Chenab Canal. Proposals
are under consideration to build Mangla Marala Link Canal to overcome any
shortage of water in future.
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Chenab
1968
1,100,000
4472.33

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

66
13
800 S.P.D
2

Marala Ravi Link


Zone

Lahore

Gross Command Area

Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

22000

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

20000

16559
8
15498
7
63.463

U.C.C.(Upper chenab canal)


Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge

Lahore
16850
11373

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

19600
12449
26.65

Irrigation Engineering

(cusecs)

BRBD(Bambawala-Ravi-Bedian-Dipalpur Canal)
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)
o
o

Lahore
7260
2380

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

107.4
0

CBDC(Central bari doab canal)


UDC(Upper Depalpur Canal)

Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

(Khudian)
Lahore
2380
317

Gross Command Area

367499

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

336782
41.673

Khanki Head Works


Head Khanki or the Khanki Headwork is the oldest head work of
Pakistan. It is present at river Chenab in Gujrat District. It is used to control water
flow and flood flow in river Chenab. Another use is to provide water to tributaries
Such as Lower Chenab.
Location and river
Year of Completion

Chenab
1891

Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

800,000
3928.75

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

6
48
726.5 -727.0
S.P.D

No-of off-taking
canals

Canal Lower Chenab


Canal Lower Chenab originates from Head Khanki. It
provides water to three million acres (12,000 km) of agricultural lands by
one main distributry Lower Chenab and 59 minor distrtributeries. Its
bridge is in shambles now a day and is posing serious threat to adjoining
population of 100,000. In last 118 years there were 11 occasions when
water was 730 foot higher in it than sea level at times of high floods.
There were 16 occasions in last century when flood flow was 400,000 and
600,000 m/s in it.
Zone
Faisalaba Gross Command Area 3700000
d
Head discharge
8143
Culturable Command
3400000
(cusecs)
Area
Tail discharge
Length in miles
40.058
(cusecs)

Zone

Upper Gogera Lower (Gogera Burala)


(Bhagat)
Gross Command Area

15445

Irrigation Engineering

Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Faisalabad
2250
515

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

12737
77.51
3

Main LCC Jhang Branch (Rakh Branch)

Qadirabad Barrage
Location and river
Year of Completion

Chenab
8.5.1967

Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

900,000
3373

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

50
5
684.50
S.P.D
1

Qadirabad Baloki Link Canal


Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

(Hafizabad
)
25000
20900

Gross Command Area

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

79.48
3

Trimmu Barrage
Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 some 90 km from Mari Shah
Sakhira town, at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge
capacity of 645,000 ft/s (18,000 m/s).
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Chenab
1939
6,45,000
3025

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

37
14
477.50
S.P.D
3

Rangpur Canal
Havali Canal
Trimmu Sidhni Link
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Punjnad Barrage

(Sidhnai)
Multan
12500
10000

Gross Command Area

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

43.6
0

Irrigation Engineering

Head Panjnad (Panjnad Barrage) is a river head in Punjab, Pakistan.


Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers of Punjab,
namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab,
Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad near Uch
Sharif. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins
Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on
Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind
provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Chenab
1932

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

7,00,000
3400

No-of off-taking
canals

47
325.00
S.P.D
2

Abbasia Canal
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Bahawalp
ur
1394

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

587

1176
63
1113
33
44.91
5

Panjnad Canal
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Bahawalp
ur
10484

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

4274

12939
41
11865
37
57.26
7

River Ravi
Balloki Barrage
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Ravi
15.5.1965
2,25,000
1646.5

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

35
624.50
S.P.D
2

Lower Bari Doab Canal


Zone
Head discharge

Multan
9292

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command

2130937
1845974

Irrigation Engineering

(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

1000

Area
Length in miles

132.14

Balloki-Sulemanki Link Lower (Depalpur Canal)

Sidhnai Barrage
Location and river
Year of Completion

Sutluj
28-02-1965

Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

1,50,000
712

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

15
4
454.00
S.P.D
2

Sidhnai Mailsi Link Canal


Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Multan
630
630

Gross Command Area


Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

4071
3724
4.132

Sidhnai Canal

River Sutluj
Sulemanki Barrage
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Sutluj
1926
3,25,000
2223

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

24
16
560.00
S.P.D
3

Pakpattan Canal
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Multan

Gross Command Area

5508

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

24

104632
6
961158
113.47

Irrigation Engineering

Fordwah Canal
Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Multan

Gross Command Area

3447

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

2993

46502
4
43011
2
8.97

Eastern Sadiqia Canal


Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Multan

Gross Command Area

6820

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

5106

61603
5
54747
2
49

Islam Barrage
Islam Barrage, located about six miles north-west of Hasilpur town,
was constructed across River Sutlej during 1922-1927 as a component of Sutlej
Valley Project for feeding Bahawal Canal (5,400 cusecs) and Qaim Canal (558
cusecs) on the left bank and Mailsi Canal (4,883 cusecs) on the right bank.
It was designed for a maximum discharge of 300,000 cusecs. After
the implementation of Indus Water Treaty, the head regulator of Mailsi Canal at
Islam Barrage was abandoned and the canal started receiving supplies from the
new Sidhnai-Mailsi Link Canal constructed in 1965. Similarly the capacity of
Bahawal Canal was reduced to 1,000 cusecs by shifting lower areas of the canal
on to the new Mailsi-Bahawal link.
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Sutluj
1927
3,00,00
0
1621

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level

29
4
435.50-441.00
S.P.D

No-of off-taking
canals

Qasim Canal
Zone

Multan

Gross Command Area

Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

483.00

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

Mailsi Canal
Bahawal Canal

61

5580
4
5279
7
7.43

Irrigation Engineering

Zone
Head discharge
(cusecs)
Tail discharge
(cusecs)

Multan

Gross Command Area

500

Culturable Command
Area
Length in miles

386

5746
9
5202
3
2.40

Mailsi Syphon
It is located near Mailsi, from Mailsi to Khair Pur Tamaywali. Mailsi
Sidhnai Link Canal (as it is named) passes under river Satluj here. Cananl
originate at Sidhnai headworks on River Ravi near Abdul Hakeem and irrigate /
distribute water to parts of District Vehari, Lodhran and Bahawal Pur.
Location and river
Year of Completion
Design discharge
(cusecs)
Width b/w abutments
(ft)

Sutluj
10-12-1964
4,29,000
1601

Number of bays
No. Of under
sluices
Crest level
No-of off-taking
canals

24
415.50
S.P.D
-

Summary:
The natural geo-agricultural pattern has made in such a way that
the Chenab meets the Jhelum near Trimmu, the Ravi meets the Jhelum
downwards, and the Sutlej meets the Jhelum at Pujnand, and still down, the
combination of these rivers meets the Indus at Mithankot. Then the Indus flows
down into Sindh. There are three barrages in Sindh while all other waterworks
are upcountry.
Another fact is that in Punjab all rivers and waterworks are
interconnected by channels and links as under:
1. C-J link (Chashma-Jhelum link) connects the Indus at Chashma with the Jhelum
above Trimmu.
2. U-J-C link (upper Jhelum Chenab Link) connects the Jhelum from Mangla to the
Chenab above Khanki headworks.
3. R-Q link (Rasul-Qadirabad link) connects the Jhelum at Rasul with the Chenab
at the Qadirabad barrage.
4. M-R link (Marala-Ravi link) connects the Chenab at Marala with the Ravi at
Shahdara).
5. Q-B link (Qadirabad-Balloki link) connects the Chenab at Qadirabad with the
Ravi at Balloki.

Irrigation Engineering

6. T-S link (Trimmu-Sidnai link) connects the Jhelum at Trimmu with the Ravi at
Sidnai.
7. S-M link (Sidnai-Malsi link) connects the Ravi at Sidnai with Malsi that passes
through the Sutlej.
8. The BRBD link is about a 100-mile-long channel from a branch of Marala
across the Ravi towards the Sutlej.
9. B-S I & II (Balloki-Sulemanki) are two links which connect the Ravi at Balloki
with the Sutlej at Sulemanki.

Refrences
http://www.wapda.gov.pk/htmls/
http://irrigation.punjab.gov.pk/
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://www.google.com.pk/
http://www.authorstream.com/
http://www.answers.com/