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EXPERIMENT NO 1(B)

HARDNESS TEST
Batch B2:
08D10003, 08D10004, 08D10005, 08D10006, 08D10007, 08D10008

OBJECTIVE
 The aim of this experiment is to determine the Rockwell hardness
numbers of metals.

EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS


 Rockwell hardness testing machines, indenters, specimens.

THEORY
 Hardness, though difficult to define exactly may be defined as resistance
to permanent deformation. It can be determined either statistically or
dynamically. Static hardness test can be further classified as follows:-
 Those which express the hardness number in terms of the load per
unit area of indentations. e.g. Brinell and Vickers test.
 The Rockwell hardness test in which the Rockwell number
depends upon the depth of penetration of the indenting tool.

 Significant information can be obtained from the hardness number of a


specimen. Uniform hardness numbers are nearly always a sufficient
guarantee of the uniform quality of the finished products. In this test the
depth of the penetration of the given indenture under a specified load is
measured. The type of indenter and load used depend upon the material to
be tested. Scale B is used for the materials having hardness number upto
that of MS and CI. The indenture is then a hardened steel ball of 1/ 16”
dia. An initial load of 10 kg is applied on the ball. An additional load of
90 kg in then applied (major load). Scale C is used for alloy steels. The
indenture is a diamond cone of 120 deg. included angle. Here 150 kg is
used as the major load.

 The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material
with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is
forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (Fig. A)
usually 10 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device,
which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes
in depth of penetration of the indenter, is set to a datum position. While
the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is
applied with resulting increase in penetration (Fig. B). When equilibrium
has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the
preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional
major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration
(Fig. C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, resulting from
the application and removal of the additional major load is used to
calculate the Rockwell hardness number.

HR = E-e

F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf


F1 = additional major load in kgf
F = total load in kgf
D = diameter of steel ball
e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in
units of 0.002 mm
E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter, 130
units for steel ball indenter
HR = Rockwell hardness number

PROCEDURE

 1) Keep the specimen on the machine table.


 2) Turn the table upward so that distance between the indenture and
specimen will be less than 8mm.
 3) Select the HRC scale with the help of touch screen display buttons
 4) Press the start button, it will automatically go down in the specimen to
make the impression and will display the HRC value.
 5) Brinnel Hardness Number (BHN) can also be found from this after
changing the scale.
 6) Take at least 3 reading and take an average to get the final HRC value.
OBSERVATIONS
 A 1/16 inch ball indenter was used for HRB and a diamond cone of 120
deg. included angle for HRC.

Material Hardness Test Value of hardness Theoretical


used Values

1 2 3 Average
Aluminium HRB 58.28 58.56 61.76 60

Mild Steel HRB 89.69 88.15 89.16 67-83

Brass HRB 82.99 88.15 89.16 75

Copper HRB 30.86 32.04 31.61 26

High HRC 68.65 69.57 68.45 58-63


CarbonSteel

SOURCES OF ERRORS:

 1. For each Rockwell scale hardness may go up to 130, however hardness


values between 20 & 100 are considered accurate. If hardness value is
below 20 or higher den 100 then in such situation next softer or harder
scale should be utilize respectively.
 2. Inaccuracies also result if the test specimen is too thin.
 3. Or an indentation is made too near to the edge of specimen.
 4. Or two indentations are made two close to each other.
 5. Specimen thickness should be at least ten times the indentation depth.
 6. Allowance should be made for at least three indentation diameters
between the center of one indentation and the specimen edge, or to the
center of a second indentation.
 7. Specimens should not be stacked upon another during the time of
experiment.

CONCLUSION
 Experiment values found almost coincide with theoretical values. The
little bit discrepancy in the reading can be because of placing of the
specimen on the hardness testing machine, if the point of application of
force is placed on the edge of the support then the reading can variate
from the actual or correct reading