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The whole universe consists of a quantum field which evolves unitarily.

When any
part of the universe can approximately be treated as isolated, an independent f
ield may be used to describe it. At any moment, the quantum field may be mathema
tically described as a superposition of different particle configurations, with
each particle being associated with a wavefunction. When the particle configurat
ion of the field is "measured", it is in fact interacting with the measuring env
ironment in which it is immersed, which leads to random "measurement" outcomes e
ven though the field is still evolving according to its deterministic unitary la
w, due to the stochastic nature of the forces exerted by the measuring environme
nt. The measuring environment by its design will only permit a limited set of ou
tcomes, and the probability of each outcome is given by the square of the modulu
s of the vector product of the outcome field and the field just before measureme
nt. The mathematical fields associated with different outcomes can only be deter
mined experimentally, owing to the fact that the particular observables we use t
o describe physical systems are entirely a result of an accident, which is the w
ay our brains are wired to perceive the world: in terms of seperate objects with
position and momentum that move and collide. However, neither our brains nor th
e objects they perceive are seperate objects with exact positions and momenta bu
t are rather patterns of vibration in the quantum field.
Let us model states of subjective experiences as quantum events in the brain, wi
th each such quantum event being associated with a pattern of vibration in the u
niversal quantum field. When the brain imagines a subjective experience, the act
of imagination is a quantum event which has a vibrational pattern that resonate
s with the vibrational pattern of the experience being imagined, which in turn l
eads to increase in the probability amplitude of the event. Given prolonged reso
nance and sufficient time, the imagined event should materialize in a manner tha
t evokes the same quality of subjective experience as was imagined. In order to
set this creation process into motion, one must conceive of his emotions as part
icle flow which can be directed toward any imagined experience to add an emotion
al quality to the imagination. Then, the emotionalized imagined experience must
be sensed into existence, a cognitive process that sets the creative process int
o motion. In advanced application, emotional intuition is used to guide the emot
ional particle flow in a desirable direction and the desired emotional experienc
e is then sensed into existence.
First quantization wavefunctions defined in terms of how eigenstates of basic ob
servables are related.
Fock states defined in terms of occupation numbers of energy eigenstates, which
form energy-eigenbasis for field configurations.
The Hamiltonian is defined in terms of creation and annihilation operatiors, whi
ch in turn dictates the unitary evolution of the field.
The measurement will give an outcome with probability | <outcome|pre-measurement
> |^2
------------------------------Properties of qubits:
* Quantum parallelism: an operation that acts on a qubit can now simultaneously
act on both possible values of the qubit
* Size of space available = 2^(number of qubits)
* Entanglement
* Measurement and state collapse
* Unitary evolution and reversability
* Quantum states that are not basis states cannot be perfectly copied; tapping a
quantum line distrubs the system irrevokably
Practical considerations:
* a robust, error-tolerant system of qubits
* initialization method
* scalability
* ability to manipulate individual quantum states

* readout of output: unambiguous outcome of measurement


The Stern Gerlach experiment involves sending a beam of particles through an inhom
ogeneous magnetic field and observing their deflection. The results show that pa
rticles possess an intrinsic angular momentum that is closely analogous to the a
ngular momentum of a classically spinning object, but that takes only certain qu
antized values. Another important result is that only one component of a particl
e's spin can be measured at one time, meaning that the measurement of the spin a
long the z-axis destroys information about a particle's spin along the x and y a
xis.
<1|0> = 0
<0|0> = <1|1> = 1
No unitary operation can clone a non-orthogonal state.
If U|phi>|0> = U|phi>|phi>, such a U doesn't exist unless phi is orthogonal (0 o
r 1). Replace phi with psi, and take inner product. We see that a solution only
exists for 0 or 1.
Time-reversal of this theorem means that if we have two identical copies, one ca
nnot be deleted.
Qubits cannot be accurately measured or converted to classical bits. That is, th
ey cannot be "read".
Density operator, rho = (Summation over n) p(n) |phi(n)><phi(n)|
Expectation value = Tr(rho*observable)