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The Current and Future Applications of

Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems


SFPE Atlanta Symposium
Atlanta GA.
Atlanta,
GA
March 18, 2009

The Current and Future Application of Water Mist


Fire Suppression Technology

Are water mist systems a myth ?

Who buys-sells-designs-installs
b s sells designs installs them ?

What kind of engineering


g
g issues are involved ?

Future directions ?

O d off presentation
Order
t ti
1
1.

Introduction & Fundamentals

(20 min)

2.

Types of Water Mist Systems and


Equipment
(15 min)

3.

Codes, Standards, Test Protocols (15 min)

4.

Future directions

(10 min)

5
5.

Di
Discussion,
i
questions
ti

(10 min)
i )

Is Water Mist a myth?

Aquamist
q
((Tyco)
y )

Aquasys
q
y ((Germany)
y)

Chemetron (USA)

Minimax, Germany

Fike (USA)

Eusibi (Italy)

Fogtec (Germany, global)

Kidde Italia

Marioff (Finland, now UTC)

Kidde Fenwal

Securiplex (Global, USA)

Wormald, UK

Semco

Viking Australia

Ultrafog

Others

Victaulic Co. of America

Apparently not a myth

Where water mist systems are used

Marine
Cruise ships all accommodation, storage and public spaces
Navy - Machinery spaces; total flooding and local application
Not used on cargo ships (CO2)

Petroleum Industry
Oil production process modules, turbine enclosures

Heritage buildings
Heritage hotels; art galleries, archives, museums historic buildings

Transportation
Madrid Metro (Europe)
Road tunnels (Europe)

Fundamentals

Water Mist Systems

are water
water-based
based fire extinguishing systems

are similar to sprinkler and water spray systems,


b t ...
but

... use less water for equivalent performance

... may be used to replace gaseous agents

Extinguishing Mechanisms

Oxygen displacement
di l
t by
b water
t vapor

Flame cooling

Blocking of radiant heat

Pre etting of combustibles


Pre-wetting
comb stibles

Other

Reduce droplet size to improve efficiency

S ll d
Smaller
drops evaporate
t ffaster
t th
than larger
l
drops
d

More mass of water evaporates

More heat is extracted from the fire energy

More water vapor is formed displacing more


oxygen

than sprinkler sprays

per gallon (liter) of water discharged.

Characteristics of fine water sprays


Drop size distribution
Spray velocity and spray momentum
Discharge rate
Spray momentum (mass x velocity)
Directional aspects (cone angle, orientation)

Water mist nozzle spray characterization flux distributions

Fl
Flux
Density
Distribution
Contour
Plot
L/min/m2
(Entrainment
between fingers)

Water Mist

Sprinklers

Weighted Average Cumulative % Volume Drop Size Distributions


100
M11

Cumu
ulative Volume
e (%)

90

NA

80

K14

70

AM10

60
50
40

Q,, (L/min)
(
)
M11 - 16
NA - 14
K14 - 05
AM10 - 12

30
20

P,, (bar)
( )
70
70
12
12

10
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Drop Diameter (m)

Water
has drop
distribution
with 99
of nozzles
Figuremist
3: Weighted
averagesize
drop size
distributions
distributions, measured
1 m%
below

volume of the spray contained in drops 1-mm or smaller


Sprinkler sprays range: Dv90 = 2,000 microns +

Heat Absorption
p
The rate of heat absorption is a function of
surface area of the droplets
The quantity of heat absorbed is a function of
the mass of water that is heated or vaporized
For a given mass of water:
the diameter = twice the total surface area of
the droplets

Vapor generation
When water vaporizes, it displaces air equivalent to
over 1,600
1 600 times
ti
its
it original
i i l volume
l

Oxygen displacement by water vapor


100

[O2] + [N2] + [H2Ov] = 1.0


[O2] = 0.265 x [N2]

90

Water Vapor Percentage by V


Volume

80

70

60

50

[O2] = 14.7%
40

[O2] = 20.9%
20 9%

[O2] = 16.8%

30

20

[[O2] = 18.9%
10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

T
Temperature
t
(C)

Psychrometric chart: vapor concentrations at saturation

90

100

Confine heat and water vapor


p in compartment
p
Total Flooding
Mode
5.0-m

Hydrocarbon fires

Simplified object,
obstructions

Opening
2-m x 2-m

10-m

IMO: Extinguishment by Oxygen Depletion in 15 minutes or less


[O2] = 1.00 - [CO2] - ([N2a]) - [H2Ov]

Applications of Water Mist Nozzles


Class B - Flammable
Liquids
Oxygen Displacement
t lless than
to
th 15 %
Cooling fuel below flash
point
Radiation attenuation,
block thermal feedback
G
Gaseous agentt
replacement

Class A - Sprinkler
p
Equivalent
Surface Wetting
Oxygen depletion < 10 %
Cooling gases
Attenuation of radiation
to unburned fuel surfaces
Same as sprinklers, but
with less water

Methods of Generating Water Mist

Flame cooling

Types of Water Mist Nozzles


Impingement Type
A jet of water (e.g. 3-mm
diameter) strikes against a
d fl t surface
deflector
f
and
db
breaks
k up
into small particles

3-mm orifice

Tyco
y AM10
Impingement Type

Types of Water Mist Nozzles


Pressure Jet Type
A group of jets of water at high velocity break up into fine
droplets
E t i
Entrainment
t off ceiling
ili gases

Spray cone angle

Types of Water Mist Nozzles


Twin Fluid Type
yp
A stream of
compressed gas is
forced into a stream of
water, causing shearing
and break up into small
drop sizes
Can use low pressure
water

Examples
p
of Open
p and Automatic Nozzles

Pressure jjett
P
2.5 mm fast response

Impingement type (intermediate pressure)

Pressure jet
Open

O d off presentation
Order
t ti
1.

Introduction & Fundamentals

(20 min)

2.

Types of Water Mist Systems and


Equipment

(15 min)

3.

Codes, Standards, Test Protocols

(15 min)

4.

Future directions

(10 min)

5.

Discussion, questions

(10 min)

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