Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
Resistive reach setting of a Quadrilateral characteristics Impedance Relay
This document discusses the issues concerning the resistive reach setting of the quadrilateral characteristics of a distance relay. Though quadrilateral characteristics allows the user to set the resistive reach independent of the reactance setting, the application and measurement errors does impose some limits on the highest value that can be set. The document explains each of the influencing conditions. Finally a general guideline for setting is proposed.
The main criterion that influence the resistive reach setting of a quadrilateral characteristics are;
1. Maximum expected fault resistance – The fault resistance is primarily contributed by, fault arc resistance and tower footing resistance. The resistive reach setting should ideally be more than the maximum fault resistance expected.
2. Remote infeed – The fault current feed from the remote source will cause the resistance measured by the local relay to be more than the actual resistance. So it is desirable to set the resistive reach such that the measured resistance is within the setting even for the highest remote infeed.
3. Remote in feed with different local and remote source impedance angles  If the remote source impedance angle is different from the local source angle, then the remote current in feed to the fault resistance will cause error in the reactance measurement as well. This apparent reactance can be higher or lower than the line reactance (depends on the relative angle of the remote source, leading or lagging). Thus the resistance reach setting should be limited such that a high resistance fault beyond 100% of the protected line will not cause the apparent impedance to fall within the zone 1 setting. This condition puts a limit on the maximum R/X ratio of the quadrilateral characteristics.
4. Maximum load – Resistive reach setting should be less than the maximum load to avoid load encroachment into the operating characteristics The resistive reach setting thus should be less than the maximum load impedance with an overload factor and safety margin.
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
5. Error introduced by Current/Voltage transformers and relay
measurement inaccuracies – Current and voltage transformers introduce ratio and phase errors. Depending on the relay design, they also have measurement errors (usually 5 to 10%) This can result in the relay measuring impedance (both R and X) different from actual. To ensure that the worst error in measurement does
not cause the relay zone 1 to overreach beyond 100% of the line,
we
have
to
put
a
limit
on
the maximum
quadrilateral characteristics.
R/X ratio of the
Of the
above four conditions, 1&2 argues to increase
the resistive
setting whereas 3, 4 & 5 puts a limit on the maximum value we can set for the resistive reach. So the final setting of the resistive reach should be a value, which is an acceptable compromise meeting all the
four conditions. One thing to be borne in mind while
deciding the
setting is the philosophy of the distance protection zones. That is
> 
Zone 
1 
of the distance protection is intended to protect the 

maximum possible portion of the protected line. With a given setting 

(80% or 90%), it should NEVER overreach beyond the 100% of the protected line under any system conditions or errors. 

> 
Zone 
2 is primarily provided 
to detect 
all 
faults beyond zone 
1 
setting and upto the 100% of the line (also know as the end zone).
The Zone 2 should NEVER underreach below 100% of the protected line under any case.
Now we will discuss each of the above cases bearing in mind the basic philosophy of the protection zones.
1. Maximum expected fault resistance
It is very difficult to arrive at an exact value for the arc resistance during a fault. A.R. Van C Warrington derived an empirical formula for calculating the arc resistance. This can be used to calculate an approximate value of maximum the arc resistance.
R =
A
28710
1.4
I F
L
(1)
R _{A} – Arc resistance in primary Ω. I _{F} – Fault current in primary Amps. L – Length of arc in meters.
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
As it can be seen that the worst case (higher arc resistance) occurs for lower fault currents.
The tower footing resistance is a value which can be measured or got from the design information.
2. Remote infeed
Consider a simple system shown in figure 1 with source on both sides.
The distance relay Ra at station A protects the line AB. For a single phase to ground fault at location F, with an external fault resistance is
Fig. 1 : Simple system with remote infeed
The relay Ra will measure fault current as “Iaf” and fault voltage as “Vaf”. At present we will assume that the remote infeed is in phase with the local feed. That is the phase angle of Iaf is same as Ibf {Note the direction of the currents are marked in the diagram}
Let us start with,
ZLa = ZLa ∠θ° Iaf = Iaf ∠0° Ibf = Ibf ∠0°
Now we can calculate the other values as,
Voltage across the fault resistance;
Vrf = (Iaf+Ibf)*Rf = Rf*Iaf ∠0° + Rf*Ibf ∠0°
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
Voltage across the line impedance to fault location;
VLf = Iaf*ZLa = (Iaf ∠0°)*(ZLa ∠θ°) = Iaf*ZLa ∠θ°
Voltage at the relay location;
Vaf = VLf+Vrf = Iaf*ZLa ∠θ° + Rf*Iaf ∠0° + Rf*Ibf ∠0°
The impedance measured by the relay will thus be;
From equation (2) we can see that instead of measuring an impedance of ZLa+Rf (which is the sum of line impedance upto to fault location plus the fault resistance), the relay Ra actually a value higher by (Ibf/Iaf)*Rf. This effect is shown in figure 2 below.
Fig. 2 : Difference in measured resistance due to remote infeed
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
From equation (2) and figure 2, it can be seen that the amount of error in the resistance measured depends on the relative current feed from the remote source as compared to the local source. If the remote feed is absent then the error is zero, if the remote feed is 3 times the local feed, then the relay would measure 4 times Rf, instead of Rf.
3. Remote
in
feed
with different
local and remote source
impedance angles
Continuing the same discussion, in practice the local and remote fault currents need not be in phase. Let us see what happens to the measured impedance in this case.
Now we will consider that the remote feed current is displaced by an angle ∅ _{s} . Then we have,
Iaf = Iaf ∠0° Ibf = Ibf ∠∅ _{s}
°
If
we
repeat the steps
we
followed in calculating the measured
impedance in sl. no. 2, we will get,
From equation (3) we can see that the angle ∅ _{s} , is in fact introducing an additional reactance component to the measured impedance. Figure 3 below shows this in the impedance plane.
From equation (3) and figure 3 it can be seen that the measured impedance has an additional resistance and reactance component. The reactance component of the error can either add to the line reactance (when the remote current leads the local current) or subtract from the line reactance (when the remote current lags the local current).
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
Fig. 3 : Difference in measured resistance and reactance due to remote infeed
This means that if the remote current leads the local current, then the impedance relay will underreach. Whereas, if the remote current lags the local current then the relay will overreach.
Fig. 4 :Influence of remote infeed on resistive reach selection
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
We are aware that the zone 1 should never overreach beyond 100% of
the protected line. Thus for a given condition of local
and remote
source (that is ratio of Ibf/Iaf and ∅ _{s} remaining same), the chances
of
a
high resistive fault
beyond 100%
of the
protected line to fall
within the zone 1 is more if the resistive setting of the zone is high. Figure 4 shows a case of a high resistive fault beyond 100% of line, with the relay overreaching. As we can see with resistive setting of R1, the relay would have not operated, whereas if the setting was R2, then
the impedance relay would have operated in Zone 1 (which is not desirable).
From the above discussion it is clear that the amount of overreaching (or underreaching) depends on, > the ratio of Ibf/Iaf, > the difference in the phase angle of the two currents and > the amount of fault resistance Rf.
In 
some relays 
the 
top 
reactance 
line 
of 
the 
quadrilateral 

characteristics is given 
a 
tilt 
to overcome this problem. For some 
relays the tilt is a fixed setting, whereas some other relays tilt the characteristics dynamically based on the prefault load flow. In these relays the resistive reach setting will not have to be verified for this condition of remote current infeed with different phase angle.
In
case
of
relays
which
have
a
fixed
horizontal
line
for
the
characteristics, necessary check has to be made to ensure that the relay does not overreach beyond 100% of the protected line. This may necessitate reducing the resistive reach setting. The actual limit can be decided only based on the information of remote infeed levels, maximum load and fault resistance values.
4. Maximum load
It is necessary to ensure that the resistive reach setting does not exceed the maximum load resistance. As the load increases, the impedance decreases. Thus the least impedance will be seen for the maximum load condition.
If the maximum load impedance is Z _{L} , the considering an overload factor of 20%, we can fix the maximum limit of the outermost resistive reach element as;
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
R
max
=
0.8
Z
L
⎛ ⎜
⎝
cos
φ
−
sin
φ
tan
θ
(4)
where,
Z _{L}
∅
θ
 Maximum load impedance
 Maximum power factor angle (37° for 0.8 pf)
 Angle at which the resistive reach line is tilted. This will equal
the relay characteristic angle if the resistive line is parallel to
the RCA line
5. Error introduced by Current/Voltage transformers and relay
measurement inaccuracies
Depending on the type of CTs and PTs used, they introduce errors in
the voltage and current measured by the relay. These errors result in
both magnitude and phase inaccuracies in the measurement by the
relay. This translates into the impedance relay seeing a different fault
impedance than actual. The amount of error in the impedance
measured depends on the CT and PT errors.
Table
1
&
2 below shows the permissible
respectively as defined in IEC60044.
errors for
CTs
and
PTs
Current error 
Phase 
Composite error at 

at rated 
displacement at 
rated accuracy 

Accuracy Class 
primary 
rated primary 
limit primary 

current (%) 
current (Minutes) 
current (%) 

5P 
+ 
1 
+ 60 
5 
10P 
+ 3 
 
10 
Table 1: Accuracy Limits as per IEC 600441
Accuracy Class 
Voltage ratio error (%) 
Phase error (Minutes) 
3P 
+ 3 
+ 120 
6P 
+ 6 
+ 240 
Table 2: Accuracy Limits as per IEC 600442
Errors in measurement also creep in from the relay design. Every
product claims the maximum error for each zone.
Let us now understand how these errors impose limitation on the
resistive reach setting of a quadrilateral characteristic. Figure 5 shows
zone 1 of a quadrilateral characteristic (only the section in the first and
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
4 ^{t}^{h} quadrant is shown). This quadrilateral characteristic is defined in
the relay by;
Z _{L}  Impedance of the protected line.
Z _{S} The zone reach setting, typically 80% of line Impedance for Zone 1
θ
The characteristic angle setting,
R _{S} – Resistive reach setting
Fig. 5 :Quadrilateral Characteristics of Impedance Relay
We will understand the effect of ratio and phase angle errors on the
measured impedance separately.
Ratio error: 

The impedance is calculated by taking the ratio of the appropriate 

voltage and 
current, 
Z=V/I. 
The 
effect of 
ratio 
error 
is 
easy to 
visualize. Ratio error causes the measured impedance Z _{m} to be less
than or greater than the actual impedance Z depending on the relative
error % introduced by the CT and PT.
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
The figure 
6 
shows 
a 
case 
where 
the measured impedance 
Z _{m} 

(=V _{m} /I _{m} ), is less than the actual impedance Z. Here, 

V _{m} = V+V _{e} 

I _{m} = I+ 
I _{e} 
Where V _{e} and I _{e} are the ratio errors in the voltage and current signals.
The relay in this case is overreaching.
Fig. 6 :Error in measured impedance due to ratio error
From the figure we can gather that the amount of tolerance available
for
the error
in
magnitude of the
measured
impedance depends
directly on the zone 1 setting. If we set the zone 1 to 80%, there is a
margin of 20%. This means that even if the relay measures 20% less
impedance, still
the
protected line.
relay will not overreach
beyond 100%
of
the
This is one of the primary reasons for setting the zone 1 reach to 80%
(or
85%).
This
under
reach
setting
of
the
instantaneous
zone
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
accommodates the magnitude error of the instrument transformer and
the relay.
Phase angle error :
As we had seen in table 1 & 2, the instrument transformers also
introduce phase angle error. This phase angle error can result in the
relay measuring a different fault angle from the actual.
Fig. 7 :Error in measured impedance due to phase error
In this case shown, the actual fault point on the impedance plane is
represented by “h”. Due to a phase error θ _{e} in measurement, the relay
sees the fault at point “b”. This is again a case of relay overreaching.
What is shown in this case is a fault at 100% of the line and it being
seen as a fault at 80% (zone 1 boundary). From the figure we can
comprehend that if the resistive setting of the relay was less than R _{s} ,
then this relay would not have seen this fault.
We can mathematically derive the limiting value for R _{S} as a function of
the phase angle error θ _{e} , Line impedance (Z _{L} ) and Zone 1 setting.(Z _{S} )
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
that will ensure that the relay will not overreach beyond 100% of the
line.
From figure 7 we can write down the following relationship;
X _{S} = Z _{S} Sinθ
X _{L} = Z _{L} Sinθ
θ _{e} = θ _{f}  θ _{m}
Length “ob’ = length “oh” = Z
Length “ob” can be written as
Z = Rs + ZsCos θ + ZsSin θ
2
2
The condition
written as;
to ensure that
ZSinθ − ZSinθ < X − X
F
m
L
S
Or,
Sin
−
Sin
θ
m
<
X
L
−
X
S
Z
(5) 

the relay 
does not 
overreach can be 
(6) 
Substituting the value of Z and θ _{f} in the above equation, we get;
Sin
θ
m
+
θ
e
−
Sin
θ
m
<
We can further simplify this equation
Z _{S} Sinθ = X _{S} , and we get;
by
substituting the value of
Sin
θ
m
+
θ
e
−
Sin
θ
m
<
(7)
For a given phase angle error θ _{e} , we can find the maximum value of
Rs/Xs, that will satisfy the condition (7), this will be the maximum
allowed 
ratio 
of 
the resistive 
reach setting for 
a given reactance 
setting. 
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
It can be seen that the value of X _{L} /X _{S} , which is the inverse of the per
unit zone 1 setting and the characteristic angle θ also determines the
maximum Rs/Xs ratio. The figure 8 below plots shows the maximum
phase angle error a given Rs/Xs ratio can tolerate. This figure is shown
for a zone 1 setting of 80% and angle setting of 75°. As we can see
that with a Rs/Xs ratio of 8, the relay will not overreach beyond the
protected line for a phase angle error upto 1.75°. When the Rs/Xs ratio
is increased to 10 then the setting can accommodate only 1.4° phase
error.
Fig. 8 : Maximum Phase angle error accommodated for different Rs/Xs ratio Z1=80%
Figure 9 shows the same plot for a zone 1 setting of 85%. Comparing
this with figure 8, we see that the allowed phase angle errors are
lesser in this case.
In other words to accommodate a phase angle error of 1.75°, we could
have a Rs/Xs ratio of 8 if the zone 1 setting is 80%, whereas the ratio
can only be about 5 if the zone 1 setting is 85%.
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Resistive reach setting of QUAD relays
Author : Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan
Fig. 9 : Maximum Phase angle error accommodated for different Rs/Xs ratio Z1=85%
We can summarize the above discussion as follows
>
It is desirable to set the resistive reach as high as possible to cover
the worst case of fault resistance and infeeds
>
The
limit
on
the resistive
reach
is
imposed
by
the errors
in
measurement due to remote infeed, CT/PT errors and relay errors.
> For long lines the resistance reach limiting factor would be the load
impedance
> For short lines the measurement errors would be the deciding factor
for the resistive reach setting.
Usually every manufacturer
suggests
a
safe
R/X
ratio
for
the
quadrilateral characteristics. This value would have been proposed
taking the possible combination of instrument transformer and relay
errors.
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