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Relational Interface System

(RIS)
Utilities Guide

Version 6.0
June 2011
DNA111760

Copyright
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Contents
Preface PDS ................................................................................................................................................. 7
Getting Started ............................................................................................................................................. 9
risbatch ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
risclnsr ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
risdcode ...................................................................................................................................................... 15
risdtype ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
risgui ........................................................................................................................................................... 19
Exiting the risgui Utility .......................................................................................................................... 20
Performing Queries in the risgui Utility ................................................................................................. 20
Options .................................................................................................................................................. 21
Utilities ................................................................................................................................................... 21
Restart ................................................................................................................................................... 21
Set ......................................................................................................................................................... 22
Show ..................................................................................................................................................... 22
rislod ........................................................................................................................................................... 23
The Log File .......................................................................................................................................... 26
The Bad File .......................................................................................................................................... 27
Loading Index, View, and Privilege Definitions ..................................................................................... 27
Using rislod with the Interactive Interface ............................................................................................. 28
Using rislod with the Command Line Interface ..................................................................................... 32
BNF Representation of rislod Command Line Syntax .......................................................................... 33
rismgr.......................................................................................................................................................... 35
RIS Schema Manager ........................................................................................................................... 36
Schema Definition ................................................................................................................................. 37
Displaying Schema Information ...................................................................................................... 38
Creating Schemas .......................................................................................................................... 39
Dropping Schemas ......................................................................................................................... 43
Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure Schemas ............................................................ 43
Obtaining Dictionary Access .......................................................................................................... 45
Modifying Schema Passwords ....................................................................................................... 46
Modifying Node Information ........................................................................................................... 46
Displaying Table, View, and Index Information ..................................................................................... 48
Displaying Table Information .......................................................................................................... 49
Creating Tables .............................................................................................................................. 50
Dropping Tables ............................................................................................................................. 51
Appending Columns to Tables ....................................................................................................... 51
Including Tables, Views, and Indexes ............................................................................................ 52
Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes ........................................................................................... 53

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

Contents
Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files .......................................................................................... 54
Locating RIS Client Processes ............................................................................................................. 55
Setting Modes and Enabling Databases ............................................................................................... 56
risplbck ....................................................................................................................................................... 59
risrecrd ....................................................................................................................................................... 61
risunlod....................................................................................................................................................... 63
Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface ......................................................................................... 65
Using rislod with the Command Line Interface ..................................................................................... 69
BNF Representation of risunlod Command Line Syntax ...................................................................... 70
Additional Information on RIS .................................................................................................................. 73
RDBMS Versions .................................................................................................................................. 73
UNION and UNION ALL Supported ...................................................................................................... 73
Objects of Different Owners within a Schema ...................................................................................... 73
Object Aliases ....................................................................................................................................... 74
Multi-user, Secure Schema................................................................................................................... 74
Shared Dictionaries ............................................................................................................................... 75
Dictionary Objects ................................................................................................................................. 75
Dictionary Views.................................................................................................................................... 75
Internationalization ................................................................................................................................ 76
File Formats for risunlod and rislod ........................................................................................................ 79
Format for Representing Schema Definitions ....................................................................................... 80
Format for Representing Table Definitions ........................................................................................... 81
Format for Representing Insert Into Statements ................................................................................... 81
Format for Representing Field Definitions ............................................................................................ 81
Format for Representing Table Data .................................................................................................... 83
Format for Representing Data File Specifications ................................................................................ 83
Format for Representing Index, View, and Privilege Definitions .......................................................... 84
File Format for Data Files ..................................................................................................................... 84
Use of Spaces and New Line Characters ............................................................................................. 84
BNF Representation of File Formats .................................................................................................... 85
Index ........................................................................................................................................................... 87

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

Preface PDS
This document provides command reference information and procedural instructions for the
Relational Interface System (RIS) RIS Utilities task.

List of PDS Documentation

DPDS3-PB-200003 - DesignReview Integrator (PD_Review) Reference Guide


DPDS3-PB-200004 - Drawing Manager (PD_Draw) User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200005 - EE Raceway Modeling Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200006 - Interference Checker/Manager (PD_Clash) User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200010 - PDS 3D Theory User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200013 - PDS EDEN Interface Reference Guide Volume I : Piping
DPDS3-PB-200015 - PDS Equipment Modeling (PD_EQP) User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200017 - PDS ISOGEN Reference Guide, Vol. 1
DPDS3-PB-200022 - PDS Piping Component Data Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200023 - PDS Project Setup Technical Reference
DPDS3-PB-200025 - PDS Stress Analysis Interface (PD_Stress) User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200026 - Pipe Supports Modeler Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200028 - Piping Design Graphics (PD_Design) Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200030 - Project Administrator (PD_Project) Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200033 - Project Engineer HVAC (PE-HVAC) Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200034 - Reference Data Manager (PD_Data) Reference Guide
DPDS3-PB-200035 - Report Manager (PD_Report) User's Guide
DPDS3-PB-200041 - PDS EDEN Interface Reference Guide Volume 2 : Equipment
DPDS3-PB-200042 - PDS EDEN Interface Reference Guide Volume 3 : Pipe Supports
DPDS3-PE-200016 - PDS Express Project Creation Quick Start Guide
DPDS3-PE-200052 - PDS Ortho Draw User's Guide
DPDS3-PE-200029 - Piping Model Builder (PD_Model) Reference Guide
DPDS3-PE-200031 - Project Engineer HVAC Getting Started Guide
DPDS3-PE-200032 - Project Engineer HVAC Overview
DPDS3-PE-200045 - PDS Label Library Merger Utility
DPDS3-PE-200047 - PDS Reference Data Auditing Tool
DPDS3-PE-200048 - Pipe Supports Explorer Utility
DPDS3-PE-200050 - Batch Services Quick Start Guide
DPDS3-PE-200051 - Batch Services User's Guide

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

Preface PDS

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 1

Getting Started
The Intergraph Relational Interface System (RIS) is a generic interface to relational database
management systems (RDBMSs). RIS offers simultaneous connections to RDBMSs from many
vendors on dissimilar hardware platforms using numerous protocols. RIS makes an entire
network of databases available as if there were a single, local database.
During installation. the RIS utilities path is added to the system path environment
variable. By default, the utilities are loaded in c:\Program Files\Common
Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin.

RIS Utilities
1. RIS Batch (see "risbatch" on page 11) - risbatch
Executes SQL statements in ASCII files.
2. RIS Clean Server (see "risclnsr" on page 13) - risclnsr
Cleans up some of the RIS dictionary tables.
3. RIS Decode (see "risdcode" on page 15) - risdcode
Prints the error message for a RIS error code.
4. RIS Data Types (see "risdtype" on page 17) - risdtype
Instructs RIS to interpret a column's data type in a different manner.
5. RIS Interactive (see "risgui" on page 19) - risgui
Interactively query databases using RIS.
6. Configure RIS Version - risintop
Described in the RIS Installation Guide for 32-Bit Applications.
7. RIS Loader (see "rislod" on page 23) - rislod
Transfers data from specially formatted files into new or existing schemas.
8. RIS Playback (see "risplbck" on page 59) - risplbck
Reads and executes files containing RIS commands generated by applications and
captured with the risrecrd utility.
9. RIS Record (see "risrecrd" on page 61) - risrecrd
Records all SQL statements and timing data into specially formatted files. Useful for
repeating long sequences when trying to uncover program problems.
10. RIS Unloader (see "risunlod" on page 63) - risunlod
Extracts data from a schema and places it into specially formatted files.
11. Upgrade Utility - risupgrd
Converts a schema (dictionary and schema file) from an earlier version of RIS to the current
version.

Products Needed to Use the RIS Utilities


Refer to the RIS Installation Guide for 32-Bit Applications for information concerning products
needed to use the RIS Utilities.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

Getting Started

10

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 2

risbatch
This utility is a simple, shell-callable program providing easy access to RIS and to underlying
databases. The primary purpose of this utility is batch execution of SQL statements.
Any SQL statement can be specified in an input file, provided that you have the proper
access.
All SQL statements must be terminated with a semicolon (;).
The RIS_PARAMETERS environment variable is used to specify the location of the parms
file.
Output is directed to stdout when the -o option is not used.
To start the risbatch utility, do one of the following:
Type risbatch in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Batch.

Usage
risbatch [-?] [-V] [-i <infile>] [-o <outfile>]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.
-i <infile> - Specify the input file containing the RIS SQL statements. The locate client command
prompts for the client version.
-o <outfile> - Specify the output file where output is stored.
Type help at the risbatch prompt to get a list of available non-SQL commands.

Examples
In this example, risbatch is invoked with the input file input.sql and the output file output.sql:
risbatch -i input.sql -o output.sql

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risbatch
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
other - Abnormal termination.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

11

risbatch

12

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 3

risclnsr
This interactive utility deletes all nonessential records from the RIS dictionary tables. This utility
is provided to clean up when the server process has not been able to do so. The server fails to
clean up when it is killed or the machine is shutdown or rebooted.
Do not run this utility while the schemas to be cleaned are being accessed.
To start the risclnsr utility, do one of the following:
Type risclnsr in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Clean Server.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Clean Server button
from the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or the creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
risclnsr [-?] [-V] schema[.password] [user[.password]]
[osuser[.password]]
The osuser[.password] option specifies the user and password for a secure schema. If the
schema specified is a secure schema, risclnsr prompts for the osusername and osusername
password (if one exists).

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risclnsr
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
other - Abnormal termination.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

13

risclnsr

14

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 4

risdcode
This utility prints error messages for RIS error codes.
To start the risdcode utility, do one of the following:
Type risdcode in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programsr; then choose RIS Decode.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Decode button from the
Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or the creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
risdcode [-?] [-V] [<error code>]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting the utility from Start > Programs, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.
<error code> - Decimal, octal, or hexadecimal error code.

Examples
To get the error message corresponding to an error code of 100, key in one of the following:
risdcode 100 (Using decimal.)
risdcode Ox64 (Using hexadecimal.)
risdcode 0144 (Using octal.)
risdcode
You are prompted to key in the value to be decoded. In this case, key in 100.

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risdcode
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Always zero.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

15

risdcode

16

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 5

risdtype
This interactive utility lets you instruct RIS to interpret the data type of a column differently and
modify the size of a RIS_BLOB/RIS_TEXT data type.
The variety of data types in database systems permits multiple mappings of database data types
to ANSI standard data types. When a schema is created, or a table is included in a schema, RIS
chooses one interpretation of a data type. This utility lets you instruct RIS to interpret the data
type of a column differently by prompting you for the schema name, username (for secure
schemas), password (if one exists), table names, column names, and new data types.
The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for parsing
and error messages. The default is English. Consult the file c:\Program Files\Common
Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\langs for other values.
To start the risdtype utility, do one of the following:
Type risdtype in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Data Types.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Data Types button from
the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or the creating or dropping of
schemas.

Example:
c:\risdtype
Enter a schema (<CR> to exit):sch1
Enter a table or view name (or ? for a list of names):
>blob_table
Pos
Column
type
type-string
len
prec
scale
Name
1
c1
15
ris_blob
0
null
null

null
YES

Do you wish to modify this column? <y(es), n(o), d(one with table)>>yes
0 Unsupported
1 Character
2 RIS_BLOB
6 RIS_TEXT
Choose a data type from those listed (enter the number) >>2
Current maximum ris_blob length is:0
Current maximum ris_blob length is:10000
Current status for nullable is YES, nulls are allowed
Are null values allowed? <y(es), n(o)> >>yes
Column definitions modified for object sch1.blob_table:
Pos
Column Name type
type-string
len
prec
scale
1
c1
15
ris_blob
10000 null
null

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

null
YES

17

risdtype
Is this correct? <y(es), n(o), q(uit)> >>yes

Usage
risdtype [-?] [-V]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.

Files
c:\Program Files\Common
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.

18

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 6

risgui
This utility lets you interactively perform RIS queries. To start the risgui utility, do one of the
following:
Type risgui in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Data Types.

The RIS Interactive Utility form displays.

See Also
Exiting the risgui Utility (on page 20)
Performing Queries in the risgui Utility (on page 20)
Options (on page 21)
Utilities (on page 21)
Restart (on page 21)
Set (on page 22)
Show (on page 22)

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

19

risgui

Exiting the risgui Utility


To exit the risgui utility, select the Cancel button.

Performing Queries in the risgui Utility


To perform a query in the risgui utility, follow these steps:
1. Select a default schema from the Default Schema field.
2. Key an SQL statement into the Query field.
You must terminate the SQL statement with a semicolon character (;).
The statement can wrap across several lines.
If you need to change the entry, select the Clear button to clear the Query field, and
then enter the statement again.
3. Select the Execute button. The results appear in the Results field.
If the query results do not completely fit in the Results field, the risgui utility can display a
full screen at a time. For more information see Options (on page 21). Select the Continue
button to display the next full screen, or select the Abort button to stop the query.
4. To save the query results in a file, select the Save Results button.

History File
When you execute a query, the risgui utility saves the SQL statement in the history file. To
determine the name of the history file, the ris utility uses the file:
1. Is specified by the RIS_HISTORY_FILE environment variable.
2. ris.his in the directory specified by the HOME environment variable, if the
RIS_HISTORY_FILE environment variable is not defined.
3. ris.his in the directory from which you started the risgui utility, if the HOME environment
variable is not defined.
When risgui saves a query in the history file, you can go back to the same query later and
execute it again, or edit the SQL statement to use it as the basis for a new query. Select the
Previous or Next buttons to display the queries in the history file.
Select the Search button to perform a search in the history file.
1. Key a search term into the Search String field.
2. Select a search direction (Up or Down).
3. Select the Find Next button.

The risgui utility highlights the next match.

Saving and Loading Queries

20

To save the current query (shown in the Query field) to a file, select the Save button.
To load a previously saved query, select the Open button.
To save the results of the current query, select the Save Results button.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

risgui

Options
The Options button modifies the behavior of query results.
1. Select the Options button.
2. To specify the behavior for query results that do not fit in the Results field, select one of the
following:
Fetch by screenful (Append) - fetch one full screen of results. When you select the
Continue button, append the next full screen to the results.
Fetch by screenful (Overwrite) - fetch one full screen of results. When you select the
Continue button, discard the results and get the next full screen.
Fetch all rows - fetch all results without pausing.
3. Select the OK button to accept the settings or select the Cancel button to reject them.

Utilities
The Utilities button lets you start the other RIS utilities from within the risgui utility.
1. Select the Utilities button.
In Windows 95, only RIS Manager is available.
2. Select one of the following buttons to start a utility:
RIS Manager - starts the rismgr utility (see "rismgr" on page 35).
RIS Loader - starts the rislod utility (see "rislod" on page 23).
RIS Unloader - starts the risunlod utility (see "risunlod" on page 63).
RIS Record - starts the risrecrd utility (see "risrecrd" on page 61).
RIS Playback - starts the risplbck utility (see "risplbck" on page 59).
RIS Clean Server - starts the risclnsr utility (see "risclnsr" on page 13).
RIS Clean Server - starts the risclnsr utility.
RIS Data Types - starts the risdtype utility (see "risdtype" on page 17).
RIS Decode - starts the risdcode utility (see "risdcode" on page 15).

Restart
While you are running the RIS Interactive utility, you can run other RIS utilities; however, if you
modify the RIS parameters with the other utilities, or create or drop a schema, the RIS
Interactive utility is not aware of the changes.
Select the Restart button to restart risgui and make it aware of your changes. Your selection of
modes, enabled databases, and default schema is not altered.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

21

risgui

Set
The Set button sets RIS modes and enables the databases.
1. Select the Set button.
2. Select the modes for the risgui utility:
ANSI Mode
Verify Mode
Autocommit
Blank Strip Mode
Autorename
Refer to the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information on the RIS
modes.
3. Select the databases to enable:
ORACLE
MSSQL

Show
The Show button gives you additional information about RIS on your system.
1. Select the Show button.
2. Select one of the following buttons:
Parameters - shows the settings in your parameters file.
Transactions - shows the schemas in transaction.
About - shows version and copyright information.

22

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

SECTION 7

rislod
You must understand the risunlod utility before using the rislod utility.
The rislod utility permits the transfer of schema information between external ASCII files and
RIS schemas by loading schema information from external files into RIS schemas.

rislod

Reads schema information from the main external file and data files (if any) and restores
them in the form of RIS schemas.
Restores only user-requested schema information into RIS schemas.
Lets information about multiple schemas be stored in the same external main file.
May create two files to report the loading status: the log file reports successful loading and
the bad file reports unsuccessful loading.
The rislod and risunlod utilities are not designed for use as backup utilities. The following are
some reasons for not using rislod and risunlod as backup utilities:
If a view was created in the database (not with RIS), RIS cannot unload the definition of the
view.
If you drop a schema and then recreate the schema, and there were existing views, RIS
cannot load the definition of the view because RIS lost the definition when you dropped the
schema.
In certain cases data types are mapped slightly differently in ORACLE databases. ORACLE
uses numeric data types, and RIS uses integer, smallint, real, and double. If you create a
column of RIS data type real, it is mapped to a float(21) ORACLE data type. If you drop the
schema, then recreate the schema, RIS maps the float(21) in ORACLE to a RIS double data
type.
For these and further reasons, you should use the database's utilities to back up data
correctly.The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for
parsing and error messages.The default is English. Consult the file riscli\config\langs for other
values.
The representation of information must comply with the format defined in the section File
Formats for risunlod and rislod (on page 79).
The following figure represents the functional mechanisms of rislod and shows the input
requirements and output generated.

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

23

rislod
Data for ris_blob and ris_text columns cannot be loaded; however, you can have ris_blob
and ris_text columns in a create table statement.
To start the rislod utility, do one of the following:
Type rislod in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Loader icon:
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive.Choose the
Utilities button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Loader button from the
Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or the creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
rislod [-?] [-V] [-n] [-p] [-e <db_list>] [-m {}] [-i <filename>] [-b
<filename>] [-d <delimiter>] [-c <commit>] [-s <schemas>] [-f <filename>]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.
-n - Set ANSI mode off. ANSI mode is on by default. Refer to the set mode statement in the
RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
-p - Preserve blanks. By default, rislod strips trailing blanks from character data. Refer to the
set mode statement in the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
-e <db_list> - Enable the database specified in the <db_list>. All databases are enabled by
default. Refer to the set enable database statement in the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit
Applications for more information.
-m {} - Specify the file mode for output files. The w overwrites an existing file, the a appends to
an existing file, and the e returns an error if an output file with the specified name exists.
-I <filename> - Specify the main input ASCII file from which RIS schema information is loaded.
The default main filename is ris.dmp.
-l <filename> - Specify the log file into which RIS schema status information is recorded. The
default log filename is ris.log.
-b <filename> - Specify the bad file into which rejected RIS schema information is dumped. The
default bad filename is ris.bad.
-d <delimiter> - Specify the character for delimiting column values of character type while
loading rows in a table. A single quotation mark (') is the default delimiter character.
-c <commit> - Specify the commit interval value that informs the loader to commit after inserting
<commit> number of rows for a table. The default <commit> value is 25.
-s<schemas> - Specify schema and schema-related information, such as tables, indexes,
views, and grants. Alternatively, you can specify this information in a specification file.
-f <filename> - Specify the name of the specification file for <schemas>. This option cannot be
used with the -s option.
See the section Using rislod with the Command Line Interface (on page 32) for more detailed
information.

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Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\rislod
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.

User-requested RIS Schema Objects


rislod loads user-requested RIS schema objects (items) from external ASCII files into RIS
schemas. rislod can:
Load schema definitions
Load table definitions
Load table data
Load index definitions
Load view definitions
Load privilege definitions
Load multiples of above items in a single run
Load items of one schema into any other existing schema
Load table definition only without table data
Load table data into existing table
Delete records from the table before loading table data from external file
Load table data from separate data file
Commit table data insertion after specific interval
Overwrite or append the log and bad files or return error if files exist

Enhanced features of rislod


Setting the ANSI mode on/off - The ANSI mode can be turned on or off, depending upon your
requirements, before starting the loading execution.
Enabling specific databases - rislod lets you enable specific databases before starting the
loading execution.
Loading of any other existing schema - rislod permits information about a particular schema
to be loaded into another existing schema using the rislod rename capability. You do not need to
edit or correct the external main file to use this feature.
Returning error and/or delete table records before loading - You can specify that rislod
report errors while loading data into a table, if the table already exists. You can also specify
that rislod load data into existing tables or delete data from existing tables before loading.
Committing insertion at a specific interval - To improve execution performance, rislod
commits table data insertions at specific intervals, rather than committing after each table
insertion. By default, table data insertions are committed after 25 rows are inserted.
Not imposing the order of information stored in the main external file - For an index, view,
or privilege definition to be loaded successfully, all its references must exist. rislod does not

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rislod
impose a strict order on the information stored in the main file because it often postpones the
loading of an index, view, or privilege until its references are loaded.
There are three ways to interact with rislod: using the Interactive Interface, the Command Line
Interface, or the Embedded Programming Function Interface.
Interactive Interface - When rislod is invoked without any command line arguments, interactive
prompts display. You are prompted for required inputs as the main external file is scanned.
See the section Using rislod with the Interactive Interface (on page 28) for more information
about the meanings of these prompts and the corresponding actions taken by rislod.
Command Line Interface - When rislod is invoked with arguments, the rislod command line
interface activates. This interface lets you specify, in a single command, the responses to
various prompts that would have been generated if rislod had been invoked interactively.
Errors encountered during parsing are not reported in the log or bad file, and rislod terminates
abnormally.
See the section Using rislod with the Command Line Interface (on page 32) for more information
about the syntax for constructing a rislod command and the semantics of the command.
Embedded Programming Function Interface - The RIS_loader function provides the
functionality of rislod in an embedded program when you call the function and pass the
appropriate structures. Refer to the RIS Programmer's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more
information.

See Also
The Log File (on page 26)
The Bad File (on page 27)
Loading Index, View, and Privilege Definitions (on page 27)
Using rislod with the Interactive Interface (on page 28)
Using rislod with the Command Line Interface (on page 32)
BNF Representation of rislod Command Line Syntax (on page 33)

The Log File


When rislod begins execution, it creates a log file. The default log filename is ris.log. You can
specify a different name for the log file. The log file can be opened in overwrite or append mode.
If rislod cannot create a log file, execution terminates.
The log file contains a detailed summary of the execution with several sections:
Header
File mode for the log and bad files
Input main external filename
Log filename
Bad filename
Commit interval for loading table data
Schema Information
Schema name
Whether the schema loaded successfully or unsuccessfully
Renamed schema name (if selected)
Table section, containing:
Table name
Whether the table was created successfully or unsuccessfully
Number of rows loaded successfully

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Number of rows loaded unsuccessfully
Index section, containing:
Table name
Number of indexes loaded successfully for this table
Number of indexes loaded unsuccessfully for this table
View section, containing:
View name
Whether the view loaded successfully or unsuccessfully
Grants Summary
For each schema loaded:
Schema name and table or view name
Number of grants loaded successfully for this table or view
Number of grants loaded unsuccessfully for this table or view
Miscellaneous
Date and time of the run
Total elapsed time

The Bad File


As it executes, rislod creates a file called the bad file. The bad file contains all schema item
definition statements that rislod attempted to load but could not. These statements could be
create schema, create table, insert, table field definition, create index,
create view, or grant statements. The default name for the bad file is ris.bad, but you can
specify a different name for the file.
Statements that fail to load are dumped to the bad file with appropriate error codes and error
messages. These error codes and messages are commented so the bad file can be used again,
after it is edited or corrected, to load rejected schema information.
For example, if rislod cannot load a schema statement, then all the schema information
pertaining to this schema is dumped to the bad file; or, if the create table statement fails, and
data are to be loaded in this table, then all table data statements such as create table,
insert, table field definition, and data statements are dumped to the bad file. The
error messages are ignored by rislod.
Additionally, the status of each schema item being loaded is echoed to the screen in the
interactive and command line interfaces.
The bad file can be opened in overwrite or append mode.

Loading Index, View, and Privilege Definitions


For an index to be loaded, the table it references must exist. Similarly, for a view to be
successfully loaded, all the tables and views it references must exist. To successfully load a
privilege definition (a grant statement), the grantee, relation, and access privileges referenced
in the statement must also exist. To take away the burden of organizing information into a
proper order for loading, rislod postpones the loading of the index, view, or privilege definition
until its references have been loaded.
When an index definition in a schema is fetched, rislod tries to load it. If rislod receives an error
message from RIS stating that the table on which the index is created does not exist, the index

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definition is stored in a temporary file. After rislod has tried to load every statement in the
schema once, it attempts to load the indexes from the temporary file again. The same thing
happens to a view definition that could not be loaded the first time because its references did not
exist. rislod continuously loads these views in the temporary file until all of them have been
loaded or until no more views can be loaded successfully.
When rislod fetches a privilege definition in a schema, it is broken down into several grant
statements, one for each grantee specified. rislod tries to load each of the new grant
statements If RIS notifies rislod that the statement could not be loaded, the grant statement is
stored in a temporary file along with the information about the schema to which it belongs. After
rislod tries to load every statement in the files at least once, rislod tries to load the grant
statements in the temporary file again. rislod continuously loads these grant statements until
either all of them have been loaded or no more grant statements can be loaded successfully. In
this approach you may notice the breakdown of a grant statement and notice that some of the
grant statements are loaded at the end of a rislod session.

Using rislod with the Interactive Interface


Invoking rislod without any command line arguments displays interactive prompts.
Accepting Default Values. Most prompts have default values indicated in square brackets. [ ].
Press the ENTER key to select these default values.
Selecting Nondefault Values. To select a non-default value choose the character in
parentheses corresponding to the option you want. Key in that character and press ENTER.
Specifying Other Information. Some prompts ask you to enter information, such as filenames.
Key in the information requested and press ENTER.

Interactive Prompt Details


1. Set mode ansi ON(y/n) :[y] >
The default is set ANSI mode on. See the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for
more information.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default.
Select n to turn off ANSI mode.
2. Preserve blanks? (y/n) :[n] >
This prompt lets you set the blank strip mode. By default rislod strips trailing blanks from
character data.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default if you do not want to preserve trailing blanks.
Select y if you want to preserve trailing blanks.
3. Set mode enable databases? l(a) specific(s) :[a] >
This prompt lets you enable databases during the loading of a schema.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to enable all RIS-supported databases.
Select s and rislod prompts you for a database type
Enter DBMS type (ex. oracle) :[return] >
Enter the RIS-supported database type, such as Oracle. This prompt repeats until you
press ENTER without entering a database name.

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4. File mode of all output files? overwrite(w) append(a) error out if exists(e) :[e] >
This prompt lets you set the file mode for log and bad files. The file mode affects the log
and bad files only. The default is e, error out mode.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default; when you are prompted for the log and bad
filenames, rislod prompts you to quit if the files you specify already exist.
Select w to overwrite the existing log and bad files.
Select a to append to the existing log and bad files.
5. Main file for loading :[ris.dmp] >
This prompt lets you specify the name of the main file for loading. The default name for the
main file is ris.dmp.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default filename.
Enter another filename for the main file.
6. Log file :[ris.log] >
This prompt lets you specify the name of the log file for loading. The default name for the log
file is ris.log.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default filename.
Enter another filename for the log file.
If you selected e for error out mode at the prompt File mode of all output files?, and a file
with the name you specify exists, the message Log File already exists is displayed. You are
prompted:
Quit risload? (y/n):[n] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default. You are again prompted to enter a name for the
log file; key in a new filename.
Select y to quit rislod.
7. Bad file :[ris.bad] >
This prompt lets you specify the name of the bad file for loading. The default name for the
bad file is ris.bad.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default filename.
Enter another filename for the bad file.
If you selected e for error out mode at the prompt File mode of all output files?, and a file
with the name you specify exists, the message Bad File already exists is displayed. You
are prompted:
Quit risload? (y/n):[n] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default. You are again prompted to enter a name for the
bad file; key in a new filename.
Select y to quit rislod.
8. Enter delimitation used in the files for loading: ['] >
This prompt lets you specify the delimiter to use for enclosing character values of variable
lengths to use in the main and data files.

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rislod
You cannot use the space character as a delimiter.
The files generated by risunlod use single quotation marks (') for delimitation. This feature of
rislod lets you use files not prepared by risunlod for loading as long as the other parts of the
files comply with the file format used by rislod.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default.
Enter another delimitation character.
9. Enter commit interval :[25] >
The commit interval lets you commit the insertion of rows in a table after the specified
commit interval value. The default is 25 (commit after inserting 25 rows in a table).
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default.
Enter another commit interval.
10. Which schemas should be loaded? all(a) or prompted - optionally transfer into
existing schema(p) :[a] >
This prompt lets you choose between loading all the schemas or only selected schemas
from the main file. The default is a for all schemas.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to load all the schemas from the main file.
Prompts let you choose how to load tables, indexes, views, and privilege definitions.
These prompts appear once, after the prompt for the schema, if you choose to load all
the schemas in the main file.
Select p and rislod generates a list of schemas and prompts you before loading each
schema. (After each schema is selected, you are prompted for how to load tables,
indexes, views, and privilege definitions for that schema.)
Load schema <schname>(y/n) :[y] >
Do one of the following:
Select y to load the specified schema. If you select p at the prompt Which schemas
should be loaded? and you select y at this prompt, you are prompted to optionally load
into another existing schema:
To Transfer <schema>'s items into another existing schema...
Enter an existing schema name :[<return>]
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER if you do not want to use another existing schema; rislod loads the
schema into the schema name specified in the main file.
Enter the name of an existing schema. rislod then prompts for the username, user
password, and schema password, if necessary, for the specified schema
Select n if you do not want to load the specified schema.
rislod lets you rename schemas only if the prompted (p) selection was made at the
Which schemas should be loaded? prompt.
If the schema is a secure schema, you are prompted for the database username, the
database username password, the operating system username, and the operating system
username password. If the schema has a password, you are prompted for the schema
password.
Passwords are not echoed to the screen.
11. Which tables should be loaded? all(a) prompted(p) none(n) :[a] >

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rislod
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and load all the tables in the schema.
Select p if you want to be prompted for each table.
Select n if you do not want to load any tables.
If you select a or p at the prompt Which tables should be loaded? the following prompt
appears next:
Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o):[b] >
This prompt lets you decide whether to load both the definitions and data of the tables in
the schema or load only the definitions.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and load both table definitions and data.
Select o to load table definitions only.
rislod loads either fixed or variable formatted table data. If only the definitions
exist for some or all of the tables in a schema, choosing to load both definitions and
data does not cause any problem to rislod. These tables are created without data in
them. Similarly, if both the definitions and data exist for some or all of the tables in a
schema, choosing the second selection does not cause problems. These table data
are discarded and the string only definitions is placed in the log file.
Select n if you do not want to load any tables.
If you select b at the prompt Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o) the
following prompt appears:
Continue loading into a table even though that table exists (y/n):[n] >
When loading a table definition of a table that already exists, an error message is
generated stating that a table/view with this name already exists. Whether or not the
data is loaded into the existing table depends on the answer to this prompt.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and data are not loaded into an existing table.
Select y to load data into an existing table.
If y is selected for the previous prompt, the following prompt is displayed:
Clear existing data from table before loading(y/n) :[n] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and keep existing data.
Select y to delete all rows from this table before loading data from the main file.
12. Which index definitions should be loaded? all(a) prompted(p) none(n): [a] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and load all index definitions.
Select p and rislod generates a list of indexes and prompts for each index definition:
Load definition <definition>(y/n):[y] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to load the specified definition.
Select n if you do not want to load the index definition.
Select n and no index definitions are loaded.
13. Which views should be loaded? all(a) prompted(p) none(n):[a] >
Do one of the following:

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rislod

Press ENTER to accept the default and load all views.


Select p and rislod prompts for each view:
Load view <view>(y/n):[y]:
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to load the specified view.
Select n and the specified view is not loaded.
Select n and no views are loaded.
14. Which privilege definitions should be loaded? all(a) prompted(p) none(n):[a] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and load all privilege definitions.
Select p and rislod prompts for each table or view on which one or more privileges are
defined:
Load access privilege on <relation>(y/n):[y]
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to load the specified privilege definition.
Select n if you do not want to load the privilege definition.
Select n and no privilege definitions are loaded.
If you selected p at the prompt Which table should be loaded? the following prompt is
displayed.
Load table <table>(y/n):[y]
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default and load the specified table.
Select n and the specified table is not loaded.
When all the necessary information has been specified, rislod processes the schema(s)
selected.

Using rislod with the Command Line Interface


The command line can be used to specify which schemas in the main file should be loaded. It
can also be used to specify which information in the schemas should be loaded. The syntax for
constructing a rislod command is almost the same as the syntax for constructing a risunlod
command, except for a few additions and changes.

Examples
rislod -i \dir1\dir2\mainfile -d\" -l load.log
..\dir3\specfile -n -mw -e rdb informix -c 15

-b load.bad-f

-i - Main filename. The default is ris.dmp.


-d - Delimiter. The default is a single quotation mark ('). The delimiter in this example is a double
quotation mark. The backslash before the delimiter causes the shell not to interpret the double
quotation mark.
-l - Log filename. The default is ris.log.
-b - Bad filename. The default is ris.bad.The delimiter in this example is a double quotation
mark. The back slash before the delimiter causes the shell not to interpret the double quotation
mark.

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Additional Options
-n - ANSI mode off.
-e - Enable databases listed after this option.
-m - Set the file mode (w, a, or e) for the outputfiles (such as log and bad files).
-c - Commit interval.
rislod -s sch1.create_sch_passwd1.user_passwd1 all
-s sch2 .create_sch_passwd2 .user_passwd2 new table with data all
-s sch3 clear table with data t1 t2 grant all
-s sch4 rename sch5 .sch5pass table t1 index t2 view v1grant t2 v2 sch.t3
sch.v3
rislod lets you specify up to three passwords after a schema name (schema password, osuser
password, and user password). Passwords are necessary if they are not already stored in the
main file. For schema sch2, data is loaded only into newly created tables. For schema sch3,
data is loaded into tables t1 and t2 after deleting previously inserted rows even if it already
exists before loading. For schema sch4 all the following items are loaded into existing schema
sch5. No data is loaded into table t1, but index definitions on table t1 and privilege definitions on
table t1 and view view1 are loaded.
The specification file format is the same for both rislod and risunlod.

BNF Representation of rislod Command Line Syntax


Backus Naur form (BNF) is a method of describing the syntax of a language. It is used here to
show the capabilities of the RIS command line interface.
The following is the BNF representation of the syntax for constructing a command line.
<command_line> ::= rislod
[-n]
[-e <database_list>]
[-m <file_mode>]
[-i <input_file>]
[-b <bad_file]
[-l <log_file>]
[-d <delimiter>]
[-c <commit_interval>]
{
{
-s <schema>
[.<create_sch_passwd>]
[<os_name>[<user_name>]]
[.<os_passwd>]
[.<user_passwd>]
[rename <new_schema>
[.<new_sch_passwd>]
[user <user_name>[.<user_pwd>]]]
[<info_tobe_load>]
}
[...]
|
-f <spec_file>
}
<database_list> ::= {[...]}

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rislod
<file_mode> ::= w | a | e
w represents overwrite file mode
a represents append file mode
e represents return error
<info_tobe_load> ::= all
|
{
[
{
table
|
[{| clear}] table with data
}
<table_tobe_load>
]
[view <view_tobe_load>]
[index <index_tobe_load>]
[grant <grant_tobe_load>]
}
<table_tobe_load> ::= all | {...]}
<view_tobe_load> ::= all | {...]}
<index_tobe_load> ::= all | {...]}
<grant_tobe_load> ::= all
|
{
{
[<schema>.]<table>|[<schema>.]<view>
}
[ ...]
}
The following is the BNF representation of the format for a specification file.
<spec_file_format> ::= {[.<create_sch_passwd>] [.<user_passwd>]
<info_tobe_load>}[;<new_line>...]

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SECTION 8

rismgr
This utility creates, changes, and drops RIS schemas. You can also use it to display
information about existing schemas. To start the rismgr utility, do one of the following:
Type rismgr in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Schema Manager.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Manager... button from
the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or the creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
rismgr

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\rismgr
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\forms\v5forms\*
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.

See Also
RIS Schema Manager (on page 36)
Schema Definition (on page 37)
Displaying Table, View, and Index Information (on page 48)
Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files (on page 54)
Locating RIS Client Processes (on page 55)
Setting Modes and Enabling Databases (on page 56)

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RIS Schema Manager


The RIS Schema Manager dialog box displays a three-column list showing all the schemas
known to RIS, each schema type (standard or secure), and whether the schema's associated
dictionary is owned or shared. Buttons corresponding to the actions of the Schema Manager
are also on the dialog box. When you choose a button, you initiate that particular action, and
the associated subordinate dialog box is displayed. When you choose one of the schemas
from the list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box, information about that schema is
displayed on the subordinate dialog box.

Operating Sequence
1. Activate the RIS Schema Manager.

The RIS Schema Manager dialog box appears.

Choose the button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box for the function you want to
use. The RIS Schema Manager functions are described briefly in the following list. See
the section listed for a complete description.
Schema Definition - Provides additional functions and dialog boxes for defining schemas.
See the section Schema Definition (on page 37).
Data Definition - Provides additional functions and dialog boxes that manipulate tables,
views, and indexes. See the section Displaying Table, View, and Index Information (on page
48).
Schema File - Lets you review and manipulate schema files. See the section Reviewing
and Manipulating Schema Files (on page 54).
Locate Client - Lets you review and specify the location of a RIS client process. See the
section Locating RIS Client Processes.
Set - Lets you set ANSI, autocommit, autorename, blankstrip, and verify modes on or off
and enable different databases. See the section Setting Modes and Enabling Databases (on
page 56).
2. Do one of the following:
Choose the Reset button to erase the subordinate dialog boxes.
The RIS Schema Manager rereads the RIS schemas file.

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rismgr

Choose the Close button to end the RIS Schema Manager session.
Choose the Help button to obtain RIS Schema Manager help.

Schema Definition
The Schema Definition dialog box lets you initiate functions to display schema information,
create and drop schemas, access secure schemas and dictionaries, and modify schema
passwords, node information, and DB2 passwords.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Schema Definition button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Schema Definition dialog box appears.

The dialog box has eight buttons, each letting you initiate a particular function.
2. Do one of the following:
Choose the button from the Schema Definition dialog box for the function you want to
use. The Schema Definition functions are described briefly in the following list. See
the section listed for a complete description.
Schema Information - Displays information about a specified schema. See the
section Displaying Schema Information (on page 38).
Create Schema - Creates schemas. See the section Creating Schemas (on page 39).
Drop Schema - Drops schemas. See the section Dropping Schemas (on page 43).
Secure Schema Access - Grants and revokes access to a secure schema. See the
section Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure Schemas (on page 43).
Dictionary Access - Grants and revokes dictionary access to a schema. See the
section Obtaining Dictionary Access (on page 45).
Modify Schema Password - Modifies the schema password. See the section Modifying
Schema Passwords (on page 46).
Modify Node Information - Modifies node information. See the section Modifying Node
Information (on page 46).
Modify DB2 Password - Modifies the DB2 password. See the section Modify DB2
Password Form
Choose the Reset button to dismiss the subordinate dialog boxes.
Choose the Close button to dismiss the Schema Definition dialog box.
Choose the Help button to obtain RIS Schema Definition help.

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See Also
Displaying Schema Information (on page 38)
Creating Schemas (on page 39)
Dropping Schemas (on page 43)
Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure Schemas (on page 43)
Obtaining Dictionary Access (on page 45)
Modifying Schema Passwords (on page 46)
Modifying Node Information (on page 46)
Modify DB2 Password Form

Displaying Schema Information


The Schema Information dialog box displays information about a specified schema. You can
key in a schema name or select a name from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema
Manager dialog box.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Schema Information button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Schema Information dialog box appears and displays information about the selected
schema (if one has been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box).

2. Do one of the following if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:
In the Schema Name box, type a schema name.
Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The schema information is displayed.


The following information is displayed:
Schema Name - Displays the schema name.
Schema Type - Displays whether the schema is a standard or secure schema.
Network Protocol - Displays the type of network protocol being used to communicate
with the RIS data server.
Nodename or Address - Displays a nodename, an Ethernet address (specified in the
[lan.]address) dialog box, an Internet address, or an address appropriate for the protocol
of the machine where the RIS data server is located.
Database Username - Displays the database username.
OS Type - Displays the operating system type on which the server is running (for
example, Windows).

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Dictionary Owner - Displays the user who owns the dictionary.
Database Type - Displays the database type (for example, MSSQL or ORACLE).
3. To dismiss the Schema Information dialog box, click Close.

Creating Schemas
The Create Schema dialog box creates new RIS schemas and corresponds directly to the RIS
create schema statement. The database-specific information on the Create Schema dialog box
can be entered in three ways:
By entering the information directly in the boxes. If the schema is being created on a
database unknown to RIS, this is the only alternative.
By selecting an existing schema from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box. The
database-specific information about that schema is entered into the Create Schema dialog
box. This method is particularly convenient when creating additional schemas on a
database.
By selecting the Display Databases button. A dialog box listing all the known RIS
databases appears. Selecting one of these databases enters information about that
database into the Create Schema dialog box.

Operating Sequence
1. Select the Create Schema button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Create Schema dialog box appears.

The Create Schema dialog box has two areas:


The DBMS-independent area
The DBMS-dependent area
2. Enter the appropriate values for the DBMS-independent section of the dialog box. The
following list explains the DBMS-independent controls.
Schema Name - Type a name for the schema you want to create.
(Schema Name) Password - Enter a password for the schema. The No Echo/Echo button
causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.
Schema Type - Click this button to toggle between Standard and Secure schemas.
Network Protocol - Select the type of network protocol to use to communicate with the RIS
data server. Only the top (#1) protocol is used in the create schema statement. When you
select a protocol, it moves to the bottom (#4). ISO, XNS and DECNET are not currently
supported. To change the order of the Network Protocol boxes, select one Network Protocol

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box and its value is replaced with the value of the Network Protocol box below it. The value
that was originally selected is moved to the bottom of the list.
Nodename or Address - Specify a nodename, an Internet address, or an address
appropriate for the protocol of the machine where the RIS data server is located. Enter a
value or click the Get Client Address button.
Get Client Address - Click this button to enter the addresses of the client machine in the
Nodename or Address boxes. This is useful when the RIS client and the RIS data server
are on the same machine.
Database Username - Type the database username.
(Database Username) Password - Type a password for the database username. The No
Echo/Echo button causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is
entered.
Include Database User's Tables/Views - Click this button to toggle between Yes to include
the database user's tables and views, or No not to include the database user's tables and
views.
OS Type - From the list, select the operating system type on which the RIS data server is
running.
Use Existing Dictionary - Click this button to toggle between No (the default) and Yes.
You must already have permission from the dictionary owner to use an existing dictionary.
Dictionary Owner - Type a user who owns a dictionary in the particular database.
3. Do one of the following:
Select a database type from the Database Type list. If the selected database type
requires additional information, boxes to enter that information are displayed when you
select the database type.

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The supported RDBMSs are:


ORACLE
MSSQL
The DBMS-dependent controls for each database type are explained in separate
subsections following this section.
To display databases known to RIS, select the Display Databases button.

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The Databases dialog box appears.

Databases known to RIS are listed on this dialog box. Select a database from the dialog
box. Controls containing information specific to the database selected are shown on the
Create Schema dialog box.
4. See the section specific to the type of database on which you are creating the schema for
instructions on filling in the DBMS-dependent boxes.

See Also
Creating Schemas (ORACLE) (on page 41)
Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server) (on page 42)

Creating Schemas (ORACLE)


When you select the ORACLE DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create Schema dialog
box, the ORACLE-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence
1. Enter the appropriate values for the ORACLE-dependent controls. The following list
explains these controls.
Database Name - Enter the system identifier (SID) of the ORACLE database. The SID
should be in the correct format for ORACLE.
Database Management System Location - Enter the ORACLE home path (where
ORACLE is installed).
OS Username - Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server machine.
Password - Enter the operating system log-in password, if any.

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For a given ORACLE SID, all schemas created using that SID must have the same
operating system username and password combination.
2. Do one of the following:
To create the schema, click the Apply button.
To clear the form, click the Reset button.
To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views, indexes,
and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the Force button.
To dismiss the form without creating a schema, click the Close button.

Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server)


When you select the SQL Server DBMS from the Database Type list on the Create Schema
dialog box, the SQL Server-dependent controls appear on the dialog box.

Operating Sequence
1. Enter the appropriate values for the Microsoft SQL Server-dependent controls. The
following list explains these controls.
Database Name - Enter the name of the database the schema accesses.
Database Management System Location - Enter the path where SQL Server is
installed. See the README.TXT file delivered with the RISMSFDS product for more
information. This information is not required for all servers.
OS Username - Enter a valid operating system log-in name on the server machine.
Password - Enter the operating system log-in password, if any. The No Echo/Echo
button causes the password not to display (No Echo) or to display (Echo) when it is
clicked.
DSQUERY - Currently this field is not used.
IFILE - Enter the name of the interfaces file for the schema. By default, RIS uses the
SQL Server interfaces file named interfaces. This information is not required for all
servers.
2. Do one of the following:
To create the schema, click the Apply button.
To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.
To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views, indexes,
and schema privileges) before creating the new schema, click the Force button.

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To dismiss the dialog box without creating a schema, click the Close button.

Dropping Schemas
The Drop Schema dialog box drops schemas using the information you specify and
corresponds directly to the RIS drop schema statement.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Drop Schema button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Drop Schema dialog box appears and displays the name of the selected schema (if one
has been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box).

2. Do one of the following, if the schema you want to drop is not already the selected schema:
In the Schema Name box on the Drop Schema dialog box, type the schema name.
From the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box, select a schema.
If the schema is a secure schema, a dialog box appears. Enter the database username,
database password, operating system username, and operating system password in the
dialog box, if displayed.
3. Do one of the following:
To drop the schema, click the Apply button.
To drop previously created RIS dictionary objects (such as RIS tables, views, indexes,
and schema privileges), click the Force button.

The Force button removes the schema regardless of who is using it.
To dismiss the Drop Schema dialog box without dropping the schema, click the Close
button.
Choose the Help button to obtain Drop Schema help.

Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to Secure Schemas


The Secure Schema Access dialog box provides access privileges to a secure schema.

Operating Sequence
1. Select the Secure Schema Access button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

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The Secure Schema Access dialog box appears.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

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If a schema has already been selected from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box, this
schema information appears on the Secure Schema Access dialog box.
Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the active schema:
Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.
Enter a name into the Schema Name box to display information about a schema.
A dialog box appears. Enter the database username, database password, operating
system username, and operating system password in the dialog box.
Click the Action button to toggle between granting and revoking secure schema access.
Click the Privilege button to toggle between granting and revoking resource and connect
privileges.
Do one of the following:
Enter a username in the Selected User box.
Select a user from the Access Users list.
Select a user from the All Users list.
Do one of the following:
To grant or revoke privileges to the secure schema, click the Apply button.
To dismiss the Secure Schema Access dialog box without altering schema access,
click the Close button.
Choose the Help button to obtain help with granting and revoking schema access
privileges.

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Obtaining Dictionary Access


This dialog box grants and revokes access to a dictionary for a selected user.

Operating Sequence
Select the Dictionary Access button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Dictionary Access dialog box appears.

1. Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:
Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.
Type a name in the Schema Name box to display information about a schema.
If the schema is a secure schema, a dialog box appears.
Enter the database username, database password, operating system username, and
operating system password in the dialog box, if necessary.
2. Click the Action button to toggle between granting and revoking access.
3. Do one of the following:
Enter the name of the user to be granted or revoked access in the Selected User box.
Select a name from the Access Users list.
Select a name from the All Users list.
4. Do one of the following:
To grant or revoke dictionary access, click the Apply button.
To dismiss the dialog box without granting or revoking dictionary access, click the Close
button.
Choose the Help button to obtain help with granting and revoking dictionary access
privileges.

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Modifying Schema Passwords


This dialog box lets you modify the schema password.

Operating Sequence
1. Select the Modify Schema Password button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

The Modify Schema Password dialog box appears.

2. Do one of the following, if the schema you want is not already the selected schema:
Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.
Type a name in the Schema Name box to display information about a schema.
3. Type the new password into the New Password box.
If the schema is a secure schema, the Username Password dialog box appears.
Type the database username, database password, operating system username, and
operating system password in the dialog box, if necessary.
4. Do one of the following:
To modify the schema password, click the Apply button. You must click the Apply
button after each session to alter the schema.
To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close button.
To obtain help with modifying schema passwords, click the Help button.

Modifying Node Information


This dialog box lets you modify node information.

Operating Sequence
1. Select the Modify Node Information button from the Schema Definition dialog box.

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The Modify Node Information dialog box appears.

2. Select a schema from the Schema Name list on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box or
type a schema name in the Schema Name box to display information about a schema, if
there is no selected schema.
3. Choose the Modify Node button from the dialog box. The current addresses display in the
Nodename or Address boxes.
Type the new names or addresses in the boxes. This action can also be used to change the
order of the protocols.
4. Choose the Modify DB User Password button. The database user associated with the
schema appears in the DB Username box. This is a read-only box.
5. Type the database user password in the Password box. The No Echo/Echo button causes
the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.
This action does not change the user's operating system account password. It
changes only the RIS product copy of the user password. Typically, this command is
executed after users change their operating system account passwords. Otherwise an
error occurs.
6. Choose the Modify OS User & Password button. The operating system user associated
with the schema appears in the OS Username box. Type a new username.
7. Type the operating system user password in the Password box. The No Echo/Echo button
causes the password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.
8. Do one of the following:
To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must select the Apply button after
each session to alter the schema.
To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close button.
To obtain help with modifying node information, click the Help button.

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Displaying Table, View, and Index Information


The Data Definition dialog box has six buttons that display information about the tables, views,
and indexes defined for the specified schema, and let you make modifications.
The Data Definition function performs six actions:
1. Displays table information
2. Creates tables
3. Drops tables
4. Adds a column to a table
5. Includes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary
6. Excludes tables, views, and indexes in the in-memory data dictionary
When you click the button for one of these actions, a dialog box associated with that action
appears.
f the selected schema requires a password, or a database username/password and
operating system username/password, the information must be entered before the dialog boxes
can accept information.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Data Definition button from the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Data Definition dialog box appears.

2. If the schema you want is not already the selected schema, do one of the following:
From the RIS Schema Manager dialog box, select a schema from the Schema Name
list.
In the Schema Name box, type a name.
3. Do one of the following:
Click the button for the action you want to perform. See the section for the action
chosen for further instructions.

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Click the Close button to dismiss the Data Definition dialog box.
Click the Help button to obtain further information about the Data Definition dialog box.

See Also
Displaying Table Information (on page 49)
Creating Tables (on page 50)
Dropping Tables (on page 51)
Appending Columns to Tables (on page 51)
Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes (on page 53)

Displaying Table Information


The Table Information dialog box displays the definition of the specified table. For each column
in the table, the list columns display information such as the column position, column name,
DBMS column name, column type, and whether nulls are permitted in the column. Also, a box is
provided to search for specific columns.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Table Info button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Table Information dialog box appears.

2. To choose a table, type the table name in the Table Name box or select the table from the
Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.

The table information appears on the Table Information dialog box.


3. To dismiss the Table Information dialog box, click the Close button.
4. To obtain further information about the Table Information dialog box, click the Help button.

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Creating Tables
The Create Table dialog box creates tables in the schema specified on the Data Definition
dialog box. If the name of an existing table is typed in the Table Name box or selected from the
Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box, the definition of that table is loaded into the
Create Table dialog box. This can be useful when creating several similar tables.
The Create Table dialog box creates new tables. It cannot be used to modify existing
tables. The ability to load existing table definitions into the dialog box exists only to provide a
template, or starting point, for new tables.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Create Table button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Create Table dialog box appears.

2. The Create Table dialog box has two sets of control buttons. There is a set of dialog box
control buttons across the bottom of the dialog box and a set of mode control buttons.
The mode control buttons are used to execute and reset the different modes of the dialog
box. The Create Table dialog box operates in three modes that are represented by three
buttons:
Insert Column - Click this button to add new columns to the table definition. If a column is
selected in the Column Name list, the new column is inserted in front of the selected
column. Otherwise, the new column is appended to the list. Click the mode Apply button to
insert the column.
Drop Column - Click this button to drop columns from the table definition. Choose the
column to drop by clicking the column in the Column Name list. Click the mode Apply
button to drop the column.
Modify Column - Click this button to modify column definitions. Choose the column to
modify by typing the column name in the Column Name Search box, or by clicking the
column in the Column Name list. Click the mode Apply button to modify the column.
Clicking the mode Cancel button clears the dialog box mode.
3. Type the table name in the Table Name box or select the table from the Type/Name list on
the Data Definition dialog box.
4. Do one of the following:
To create the table, click the Apply button.
To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.

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To dismiss the dialog box without creating the table, click the Close button.
To obtain further information about the Create Table dialog box, click the Help button.

Dropping Tables
The Drop Table dialog box drops tables from the schema specified on the Data Definition
dialog box. Dropping a table removes the table data, the table structure, and any associated
indexes. Once a table has been dropped, it no longer exists in the database nor does it exist to
RIS.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Drop Table button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Drop Table dialog box appears.

2. To choose the table to drop, type the table name in the Table Name box or select the table
from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
To drop the table, click the Apply button.
To dismiss the dialog box without dropping the table, click the Close button.
To obtain further information about the Drop Table dialog box, click the Help button.

Appending Columns to Tables


The Alter Table dialog box alters existing tables in the schema specified on the Data Definition
dialog box. This dialog box corresponds to the RIS alter table command. You can append only
one new column at a time to an existing table.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Alter Table button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Alter Table dialog box appears.

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2. If the table you want to alter is not already the selected table, do one of the following:
Type a table name in the Table Name box.
Select a table from the Type/Name list on the Data Definition dialog box.
3. Define the new column by entering the information in the controls of the Column Definition
to Append to Table group box. The following list explains these controls.
Column Name - Type the name for the new column.
dbms Column Name - Type a column name for the underlying database. By default, this
name is the same as Column Name, but you can specify another name.
Column Type - Choose the data type for the column.
Length - Choose the data length. This box remains inactive unless the data type you
choose requires it.
Nulls - Choose whether NULL values are allowed in the column. Toggle between yes to
allow NULL values or no.
4. Do one of the following:
To append the column to the table, click the Apply button. Repeat from Step 2 to define
another new column.
To clear the Alter Table dialog box, click the Reset button.
To dismiss the Alter Table dialog box, click the Close button.
To obtain further information about the Alter Table dialog box, click the Help button.

Including Tables, Views, and Indexes


This dialog box includes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Include button on the Data Definition dialog box.

The Include dialog box appears.

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2. Do one of the following:


In the dbms Table Name box, type a name.
From the dbms Table Names list, select the name you want to include.
3. From the Type list, choose table, view, or index.
4. Do one of the following:
To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must click the Apply button each time
you include a table, view, or index.
To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.
To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close button.
To obtain further information about the Include dialog box, click the Help button.

Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes


This dialog box excludes tables, views, and indexes from the in-memory data dictionary.

Operating Sequence
1. Choose the Exclude button from the Data Definition dialog box.

The Exclude dialog box appears.

2. Do one of the following:


In the Table Name box, type a name.
From the Table Names list, select the name you want to exclude.
3. From the Type list, choose table, view, or index.
4. Do one of the following:
To alter the schema, click the Apply button. You must click the Apply button after
excluding each table, view, or index.

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To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.


To dismiss the dialog box without altering the schema, click the Close button.
To obtain further information about the Exclude dialog box, click the Help button.

Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files


The Schema File dialog box lets you review and manipulate schema files.
By default, RIS maintains the schema file c:\Program Files\Common
Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\schemas, which tracks the schemas known to RIS.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Schema File button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Schema File dialog box appears.

2. Choose one of the buttons on the right side of the dialog box. If you click the Locate
Schema File button, all the controls become active, letting you enter the appropriate values.
The following list explains the buttons.
Show Schema File Location - Produces read-only information on the specified schema
file.
Locate Schema File - Lets you rename your schema file or specify a different protocol.
Checksum Schema File - Recomputes the checksum for the specified schema file.
Checksum is a mechanism used to verify that the schema file has not been
corrupted. If you manually edit the file (instead of making changes through the RIS Schema
Manager), the checksum is no longer accurate.
3. Enter the appropriate values on the dialog box when the Locate Schema File button is
clicked. The following list explains the controls on the Schema File form.
Local, TCP - Choose a network protocol for your schema file from the check boxes. XNS
and Decnet are not supported.
Schema File Name - Type the name of a schema file. The full pathname for the schema file
must be specified unless the RIS HOME directory (the default directory) is intended.
Nodename or Address - Type the nodename or address where the schema file is located.
If the complete path is not specified, the file is assumed to be located where RIS was
installed.
Username - Type a system user name that has access to the schema file.

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A schema file must be readable by all users permitted to access the schemas. A
schema file must be readable and writable by all users authorized to create, alter, or drop
schemas. The users permitted to create, alter, and drop schemas must be able to create
and delete files in the directory where the schema file is located.
Password - Type a system password associated with Username. The No Echo/Echo
button causes the password to not display (the default, No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is
entered.
4. Do one of the following:
To locate the schema file, click the Apply button.
To dismiss the dialog box, click the Cancel button.
To obtain help with the Schema File dialog box, click the Help button.

Locating RIS Client Processes


The Locate Client dialog box lets you review the location of a RIS client process or specify a
new location. Use this process when there is a need to run RIS Client on a different machine.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Locate Client button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Locate Client dialog box appears.

2. Click the Show Client Location button to show the current location of the RIS Client
process.
OR
Click the Locate Client button to specify a new location for the RIS Client process.
3. In the Nodename or Address box, type the nodename or address of the RIS Client
machine.
4. In the Username box, type the name of the operating system user for the RIS Client
machine.
5. In the Password box, type the user password, if any. The No Echo/Echo button causes the
password to not display (No Echo) or display (Echo) when it is entered.
6. Choose the Local or TCP network protocol. XNS and Decnet are not supported.
7. Do one of the following:
To relocate the client, click the Apply button.

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To clear the dialog box, click the Reset button.


To dismiss the Locate Client dialog box without relocating the client, click the Close
button.
To obtain help with the Locate Client dialog box, click the Help button.

Setting Modes and Enabling Databases


The Set dialog box sets the ANSI, Verify, Blank Strip, Autocommit, and Autorename modes on
or off and enables various databases.

Operating Sequence
1. Click the Set button on the RIS Schema Manager dialog box.

The Set dialog box appears.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

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Setting any of these functions affects only the remainder of the RIS Schema Manager
session.
To set modes and enable databases, click the OK button.
Click ANSI Mode check box to set ANSI on or off. The default is on.
If you set ANSI Mode to on, schema, table, column, view, and index names are limited
to 18 characters. Use this mode when creating names (for tables, columns, and so
forth) that should be ANSI compliant (18 characters or fewer.)
If you set ANSI Mode to off, names can be up to 31 characters, based upon the
underlying RDBMS. Remember, though, that these names may not be portable.
If you set Blankstrip Mode to on, risunlod strips trailing blanks from character data. Set this
mode to off if you want to preserve trailing blanks.
If you set Verify Mode to on, table and view definitions retrieved from the database are
validated against the definitions stored in the RIS dictionary tables.
Setting Verify Mode to off retrieves definitions from the database only, omitting the
validation. Omitting validation reduces the execution time when referencing a table or view
for the first time; however, if an application dynamically creates tables and views, the
definitions in the RIS dictionary tables and the DBMS may become inconsistent if Verify
Mode is off.
If you set Autocommit on, changes made to the Set form take effect immediately. If
Autocommit is off, the changes take effect only when you select OK.

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7. If you set Autorename on, schema, table, column, view, and index names that are longer
than the particular database limitation are automatically renamed to comply with the shorter
length. The default is on.
8. Click the Enabled Databases check boxes to choose RDBMSs that can be used. Use this
function when you want to create table or column names that conflict with the keywords of
other databases.
9. Do one of the following:
To set modes and enable databases, click the OK button.
To void the process, click the Cancel button.

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risplbck
This utility reads a <commandfile> that contains a list of the RIS commands executed by an
application and executes each of the RIS commands. The <commandfile> is generated with
the risrecrd utility.
RIS recording is controlled by the risrecrd utility. The risplbck utility reads a file generated by a
RIS application that is executed while RIS recording is on. This file contains a list of all the RIS
commands executed by the application. The risplbck utility executes each of the RIS commands
and compares SQLCODEs and times.
This utility is for debugging purposes only.
The risplbck utility can only read files generated with the risrecrd utility of the same basic
version. That is, if you generate a file with risrecrd Version 5.7, then you can play back the file
only with risplbck Version 45.
The risplbck utility compares the SQLCODEs of the recorded commands with the SQLCODEs of
the playback commands and reports if they are different. If they are different, the action
risplbck takes is specified in the action file. Each row of the action file has three fields
separated by colons(:): 1) the recorded results; 2) the playback results; and 3) an action. Valid
values for the two results fields are:
SUCCESS - RIS command executed successfully.
END_OF_DATA - RIS command returned end-of-data.
ERROR - RIS command returned an error.
Valid values for the action field are:
STOP - Stop the playback execution.
CONTINUE - Continue the playback with the next RIS command.
RETRY - Retry the RIS command one time, if it fails, stop.
Here is a sample row:
SUCCESS:END_OF_DATA:CONTINUE
The row indicates that if a command executed successfully at record time, but got an
end-of-data during playback, continue with the playback anyway.
By default, risplbck continues on all results.
To start the risplbck utility, do one of the following:
Type risplbck in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Playback.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Playback... button from
the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
risplbck [-?] [-V] [-n] [-i] [-c] [-d] [-t] [-f] [-v]
[-o <outputfile>] [<commmandfile>]

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[-a <actionfile>]

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risplbck
Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.
-n - No execute mode. Just read and validate the file.
-i - Immediate playback mode. Ignore any delays.
-c - Calculate command times. If command times were recorded, compare the playback
command times and the recorded command times and report the difference.
-d - Calculate delay times. If delay times were recorded, compare the playback delay times and
the recorded delay times and report the difference.
-t - Calculate total elapsed times. If elapsed times were recorded, compare the playback
elapsed times and the recorded elapsed times and report the difference.
-f - Fetch blob/text files into same files as recorded session. The default is to fetch blob/text
files into temporary files.
-v - Verbose mode.
-a <actionfile> - Actions are defined in file <actionfile>.
-o <outputfile> - Write all output to <outputfile>.

Examples
To play back the RIS commands previously recorded in the command file load.rap and calculate
command, delay, and total times, key in:
risplbck -cdt -o load.out load.rap
The risplbck output is written in the load.out file.

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risplbck c:\Program Files\Common
Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\CommonFiles\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\CommonFiles\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.

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SECTION 10

risrecrd
This utility controls RIS recording for the current user. RIS recording can be turned on, turned
off, and the status of recording can be queried with this utility. When RIS recording is on, any
RIS command executed by any of the current users' applications are recorded and placed in
<outputfile>. These commands can then be re-executed by the risplbck utility.

This utility is for debugging purposes only.


The risplbck utility can only read files generated with the risrecrd utility of the same basic
version. That is, if you generate a file with risrecrd Version 5.7, then you can play back the
file with risplbck Version 4.5.
The risrecrd utility affects only RIS applications executed by the current user. If an
application is run by a user other than the current user, risrecrd has no effect.
When specifying the <outputfile>, the characters $$ have special meaning; they are
replaced with the process ID of the RIS application. This produces unique output files every
time the RIS application is run. To use the $$ characters, the <outputfile> name must be
placed in single quotation marks; otherwise, the shell interprets the $$. For example, an
<outputfile> name of 'risrap.$$' will generate filenames such as, risrap.1252, risrap.1323,
and so forth.
To start the risrecrd utility, do one of the following:
Type risrecrd in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Record.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Record... button from
the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
risrecrd [-?] [-V] [on <outputfile>] [-c] [-d] [-t] [-a] [off] [query]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.
-V - Display version information and exit.
on <outputfile> - Turn RIS recording on and place output in <outputfile>.If a full path is given
for the output file, then all output is placed in the named file. If only a filename is specified, RIS
stores the recorded output in a file by the directory name where the application (ris, risbatch,
and so forth) was started.
-c - Record command times. Store how long each RIS command took to execute.

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risrecrd
-d - Record delay times. Store the time between each RIS command. These values are used by
risplbck to reproduce the commands in real time.
-t - Record total elapsed time. Store the total elapsed time from the start of the application for
each RIS command.
-a - Append to the output file if it already exists. The default action is to overwrite the output file.
off - Turn RIS recording off.
query - Query the current status of RIS recording. The results are displayed on stdout.

Examples
The following risrecrd command turns record on and places the output in c:\appl.rap.
risrecrd -c on 'risrecrd.out'

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risrecrd

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.

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SECTION 11

risunlod
This utility retrieves information about one or more RIS schemas and stores it in one or more
external ASCII files. You can later reload the schemas from the ASCII files using the rislod
utility.
The risunlod utility is not designed for use as a backup utility. See the rislod section for
more specific information.
The environment variable RIS_LANGUAGE specifies the language that RIS uses for parsing
and error messages. The default is English. Consult the file riscli\config\langs for other values.
The representation of information must comply with the format defined in the section File
Formats for risunlod and rislod (on page 79).
The following figure represents the functional mechanisms of risunlod and shows the input
requirements and output generated.

You cannot unload ris_blob and ris_text data; however, you can unload the table
definition, which contains ris_blob or ris_text columns.
To start the risunlod utility, do one of the following:
Type risunlod in a Command Prompt window.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Unloader.
Choose RIS NN.nn from Start > Programs; then choose RIS Interactive. Choose the
Utilities... button from the RIS Interactive form; then choose the RIS Unloader... button
from the Utilities form.
If you use another utility within RIS Interactive, you must choose the Restart button
before RIS Interactive is aware of any RIS parameter changes, or creating or dropping of
schemas.

Usage
risunlod [-?] [-V] [-p] [-m {}] [-o <filename>] [-s <schemas>] [-f
<filename>]

Flags
<none> - If you do not specify any command-line arguments, or if you start the utility by
selecting its icon from the Program Manager, the utility runs interactively and prompts for the
necessary information.
-? - Display usage information and exit.

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-V - Display version information and exit.
-p - Preserve blanks. By default risunlod strips trailing blanks from character data. See the set
mode statement in the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
-m { } - Specify the file mode for output files. The w overwrites an existing file, the a appends to
an existing file, and the e returns an error if an output file with the specified name exists.
-o <filename> - Specify the main output ASCII file into which RIS schema information is to be
unloaded. The default main filename is ris.dmp.
-s <schemas> - Specify schema and schema-related information, such as tables, indexes,
views, and grants. Alternatively you can store this information in a specification file.
-f <filename> - Specify the name of the specification file for <schemas>. This option cannot be
used with the -s option. See the section Using rislod with the CommandLine Interface (see
"Using rislod with the Command Line Interface" on page 32) for more information.

Files
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\bin\risunlod
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\parms
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\ris.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\net.msg
c:\Program Files\Common Files\Intergraph\risNN.nn\config\english\messages\utl.msg

Status Returns
0 - Normal termination.
1 - Abnormal termination.
The risunlod utility unloads user-requested RIS schema objects (items) into external ASCII files
from RIS schemas. The risunlod utility can unload:
Schema definitions
Table definitions
Table data
Partial table data using an extended where clause
Index definitions
View definitions
The risunlod utility does not unload a view that has a NULL in the
RIS_VIEW_DEFS column in the RIS_VIEWS dictionary view. This condition exists when a
schema is created on a database that has an existing view in the underlying database.
Views created in RIS are not NULL in the RIS_VIEW_DEFS column.
Privilege definitions
Multiple above items in a single run
Table definition only without table data
Table data in separate data file (one for each table)
Table data in either fixed or variable format. (See the section File Formats for risunlod and
rislod (on page 79) for more information.)
As discussed earlier, risunlod requires that all schema information be unloaded before starting
the actual unloading. The schema information is unloaded into the main external file (the default
is ris.dmp) and/or additional data files, if you want. Multiple schema information can be unloaded
in the same main file during a single risunlod execution.
Enhanced features of risunlod include:

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You can open the external main file and data files in overwrite or append mode. An error is
reported if files with the specified names already exist.
All the schema item statements (such as create schema, create table, insert table, table field
definition, create index, create view, and grant) are unloaded into the main file. If the user
wants, risunlod can unload the table data into separate data files, one for each table.
The risunlod utility provides a risunlod extended where clause to unload partial data from
one table. The risunlod extended where clause has two parts:
A join clause that lets the user provide powerful selection criteria to unload partial data
from one table while joining across different tables. The join clause is optional.
A sql-where clause.
For example, the following risunlod extended where clause for table t1 unloads partial data from
table t1 while joining across table t2.
join t2 where t1.c1 = t2.c1 and t1.c2 > t2.c2
There are three ways to interact with risunlod: using the Interactive Interface, the Command Line
Interface, or the Embedded Programming Function Interface.
Interactive Interface. When risunlod is invoked without any command line arguments,
interactive prompts display. You are prompted for the required inputs before any unloading is
done. See the section Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface for more information about
the meanings of these prompts and the corresponding actions taken by risunlod.
Command Line Interface. When risunlod is invoked with arguments, the command line
interface activates. This interface lets you specify, in a single command, the responses to
various prompts that would have been generated if risunlod had been invoked interactively. See
the section Using risunlod With the Command Line Interface for more information about the
syntax for constructing a risunlod command and the semantics of the command.
Embedded Programming Function Interface. The RIS_unloader function provides the
functionality of risunlod in an embedded program when you call the function and pass the
appropriate structures. Refer to the RIS Programmer's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more
information.

Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface


Invoking risunlod without any command line arguments displays interactive prompts.
Accepting Default Values - Most prompts have default values indicated in square brackets, [ ].
Press the ENTER key to select these default values.
Selecting Nondefault Values - To select a nondefault value, choose the character in
parentheses corresponding to the option you want. Key in that character and press ENTER.
Specifying Other Information - Some prompts ask you to enter information, such as filenames.
Key in the information requested and press ENTER.

Interactive Prompt Details


1. Preserve blanks? (y/n) :[n] >
This prompt lets you set the blankstrip mode. By default risunlod strips trailing blanks from
character data.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default if you do not want to preserve trailing blanks.
Select y if you want to preserve trailing blanks.

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risunlod
2. File mode of all output files? overwrite(w) append(a) error out if exists(e) :[e] >
The file mode affects the main file and all the data files. By default risunlod returns an error if
the specified main file or data files already exist.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to accept the default.
Select w to overwrite the existing main file and data files.
Select a to append to the existing main file and data files.
3. Main file for unloading: [ris.dmp] >
This prompt lets you specify the name of the main file for unloading. The default name for
the main file is ris.dmp.
Press ENTER to accept the default filename.
Enter another filename for the main file.
If you selected e (for error out if exists) at the File mode of all output files? prompt, and
a main file already exists, risunlod prompts you to quit unloading or to key in another
filename.
Quit risunlod(y/n) :[n] >
If you select n, risunlod prompts you for a new name for the main file. Specify a new
filename at this prompt or key in y and risunlod exits.
4. Enter schema name (<return> after last schema): >
This prompt lets you specify a schema for unloading.
If a secure schema name is entered, the user is prompted for the database username
and database username password, and the osusername and osusername password, if
appropriate. If the schema has a password, the user is prompted for the schema password.
Do not add the password at the end of the schema name. The schema and user passwords
in a schema definition are not unloaded into the main file for security reasons. Instead, they
are designated by a period immediately after the schema and user names. If the passwords
are not added to the main file before loading, the user is prompted for them when loading
the schema.
Do one of the following:
Enter the name of the schema to unload. risunlod displays additional prompts to gather
schema information, then returns to this prompt to let you specify another schema.
You can unload multiple schemas during a risunlod session. Within a schema,
data are unloaded in the following order: tables, indexes, views, and privilege
definitions.
Press ENTER without entering another schema name when you have entered all the
schema information you want to process. risunlod will process the entered schemas.
Press ENTER without entering any schema names, and risunlod terminates.
5. Which tables should be unloaded? all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a]
>
This prompt lets you specify which table(s) to unload from the specified schema.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to unload all the tables in the current schema.
Select p and risunlod generates a list of tables and prompts you before unloading each
table:
Unload table <table>(y/n): [y] >
Select y to unload the specified table or select n if you do not want to unload the table.

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Select e and risunlod prompts for a table name:


Enter table for unloading:[<return>]
Enter the name of a table to unload.
Select n and risunlod does not unload any tables for the schema.
If you selected a, p, or e at the Which tables should be unloaded? prompt, the following
prompt appears:
Both definitions and data(b) definitions only(o): [b] >
This prompt lets you decide whether to unload both the table definitions and the data in the
tables or only the table definitions.
Do one of the following:
Select o to unload table definitions only.
Press ENTER to unload both table definitions and data and the following prompt
appears:
Definitions and data in the same file(s) data in a different file(d):[s] >
Press ENTER to store both the definitions and data in the main file, or select d to store
the definitions in the main file and the data in data files with one data file per table.
The name of a data file is composed of the first three characters (or fewer) of a
schema name, followed by the first three characters (or fewer) of a table name, followed
by a number signifying the number of data files generated so far in a risunlod session.
The name of a data file is terminated by .dmp. For example, the 100th data file
generated for storing the data in table, tab1, of schema, sch1, has the name
schtab100.dmp. All these files are placed in the current directory. On the first line of a
data file, risunlod specifies the table and schema from which the data comes.
If you selected a, p, or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded? and selected b
to unload both definitions and data, risunlod prompts you for a fixed or variable data format
for unloading table data.
Data in fixed (f) or variable (v) format: [f]>
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to unload the table data in fixed format and data that does not fill the
entire column is padded with spaces.
Select v and variable length data will be delimited by single quotation marks ('). This
saves disk space, and lets you easily edit the data.
If you selected p or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded?, you are also
prompted for an extended where clause for each table to unload partial data.
Enter where clause :[return] >
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to ignore the where clause prompt.
Enter a where clause.
This where clause is an extended where clause. It lets you join across more than
one table for powerful selection criteria.
Examples of the where clause:
Enter where clause: [return] > c1 = 100 and c2 not like 'john' ENTER
Enter where clause: [return] > join t2 where t1.c1 = 100and t2.c2 not like
'john' and t1.c1 = t2.c1 ENTER
The join clause permits additional tables to be specified for better selection criteria. In
the previous example, the current table is joined with t2 using the join clause.

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Partial data can be unloaded only from the current table, even when a join
clause is specified.
Use single quotation marks (') for character strings.
6. Which indexes should be unloaded for a table? all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e)
none(n):[a]>
If you selected p or e at the prompt Which tables should be unloaded?, you should
key in n at the prompt Which indexes should be unloaded for a table? unless indexes on
additional tables are required. risunlod automatically unloads indexes created on the tables
selected as p or e at the Which tables should be unloaded? prompt.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to unload all the indexes created in the current schema.
Select p and risunlod prompts for each table that has indexes:
Unload index on table <table>(y/n):[y] >
Press ENTER to unload the indexes of that table or key in n if you do not want to unload
indexes.
Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter the table:
Enter table for unloading index:[<return>] >
Enter a table name and press ENTER.
Select n, and risunlod will not unload any indexes.
7. Which views should be unloaded? all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e) none(n):[a]
>
The prompt for unloading views in a schema comes after the prompt(s) for unloading the
indexes.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to unload all the views created in the current schema.
Select p, and risunlod prompts for each view:
Unload view <view>(y/n):[y] >
Press ENTER to unload the view or key in n if you do not want to unload the view.
Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter a view name:
Enter view for unloading:[<return>] >
Enter a view name and press ENTER.
Select n, and risunlod will not unload any views.
8. Which privileges should be unloaded? all(a) prompted(p) entered by user(e)
none(n):[a] >
The prompt for unloading privilege definitions comes after the prompt(s) for unloading views.
As is the case with unloading indexes, risunlod automatically unloads privilege
definitions granted on tables and/or views that were p or e selections to the Which tables
should be unloaded? and/or Which views should be unloaded? prompts.
Do one of the following:
Press ENTER to unload all the privileges created in the current schema.
Select p, and risunlod prompts for each table or view on which one or more privileges
are defined:
Unload access privilege on <relation>(y/n):[y] >
Press ENTER to unload the access privileges or key in n if you do not want to unload
the privileges.

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Select e and risunlod prompts you to enter a table to unload all the privileges defined:
Enter table or view for unloading access privilege:[<return>] >
Enter a table or view name and press ENTER.
Select n, and risunlod will not unload any privileges.
In a schema, privileges may be granted on a table or view owned by the schema or by
another schema. Privileges granted on a table or view owned by another schema are
illustrated in the following example.
Schema sch1 grants select privilege on its table tab1 to another schema sch2 with grant
option. Schema sch2 can then grant the select privilege on sch1.tab1 to yet another
schema sch3. Thus in schema sch2, a privilege on the table (tab1) belonging to another
schema (sch1) is defined. The following command line option illustrates the previous
example:
risunlod -s sch2 grant sch1.tab1
When specifying a table or view on which privileges have been granted, only the name
of the relation is needed if it is owned by the current schema. Otherwise, the relation
name must be preceded by a schema name in the form of <schema>.<relation>.

Using rislod with the Command Line Interface


The command line can be used to specify which schemas in the main file should be loaded. It
can also be used to specify which information in the schemas should be loaded. The syntax for
constructing a rislod command is almost the same as the syntax for constructing a risunlod
command, except for a few additions and changes.

Examples
rislod -i \dir1\dir2\mainfile -d\" -l load.log
..\dir3\specfile -n -mw -e rdb informix -c 15

-b load.bad-f

-i - Main filename. The default is ris.dmp.


-d - Delimiter. The default is a single quotation mark ('). The delimiter in this example is a double
quotation mark. The backslash before the delimiter causes the shell not to interpret the double
quotation mark.
-l - Log filename. The default is ris.log.
-b - Bad filename. The default is ris.bad.The delimiter in this example is a double quotation
mark. The back slash before the delimiter causes the shell not to interpret the double quotation
mark.

Additional Options
-n - ANSI mode off.
-e - Enable databases listed after this option.
-m - Set the file mode (w, a, or e) for the outputfiles (such as log and bad files).
-c - Commit interval.
rislod -s sch1.create_sch_passwd1.user_passwd1 all
-s sch2 .create_sch_passwd2 .user_passwd2 new table with data all
-s sch3 clear table with data t1 t2 grant all
-s sch4 rename sch5 .sch5pass table t1 index t2 view v1grant t2 v2 sch.t3
sch.v3

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risunlod
rislod lets you specify up to three passwords after a schema name (schema password, osuser
password, and user password). Passwords are necessary if they are not already stored in the
main file. For schema sch2, data is loaded only into newly created tables. For schema sch3,
data is loaded into tables t1 and t2 after deleting previously inserted rows even if it already
exists before loading. For schema sch4 all the following items are loaded into existing schema
sch5. No data is loaded into table t1, but index definitions on table t1 and privilege definitions on
table t1 and view view1 are loaded.
The specification file format is the same for both rislod and risunlod.

BNF Representation of risunlod Command Line


Syntax
Backus Naur form (BNF) is a method of describing the syntax of a language. It is used here to
show the capabilities of the RIS command line interface.
The following is the BNF representation of the syntax for constructing a command line.
<command> ::= risunlod
[-m <file_mode>]
[-o <output_file>]
{
{
-s <schema>[.<default_sch_passwd>]
[osuser <os_user>[.<os_pwd>]]
[user <user_name>[.<user_pwd>]]
[<info_tobe_unload>]
}
[ ...]
|
-f <spec_file>
}
<file_mode> ::= w | a | e
w represents overwrite file mode
a represents append file mode
e represents return error
<info_tobe_unload> ::= all
|
{
[
{
{| table with [var][dfile]data}
<table_tobe_unload>
}
]
[view <view_tobe_unload>]
[index <index_tobe_unload>]
[grant <grant_tobe_unload>]
}
<table_tobe_unload> ::= all | {{<table> [<where_clause>] } [ ...] }
<where_clause> ::= [join <from_list>] where "<conditions>"
<from_list> ::= {<table> [...] }
<view_tobe_unload> ::= all | {<view> [ ...] }

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<index_tobe_unload> ::= all | {<index> [ ... ] }
<grant_tobe_unload> ::= all
|
{
{[<schema>.]<table> | [<schema>.<view> ]
} [ ...]
}

The following is the BNF representation of the format for a specification file.
<spec_file_format> ::= {[.<password>]
<info_tobe_unload>}[;<new_line>...]

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SECTION 12

Additional Information on RIS


This section describes changes between RIS version 4 and RIS version 5.

RDBMS Versions
For the most current information concerning RDBMS version compatibility for supported
RIS platforms, see the readme.txt file.

UNION and UNION ALL Supported


RIS Version 5 and higher supports UNION and UNION ALL operators with the select statement.
For example:
select * from t1 union select * from t2;
select c1, c2 from t1 union all select c21, c22 from t2;
UNION and UNION ALL are not supported in 'subqueries.' See the RIS SQL User's Guide for
32-Bit Applications for more information.

Objects of Different Owners within a Schema


In RIS Version 5 and higher a schema can contain objects owned by multiple users. For
example, schema S1, created by RDBMS user U1, can contain objects owned by RDBMS users
U2 and U3, as well as those owned by U1. This capability:
Is a fundamental redefinition of a schema to be simply a named collection of objects in a
database.
Lets data owned by privileged accounts be included without views or security violations.
Allows sharing of common objects among schemas. For example, table T1, created by user
U1, can be shared by schemas S1, S2, and S3, where S1 was created by user U1, S2 by
user U2, and S3 by user U3.
Lets applications easily create logical groupings of tables.
Considerations when using this capability:
Since objects owned by different users can be included in the schema, the owner
information is maintained in the RIS dictionary. The dbms_owner value applies to a table,
view, or an index, and can be in upper or lowercase.
This capability cannot be accessed through RIS Version 4.
The access restrictions of the underlying RDBMS are encountered when using this
capability.
Most databases let two different users create tables/views/indexes with the same name.
However the names of tables/views/indexes within a schema are unique, regardless of the
dbms_owner. If both T1 owned by U1, and T1 owned by U2 need to be included in a
schema, one of the tables has to be aliased. See the section Object Aliases for more
information.

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Object Aliases
With RIS Version 5 and higher, any column or table name can be given an alias. For example,
table abc_123 with columns abc1, abc2, and abc3, can be included and referred to as
EMPLOYEES with columns FIRST_NAME, GENDER, and DATE_OF_BIRTH, respectively.
This capability:
Lets identically-named tables owned by different RDBMS users exist in a single schema.
For example, suppose three different users create three different tables with the same
name:
DBMS: PROJ1.NAMES, PROJ2.NAMES, PROJ3.NAMES
These tables must be aliased so that they have distinct names.
SCHEMA1: NAMES1, NAMES2, NAMES3
Names in RIS can be longer than the underlying database supports. See the RIS SQL User's
Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
Object names and keyword conflicts can be worked around. For example, if a column
name is a RIS keyword, such as t1(informix, oracle, db2), it can be included as t1(col1, col2,
col3).
Considerations when using this capability:
An exclude/include sequence loses all aliases.
This capability cannot be accessed through RIS Version 4.
Within RIS only the RIS names (aliases) are valid. The external/DBMS name is not valid.

Multi-user, Secure Schema


In RIS Version 5 and higher two types of schemas are supported: the standard schema and the
secure schema. The standard schema is a single-user schema and the information necessary
for connecting to this schema is stored in the schema file (this is no different from a RIS Version
4 schema). The secure schema has no username/password combination stored for it. The RIS
single user schema is the default. This multi-user/secure schema capability:
Allows no connection until a user provides a username/password combination.
Lets you use the same schema, but provide different RDBMS log-ins.
Considerations when using this capability:
No password is stored in any form by RIS.
Individuals appear distinct to the RDBMS and are subject to RDBMS security tracking.
The declare schema statement lets you specify a schema name and password, and
optionally, the user and password of the user who owns the schema, and the operating
system user and password in the RIS in-memory data dictionary cache.
This statement must be used to access secure schemas. It can also be used to access
standard schemas. See the RIS SQL User's Guide for 32-Bit Applications for more information.
This capability can be used by any site. It is most useful to those interested in high levels of
security (usually DB2, ORACLE, and so on).
The schema administrator (user who creates the schema) controls authority to connect to a
schema and to create tables on a schema, using:
GRANT CONNECT TO <rdbms_user>;
REVOKE CONNECT FROM <rdbms_user>;
GRANT RESOURCE TO <rdbms_user>;

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REVOKE RESOURCE FROM <rdbms_user>;


A username/password combination should be provided before a schema is open.
There is case-sensitivity of the RDBMS username (except in cases where some databases
accept names in a particular case; then RIS does a conversion).

Shared Dictionaries
In RIS Version 5 and higher when a schema s1 is created and creates the dictionary, schemas
s2, s3, s4, and so on can be created using the dictionary created by schema s1. This capability:
Allows multiple schemas in databases that cannot have tables of the same name.
Requires minimal dictionary creation when there are many schemas.
Allows limited dictionary creation, administration, and ownership outside of RIS for Microsoft
SQL Server.
Considerations when using this capability:
The system administrator must grant and revoke an RDBMS user the authority to create a
schema on a dictionary, using:
GRANT SCHEMA TO <rdbms_user>;
REVOKE SCHEMA FROM <rdbms_user>;
Creators of dictionaries cannot drop all their schemas while there are other schemas in the
dictionary.

Dictionary Objects
Dictionary objects in RIS Version 5 and higher are all renamed (ris5*). This capability:
Removes the distinction between ris* and ris_*.
Makes RIS dictionary objects now appear in the dictionary views.
Considerations when using this capability:
Additional columns are needed to distinguish among schemas in shared dictionaries, to
distinguish between user objects and dictionary objects, and for internal/external object
names.
Names may need to be changed in queries.
New columns should be considered in queries.

Dictionary Views
In RIS Version 5 and higher, the internal tables are not documented and information about them
is not available in the dictionary. Only dictionary views can be accessed from an application.
In RIS Version 5 and higher, since the base tables are not accessible from the applications, the
views show both user objects and RIS objects.
Considerations:
If only user objects need to be selected, the condition ris_object='N' should be used in the
where clause.
This rule applies to the views ris5columns, ris5column_privs, ris5tables, and ris5table_privs.
In Version 5 and higher, the ris5dbms_tables view lists all the tables in the database, along
with the user that owns the database. The ris5dbms_views view lists all the views in the
database, along with the user that owns the database. The ris5dbms_indexes view lists all

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the indexes in the database, along with the user that owns the database. In some cases,
these lists may include only those tables/views/indexes accessible to the current log-in/user
of the database.
These views are not recommended for use by applications. If used, the query should
have some restrictive condition (specifically, WHERE). Using select * from these views can lead
to significant performance degradation. Since this view is defined to show everything, it should
be used with caution. In some cases these views are accessible only for the dictionary creator
since some databases do not allow granting system privileges on catalogs (where these views
are defined).

Internationalization
RIS for 32-bit applications (Version 5.3.1 and later) support 16-bit or multi-byte languages.
Most 16-bit languages are Asian. In the RIS documentation, the maximum size allowed for
table names, view names, index names, schema names, column widths, and character data is
specified as x characters, where x is an integer. For those using multi-byte languages, the
maximum number of characters should be interpreted as the maximum size in bytes. RISMGR
and RISGUI implement multi-byte character support.
RIS limitations and guidelines:
RIS schema and user names can be internationalized, but not passwords.
Only alpha-numeric characters can be internationalized.
Setup is not fully internationalized.
RIS does not localize dialogs, gadgets and error messages.
RIS is internationalized on Windows only. The RIS application, RIS Client, and RIS Data
Server must be on Windows to take advantage of the RIS internationalization.
The period (.) used between username and passwords must be 8-bit English.
All punctuation, keywords, column datatype definitions, timestamp data, statements must be
8-bit English.
Schemas, tables, views, columns, index names can be 8-bit or 16-bit English characters.
RIS data dictionary tables and views are created using 8-bit English characters.
The following components of a create schema statement are 8-bit and 16-bit characters.

76

create schema

8-bit English

schema name

8-bit and 16-bit English

schema pass

8-bit English

db type

8-bit English

dbname

8-bit and 16-bit English

db dir

8-bit and 16-bit English

osuser

16-bit English

ospass

8-bit English

db user

8-bit and 16-bit English

remote clause

8-bit English

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Character columns are analyzed to make sure that they are wide enough to hold the data. For
example, a 10 character name in a 16-bit language requires a char(20) column.
The maximum number of 8-bit characters in a column is 240. The maximum number of 16-bit
characters in a column is 120.

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SECTION 13

File Formats for risunlod and rislod


The risunlod and rislod utilities use two types of files: the main file and data files.
The main file contains the schema, table, index, view, and privilege definitions.
Table data, however, can be stored in either the main file or a data file.
The representation of the information in a schema starts with one or two statements specifying
the schema and ends with an end of schema indicator. In between, tables, views, and privilege
definitions are represented. As far as rislod is concerned, there is no order of appearances
defined for any two pieces of information in a schema. However, because risunlod unloads
tables before views, and views before privilege definitions, information in a schema appears in
that order ( if the main file is prepared by risunlod ). The information in a schema is represented
in the main file by:
SQL Statements
Field Definitions
Lines of Data
Data File Specifications
Dend Indicators
The following may apear in the main file:
default schema - Specifies a schema
create [secure schema] - Defines a schema
create table - Defines a table
insert into - Specifies a list of columns to be loaded with data
field definition - Specifies where in the main file or a data file the values of each column of a
table are located
line of data - Represents one row of data in a table
data file - Specifies the data filename specification
end of table - Indicates where information from a
indicator - table ends in the main file
create index - Defines an index
create view - Defines a view
grant - Defines access privilege
end of schema - Indicates where information from a
indicator - schema ends in the main file
Commented lines have two hyphens (--) as the first two characters in the line. The loader
ignores commented lines.
The default schema and create [secure] schema statements can appear by themselves or
together. Their presence marks the beginning of a schema, represented in the main file.
Because multiple schemas can exist in the main file, an end of schema indicator is used to mark
the end of a schema:
***RIS*** End of Schema ***RIS***
The items from create table through the end of table indicator in the preceding list are used to
represent tables. The order in the representation is:

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create table statement
insert into statement
field definition
lines of data or a data files specification
end of table indicator
Not all of the statements are needed to represent a table. The presence of these statements is
defined by three rules:
1. The create table statement and an end of table indicator are required.
2. The insert into statement and a field definition are required only when data or a data file
specification is present.
3. The insert into statement and a field definition are permitted even if data or a data file
specification is not present.
Rules 1 and 2 cover the situation where only the definition of a table is unloaded. Since both the
insert into statement and field definition are needed for loading table data, Rule 2 covers
situations where one or more rows of data are unloaded into either the main file or a data file.
Rule 3 covers the situation where a table is empty, but risunlod is instructed to unload data from
the table.
The number of statements representing a table may vary. For rislod to correctly identify where
the information of a table ends in the main file, an end of table indicator is necessary:
***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***
The representation of index, view, and privilege definitions is much simpler than that of a table.
The definitions are represented by the create index, create view, and grant statements,
respectively.

See Also
Format for Representing Schema Definitions (on page 80)
Format for Representing Table Definitions (on page 81)
Format for Representing Insert Into Statements (on page 81)
Format for Representing Field Definitions (on page 81)
Format for Representing Table Data (on page 83)
Format for Representing Data File Specifications (on page 83)
Format for Representing Index, View, and Privilege Definitions (on page 84)
File Format for Data Files (on page 84)
Use of Spaces and New Line Characters (on page 84)
BNF Representation of File Formats (on page 85)

Format for Representing Schema Definitions


When representing a schema that already exists, a default schema statement specifying that
schema is sufficient. However, if a schema needs to be created during loading, a create
[secure] schema statement defining the schema must be specified. This create schema
statement should be preceded by a default schema statement, if the on database clause is not
specified. In loading a create [secure] schema statement, if rislod finds that the schema
specified already exists, the statement is transformed into a simple default schema statement.
Then information is loaded into the existing schema. Since risunlod assumes that a schema
does not exist before loading, it always unloads the complete definition of the schema.
If the schema or user clause has a password associated with it, and you do not want to leave
the password in the main file, the password should be designated by a period right after the
name. In loading a default schema or create [secure] schema statement, when rislod
finds a period alone after the schema or username, it prompts for the missing password. The

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password keyed in is not echoed on the screen. Note that rislod does not store either the
schema or the user password in the main file.
The following are some sample default schema and create [secure] schema statements
that are accepted by rislod.
Do not use a semicolon for termination.
1. default schema sch1
2. create [secure] schema sch2.passwd2 on database (oracle, dbname db2)
user user2
3. default schema sch3
4. create schema sch4. user user4.passwd4

Format for Representing Table Definitions


A table definition is represented by a create table statement. This statement is mandatory in
representing a table. The following is an example of a create table statement accepted by rislod:
create table tab1 (char_col1 char(10) not null, char_col2 char(10),int_col
int, smallint_col smallint, double_col double, real_col real, decimal_col1
(10, 7), decimal_col2 (1,0),decimal_col3 (1,1))

Format for Representing Insert Into Statements


The rislod utility uses an insert into statement as a template for loading each row of data into a
table. This statement and a field definition are required only when data or a data file
specification for the table are present in the main file.The following is an example of an insert
into statement defined on table tab1, with seven columns, accepted by rislod:
insert into tab1 (char_col1,char_col2, int_col, smallint_col,double_col,
real_col, decimal_col1) values (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
You should specify only the columns that need to be loaded after the table name. The
number of question marks in the values clause must match the number of columns being
specified. The columns decimal_col2 and decimal_col3 of the table tab1 have been left out
because only NULL values are loaded into these columns.

Format for Representing Field Definitions


The rislod utility can load fixed or variable table data. rislod determines whether table data is
fixed or variable by examining the line immediately following the insert into statement. This line
is referred to as a field definition. If rislod detects ***variable*** as the first 14 characters
in the field definition, it assumes that the table data following the field definition is in variable
format. Otherwise, it assumes that the table data is in fixed format.
For rislod to know where to get table data, table locations must be specified. rislod assumes
that:
Data in a table are stored after their field definitions
Each row of data in the table occupies one line
Values of a column occupy the same positions on all the lines.
Because of these assumptions, only the positions occupied by each column on a line need to be
specified in the field definition. Thus, a field definition is typically made up of one or more
components, one for each column, consisting of a column name and the starting and ending

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positions of the column data on a line. In rislod, the combination of a column name and its
starting and ending positions is referred to as a field.
The following is an example of a field definition for table tab1 accepted by rislod:
char_col1 1 12 char_col2 14 23 int_col 25 35
smallint_col 37 42 double_real_col 44 66 real_col 68 81
decimal_col1 83 94 decimal_col2 95 109

The starting and ending positions of a field are constrained by the following relation:
10,000 >= ending position >= starting position >= 1.

The starting and ending positions of a column should be separated by one or more spaces.
risunlod uses a single blank to separate the starting and ending positions.
The keyword var following a column name distinguishes a character column having
variable-length values from a character column having fixed-length values.
The absence of the keyword var after a character column name signifies that the column
values have the same length.
The values of a variable character column are represented differently from those of a fixed
character column. A variable character column value is always enclosed by a delimitation,
while the value of a fixed character column is assumed to occupy the entire field.
Because a character column supported by RIS can store values of different lengths, it is
always unloaded as a variable character column.
The delimitations used by risunlod are two single quotation marks.
The field definition for a table must include all the columns listed in the insert into statement of
that table. However, columns that are not listed in the insert into statement may also appear in
the field definition. The column decimal_col2 in this example was not specified in the insert into
statement for table tab1.
The conventions used by risunlod for determining the field width of a column are as follow:
character - The column length plus two extra spaces for delimitation
decimal - The precision plus two
integer - 11
small integer - 6
double - 23
real - 14
risunlod can unload table data in variable format, and rislod can load the same variable
formatted data. The variable table data is identified by the string ***variable*** in the field
definition line. This string is sufficient to identify variable table data following it. Starting and
ending position does not make sense in this format. The column data is separated (delimited)
by a blank space, while the character data of a column is delimited by default single quotation
marks (').
The following is an example of a field definition line and several rows of variable data. Notice the
third row. The delimiter can be escaped from within the string by an extra delimiter preceding it.
***variable***
1 'nyz'
23 'nyzabc'
246 'nyz''abc'
***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***

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Format for Representing Table Data


In the main file or a data file, each row of table data occupies one line. The following is an
example of a row of data for the table tab1:
'xxxx'
yyyy
-1234567890
-123.456
1.234567e+20
+123.4567890-1.
This example is prepared according to the field definition for the table tabl1.
In this example, the column char_col1 is a character column with variable-length values. Thus,
its value, xxxx, is enclosed in a delimitation (two single quotation marks). The column char_col2
is a character column with fixed-length values. There is no delimitation surrounding its values,
and these values are assumed to occupy the entire fields. In this example, the value for the
column char_col2 is a string of four ys followed by six blanks. NULL value is not represented by
the keyword NULL in the format. Instead, if a column value is NULL, the entire field for storing
that value should be filled with blanks (not spaces). In this example, the value for smallint_col is
NULL.
Although in the previous example all the values begin at the first positions in their fields, a
column value can actually start anywhere within its field.
The following describes how rislod handles the values of different datatypes stored in a file.
1. In the field of a variable character column, the first and last nonspace characters must be
delimiters. A delimiter is permitted among the character values. If there are more
characters within a pair of delimiters than the size of the column (n), only the first n
characters are loaded.
2. If the field width (m) is greater than the size of a fixed character column (n), only the first n
characters in the field are loaded. Otherwise, all m characters are loaded with (m - n) trailing
blanks.
3. A decimal value must have precision and scale no greater than that specified for the
column.
4. For an integer or small integer value to be loaded correctly, it must fall within the ranges of
-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 and -32,768 to 32,767, respectively.
5. Real and double values are rounded to precisions 7 and 15.
6. Values of timestamp type are also supported.

Format for Representing Data File Specifications


A data file specification specifies the location of a data file. The following are some examples of
data file specifications:
***RIS*** schtab100.dmp ***RIS***
***RIS*** \sub_dir1\sub_dir2\schtab100.dmp ***RIS***
***RIS*** ..\sub_dir2\schtab100.dmp ***RIS***
risunlod specifies the complete pathname of a data file in a data file specification. Note that a
data file specification must start at the first column of a line.

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Format for Representing Index, View, and Privilege


Definitions
An index, view, or privilege definition is represented by a create index, create view or grant
statement. The following are some examples of index, view, and privilege definitions:
create unique index indx1 on tab1 (char_col1, char_column2)
create view view2 as select * from view1, tab2 where view1.coln =
tab2.colm
grant all on tab1 to sch2 with grant option
grant select, insert on sch1.tab1 to sch3
grant select on view1 to sch2, sch3

File Format for Data Files


A data file may begin with an informative header in the form of:
***RIS*** Data in Table <table> of Schema <schema> ***RIS***
This header is optional. The header is followed by zero or more lines of data. The format for
representing a line of data in a data file is the same as the format defined for the main file. The
header must start at the first column of the first line.

Use of Spaces and New Line Characters


rislod is tolerant of the number of spaces (a blank or tab character) used to separate two words
or a word from a punctuation mark.
In the BNF representation, when a blank is used to separate two adjacent entities on a line, the
blank can be replaced by any number of spaces. This does not apply to a single blank used in
the end of schema and end of table indicators. When no blank is used to separate two adjacent
entities on a line of the BNF representation, then zero or more spaces can be used to separate
the entities.
End indicators, data file specifications, and data file headers must start at the first column of a
line. Other types of statements and rows of data can start at any column on a line. A line must
be terminated with a single new line character.
A line containing a row of table data is terminated by a new line character. If the data line
contains trailing blanks, these trailing blanks need not be specified. For instance, if a row of data
contains only NULL values (represented by blanks in the entire field), the line where the row of
data is stored may contain zero or more blanks terminated by a new line character. A space is
not necessary to separate any two consecutive column values on a line.

Comments and Errors


For example:
--This is a comment.
--This is another comment.
These are also used to represent errors encountered during loading in the bad file. This bad file
is reprocessable by rislod.
For example:

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--risloder Error (-xxxx)
--ssss
--RIS Error (-xxxx)
--ssss
--DB Error (-xxxx)
--ssss
The xxxx represents the error value, and ssss represents the corresponding error message
string.

BNF Representation of File Formats


The format of the main file is defined by <main_file_format>, and the format of a data file is
defined by <data_file_format> in the following BNF representation.
<main_file_format> ::=
<info_in_schema>[...]
<info_in_schema> ::=
<schema_def>[<table_index_view_grant>][...]<end_of_schema>
<table_index_view_grant> ::=
<table_def_data>|<index_def>|<view_def>|<grant_stmt>|<comments>
<schema_def> ::=
<default_schema>|<create_schema>
<default_schema> ::=
default schema <schema_passwd>
<schema_passwd> ::=
<schema>|<schema>[.[<passwd>]]
<create_schema> ::=
create [secure] schema <schema_passwd> [on database (...)] user
<user_passwd>
<user_passwd> ::=
<username>|<username>[.[<passwd>]]
<end_of_schema>::=
***RIS*** End of Schema ***RIS***
<table_def_data> ::=
<table_def><end_of_table>|
<table_def><insert_stmt><field_def>
[<table_data>|<file_name_spec>]<end_of_table>

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<end_of_table> ::=
***RIS*** End of Table ***RIS***
<table_def> ::=
create table <table> ({<type_def> [not null]}[,...])
<insert_stmt> ::=
insert into <table> (<column>[,...]) values (?[,...])
<field_def> ::=
{
{[var ]<starting_posi> <ending_posi>}[ ...]
***variable***
}
<table_data> ::=
{
<dec_value>|<int_val>|<small_int_val>|<double_val>|<real_val>|
<timestamp_val>} [...]
<file_name_spec> ::=
***RIS*** <file> ***RIS***
<index_def> ::=
create [unique] index <index> on <table> (<column> [,...])
<view_def> ::=
create view <view> [(<column>[,...])] as <select_statement>
<grant_def> ::=
grant <privileges> [<schema>.]<table_or_view> to <schema>[,...]
[with grant option]
<data_file_format> ::=
[<header>][<table_data>][...]
<header> ::= ***RIS*** Data in Table <table> of Schema <schema> ****RIS***
<comments> ::= -- [<string>]

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Index
A
Additional Information on RIS 73
Appending Columns to Tables 51

B
BNF Representation of File Formats 85
BNF Representation of rislod Command
Line Syntax 33
BNF Representation of risunlod Command
Line Syntax 70

C
Creating Schemas 39
Creating Schemas (Microsoft SQL Server)
42
Creating Schemas (ORACLE) 41
Creating Tables 50

D
Dictionary Objects 75
Dictionary Views 75
Displaying Schema Information 38
Displaying Table Information 49
Displaying Table, View, and Index
Information 48
Dropping Schemas 43
Dropping Tables 51

E
Excluding Tables, Views, and Indexes 53
Exiting the risgui Utility 20

F
File Format for Data Files 84
File Formats for risunlod and rislod 79
Format for Representing Data File
Specifications 83
Format for Representing Field Definitions
81
Format for Representing Index, View, and
Privilege Definitions 84
Format for Representing Insert Into
Statements 81
Format for Representing Schema
Definitions 80

Relational Interface System (RIS) Utilities Guide

Format for Representing Table Data 83


Format for Representing Table Definitions
81

G
Getting Started 9
Granting/Revoking Access Privileges to
Secure Schemas 43

I
Including Tables, Views, and Indexes 52
Internationalization 76

L
Loading Index, View, and Privilege
Definitions 27
Locating RIS Client Processes 55

M
Modifying Node Information 46
Modifying Schema Passwords 46
Multi-user, Secure Schema 74

O
Object Aliases 74
Objects of Different Owners within a
Schema 73
Obtaining Dictionary Access 45
Options 21

P
Performing Queries in the risgui Utility 20
Preface PDS 7

R
RDBMS Versions 73
Restart 21
Reviewing and Manipulating Schema Files
54
RIS Schema Manager 36
risbatch 11
risclnsr 13
risdcode 15
risdtype 17
risgui 19

87

Index
rislod 23
rismgr 35
risplbck 59
risrecrd 61
risunlod 63

S
Schema Definition 37
Set 22
Setting Modes and Enabling Databases
56
Shared Dictionaries 75
Show 22

T
The Bad File 27
The Log File 26

U
UNION and UNION ALL Supported 73
Use of Spaces and New Line Characters
84
Using rislod with the Command Line
Interface 32, 69
Using rislod with the Interactive Interface
28
Using risunlod with the Interactive Interface
65
Utilities 21

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